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Name of the file gives good info. This file intended for any ECE students wants to brush-up/refresh/read MOST basics of a BJT.

Name of the file gives good info. This file intended for any ECE students wants to brush-up/refresh/read MOST basics of a BJT.

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Anda di halaman 1dari 89

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Fitzpatrick Center, Room 3521

Duke University, Durham, NC 27708–0291

massoud@ee.duke.edu

Chapter 7 – BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Integrated-Circuit Bipolar Junction Transistor Structures

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

7.5. Basic BJT Operation in the Forward-Active Mode

7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

7.7. BJT Capacitance-Voltage C(V ) Characteristics

7.8. BJT Dynamic I(V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model

7.9. BJT Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

7.10. Temperature Effects

7.11. Frequency Effects

7.12. Switching Analysis

7.13. BJT Breakdown

7.14. BJT SPICE Model

7.15. Summary

7.1. Introduction

• William Shockley at Bell Labs submitted his patent for the junction transistor

on June 26, 1948, and the junction transistor Patent No. 2,569,347 was issued

on September 25, 1951.

• Semiconductor devices in which both electrons and holes participate in the con-

duction are termed bipolar devices and for this reason the junction transistor

is now more commonly called the bipolar-junction transistor (BJT), or, simply,

the bipolar transistor.

• Shockley’s junction transistor patent included heavy doping near the contacts

even though no junction transistor had yet been fabricated and demonstrated.

The “existence proof” for the junction transistor was made on April 7, 1949, at

Bell Labs with a Ge structure fabricated by Bob Mikulyak.

7.1. Introduction

Representation of the junction (bipolar) transistor

in Shockley’s patent (2,569,347).

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Junction Isolation

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

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7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Trench-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor

ECE216

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7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

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7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

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7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

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7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

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7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

Reverse-biased Reverse-biased

Cut-off NPN: VBE < 0 NPN: VBC < 0

PNP: VEB < 0 PNP: VCB < 0

Forward-biased Reverse-biased

Forward-Active NPN: VBE > 0 NPN: VBC < 0

PNP: VEB > 0 PNP: VCB < 0

Forward-biased Forward-biased

Saturation NPN: VBE > 0 NPN: VBC > 0

PNP: VEB > 0 PNP: VCB > 0

Reverse-biased Forward-biased

Reverse-Active NPN: VBE < 0 NPN: VBC > 0

PNP: VEB < 0 PNP: VCB > 0

7.14

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

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ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.16

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Region Type p+ n p

Evac (x) Evac,E (x) Evac,B (x) Evac,C (x)

Ec (x) Ec,E (x) Ec,B (x) Ec,C (x)

Ei (x) Ei,E (x) Ei,B (x) Ei,C (x)

Ev (x) Ev,E (x) Ev,B (x) Ev,C (x)

EF n (x) EF n,E (x) EF n,B (x) EF n,C (x)

EF p (x) EF p,E (x) EF p,B (x) EF p,C (x)

Ex (x) Ex,E (x) Ex,B (x) Ex,C (x)

ψ(x) ψE (x) ψB (x) ψC (x)

Built-in Voltages Vbi,E/B Vbi,C/B

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

n(x) nE (x) nB (x) nC (x)

p(x) pE (x) pB (x) pC (x)

− + −

Dopant Concentration Na,E Nd,B Na,C

− + −

Equi. Maj. Carrier Conc. p◦E = Na,E n◦B = Nd,B p◦C = Na,C

− + −

Equi. Min. Carrier Conc. n◦E = n2i /Na,E p◦B = n2i /Nd,B n◦C = n2i /Na,C

Depletion Width Wd Wd,E (VEB ) Wd,B/E (VEB ) Wd,C (VCB )

Wd,B/C (VCB )

