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Chapter 7

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

Professor Hisham Z. Massoud


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Fitzpatrick Center, Room 3521
Duke University, Durham, NC 27708–0291
massoud@ee.duke.edu

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.1


Chapter 7 – BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Integrated-Circuit Bipolar Junction Transistor Structures
7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium
7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation
7.5. Basic BJT Operation in the Forward-Active Mode
7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
7.7. BJT Capacitance-Voltage C(V ) Characteristics
7.8. BJT Dynamic I(V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model
7.9. BJT Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
7.10. Temperature Effects
7.11. Frequency Effects
7.12. Switching Analysis
7.13. BJT Breakdown
7.14. BJT SPICE Model
7.15. Summary

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.2


7.1. Introduction

• William Shockley at Bell Labs submitted his patent for the junction transistor
on June 26, 1948, and the junction transistor Patent No. 2,569,347 was issued
on September 25, 1951.

• Semiconductor devices in which both electrons and holes participate in the con-
duction are termed bipolar devices and for this reason the junction transistor
is now more commonly called the bipolar-junction transistor (BJT), or, simply,
the bipolar transistor.

• Shockley’s junction transistor patent included heavy doping near the contacts
even though no junction transistor had yet been fabricated and demonstrated.
The “existence proof” for the junction transistor was made on April 7, 1949, at
Bell Labs with a Ge structure fabricated by Bob Mikulyak.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.3


7.1. Introduction
Representation of the junction (bipolar) transistor
in Shockley’s patent (2,569,347).








ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.4


7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Junction Isolation




 















 

 



 

 
















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.5


7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Junction-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor
















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ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.6


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ECE216
7.8
Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar Junction Transistor
7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures



  



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ECE216
7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Bipolar Junction Transistor Types and Their Symbols






















N P N Bipolar Transistor P N P Bipolar Transistor

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.9


7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

Energy-Band Diagram in Thermal Equilibrium

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ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.10


7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium







 








 



 





 




 














ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11


7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

Charge Concentration, Field, and Potential Distributions

E B C
p+ n p

+
%(x) qNd,B

x
−qNa,C

−qNa,E

Ex (x)

ψ(x)

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.12


7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

Bias Region Base/Emitter Junction Base/Collector Junction


Reverse-biased Reverse-biased
Cut-off NPN: VBE < 0 NPN: VBC < 0
PNP: VEB < 0 PNP: VCB < 0
Forward-biased Reverse-biased
Forward-Active NPN: VBE > 0 NPN: VBC < 0
PNP: VEB > 0 PNP: VCB < 0
Forward-biased Forward-biased
Saturation NPN: VBE > 0 NPN: VBC > 0
PNP: VEB > 0 PNP: VCB > 0
Reverse-biased Forward-biased
Reverse-Active NPN: VBE < 0 NPN: VBC > 0
PNP: VEB < 0 PNP: VCB > 0

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.13


7.14
7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation



 
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ECE216
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

E B C
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p+ n p

vIN RL vOU T
IB

VEB VCB

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.15


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

E B C
IE IC


p+ n p

VEB VCB
IB







ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.16
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Variable Emitter Region Base Region Collector Region


Region Type p+ n p
Evac (x) Evac,E (x) Evac,B (x) Evac,C (x)
Ec (x) Ec,E (x) Ec,B (x) Ec,C (x)
Ei (x) Ei,E (x) Ei,B (x) Ei,C (x)
Ev (x) Ev,E (x) Ev,B (x) Ev,C (x)
EF n (x) EF n,E (x) EF n,B (x) EF n,C (x)
EF p (x) EF p,E (x) EF p,B (x) EF p,C (x)
Ex (x) Ex,E (x) Ex,B (x) Ex,C (x)
ψ(x) ψE (x) ψB (x) ψC (x)
Built-in Voltages Vbi,E/B Vbi,C/B

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.17


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Variable Emitter Region Base Region Collector Region


n(x) nE (x) nB (x) nC (x)
p(x) pE (x) pB (x) pC (x)
− + −
Dopant Concentration Na,E Nd,B Na,C
− + −
Equi. Maj. Carrier Conc. p◦E = Na,E n◦B = Nd,B p◦C = Na,C
− + −
Equi. Min. Carrier Conc. n◦E = n2i /Na,E p◦B = n2i /Nd,B n◦C = n2i /Na,C
Depletion Width Wd Wd,E (VEB ) Wd,B/E (VEB ) Wd,C (VCB )
Wd,B/C (VCB )
Minority Carrier Mobility µn,E µp,B µn,C
Minority Carrier Diffusivity Dn,E Dp,B Dn,C
Minority Diffusion Length Ln,E Lp,B Ln,C
Minority Carrier Lifetime τn,E τp,B τn,C

