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Guidelines For The Environmental Impact Assessment Of Highway Or Road Projects

7.0m 5.0m

Roads Branch Public Works Department Malaysia Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 Kuala Lumpur

GUIDELINES
for the

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


of

HIGHWAY/ROAD PROJECTS

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PREFACE

The following guidelines are presented as a specific supplement to the Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines produced by the Department of Environment (DOE), Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MSTE). The guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Highway/Road Projects have been specifically prepared in the context of the Malaysian environment, and for Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR), the Public Works Department. JKR is the implementation agency for Highway/Road Projects in Malaysia, although the project initiator will usually be its Ministry, the Ministry of Works (MOW). The guidelines have been prepared under a Technical Assistance (TA) as part of a World Bank loan (3145 MA) to the Government of Malaysia for Highway Rehabilitation and Improvement.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

These guidelines for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway/Road Projects have been undertaken in association with, and with the assistance of, Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR), the Public Works Department. JKR made their resources (staff & vehicles) available to the EIA study team at all times, and their support is gratefully acknowledged. During the preparation of the EIA guidelines, guidance was sought from the EIA unit of the Department of Environment (DOE) and their support in organising round table discussions and a review of the draft guidelines document is gratefully acknowledged. The EIA guidelines for Highway/Road Projects would not have been undertaken without the financial and technical support from the World Bank, and their assistance throughout the project and review of the draft guidelines document is gratefully acknowledged. The EIA guidelines have been prepared by the following personnel (in alphabetical order):

Kamalaldin bin Abd. Latif Ibrahim bin Ahmad Nicholas William Rogers Othman bin Jaafar Roslan bin Md Taha Sharifah Aluyah bt Wan Othman

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JABATAN KERJA RAYA


GUIDELINES FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF HIGHWAY/ROAD PROJECTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 General Categories of Road Malaysian Environmental Legislation And Policy Highway/Road Projects

2.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 General Prescribed Activities EIA Guidelines EIA Process

3.0 4.0

ISSUE IDENTIFICATION, OR SCOPING UNDERTAKING THE EIA 4.1 4.2 Preparing the scope of the EIA Preparation of Terms of Reference

5.0

HIGHWAY/ROAD PROJECTS - ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS 5.1 5.2 5.3 General Main Activities Key Issues

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6.0

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENTS 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 Cover Executive Summary Introduction Title of Project Project Initiator Statement of Need Project Description Project Options The Existing Environment Impact Assessment Mitigation and Abatement Measures Residual Impacts Summary and Conclusions Data Sources & Consultations References

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JABATAN KERJA RAYA


GUIDELINES FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF HIGHWAY/ROAD PROJECTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

7.0

MONITORING 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 General Physical Environment Biological Environment Social Environment

8.0

SELECTED REFERENCES PERTAINING TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF MALAYSIA

APPENDIX A A1 Environmental Significance Checklist US Department of transportation, FHWA, 1985 A2 Checklist of Environmental Parameters, Asian Development Bank, 1990

APPENDIX B Environmental Aspects of Quarrying Activities

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
In urban areas, they form the basic framework of road transportation system in urbanised area for through traffic. They also serve relatively long trips and provide smooth traffic flow with full access control, thereby complementing the Rural Expressway.

In the promotion of environmentally sound and sustainable development, the Government of Malaysia has established the necessary legal and institutional arrangements as such that environmental factors are considered at the early stages of project planning. Environmental assessment is an important technique for ensuring that the likely impacts of the proposed development on the environment are fully understood and taken into account before such development is allowed to go ahead.

b) Highways They constitute the interstate national network and complement the express way network. They usually link up directly or indirectly the Federal Capitals, State Capitals and points of entry/exit to the country. They serve long to intermediate trip lengths. Speed is not so important as in an Expressway but relatively high to medium speed is necessary. Smooth traffic is provided with partial access control.