Minority Carrier Mobility µn,E µp,B µn,C

Minority Carrier Diffusivity Dn,E Dp,B Dn,C

Minority Diffusion Length Ln,E Lp,B Ln,C

Minority Carrier Lifetime τn,E τp,B τn,C

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Depletion Widths

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distributions

E B C

p+ n p

nE (x) pB (x)

n◦C

p◦B

n◦E nC (x)

−WE 0 WB WB +WC

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.21

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Terminal Currents

E B C

p+ n p

→ IC

→ IE

↓ IB

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

E B C

p+ n p

Ip,C Ip,C

Irec,B Iscg,C/B

Iscr,E/B In,C

In,E

In,E

Iscr,E/B

Irec,B

Iscg,C/B

In,C

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

E B C

p+ n p

Ip,C Ip,C

Ip,E

Irec,B Iscg,C/B

In,C

Iscr,E/B

In,E

In,E

Iscr,E/B

Irec,B

Iscg,C/B

In,C

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Ip,E Hole diffusion current injected from emitter into exp(qVEB /kB T )

base

In,E Electron diffusion current injected from base into exp(qVEB /kB T )

emitter

Iscr,E/B Emitter-base space-charge recombination current exp(qVEB /2kB T )

Irec,B Current due to recombination of injected minority- exp(qVEB /kB T )

carrier holes with majority-carrier electrons in the

neutral base region

Ip,C Portion of Ip,E injected from the emitter into the exp(qVEB /kB T )

base which diffuses across the base and flows in the

collector and is given by Ip,C = Ip,E − Irec,B

Iscg,C/B Collector-base space-charge generation current exp(qVCB /2kB T )

In,C Current in the C/B junction due to the diffusion exp(qVCB /kB T )

of electrons from collector to base and due to the

diffusion of holes form collector to base

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

IC = Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,

and

IB = I E − I C ,

= Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B − Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,

= Ip,C + Irec,B + In,E + Iscr,E/B − Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,

= In,E + Iscr,E/B + Irec,B − Iscg,C/B − In,C .

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Current Gain

The base transport factor αT is defined as the ratio of the hole current that reaches the

collector to the hole current that enters the base region from the emitter. It is defined

as

Ip,C Ip,E − Irec,B Irec,B

αT ≡ = =1− .

Ip,E Ip,E Ip,E

The emitter efficiency γE is defined as the ratio of the emitter current injected into the

base region to the total emitter current. It is given by

Ip,E Ip,E

γE ≡ = .

IE Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B

The common-base current gain αF is defined as the ratio of the hole collector current

to the total emitter current. It is given by

αF ≡ = = · = γ E αT .

IE Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B Ip,E

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The common-base current gain is less than one and is generally found to be near 0.998.

Although the current gain in the common-base configuration is less than unity, the

output voltage is very large compared to the input voltage.

In good transistor design, all base-current components are made as small as possible.

Since the electron diffusion current injected into the emitter In,E does not give any

collector current, it will be seen to be minimized by doping the emitter with a very large

acceptor concentration for the pnp BJT. Space-charge recombination current I scr,E/B

is emitter-base current which does not contribute to the collector current so that steps

are taken to minize space-charge recombination in the emitter-base junction. Also, the

base-region recombination current Irec,B represents the loss of holes which are injected

into the base by the emitter, and the base region is made thin to minimize this current.

Therefore, bipolar transistors are designed to make these currents, which flow in the

base lead, small as compared to Ip,E , the hole diffusion current injected from the emitter

into the base.

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

= αF IE + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,

= αF IE + ICBO ,

where ICBO is the collector-base reverse saturation current when the emitter is open

(so that IE = 0).

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

E B C

p+ n p

Wd,B/E Wd,B/C

0 WB x

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.30

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

We assume that the base width WB is smaller than the minority-carrier diffusion length

Lp,B of holes in the base region of a pnp transistor, (WB < 0.1Lp,B ). The minority-

carrier concentration goes to zero at the edge of the depletion region at the base-

collector junction because this junction is reverse-biased. We assume that

Wd,B/E < WB ,

Wd,B/C < WB ,

or that

Wd,B/E ' 0 ,

WB − Wd,B/C ' WB ,

that

qVEB

pB (0) ' p◦B exp ,

kB T

and

pB (WB ) ' 0 .