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.18


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

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ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.20


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distributions

E B C
p+ n p

nE (x) pB (x)

n◦C
p◦B
n◦E nC (x)

−WE 0 WB WB +WC
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.21
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Terminal Currents

E B C

p+ n p

→ IC
→ IE

↓ IB

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.22


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Electron and Hole Transport, Generation, and Recombination

E B C

p+ n p

Ip,C Ip,C

Irec,B Iscg,C/B
Iscr,E/B In,C
In,E
In,E
Iscr,E/B
Irec,B
Iscg,C/B
In,C

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.23


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Detailed Current Components

E B C

p+ n p

Ip,C Ip,C
Ip,E

Irec,B Iscg,C/B
In,C
Iscr,E/B
In,E
In,E
Iscr,E/B
Irec,B
Iscg,C/B
In,C

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.24


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Detailed Current Components

Current Description of Current Component Voltage Dependence


Ip,E Hole diffusion current injected from emitter into exp(qVEB /kB T )
base
In,E Electron diffusion current injected from base into exp(qVEB /kB T )
emitter
Iscr,E/B Emitter-base space-charge recombination current exp(qVEB /2kB T )
Irec,B Current due to recombination of injected minority- exp(qVEB /kB T )
carrier holes with majority-carrier electrons in the
neutral base region
Ip,C Portion of Ip,E injected from the emitter into the exp(qVEB /kB T )
base which diffuses across the base and flows in the
collector and is given by Ip,C = Ip,E − Irec,B
Iscg,C/B Collector-base space-charge generation current exp(qVCB /2kB T )
In,C Current in the C/B junction due to the diffusion exp(qVCB /kB T )
of electrons from collector to base and due to the
diffusion of holes form collector to base

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.25


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

IE = Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B ,


IC = Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,
and
IB = I E − I C ,
 
= Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B − Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,
 
= Ip,C + Irec,B + In,E + Iscr,E/B − Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,
= In,E + Iscr,E/B + Irec,B − Iscg,C/B − In,C .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.26


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Current Gain

The base transport factor αT is defined as the ratio of the hole current that reaches the
collector to the hole current that enters the base region from the emitter. It is defined
as
Ip,C Ip,E − Irec,B Irec,B
αT ≡ = =1− .
Ip,E Ip,E Ip,E

The emitter efficiency γE is defined as the ratio of the emitter current injected into the
base region to the total emitter current. It is given by

Ip,E Ip,E
γE ≡ = .
IE Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B

The common-base current gain αF is defined as the ratio of the hole collector current
to the total emitter current. It is given by

Ip,C Ip,C Ip,E Ip,C


αF ≡ = = · = γ E αT .
IE Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B Ip,E

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.27


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The common-base current gain is less than one and is generally found to be near 0.998.
Although the current gain in the common-base configuration is less than unity, the
output voltage is very large compared to the input voltage.

In good transistor design, all base-current components are made as small as possible.
Since the electron diffusion current injected into the emitter In,E does not give any
collector current, it will be seen to be minimized by doping the emitter with a very large
acceptor concentration for the pnp BJT. Space-charge recombination current I scr,E/B
is emitter-base current which does not contribute to the collector current so that steps
are taken to minize space-charge recombination in the emitter-base junction. Also, the
base-region recombination current Irec,B represents the loss of holes which are injected
into the base by the emitter, and the base region is made thin to minimize this current.
Therefore, bipolar transistors are designed to make these currents, which flow in the
base lead, small as compared to Ip,E , the hole diffusion current injected from the emitter
into the base.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.28


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The collector current IC is given by

IC = Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,


= αF IE + In,C + Iscg,C/B ,
= αF IE + ICBO ,

where ICBO is the collector-base reverse saturation current when the emitter is open
(so that IE = 0).