1.2

Categories of Road

In Malaysia, roads are divided into two groups by area, ie rural and urban. Roads in rural areas are further classified into five categories by function namely Expressway, Highway, Primary Road, Secondary Road and Minor Road and into four categories in urban area, namely, Expressway, Arterial, Collector and Local Street. Their general applications are as follows.

c) Primary Roads They constitute the major roads forming the basic network of the road transportation system within a State. They serve intermediate trip lengths and medium travelling speeds. Smooth traffic is provided with partial access control. They usually link up the State Capitals and District Capitals or other Major Towns.

a) Expressway An expressway is a divided highway for through traffic with full control of access and always with grade separations at all intersections. In rural areas, they apply to the interstate highways for through traffic and make the basic framework of National road transportation for fast travelling. They serve long trips and provide higher speed of travelling and comfort. To maintain this, they are fully accesscontrolled and are designed to the highest standards.

d) Secondary Roads They constitute the major roads forming the basic network of the road transportation system within a District or Regional development Areas. They serve intermediate trip lengths with partial access control. They usually link up the major towns within the District or Regional development Areas.

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INTRODUCTION They apply to all roads other than those described above in the rural area. They form the basic road network within a Land Scheme or other inhabited areas in a rural area. They also include roads with special functions such as holiday resort roads, security roads or access roads to microwave stations. They serve mainly local traffic with short trip lengths and are usually with partial or no access control.

1.3

Malaysian Environmental Legislation And Policy

e) Arterials An arterial is a continuous road with partial access control for through traffic within urban areas. Basically it conveys traffic from residential areas to the vicinity of the central business district or from one part of a city to another which does not intend to penetrate the city centre. Arterials do not penetrate identifiable neighbourhoods. Smooth traffic flow is essential since it carries large traffic volume.

The Environmental Quality Act (1974) was introduced into Malaysian Law as a comprehensive piece of legislation to provide a common legal basis for coordinating all activities relating to environmental control. Amended to the environmental Quality (Amendment) Act 1985, this act requires any person or agency intending to carry out a "prescribed activity" to submit a report on its potential effects on the environment to the Director General, Department of Environment (DOE), for approval. The Environmental Quality (Prescribed activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order 1987 was gazetted in November 1987 and came into force on 1 April 1988. This Order lists the "prescribed activities" for which an EIA is mandatory, including "Construction of expressways and national highways" (Item 9 : Infrastructure). Section 34A(2) of the 1985 Amendment Act specifies that where an EIA is required under the legislation, it shall follow the guidelines prescribed by the Director General of DOE. The procedures for preparing an EIA are set out in the Handbook of EIA Guidelines. In the Sixth Malaysian Plan under Road Transport Prospects, 1991-1995, it is stated that environmental impact assessment studies will be carried out as steps to reduce the negative impact of road transport development on the environment. The fundamental objective of an EIA is to ensure that full consideration is given to its potential effects so that wherever possible these can be mitigated by careful design, construction and operation.

f) Collectors A collector road is a road with partial access control designed to serve on a collector or distributor of traffic between the arterial and the local road systems. Collectors are the major roads which penetrate and serve identifiable neighbourhoods, commercial areas and industrial areas.

g) Local Streets The local street system is the basic road net work within a neighbourhood and serves primarily to offer direct access to abutting land. They are links to the collector road and thus serve short trip lengths. Through traffic should be discouraged.

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INTRODUCTION Under the National Development Plan and in the Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2) as well as in the Sixth Malaysian Plan 1991 1995, emphasis is given to enhancement of the environment and ecology to ensure sustainable development of the country. Based on the above Environmental Policy Objectives, the DOE has formulated and adopted a threepronged strategy based on : - pollution control and prevention; required environmental mitigation measures through the conduct of Environmental Impact Assessment Studies; and - to promote greater co-operation and increased co-ordination among relevant Federal and State authorities as well as among the ASEAN Governments.