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

We can then write that for a linear distribution of minority carriers in the base region

going from p◦B exp(qVEB /kB T ) at x ' 0 to p◦B exp(qVCB /kB T ) at x ' WB in the form

qV EB qV CB x qV CB

pB (x) = p◦B exp − p◦B exp 1− + p◦B exp ,

kB T kB T WB kB T

qV EB x qV CB x

= p◦B exp 1− + p◦B exp ,

kB T WB kB T WB

qV EB x

' p◦B exp 1− .

kB T WB

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The net charge stored in the base region Qn,B (C) is given by

Z WB

Qp,B (VEB , VCB ) = q A [pB (x) − p◦B ] dx ,

0

Z WB

qV EB x

= qA p◦B exp 1− dx

0 k B T W B

Z WB Z WB

qV CB x

+qA p◦B exp dx − q A p◦B dx ,

0 kB T WB 0

◦

q A p B WB ◦ qVEB

= pB exp

2 kB T

q A p◦B WB ◦ qVCB

+ pB exp − q A p◦B WB .

2 kB T

and for VCB < 0, we can write that

q A p◦B WB qVEB q A WB n2i qVEB

Qp,B (VEB ) ' exp ' + exp .

2 kB T 2 Nd,B kB T

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Emitter-Base Current

The emitter-base hole diffusion current is found from the expression for p B (x) as

dpB (x)

Ip,E = −q A Dp,B ,

dx x=Wd,B/E

qVEB 1

= −q A Dp,B p◦B exp − ,

kB T WB

q A Dp,B n2i qVEB

= + exp .

WB Nd,B kB T

The emitter-base electron diffusion current is found from the expression for

dnE (x)

In,E = q A Dn,E ,

dx x=−Wd,E

qVEB 1

= q A Dn,E n◦E exp −1 ,

kB T WE

q A Dn,E n2i qVEB

= − exp −1 .

WE Na,E kB T

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.34

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The recombination of the injected minority carriers in the base region is obtained from

the continuity equation of holes which is written as

∂pB (x) 1 ∂Jp,B (x)

=− + (Gp,B − Rp,B ) = 0 ,

∂t q ∂x

in steady state. With no external source of generation, we can write that G p,B = 0

and the continuity equation becomes

dJp,B (x) [pB (x) − p◦B ]

− = q Rp,B = q .

dx τp,B

Integration of this equation yields

Jp,B

Z(WB ) Z WB

q

− dJp,B (x) = [pB (x) − p◦B ] dx .

τp,B 0

Jp,B (0)

The integral on the left-hand side gives Irec,B which is then given by

Z

q A WB ◦ qVEB x

Irec,B = −A[Jp,B (WB ) − Jp,B (0)] = pB exp 1− dx .

| {z } | {z } τp,B 0 kB T WB

Jp,C Jp,E

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.35

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Integration gives

WB

qA ◦ qVEB x2

= p exp x− ,

τp,B B kB T 2WB 0

q A WB n2i qVEB

= + exp ,

2 τp,B Nd,B kB T

Qp,B

= .

τp,B

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Collector Current

The collector hole current is the difference between the hole current injected into the

base and the base recombination current, or

Ip,C = Ip,E − Irec,B ,

q A Dp,B n2i qVEB q A WB n2i qVEB

= + exp − + exp .

WB Nd,B k B T 2 τp,B Nd,B k B T

The collector current for the emitter open and the collector-base junction reverse-biased

is the reverse saturation current given by

q A Dn,C n2i

In,C =− − .