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.29


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

E B C
p+ n p


 

 




 

Wd,B/E Wd,B/C

0 WB x




ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.30
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

We assume that the base width WB is smaller than the minority-carrier diffusion length
Lp,B of holes in the base region of a pnp transistor, (WB < 0.1Lp,B ). The minority-
carrier concentration goes to zero at the edge of the depletion region at the base-
collector junction because this junction is reverse-biased. We assume that

Wd,B/E < WB ,
Wd,B/C < WB ,
or that
Wd,B/E ' 0 ,
WB − Wd,B/C ' WB ,
that  
qVEB
pB (0) ' p◦B exp ,
kB T
and
pB (WB ) ' 0 .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.31


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

We can then write that for a linear distribution of minority carriers in the base region
going from p◦B exp(qVEB /kB T ) at x ' 0 to p◦B exp(qVCB /kB T ) at x ' WB in the form
        
qV EB qV CB x qV CB
pB (x) = p◦B exp − p◦B exp 1− + p◦B exp ,
kB T kB T WB kB T
    
qV EB x qV CB x
= p◦B exp 1− + p◦B exp ,
kB T WB kB T WB
  
qV EB x
' p◦B exp 1− .
kB T WB

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.32


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Charge Stored in the Base Region

The net charge stored in the base region Qn,B (C) is given by
Z WB
Qp,B (VEB , VCB ) = q A [pB (x) − p◦B ] dx ,
0
Z WB   
qV EB x
= qA p◦B exp 1− dx
0 k B T W B
Z WB   Z WB
qV CB x
+qA p◦B exp dx − q A p◦B dx ,
0 kB T WB 0

 
q A p B WB ◦ qVEB
= pB exp
2 kB T
 
q A p◦B WB ◦ qVCB
+ pB exp − q A p◦B WB .
2 kB T
and for VCB < 0, we can write that
   
q A p◦B WB qVEB q A WB n2i qVEB
Qp,B (VEB ) ' exp ' + exp .
2 kB T 2 Nd,B kB T

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.33


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Emitter-Base Current
The emitter-base hole diffusion current is found from the expression for p B (x) as

dpB (x)
Ip,E = −q A Dp,B ,
dx x=Wd,B/E
  
qVEB 1
= −q A Dp,B p◦B exp − ,
kB T WB
 
q A Dp,B n2i qVEB
= + exp .
WB Nd,B kB T

The emitter-base electron diffusion current is found from the expression for

dnE (x)
In,E = q A Dn,E ,
dx x=−Wd,E
    
qVEB 1
= q A Dn,E n◦E exp −1 ,
kB T WE
   
q A Dn,E n2i qVEB
= − exp −1 .
WE Na,E kB T
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.34
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Base Recombination Current


The recombination of the injected minority carriers in the base region is obtained from
the continuity equation of holes which is written as
∂pB (x) 1 ∂Jp,B (x)
=− + (Gp,B − Rp,B ) = 0 ,
∂t q ∂x
in steady state. With no external source of generation, we can write that G p,B = 0
and the continuity equation becomes
dJp,B (x) [pB (x) − p◦B ]
− = q Rp,B = q .
dx τp,B
Integration of this equation yields
Jp,B
Z(WB ) Z WB
q
− dJp,B (x) = [pB (x) − p◦B ] dx .
τp,B 0
Jp,B (0)

The integral on the left-hand side gives Irec,B which is then given by
Z   
q A WB ◦ qVEB x
Irec,B = −A[Jp,B (WB ) − Jp,B (0)] = pB exp 1− dx .
| {z } | {z } τp,B 0 kB T WB
Jp,C Jp,E
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.35
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Base Recombination Current


Integration gives

Irec,B = Ip,E − Ip,C ,


   WB
qA ◦ qVEB x2
= p exp x− ,
τp,B B kB T 2WB 0
 
q A WB n2i qVEB
= + exp ,
2 τp,B Nd,B kB T
Qp,B
= .
τp,B

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.36


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Collector Current
The collector hole current is the difference between the hole current injected into the
base and the base recombination current, or
Ip,C = Ip,E − Irec,B ,
   
q A Dp,B n2i qVEB q A WB n2i qVEB
= + exp − + exp .
WB Nd,B k B T 2 τp,B Nd,B k B T
The collector current for the emitter open and the collector-base junction reverse-biased
is the reverse saturation current given by
q A Dn,C n2i
In,C =− − .
WC Na,C
The total collector current is the sum of Ip,C and In,C given by
IC ' Ip,C + In,C = Ip,E − Irec,B + In,C ' Ip,E ,
for Ip,E > Irec,B > In,C . The collector current IC may be written as
2
 
q A Dp,B ni qVEB
IC ' Ip,E = + exp .
WB Nd,B kB T
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.37
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Collector Current
or that  
q A WB n2i qVEB 2 Dp,B
IC ' + exp ,
2 Nd,B kB T WB2
| {z }
Qp,B

which permits writing IC as

2 Dp,B Qp,B
IC ' Qp,B ' ,
WB2 τ t,B

where τ t,B is the base transit time. This equation emphasizes that the collector current
is directly proportional to the charge stored in the base region.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.38