1.4
- the integration of environmental factors in project planning and implementation; and - environmental inputs into resource and regional development planning. National environmental policy in Malaysia will continue to give greater emphasis on the following objectives: - to maintain a clean and healthy envronment - to maintain the quality of the environment relative to the needs of the growing population - to minimise the impact of the growing population and human activities relating to mineral exploration, deforestation, agriculture, urbanisation, tourism and the development of other resources on the environment - to balance the goals for socio-economic development and the need to bring the benefits of development to a wide spectrum of the population against the maintenance of sound environmental conditions - to place more emphasis on prevention through conservation rather than on curative measure, inter alia by preserving the country's unique and diverse cultural and natural heritage - to incorporate an environmental dimension in project planning and implementation, interalia by determining the implication of the proposed projects and the costs of the
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, KL

Highway/Road Projects

It must be stressed as the onset that highway/road projects which provide transportation networks are fundamental to a nations development, and the beneficiaries of such projects are the nations citizens - directly through increased mobility and access, and indirectly through enhanced economic prosperity. Beneficial impacts of the project, compared to "no project", are usually one or more of the following: reduced travel times safer travel opening up areas for development increased communication

In undertaking highway/road projects, the Government of Malaysia is, committed to environmental protection as set out in : - Sixth Malaysia Plan 1991 - 1995 - Outline Plan 1990 - 2000 - Langkawi Declaration, October 1989 - Kuala Lumpur Accord on the Environment and Development, June 1990 - Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Environment and Development, April 1992 - Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development, June 1992

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INTRODUCTION The Langkawi Declaration is especially significant as it provides government support for activities related to the con - servation of biodiversity and genetic resources, including the conservation of significant areas of virgin forest and other protected natural habitats. On October 31, 1989, the World Bank issued an Operational Directive (OD) to address the Bank's concern to apply sound environmental planning and management principles to projects such as highway/road projects. OD 4.00 sets out as Annex A guidance on the Bank's policies and procedures for conducting environmental (impact) assessments of proposed projects. OD 4.00 standardises and formalises a process which is already taking place for World Bank projects with major environmental impacts. OD 4.00 and other World Bank environmental documents are set out in the list of selected references in Section 8.0.

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2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


2.1 General
AIRPORT

The need to systematically identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of major projects was first prescribed by the United States Congress in 1969 when it enacted the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). With this Act, environmental impact assessment (EIA) became an integral part of the decision making process along with eco- nomic and technical considerations. The objective of any EIA requirement is to promote and ensure that planning decisions take into account environmental costs and benefits. Different countries have different approaches to the decision making process but all basically subscribe to the viewpoint that the development authorities make the trade-offs, except on the matter of compliance with prescribed standards. Few governments could cope with a blanket requirement that all development projects be subjected to an environmental impact assessment. Aside from the administrative difficulties this would create, such a requirement would be unnecessary and wasteful. A crucial issue is therefore how to prescribe criteria for those projects that should be subjected to EIA.

- Construction of airports (having an airstrip of 2,500 metres or longer) - Airstrip development in state and national parks

INFRASTRUCTURE

- Construction of hospitals with outfall into beach fronts used for recreational purposes - Construction of expressways - Construction of national highways

- PORTS - Construction of ports - Port expansion involving an increase of 50 per cent or more in handling capacity per annum

- WATER SUPPLY - Construction of dams, impounding reservoirs with a surface area of 200 hectares or more - Groundwater development for industrial, agricultural or urban water supply of greater than 4,500 cubic metres per day.

2.2

Prescribed Activities 2.3 EIA Guidelines

In Malaysia, a list of prescribed activities has been prepared for which an EIA is mandatory under the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order 1987. Of relevance to JKR are:

To help project proponents undertake EIA studies and prepare EIA reports, DOE in 1987 prepared a Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines. These guidelines are necessarily general in nature and, in 1993 with the assistance of the World Bank, JKR
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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT decided to prepare specific guidelines for those prescribed activities for which it has responsibility, either as the project initiator or as the implementation agency. The Environmental Quality Act in general, and the list of prescribed activities in particular, are currently under review. It is likely that the role and functions of the JKR enviromental unit will be expanded as a result to the current review of environmental legislation. Whilst EIA is a process, a strong focus needs to be maintained on the requirement for the preparation of a comprehensive report which will demonstrate to DOE that all the important issues have been addressed and that appropriate measures are to be incorporated into the design &/or construction of the project to minimise or mitigate potentially significant adverse environmental impacts. An EIA process flow chart is presented as Figure l, which sets out the tasks together with the reporting requirements Approval will only be given to EIA's which are structured in strict accordance with the format set out in the Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines. Accordingly, the JKR EIA Guidelines for Highway/Road projects are described under the format elements set out in the current DOE guidelines.