WC Na,C

The total collector current is the sum of Ip,C and In,C given by

IC ' Ip,C + In,C = Ip,E − Irec,B + In,C ' Ip,E ,

for Ip,E > Irec,B > In,C . The collector current IC may be written as

2

q A Dp,B ni qVEB

IC ' Ip,E = + exp .

WB Nd,B kB T

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.37

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Collector Current

or that

q A WB n2i qVEB 2 Dp,B

IC ' + exp ,

2 Nd,B kB T WB2

| {z }

Qp,B

2 Dp,B Qp,B

IC ' Qp,B ' ,

WB2 τ t,B

where τ t,B is the base transit time. This equation emphasizes that the collector current

is directly proportional to the charge stored in the base region.

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The velocity of holes in the base region is given by vp,B (x). The hole flux in the base

Fp,B is written as

qVEB x

Fp,B (x) = vp,B (x) pB (x) = vp,B (x) p◦B exp 1− .

kB T WB

qVEB x

Ip,B = q A vp,B (x) p◦B exp 1− ,

kB T WB

dpB (x) q A Dp,B p◦B qVEB

Ip,B = −q A Dp,B = exp .

dx WB kB T

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

By equating these two expressions for Ip,B we find that the hole velocity can then be

expressed as

D Dp,B

vp,B (x) = p,B = .

WB 1 − W x (W B − x)

B

Z WB Z WB

dx (WB − x) WB2

τ t,B = = dx = .

0 vp,B (x) 0 Dp,B 2 Dp,B

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Gummel Number

The Gummel number GN is defined as

Z WB

+

GN ≡ Nd,B (x) .dx

0

It accounts for position-dependent dopant profiles in the base region. In the case of a

+

uniformly doped base region, then GN = Nd,B WB . The collector current is rewritten

as

q A Dp,B n2i qVEB q A Dp,B n2i qVEB

IC ' + exp ' exp .

WB Nd,B kB T GN kB T

In the absence of recombination in the base region, the collector current is inversely

proportional to the integrated base doping, and the smaller the Gummel number, the

higher the collector current for a given VEB . Typical values of GN in high-performance

bipolar junction transistors range from 1012 to 1013 cm−3 .

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

We derive an expression to evaluate the common-base current gain. For V EB > 3kB T /q,

the −1 term in the diffusion current expressions may be neglected. By cancellation of

common terms qA, the emitter efficiency for the bipolar transistor becomes

Ip,E

γE ≡ ,

Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B

1

= ,

In,E Iscr,E/B

1+ I + I

p,E p,E

1

= + + ,

Dn,E Nd,B WB Nd,B WB Wd,EB exp(qVEB /2kB T )

1+ − +

Dp,B Na,E WE 2 ni Dp,B τp,B exp(qVEB /kB T )

1

= + + ,

Dn,E Nd,B WB N WB Wd,EB

qV

1+ − + d,B 2 exp − EB

Dp,B Na,E WE 2 ni Lp,B 2kB T

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.42

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The expression for γE shows that increasing the ratio of emitter doping to base doping,

− +

i.e. making Na,E Nd,B , decreases the electron current from the base into the emitter

so that γE approaches unity. The term due to space-charge recombination has a voltage

dependence as exp(−qVEB /2kB T ) in the denominator. As VEB increases, the effect of

space-charge recombination on γE will be reduced.

The base transport factor αT is given by

Irec,B

αT = 1 − ,

Ip,E

+

q A WB n2i Nd,B WB

=1− + 2 ,

2 τp,B Nd,B q A D n

p,B i

WB2

=1− .

2 L2p,B

It is clear that the base transport factor approaches unity for WB Lp,B .

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in

the base region of a pnp transistor for

• an open emitter to give ICBO

to give VEB = 0.

"

!

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

the forward-active region with increasing val-

ues of VEB and a reverse-biased collector-base

junction.

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in

base junction on the width of the base region,

while VEB is kept constant.

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

the forward-active region showing the effects

of changing VEB when VCB = 0.

!