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Base Transit Time


The velocity of holes in the base region is given by vp,B (x). The hole flux in the base
Fp,B is written as
  
qVEB x
Fp,B (x) = vp,B (x) pB (x) = vp,B (x) p◦B exp 1− .
kB T WB

The flux is multiplied by A and q to give


  
qVEB x
Ip,B = q A vp,B (x) p◦B exp 1− ,
kB T WB

which is also given by the expression for the diffusion current


 
dpB (x) q A Dp,B p◦B qVEB
Ip,B = −q A Dp,B = exp .
dx WB kB T

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.39


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

By equating these two expressions for Ip,B we find that the hole velocity can then be
expressed as
D Dp,B
vp,B (x) =  p,B = .
WB 1 − W x (W B − x)
B

The base transit time is given by


Z WB Z WB
dx (WB − x) WB2
τ t,B = = dx = .
0 vp,B (x) 0 Dp,B 2 Dp,B

If WB is 1 µm and Dp,B is 1 cm2 /s, then τ t,B is 5 × 10−9 s.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.40


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Gummel Number
The Gummel number GN is defined as
Z WB
+
GN ≡ Nd,B (x) .dx
0

It accounts for position-dependent dopant profiles in the base region. In the case of a
+
uniformly doped base region, then GN = Nd,B WB . The collector current is rewritten
as    
q A Dp,B n2i qVEB q A Dp,B n2i qVEB
IC ' + exp ' exp .
WB Nd,B kB T GN kB T

In the absence of recombination in the base region, the collector current is inversely
proportional to the integrated base doping, and the smaller the Gummel number, the
higher the collector current for a given VEB . Typical values of GN in high-performance
bipolar junction transistors range from 1012 to 1013 cm−3 .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.41


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Evaluation of the Common-Base Current Gain αF


We derive an expression to evaluate the common-base current gain. For V EB > 3kB T /q,
the −1 term in the diffusion current expressions may be neglected. By cancellation of
common terms qA, the emitter efficiency for the bipolar transistor becomes

Ip,E
γE ≡ ,
Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B
1
= ,
In,E Iscr,E/B
1+ I + I
p,E p,E
1
= + + ,
Dn,E Nd,B WB Nd,B WB Wd,EB exp(qVEB /2kB T )
1+ − +
Dp,B Na,E WE 2 ni Dp,B τp,B exp(qVEB /kB T )
1
= + + ,
Dn,E Nd,B WB N WB Wd,EB 
qV

1+ − + d,B 2 exp − EB
Dp,B Na,E WE 2 ni Lp,B 2kB T

where Wd,EB = Wd,E + Wd,B/E .


ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.42
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Evaluation of the Common-Base Current Gain αF


The expression for γE shows that increasing the ratio of emitter doping to base doping,
− +
i.e. making Na,E  Nd,B , decreases the electron current from the base into the emitter
so that γE approaches unity. The term due to space-charge recombination has a voltage
dependence as exp(−qVEB /2kB T ) in the denominator. As VEB increases, the effect of
space-charge recombination on γE will be reduced.
The base transport factor αT is given by

Irec,B
αT = 1 − ,
Ip,E
+
q A WB n2i Nd,B WB
=1− + 2 ,
2 τp,B Nd,B q A D n
p,B i

WB2
=1− .
2 L2p,B

It is clear that the base transport factor approaches unity for WB  Lp,B .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.43


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region



 








Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in
the base region of a pnp transistor for
• an open emitter to give ICBO






• a shorted emitter-base junction





to give VEB = 0.






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ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.44


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region



 














Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in








the base region of a pnp transistor biased in


the forward-active region with increasing val-
ues of VEB and a reverse-biased collector-base
junction.















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.45


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region



 







Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in






the base region of a pnp transistor biased in






the forward-active region showing the effects




of increasing the reverse bias of the collector-


base junction on the width of the base region,
while VEB is kept constant.








ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.46


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region



 














Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in








the base region of a pnp transistor biased in


the forward-active region showing the effects
of changing VEB when VCB = 0.









!


 
 
 



ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.47


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region



 









 
 



Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in


the base region of a pnp transistor biased in
the saturation region with both junctions






forward-biased.
 







!


ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.48


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region



 








Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in
the base region of a pnp transistor biased in
the cut-off region with both the emitter-base
and collector-base junctions reverse-biased.
























ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.49


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor

In a common-emitter configuration, the input current is the base current I B and the
output current is the collector current IC and their ratio is of interest.


