2.4

EIA Process

Environmental impact assessment is the process whereby a systematic effort is made to assess the environmental impacts and the options that may be open with regard to a proposal, including the option of "doing nothing". The fundamental objective of an EIA is to ensure that before irrevocable decisions are taken on a proposal, full consideration is given to its potential environmental effects and the views of those who may be affected by them. Ideally the EIA should be undertaken at the inception of a proposal, when there is a real choice between various courses of action. It should therefore be an integral part of the decision-making process preceding the actual implementation of any proposal. In the Malaysian context, EIA is a study to identify, predict, evaluate and communicate information about the impacts on the environment of a proposed project and to detail out the mitigating measures prior to project approval and implementation. EIA is therefore a planing tool for minimising" adverse environmental impacts. The EIA process seeks to avoid costly mistakes in project implementation, costly either because of the environmental damage that is ikely to arise during project implementation, or because of modifications that may be required subsequently in order to make the project environmentally acceptable.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

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3.0 ISSUE IDENTIFICATION OR SCOPING


Once a proposed project has been defined, the first activity to be performed as part of the EIA process is to identify those issues which are important and which will need to be studied in detail, and to screen out those issues which are of little or no importance and which can be thereafter effectively ignored. This issue identification, or scoping, process is essential in order to ensure that the EIA is sufficiently comprehensive but does not become unnecessarily protracted and expen- sive. To assist in screening highway/road projects for key issues and potentially significant environmental impacts, various agencies have developed checklists. Many different types of checklist are available to assist with the scoping process. The preliminary assessment matrix developed by DOE for use in Malaysia is a useful tool for screening out those impacts of no or little significance, and also assists the project initiator (who has ultimate responsibility and hence liability in terms of the Environmental Quality Act) compare and select from the real project options available. The matrix also communicates to the reader the environmental issues arising from the project proposal in graphic form, as illustrated by the matrix presented as Figure 2 which has been specifically modified for the JKR EIA guidelines. There are many different types of checklist currently in common usage, and two other checklists which could be utilised in addition to the matrix include the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) checklist for Highway and Road Projects developed by the Asian Development Bank (ABD), and the Environmental Significance Checklist developed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA), US Department of Transportation (DOT). These checklists are attached as Appendix A. It must be clearly understood that none of the above checklists performs the role of an environmental impact assessment. They are, however, useful in providing a memory jog to the assessor(s) who may otherwise overlook an aspect of potential significance. Additional tools are available to assist with the scoping process, and reference should be made to DOE conditions of approval for highway/road projects, and to previous EIA's for highway/road projects undertaken in Malaysia. There is a limited amount of information which can be obtained from desk studies, however, and many issues are best identified by inspecting the site of the proposed project (from the ground and possibly also from the air), and by inspecting similar projects elsewhere in Malaysia, both completed and under construction. Certain issues may only be identified by talking to people who are present in the area of the proposed project, and the opening up of dialogue between JKR and the people in project areas at an early stage is strongly recommended.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, KL

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ISSUE IDENTIFICATION OR SCOPING

Environmenent a mps a s potentially significant but on a temporary basis and will assume equilibrium PROJECT

after certain period of Environ

prediction. Close monitoring and control is recommended. = O

Significant environmental enhancement

P t ti ll which a Residual and

I
V V cW7 ao O z P. 4:1, 93 z c z US 0 19 < ` t a

Q
0 0

-C

OcOO

Identification of Activities
Land Soil Profiles Soil Composition Slope Stability o Subsidence and compaction Seismicity Flood Plains/Swamps Land Use Engineering and Mineral Resources Buffer Zones Shore Line Bottom Interface w r Flow Variation :r 39: Water Quality 0 w Drainage Pattern Water Balance o: Flooding a