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in

the saturation region with both junctions

forward-biased.

!

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in

the cut-off region with both the emitter-base

and collector-base junctions reverse-biased.

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

In a common-emitter configuration, the input current is the base current I B and the

output current is the collector current IC and their ratio is of interest.

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Neglecting the collector-base reverse-bias saturation current In,C which is very small

for Si transistors, we can write that

output current IC is much larger than the input current IB . The collector current is

written as

IC = Ip,C + In,C = αT Ip,E + In,C = αF IE + ICBO .

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

IE = I B + I C .

We can then write that

IC = αF (IB + IC ) + ICBO ,

or that

IC (1 − αF ) = αF IB + ICBO ,

and

αF ICBO

IC = IB + ,

(1 − αF ) (1 − αF )

where ICBO IB for Si transistors. The ratio of IC to IB is known as the common-

emitter current gain βF defined as

IC αF

βF ≡ = .

IB (1 − αF )

The collector-emitter leakage current for IB = 0 is represented by the second term as

ICBO

ICEO ≡ .

(1 − αF )

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.52

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

In most bipolar transistors, αF approaches unity, which means that βF can be much

greater than 1, and ICEO will be much larger than ICBO . For example, when αF =

0.98, then βF = 49.0. The usefulness of the bipolar transistor in the common-emitter

configuration is that a small base current can control a much larger collector current.

The variation of βF with VEB or the collector current indicates that at small values

of IC , βF does not become relatively constant until the space-charge recombination

current Iscr,E/B is much smaller than the diffusion current Ip,E . At larger values of IC ,

βF decreases due to high-level-injection effects which give a diffusion current variation

as exp(qVEB /2kB T ).

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Basic Model

The Ebers-Moll model is the most commonly used static model for the bipolar junction

transistor. It is the basis for the model used in SPICE. Space-charge generation and

recombination currents are not included in this model but these currents can be readily

added. Carrier recombination in the base region is included.

are expressed in terms of the terminal voltages VBE and VBC . We divide this problem in

two parts by applying each voltage at a time, solve for the resulting currents, and then

use superposition to combine the two solutions into the total solution. The currents

obtained are labeled forward when VBE is applied and VBC = 0, and reverse when VBC

is applied and VBE = 0.

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

qVBE

IF = In,E + Ip,E = IBE·S exp −1 ,

kB T

where IBE·S is the base-emitter junction saturation current, and VBE is the base-to-

emitter voltage.

qVBC

IR = In,C + Ip,C = IBC·S exp −1 ,

kB T

where IBC·S is the base-collector junction saturation current, and VBC is the base-to-

collector voltage.

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The interaction of the two junctions in a bipolar junction transistor results from the

thin-base region which results in a fraction of the emitter current reaching the collector

and vice versa.

IC = α F IF − I R ,

where αF IF is the part of the collector current due to the base-emitter junction and IR

the part due to the base-collector junction. The emitter current IE expressed in terms

of IF and IR as

IE = I F − α R IR ,

where IF is the part of the emitter current due to the base-emitter junction and αR IR

that duet to the base-collector junction.

IB = IE − IC = (1 − αF )IF + (1 − αR )IR .

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Consider an NPN transistor where the diffusion lengths of minority carriers in the

emitter, base, and collector regions are much larger than the physical widths of the

emitter, base, and collector regions, respectively. Assume that the emitter area is A E

and that the collector area is AC .

where

q AE Dn,B n2i

In,E·S ≡ − ,

WB Na,B

and

q AE Dp,E n2i

Ip,E·S ≡ + .

WE Nd,E

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

where

q AC Dn,B n2i

In,C·S ≡ − ,

WB Na,B

and

q AC Dp,C n2i

Ip,C·S ≡ + .

WC Nd,C

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Reciprocity Relationship

In,E·S

= αT (In,E·S + Ip,E·S ) = αT In,E·S ,

(In,E·S + Ip,E·S )

and

αR IBC·S = γC αT (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) ,

In,C·S

= αT (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) = αT In,C·S .