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.50


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor

We can write that

IB = IE − IC = (Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B ) − (Ip,C + In,C ) .

Neglecting the collector-base reverse-bias saturation current In,C which is very small
for Si transistors, we can write that

IB = (Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B ) − (Ip,E − Irec,B ) = In,E + Iscr,E/B + Irec,B .

By arraning the bipolar junction transistor in the common-emitter configuration, the


output current IC is much larger than the input current IB . The collector current is
written as
IC = Ip,C + In,C = αT Ip,E + In,C = αF IE + ICBO .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.51


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor

The emitter current is given by


IE = I B + I C .
We can then write that
IC = αF (IB + IC ) + ICBO ,
or that
IC (1 − αF ) = αF IB + ICBO ,
and
αF ICBO
IC = IB + ,
(1 − αF ) (1 − αF )
where ICBO  IB for Si transistors. The ratio of IC to IB is known as the common-
emitter current gain βF defined as
IC αF
βF ≡ = .
IB (1 − αF )
The collector-emitter leakage current for IB = 0 is represented by the second term as
ICBO
ICEO ≡ .
(1 − αF )
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.52
7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor

In most bipolar transistors, αF approaches unity, which means that βF can be much
greater than 1, and ICEO will be much larger than ICBO . For example, when αF =
0.98, then βF = 49.0. The usefulness of the bipolar transistor in the common-emitter
configuration is that a small base current can control a much larger collector current.

The variation of βF with VEB or the collector current indicates that at small values
of IC , βF does not become relatively constant until the space-charge recombination
current Iscr,E/B is much smaller than the diffusion current Ip,E . At larger values of IC ,
βF decreases due to high-level-injection effects which give a diffusion current variation
as exp(qVEB /2kB T ).

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.53


7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Configuration and Bias with an N P N Transistor




















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.54


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Basic Model

The Ebers-Moll model is the most commonly used static model for the bipolar junction
transistor. It is the basis for the model used in SPICE. Space-charge generation and
recombination currents are not included in this model but these currents can be readily
added. Carrier recombination in the base region is included.

We consider an NPN transistor in this analysis. The terminal currents I C , IE , and IB


are expressed in terms of the terminal voltages VBE and VBC . We divide this problem in
two parts by applying each voltage at a time, solve for the resulting currents, and then
use superposition to combine the two solutions into the total solution. The currents
obtained are labeled forward when VBE is applied and VBC = 0, and reverse when VBC
is applied and VBE = 0.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.55


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The forward current IF is given for the base-emitter junction as


   
qVBE
IF = In,E + Ip,E = IBE·S exp −1 ,
kB T

where IBE·S is the base-emitter junction saturation current, and VBE is the base-to-
emitter voltage.

The reverse current IR is given for the base-collector junction as


   
qVBC
IR = In,C + Ip,C = IBC·S exp −1 ,
kB T

where IBC·S is the base-collector junction saturation current, and VBC is the base-to-
collector voltage.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.56


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The interaction of the two junctions in a bipolar junction transistor results from the
thin-base region which results in a fraction of the emitter current reaching the collector
and vice versa.

The collector current IC is expressed in terms of IF and IR as

IC = α F IF − I R ,

where αF IF is the part of the collector current due to the base-emitter junction and IR
the part due to the base-collector junction. The emitter current IE expressed in terms
of IF and IR as
IE = I F − α R IR ,
where IF is the part of the emitter current due to the base-emitter junction and αR IR
that duet to the base-collector junction.

The base current is given by

IB = IE − IC = (1 − αF )IF + (1 − αR )IR .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.57


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model






















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.58


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Consider an NPN transistor where the diffusion lengths of minority carriers in the
emitter, base, and collector regions are much larger than the physical widths of the
emitter, base, and collector regions, respectively. Assume that the emitter area is A E
and that the collector area is AC .

We can write the saturation current for the base-emitter junction as

IBE·S ≡ In,E·S + Ip,E·S ,


where
q AE Dn,B n2i
In,E·S ≡ − ,
WB Na,B
and
q AE Dp,E n2i
Ip,E·S ≡ + .
WE Nd,E

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.59


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

We can write the saturation current for the base-collector junction as

IBC·S ≡ In,C·S + Ip,C·S ,


where
q AC Dn,B n2i
In,C·S ≡ − ,
WB Na,B
and
q AC Dp,C n2i
Ip,C·S ≡ + .
WC Nd,C

We note that, if AE = AC , then In,E·S = In,C·S .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.60


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Reciprocity Relationship

We can write the product αF IBE·S as

αF IBE·S = γE αT (In,E·S + Ip,E·S ) ,


In,E·S
= αT (In,E·S + Ip,E·S ) = αT In,E·S ,
(In,E·S + Ip,E·S )
and
αR IBC·S = γC αT (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) ,
In,C·S
= αT (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) = αT In,C·S .
(In,C·S + Ip,C·S )

When AE = AC , we can write that In,E·S = In,C·S , and consequently

αF IBE·S = αR IBC·S ≡ IS .