,0 Existing Use

Water Table Flow Diagram 3 Water Quality z Recharge Aquiter Characteristics Existing Use Air Quality in w Air w Climatic changes aa Visibility zw Intensity z 0) Frequency v Terrestrial Vegetation Terrestrial Wildlife Other Terrestrial Fauna z w g Aquatic/Marine

1 1

0 z

N d Other Aquatic/Marine Fauna

o j Aquatic Habitats m
(n

Terrestrial Habitats i- Aquatic

9o

Estuarine Habitats v Estuarine Communities Marine Communities Physical Safety Psychological "Well-Being Parasitic Disease Communicable Disease w Physiological Disease

Employment Housing 0 Education !9 z Utilities

N z

pw
Amenities Landforms Wilderness Water Quality Atmospheric Quality . 0 Climate o Sense of Community

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4.0 UNDERTAKING THE EIA

4.1

Preparing the scope of the EIA

Once the key issues and potentially significant environmental impacts of the proposed project have been identified from the scoping process, the next step is to scope in detail the contents of the EIA by preparing a contents list and estimating the time and costs required to undertake the tasks. Once the tasks have been determined the next step is to determine which of the tasks can be undertaken in-house and which tasks will require external resourcing. Specific terms of reference (TOR) or study briefs will be required for external resources, and briefs are also desirable for internal resources assigned specific tasks.

4.2

Preparation of Terms of Reference

In engaging external resources such as consultants from the private or public sector, the terms of reference need to be sufficiently tight to ensure that the studies will meet budget and programme, but sufficiently loose to ensure that the "experts" are not limited by uninformed technical constraints. Accordingly, performance briefs are preferred over detailed itemised briefs. An example TOR/brief is set out in the next page.

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UNDERTAKING THE EIA Example Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Biro Penyelidikan dan Perundingan 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan

Dear Mohd Jailani,

Re:

Noise Studies for New East-West Highway Project

Offer of Work

You are hereby invited to submit a proposal for noise studies to assist the JKR Environmental Unit undertake an EIA for the above project.

Scope of Work The workscope will entail : a) Ascertain the existing physical environment (w.r.t ambient noise b) Assess the impact of the project on existing noise levels during highway/road operation c) Predict noise dispersion and discuss the likelihood any adverse d) Suggest appropriate mitigation measures, if any e) Suggest an appropriate post-construction monitoring plan levels) construction and

impact

EIA Procedure The Consultant is to carry out noise studies only in those areas where problems are likely to occur due to construction or operational traffic noise (eg nearby residential areas).

Technical and Financial Proposal The Consultant shall submit a proposal giving : a) b) c) d) Work Programme with Time Schedule Start and completion dates Cost for the noise study with cost breakdown Curriculum Vitae of team members
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UNDERTAKING THE EIA Payment schedule will be as follows : a) b) c) d) Mobilisation 20% Submission of Draft Report 40% Acceptance of Final Report 30% EIA approval (of noise study component) by DOE 10%

EIA Reports and Submission a) The text of the noise study is to be concise, free of jargon and word processed using Word Perfect 5.1 (or later version) b) The noise report should have : - a one or two paragraph Summary in both English and Bahasa - Colour photographs to show noise recording locations with respect to surrounding areas - Tabulated Summary of Noise Impacts, Mitigating Measures and Residual Impacts - Overall Conclusions and Recommendations c) The Noise Report shall be to the satisfaction of DOE. Any further elaboration needed by DOE would be at Consultant's cost. d) Two (2) copies of draft report to be submitted within two weeks after commencement. e) One (1) hard copy and one (1) copy on 31/2" diskette of Final Report would be submitted to JKR within one week following the review by JKR. Miscellaneous a) The Consultant shall inform JKR of a suitable date for a familiarisation site visit. b) A penalty of 1 % per day of the consultancy contract sum will be deducted for each day the noise report is delayed beyond the due date, up to a maximum of 15%. c) Your attention is drawn to the requirement by the Government of Malaysia for a 5 % tax on Consultancy Services. We look forward to your early response. Failure to respond to JKR within 7 days of receipt of this letter will be taken as a rejection of our offer and we shall immediately approach other parties to undertake the work. Yours faithfully