(In,C·S + Ip,C·S )

αF IBE·S = αR IBC·S ≡ IS .

A more detailed proof shows that the reciprocity relationship is satisfied for a general

geometery where AE 6= AC .

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

We write αF IF and αR IR as

ICC ≡ αF IF ,

qVBE

= αF IBE·S exp −1 ,

kB T

qVBE

= IS exp −1 ,

kB T

and

IEC ≡ αR IR ,

qVBC

= αR IBC·S exp −1 ,

kB T

qVBC

= IS exp −1 .

kB T

The current IF becomes ICC /αF and the current IR becomes IEC /αR .

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

In the transport version of the Ebers-Moll model, the terminal currents are

IEC

IC = ICC − ,

αR

ICC

IE = − IEC ,

αF

and

ICC IEC

IB = − IEC − ICC + ,

αF αR

1 1

= − 1 ICC + − 1 IEC .

αF αR

αF

βF ≡ ,

1 − αF

and

αR

βR ≡ .

1 − αR

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

IEC

IC = ICC − ,

αR

IEC

= ICC − IEC + IEC − ,

αR

(αR − 1)

= (ICC − IEC ) + IEC ,

αR

IEC

= (ICC − IEC ) − ,

βR

and

ICC

IE = − IEC ,

αF

ICC

= ICC − IEC − ICC + ,

αF

(αF − 1)

= (ICC − IEC ) − ICC ,

αF

ICC

= (ICC − IEC ) + ,

βF

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.65

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

qVBE qVBC

ICT ≡ ICC − IEC = IS exp − .

kB T kB T

ICC IS qVBE

= exp −1 ,

βF βF kB T

and

IEC IS qVBC

= exp −1 ,

βR βR kB T

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

2. Punchthrough

3. Base-Collector Junction Breakdown

4. Space-Charge Layer Recombination

5. High-Level Injection

6. Emitter Crowding

7. Series Resistance

8. Nonuniform Doping Profiles

7.7. BJT Dynamic I (V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model

terminal currents and terminal voltages is described by the differential equations that

relate the currents and the charges stored in the emitter, base, and collectore quasi-

neutral regions, and in the base-to-emitter and base-to-collector depletion regions.

In a pn junction, the charges stored in the diode are Qn,P and Qp,N in the quasi-

neutral regions and QDEP in the depletion region. The relationship between the total

instantaneous value of the diode current and the diode charges is written as

dQp,N (t) Qp,N (t) dQn,P (t) Qn,P (t) dQDEP (t)

iD (t) = + + + + .

dt τp,N dt τn,P dt

In an NPN bipolar junction transistor, the chages stored in the emitter, base, and collec-

tor regions are Qp,E , Qn,B , and Qp,C , respectively. The charges stored in the depletion

region of the base-to-emitter and base-to-collector depletion regions are Q DEP,B/E and

QDEP,B/C , respectively.

7.7. BJT Dynamic I (V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model

The complete charge-control model equations for an npn transistor are as follows

QF (t) 1 1 dQR (t) dQV C (t) dQV S (t)

iC (t) = − + QR (t) − − − ,

τF τR τBR dt dt dt

QF (t) dQF (t) QR (t) dQV C (t) dQV E (t)

iB (t) = + + + + ,

τBF dt τBR dt dt

QR 1 1 dQF (t) dQV E (t)

iE (t) = − + + QF (t) + + ,

τR τF τBF dt dt

where

qvBE (t)

QF (t) ' QF 0 exp −1 ,

kB T

and

qvBC (t)

QR (t) ' QR0 exp −1 ,

kB T

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

We assume that our DC or quiescent point Q is defined by VBE and VCE . We expand

iB and iC as

∂iB

∂iB

iB (vBE , vCE ) = iB (VBE , VCE ) + (vBE − VBE ) + (vCE − VCE )

∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q

+ higher order terms ,

and

∂iC

∂iC

iC (vBE , vCE ) = iC (VBE , VCE ) + (vBE − VBE ) + (vCE − VCE )

∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q

+ higher order terms .