A more detailed proof shows that the reciprocity relationship is satisfied for a general
geometery where AE 6= AC .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.61


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

SPICE Ebers-Moll Model

We write αF IF and αR IR as

ICC ≡ αF IF ,
   
qVBE
= αF IBE·S exp −1 ,
kB T
   
qVBE
= IS exp −1 ,
kB T
and
IEC ≡ αR IR ,
   
qVBC
= αR IBC·S exp −1 ,
kB T
   
qVBC
= IS exp −1 .
kB T

The current IF becomes ICC /αF and the current IR becomes IEC /αR .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.62


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

In the transport version of the Ebers-Moll model, the terminal currents are

IEC
IC = ICC − ,
αR
ICC
IE = − IEC ,
αF
and
ICC IEC
IB = − IEC − ICC + ,
αF αR
   
1 1
= − 1 ICC + − 1 IEC .
αF αR

We define the common-emitter current gains βF and βR as


αF
βF ≡ ,
1 − αF
and
αR
βR ≡ .
1 − αR

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.63


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.64


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The terminal currents can then be written as


IEC
IC = ICC − ,
αR
IEC
= ICC − IEC + IEC − ,
αR
(αR − 1)
= (ICC − IEC ) + IEC ,
αR
IEC
= (ICC − IEC ) − ,
βR
and
ICC
IE = − IEC ,
αF
ICC
= ICC − IEC − ICC + ,
αF
(αF − 1)
= (ICC − IEC ) − ICC ,
αF
ICC
= (ICC − IEC ) + ,
βF
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.65
7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The two reference currents are replaced by a single source


    
qVBE qVBC
ICT ≡ ICC − IEC = IS exp − .
kB T kB T

The two diode currents become


   
ICC IS qVBE
= exp −1 ,
βF βF kB T
and    
IEC IS qVBC
= exp −1 ,
βR βR kB T

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.66


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model




















ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.67


7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Limitations of the Ebers-Moll Model

1. Base-Width Modulation (Early effect)


2. Punchthrough
3. Base-Collector Junction Breakdown
4. Space-Charge Layer Recombination
5. High-Level Injection
6. Emitter Crowding
7. Series Resistance
8. Nonuniform Doping Profiles

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.68


7.7. BJT Dynamic I (V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model

Under time-dependent conditions, the relationship between the instantaneous values of


terminal currents and terminal voltages is described by the differential equations that
relate the currents and the charges stored in the emitter, base, and collectore quasi-
neutral regions, and in the base-to-emitter and base-to-collector depletion regions.
In a pn junction, the charges stored in the diode are Qn,P and Qp,N in the quasi-
neutral regions and QDEP in the depletion region. The relationship between the total
instantaneous value of the diode current and the diode charges is written as

dQp,N (t) Qp,N (t) dQn,P (t) Qn,P (t) dQDEP (t)
iD (t) = + + + + .
dt τp,N dt τn,P dt

In an NPN bipolar junction transistor, the chages stored in the emitter, base, and collec-
tor regions are Qp,E , Qn,B , and Qp,C , respectively. The charges stored in the depletion
region of the base-to-emitter and base-to-collector depletion regions are Q DEP,B/E and
QDEP,B/C , respectively.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.69


7.7. BJT Dynamic I (V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model

The complete charge-control model equations for an npn transistor are as follows
 
QF (t) 1 1 dQR (t) dQV C (t) dQV S (t)
iC (t) = − + QR (t) − − − ,
τF τR τBR dt dt dt
QF (t) dQF (t) QR (t) dQV C (t) dQV E (t)
iB (t) = + + + + ,
τBF dt τBR dt dt
 
QR 1 1 dQF (t) dQV E (t)
iE (t) = − + + QF (t) + + ,
τR τF τBF dt dt
where    
qvBE (t)
QF (t) ' QF 0 exp −1 ,
kB T
and    
qvBC (t)
QR (t) ' QR0 exp −1 ,
kB T