Ms Sharifah Alauyah bt Wan Othman JKR Environmental Unit


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5.0 HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS - ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS


5.1 General
These guidelines subdivide the project into 18 main activities within three phases - preconstruction, construction and post construction, as set out in the matrix on Figure 2. Although the activities may be different, in many instances their impact on the environment may be similar. Accordingly, when evaluating and describing the existing environment and the impact on this environment from the project, it is the issues which need to be highlighted. When it comes to determining practical mitigating measures, however, such as specifying clauses within contract documentation, the focus changes back to the activities. The 18 main activities are set out below in Table 5.1, with associated subactivities.

To successfully undertake an EIA it is necessary to determine just what the issues are; to identify precisely who or what could be affected and how; and to describe the project activities which could potentially adversely affect the environment. A fundamental requirement of an EIA is to come to grips with the issues. Unless the issues are faced, mitigation measures are likely to focus on the symptoms (effects), rather than tackle the cause(s) of the problems. This section sets out to establish the main activities, key issues and significant effects (adverse and beneficial) of highway/road projects in Malaysia. Quarrying activities have been addressed separately within these guidelines, as such activities are "prescribed activities" under Malaysian Law. JKR no longer develop or operate quarries in Malaysia. On major road projects the Contractor will often find it more economical to open up a new quarry close to site than to haul aggregate from an existing rock quarry remote from the site. A separate section which specifically addresses EIA aspects of quarrying activities is presented in Appendix B.

5.2

Main Activities

Environmental impacts result from actions, or activities, associated with planning, constructing and operating highway/road projects. The DOE matrix is structured whereby the activities are set out along the X-axis and the components of the environment are set out along the Y-axis.
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HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS


TABLE 5.1 LIST OF ACTIVITIES

Pre-construction activities (Includes pre-feasibility, feasibility and design) 1.0 Survey 1.1 1.2 1.3 Putting People Into New Areas Cutting Sight Lines Through Vegetation Establishing Base Camps

2.0

Investigation 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Putting People Into New Areas Drilling Holes &/or Digging Pits Establishing Base Camps Putting In Access Tracks

3.0

Land Acquisition 3.1 3.2 Acquire Land Remove Occupants Construction Activities

4.0

Temporary Occupation 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Construction of Temporary Buildings Water Supply Solid Waste Disposal Sewage Disposal Workforce Pest Control Machine Servicing & Maintenance

5.0

Site Stripping 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Demolition & Removal of Structures Removal of Vegetation (including Trees) Constructing Access Roads Constructing Temporary Drainage Operating Equipment (chainsaws, bulldozers)

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HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS


6.0 Earthworks 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Operating Equipment (bulldozers, diggers, trucks, scrapers) Constructing Haul Roads Cutting (may include drilling &\or blasting) Transporting Soil & Waste Filling Building Ground Retention Structures

7.0

Drainage Works 7.1 7.2 Operating Equipment Diverting Surface Water

8.0

Bridges & Culverts 8.1 8.2 Operating Equipment (piling, excavators) Altering Surface Water Hydrology

9.0

Road Formation 9.1 9.2 Transporting Aggregate Laying and Compacting Aggregate

10.0

Surfacing 10.1 Laying Pavement (flexible or rigid)

11.0 Abandonment 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Borrow Areas Unsuitable/ surplus spoil dumps Camp Site(s) Rubbish Dump Equipment Liquid Wastes