We recognize that

iB (VBE , VCE ) ≡ IB ,

iC (VBE , VCE ) ≡ IC ,

vBE − VBE ≡ vbe ,

vCE − VCE ≡ vce ,

iB − I B ≡ i b ,

iC − I C ≡ i c .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.71

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

We assume that ic and ib are small enough that we can ignore the higher-order terms,

and rewrite the above equations as

∂iB ∂iB

ib = vbe + vce = gπ vbe + gr vce ,

∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q

and

∂iC ∂iC

ic = vbe + vce = gm vbe + go vce ,

∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q

where

∂iB

gπ ≡ input conductance ,

∂vBE Q

∂iB

gr ≡ reverse transconductance ,

∂vCE Q

∂iC

gm ≡ forward transconductance ,

∂vBE Q

∂iC

go ≡ output transconductance .

∂vCE

Q

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

qVBE

IC ' IS exp .

kB T

∂iC q qVBE IC

gm ≡ = I S exp = .

∂vBE Q kB T kB T (kB T /q)

∂iB ∂(iC /βF ) gm 1

gπ ≡ = = ≡ .

∂vBE Q ∂vBE Q βF rπ

∂iC IC kB T g m 1

go ≡ = = ≡ .

∂vCE Q |VA | q|VA | ro

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

The base-emitter capacitance Cπ consists of the B/E junction depletion and diffusion

capacitances because the junction is forward-baised. It is given by

v s

u + −

u q Si N d,E N a,B V bi,B/E qI S qV BE

Cπ = A E t + − + τ t,B exp .

2 Vbi,B/E (Nd,E + Na,B ) V bi,B/E − V BE k B T k B T

the junction is reverse-baised. It is given by

v s

u − +

u q Si Na,B Nd,C Vbi,B/C

Cµ = A C t

− + .

2 Vbi,B/C (Na,B + Nd,C ) Vbi,B/C − VBC

The variation of vCE changes the collector depletion-layer width which results in a

change in the base width. The variation in base width results in a change in the

minority-carrier charge stored in the base and a change in the base current. A small

change in vCE causes a change in the base current iB which is represented by a resistance

rµ from the collector to the base of the equivalent circuit. This resistance is given by

∂vCE ∂iC ∂vCE

rµ = = = β F ro .

∂iB ∂iB ∂iC

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.74

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.75

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Transistor

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Cutoff Frequency fT

The cutoff frequency fT is the frequency at which the current gain in the common-

emitter configuration is unity while the output is shorted for an ac signal. The shorted

output eliminates the output resistance ro and connects Cµ in parallel with Cπ . In this

simplified model, rb , re and rc are ignored, but a more complete model would generally

include rb . Because rµ is a large resistance which is now in parallel with the small

resistance rπ , rµ may be neglected. For these conditions, the equivalent circuit is

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.77

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Cutoff Frequency fT

iout = −gm vbe .

The magnitude of the input current is

q

|iin | = 1/rπ2 + ω 2 (Cπ + Cµ )2 vbe .

iout gm

= p .

iin 1/rπ2 + ω 2 (Cπ + Cµ )2

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Cutoff Frequency fT

At high frequencies, where ω(Cπ + Cµ ) > 1/rπ , the ratio |iout |/|iin | = 1 at fT , which

is given by

gm

fT = .

2 π (Cπ + Cµ )

Because the diffusion capacitance can be larger than the depletion capacitances, (C π +

Cµ ) → Cπ = τ t,B gm . The cutoff frequency is then given by

1

fT ' .

2 π τ t,B

Dn,B

fT ' .