See Hodges and Jackson, p.220.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.70


7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

We assume that our DC or quiescent point Q is defined by VBE and VCE . We expand
iB and iC as

∂iB
∂iB
iB (vBE , vCE ) = iB (VBE , VCE ) + (vBE − VBE ) + (vCE − VCE )
∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q
+ higher order terms ,
and
∂iC
∂iC
iC (vBE , vCE ) = iC (VBE , VCE ) + (vBE − VBE ) + (vCE − VCE )
∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q
+ higher order terms .
We recognize that
iB (VBE , VCE ) ≡ IB ,
iC (VBE , VCE ) ≡ IC ,
vBE − VBE ≡ vbe ,
vCE − VCE ≡ vce ,
iB − I B ≡ i b ,
iC − I C ≡ i c .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.71
7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

We assume that ic and ib are small enough that we can ignore the higher-order terms,
and rewrite the above equations as

∂iB ∂iB
ib = vbe + vce = gπ vbe + gr vce ,
∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q
and
∂iC ∂iC
ic = vbe + vce = gm vbe + go vce ,
∂vBE Q ∂vCE Q
where
∂iB
gπ ≡ input conductance ,
∂vBE Q

∂iB
gr ≡ reverse transconductance ,
∂vCE Q

∂iC
gm ≡ forward transconductance ,
∂vBE Q

∂iC
go ≡ output transconductance .
∂vCE
Q

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.72


7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

For an npn transistor biased in the forward-active region, we have


 
qVBE
IC ' IS exp .
kB T

The forward transconductance is then given by


 
∂iC q qVBE IC
gm ≡ = I S exp = .
∂vBE Q kB T kB T (kB T /q)

The input conductance is given by



∂iB ∂(iC /βF ) gm 1
gπ ≡ = = ≡ .
∂vBE Q ∂vBE Q βF rπ

The output conductance is given by



∂iC IC kB T g m 1
go ≡ = = ≡ .
∂vCE Q |VA | q|VA | ro

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.73


7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

The base-emitter capacitance Cπ consists of the B/E junction depletion and diffusion
capacitances because the junction is forward-baised. It is given by
v s
u + −  
u q  Si N d,E N a,B V bi,B/E qI S qV BE
Cπ = A E t + − + τ t,B exp .
2 Vbi,B/E (Nd,E + Na,B ) V bi,B/E − V BE k B T k B T

The base-collector capacitance Cµ consists of only the depletion capacitance because


the junction is reverse-baised. It is given by
v s
u − +
u q Si Na,B Nd,C Vbi,B/C
Cµ = A C t
− + .
2 Vbi,B/C (Na,B + Nd,C ) Vbi,B/C − VBC

The variation of vCE changes the collector depletion-layer width which results in a
change in the base width. The variation in base width results in a change in the
minority-carrier charge stored in the base and a change in the base current. A small
change in vCE causes a change in the base current iB which is represented by a resistance
rµ from the collector to the base of the equivalent circuit. This resistance is given by
∂vCE ∂iC ∂vCE
rµ = = = β F ro .
∂iB ∂iB ∂iC
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.74
7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Basic Small-Signal AC Equivalent Circuit for an N P N Bipolar Transistor












ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.75
7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Complete Hybrid-π Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for an N P N Bipolar


Transistor



























ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.76


7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Cutoff Frequency fT

The cutoff frequency fT is the frequency at which the current gain in the common-
emitter configuration is unity while the output is shorted for an ac signal. The shorted
output eliminates the output resistance ro and connects Cµ in parallel with Cπ . In this
simplified model, rb , re and rc are ignored, but a more complete model would generally
include rb . Because rµ is a large resistance which is now in parallel with the small
resistance rπ , rµ may be neglected. For these conditions, the equivalent circuit is














ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.77
7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Cutoff Frequency fT

The input current is given by

iin = [1/rπ + jω(Cπ + Cµ )] vbe ,

and the output current is


iout = −gm vbe .
The magnitude of the input current is
q
|iin | = 1/rπ2 + ω 2 (Cπ + Cµ )2 vbe .

The ratio of the magnitude of the output to the input current is



iout gm
= p .
iin 1/rπ2 + ω 2 (Cπ + Cµ )2

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.78


7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Cutoff Frequency fT

At high frequencies, where ω(Cπ + Cµ ) > 1/rπ , the ratio |iout |/|iin | = 1 at fT , which
is given by
gm
fT = .
2 π (Cπ + Cµ )
Because the diffusion capacitance can be larger than the depletion capacitances, (C π +
Cµ ) → Cπ = τ t,B gm . The cutoff frequency is then given by

1
fT ' .
2 π τ t,B

With τ t,B = WB2 /2Dn,B , fT may be written as

Dn,B
fT ' .
π WB2

This expression emphasizes that fT depends on the minority-carrier diffusivity in the


base region (favoring NPN over PNP), and that a thin WB is necessary for high fT .