Post Construction Activities (includes operation & maintenance)

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HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS


12.0 Road Presence (Includes bridges, culverts, walls and banners, signs and markings) 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Roadway, Barriers, Signs and Markings Bridges and Culverts Amenities (shops, petrol stations, toilets) Consequential activities (including logging and nature tourism)

13.0 Road Usage 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Noise (vehicles & road) Emissions Accidents Spills and Leaks

14.0 Road Runoff 14.1 Stormwater Runoff (particularly first flush) 14.2 Spills Into Stormwater Drains

15.0 Vegetation Control 15.1 Manual & Mechanical Cutting 15.2 Use of Herbicides

16.0 Maintenance 16.1 Repair of Slope Failures 16.2 General Maintenance

17.0 Re-Surfacing 17.1 Patching Pavement 17.2 Re-laying Major Lengths of Pavement

18.0 Abandonment 18.1 By-pass Due To Realignment

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HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS 5.3 Key Issues
- reduction in coastal water quality, reduced aesthetics - reduced water clarity, making in-stream food harvesting difficult

5.3.1 Issue 1 - Erosion and Sedimentation The construction of highway/road projects normally involve substantial earthworks which inevitably produce high sediment laden runoff which in turn adversely affects surface water quality by increasing turbidity and nutrient levels. The increased sediment (both suspended and bedload) may result in aquatic fauna (eg fish) mortality, increased aquatic flora (algae and weeds), and reduced navigability due to aggradation. Discolouration of water will also adversely affect the aesthetics. The goal for highway/road projects should be zero sediment discharge to surface water, achieved by designs which balance cut and fill (eg minimum cut to waste), and construction methods which incorporate slope protection, fill compaction, sediment control structures and buffer zones adjacent to watercours- es. Erosion is a naturally occurring process which in Malaysia typically produces around 800 t/km2/yr. Accelerated, or soil erosion occurs when the land is modified by man. Accordingly, the soil erosion status of the land needs to be determined, and the amount of erosion and sedimentation due to project activities predicted. Potential Adverse Effects : - discolouration of streams and rivers, reduces aesthetics - clogging of gills and filters, resulting in aquatic fauna mortality - increased nutrients and sediment, increasing aquatic plant growth (including weeds) - aggradation downstream, enhancing flooding and reducing navigability

Potentialment Beneficial Effects : - beach replenish source of alluvial aggregate

5.3.2 Issue 2 - Vehicle Exhaust Emissions All combustion engine pow ered vehicles travelling on highways and roads emit contaminants into the air as a result of the burning of fossil fuels, whether these be diesel, gasoline (leaded and unleaded), compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquified petroleum gas (LPG). Vehicle emissions include C02, N02, CO, lead and particulates. The dispersion of gases such as N02 and CO can be determined using simple charts (Nomographs) or computer models. A reduction in emissions is beyond the control of JKR, so adverse effects are best minimised by buffer zones, roadside planting and careful routing. However, JKR can support MOT and DOE in lobbying for a catalytic conversion on vehicle engines to reduce carbon monoxide, lead free petrol, and regular tune-up to reduce unburned hydro- carbons. Potential Adverse Effects : - reduced visibility due to total suspended particulates (tsp) and photo-chemical smog - increased carbon monoxide affecting human health - increased lead levels affecting human health - respiratory difficulties Potential Beneficial Effects : - none

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HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS


5.3.3 Issue 3 - Vehicle Noise and Vibrations 5.3.5 Issue 5 - Routing Through Pristine Natural Environments Potential Adverse Effects : Potential Adverse Effects : - disturbance due to noise - disturbance due to vibrations, building damage in severe cases removal of rainforest reduction in biodiversity removal of terrestrial habitats reduction in wetland area alteration of flow regimes & modification of aquatic ecosystems - opening up surrounding areas for exploitation - opening up areas to squatters