π WB2

base region (favoring NPN over PNP), and that a thin WB is necessary for high fT .

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

The high-frequency behavior of transistors has also been specified by the maximum

available power gain at high frequencies. For maximum power gain, the load resistance

RL must be matched to the output resistance ro of the transistor. At high frequencies,

the power gain decreases with frequency. The power gain falls to unity at f max which

is obtained as

1/2 1/2

gm fT

fmax = = .

16 π 2 rb (Cπ + Cµ )2 8 π rb (Cπ + Cµ )

Both fT and fmax are often used as figures of merit for comparison of high-frequency

transistors.

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

The element and model lines in SPICE for the bipolar transistor have been summarized

by Banzhaf.The general form of the element line for the bipolar transistor is

QXXXXXX NC NB NE <NS> MODNAME <AREA> <OFF> <IC=VBE,VCE>

where QXXXXXX is the name of the bipolar transistor, NC the collector node, NB the base

node, NE the emitter node, and MODNAME the model name which is used in an associated

.MODEL control line. These items are required in the bipolar transistor element line.

The optional parameters are the quantities in the < · · · > and an element line may be

continued by entering a + sign at the start of the next line.

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

NS The node of the substrate which defaults to 0.

AREA The area parameter specifies how many of the

bipolar transistor model MODNAME are connected

in parallel to make one QXXXXXX.

OFF The initial condition of QXXXXXX for dc analysis.

IC=VBE,VCE SPICE will use VBE and VCE as the initial condi-

tions for the bipolar transistor base-emitter and

collector-emitter voltages rather than the quies-

cent operating point for a transient analysis.

The model form or the model line for the bipolar transistor is

.MODEL MODNAME NPN<(PAR1=PVAL1 PAR2=PVAL2 . . .)>

.MODEL MODNAME PNP<(PAR1=PVAL1 PAR2=PVAL2 . . .)>

where MODNAME is the model name given to a bipolar transistor in the element line, and

NPN or PNP denote that the device is an npn or pnp transistor. PAR is the parameter

name of one of the optional parameters listed in Table 4.2 for PSpice. PVAL is the value

of the designated parameter. Care must be taken to assign the correct units which are

also designated in the tables.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.82

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

No. Text SPICE Parameter Name Default Units

Symbol Keyword Value

1 Is IS Saturation current 1.0E-14 A

2 βF BF Ideal maximum forward current gain 100 –

3 βR BR Ideal maximum reverse current gain 1 –

4 nF NF Forward current ideality factor 1.0 –

(1.0<nF <2.0)

5 nR NR Reverse current ideality factor 1.0 –

(1.0<nR <2.0)

6 Is, src ISE Emitter-base space-charge recombination 1.0E-13 A

saturation current

7 nE NE Emitter-base ideality factor (1.0<nE <2.0) 1.0 –

8 Is,src ISC Collector-base space-charge recombination 1.0E-13 A

saturation current

9 nC NC Collector-base ideality factor (1.0<nC <2.0) 1.0 –

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

No. Text SPICE Parameter Name Default Units

Symbol Keyword Value

10 VA VAF Forward Early voltage ∞ V

11 RB RB Zero-bias base resistance 0 Ω

12 RE RE Emitter resistance 0 Ω

13 RC RC Collector resistance 0 Ω

14 CjE (0) CJE Zero-bias emitter-base depletion capacitance 0 F

15 mE MJE Emitter-base grading coefficient 0.33 –

16 Vbi,EB VJE Emitter-base built-in voltage 0.75 V

17 CjC (0) CJC Zero-bias collector-base depletion capacitance 0 F

18 mC MJC Collector-base grading coefficient 0.33 –

19 Vbi,CB VJC Collector-base built-in voltage 0.75 V

20 τF TF Ideal forward transit time 0 s

7.10. Temperature Effects

7.11. Frequency Effects

7.12. Switching Analysis

7.13. BJT Breakdown

7.14. Summary

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