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.79


7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model

Maximum Frequency fmax

The high-frequency behavior of transistors has also been specified by the maximum
available power gain at high frequencies. For maximum power gain, the load resistance
RL must be matched to the output resistance ro of the transistor. At high frequencies,
the power gain decreases with frequency. The power gain falls to unity at f max which
is obtained as
 1/2  1/2
gm fT
fmax = = .
16 π 2 rb (Cπ + Cµ )2 8 π rb (Cπ + Cµ )

Both fT and fmax are often used as figures of merit for comparison of high-frequency
transistors.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.80


7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

Element and Model Lines

The element and model lines in SPICE for the bipolar transistor have been summarized
by Banzhaf.The general form of the element line for the bipolar transistor is
QXXXXXX NC NB NE <NS> MODNAME <AREA> <OFF> <IC=VBE,VCE>
where QXXXXXX is the name of the bipolar transistor, NC the collector node, NB the base
node, NE the emitter node, and MODNAME the model name which is used in an associated
.MODEL control line. These items are required in the bipolar transistor element line.
The optional parameters are the quantities in the < · · · > and an element line may be
continued by entering a + sign at the start of the next line.

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.81


7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

The meanings of the optional parameters are:


NS The node of the substrate which defaults to 0.
AREA The area parameter specifies how many of the
bipolar transistor model MODNAME are connected
in parallel to make one QXXXXXX.
OFF The initial condition of QXXXXXX for dc analysis.
IC=VBE,VCE SPICE will use VBE and VCE as the initial condi-
tions for the bipolar transistor base-emitter and
collector-emitter voltages rather than the quies-
cent operating point for a transient analysis.
The model form or the model line for the bipolar transistor is
.MODEL MODNAME NPN<(PAR1=PVAL1 PAR2=PVAL2 . . .)>
.MODEL MODNAME PNP<(PAR1=PVAL1 PAR2=PVAL2 . . .)>
where MODNAME is the model name given to a bipolar transistor in the element line, and
NPN or PNP denote that the device is an npn or pnp transistor. PAR is the parameter
name of one of the optional parameters listed in Table 4.2 for PSpice. PVAL is the value
of the designated parameter. Care must be taken to assign the correct units which are
also designated in the tables.
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.82
7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

SPICE DC Model Parameters


No. Text SPICE Parameter Name Default Units
Symbol Keyword Value
1 Is IS Saturation current 1.0E-14 A
2 βF BF Ideal maximum forward current gain 100 –
3 βR BR Ideal maximum reverse current gain 1 –
4 nF NF Forward current ideality factor 1.0 –
(1.0<nF <2.0)
5 nR NR Reverse current ideality factor 1.0 –
(1.0<nR <2.0)
6 Is, src ISE Emitter-base space-charge recombination 1.0E-13 A
saturation current
7 nE NE Emitter-base ideality factor (1.0<nE <2.0) 1.0 –
8 Is,src ISC Collector-base space-charge recombination 1.0E-13 A
saturation current
9 nC NC Collector-base ideality factor (1.0<nC <2.0) 1.0 –

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.83


7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors

SPICE DC Model Parameters


No. Text SPICE Parameter Name Default Units
Symbol Keyword Value
10 VA VAF Forward Early voltage ∞ V
11 RB RB Zero-bias base resistance 0 Ω
12 RE RE Emitter resistance 0 Ω
13 RC RC Collector resistance 0 Ω
14 CjE (0) CJE Zero-bias emitter-base depletion capacitance 0 F
15 mE MJE Emitter-base grading coefficient 0.33 –
16 Vbi,EB VJE Emitter-base built-in voltage 0.75 V
17 CjC (0) CJC Zero-bias collector-base depletion capacitance 0 F
18 mC MJC Collector-base grading coefficient 0.33 –
19 Vbi,CB VJC Collector-base built-in voltage 0.75 V
20 τF TF Ideal forward transit time 0 s

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.84


7.10. Temperature Effects

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.85


7.11. Frequency Effects

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.86


7.12. Switching Analysis

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.87


7.13. BJT Breakdown

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.88


7.14. Summary

ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.89