Potential Beneficial Effects : - pedestrian safety

Potential Beneficial Effects : The goal for JKR should be to reduce noise and vibrations at residential and commercial boundaries to acceptable levels (ie less than 55 dBA and 50 mm/s respectively), achieved through noise barriers and good road surfacing. - opens up areas for development and income generation - opens up areas for (re)settlement - opens up areas for viewing and ecotourism

5.3.4 Issue 4 - Routing Through Urban Areas

5.3.6 Issue 6 - Routing Through Modified Environments

Potential Adverse Effects : community severance dispossession of land resettlement noise and vibrations (refer issue 3) exhaust emissions (refer issue 2)

Potential Adverse Effects : - rendering agricultural units uneconomic - taking out land of production - change in land use

Potential Beneficial Effects : - improved access of goods to markets or processing facilities

Potential Beneficial Effects : - easy access to/from highway - increased mobility

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HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECTS ACTIVITIES, ISSUES & EFFECTS


5.3.7 Issue 7 - Highway Spills Potential Beneficial Effects : - adds interest to the scenery Potential Adverse Effects : - threat to human life - threat to aquatic ecosystems - threat to wildlife 5.3.10 Issue 10 - Modification of Surface Water Hydrology by Drainage, Culverts and Bridges

Potential Beneficial Effects : Potential Adverse Effects : - none - dewatering streams affecting aquatic ecology - flooding upstream of constrictions and downstream where flows are augmented - alteration of the hydrological flow regime

5.3.8 Issue 8 - Contaminated Stormwater Runoff

Substances, deposited on or alongside the roadway due to normal operations include oil, solid waste (litter), grease, rubber, lead, sewage (rest areas) and carbon. These substances are washed into the waterways during rainfall, and the "first flush" of the stormwater runoff is often highly contaminated. Potential Adverse Effects : - threat to aquatic ecosystems and food chain oxicity

Potential Beneficial Effects : - reduction in downstream flooding due to impoundment upstream

5.3.11

Issue 11 - Modification of sub-surface water hydrology due to built up of road embankment and introduttion of drainage system.

Potential Beneficial Effects : - none

Potential Adverse Effect : - alteration of natural sub-surface hydrological flow regime due to damming (cause way-like construction of roadway) effect and changes in drainage pattern. - reduction in water flow/yield in certain streams and increase in others. - flooding of roadway due to to overtopping".

5.3.9 Issue 9 - Modification of the Landscape by Earthworks & Structures

Potential Adverse Effects : - scarring of hill slopes, degrading the scenery and blocking views

Potential Beneficial Effects : - None

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

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6.0 EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENTS


6.1 COVER 6.4 TITLE OF PROJECT

The cover of the EIA should have the Project Initiator at the top of the page, the Title of the Project (including the location of the project) in the centre of the page, and the organisation which prepared the EIA at the bottom of the page, together with the date.

The title of the project will be provided by the project initiator, and will be common to all feasibility study reports. The title must include the location of the project, including the state(s).

Example

6.2

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Two executive summaries are now required to be incorporated into all EIA's, one in English and one (Ringkasan Eksekutif) in Bahasa Malaysia. The executive summary should be brief (less than 10 pages) and wherever possible provide tables and figures to assist the reader understand the nature of the project and its likely effects on the environment.

NEW EAST - WEST HIGHWAY PROJECT Simpang Pulai to Gua Musang Package 1 - Simpang Pulai to Pos Selim PERAK

6.3

INTRODUCTION

This chapter sets out the nature of the project (brief description), the requirement for the EIA (e.g. a prescribed activity under the EQA, or a condition of project financing) and introduces the reader to the contents of the EIA. The introduction will also include a summary list of the EIA study team, listing the positions, academic qualifications and role in the project of every specialist, consultant and researcher who contributed to the EIA, together with their signatures.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

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EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

6.5

PROJECT INITIATOR

DOE need to be completely clear which organisation has initiated the project, and to whom to direct correspondence. Accordingly, the chapter setting out the project initiator will include the full name and address of the organisation (together with telephone and facsimile numbers), and the name and title of the appropriate person to whom enquiries regarding the EIA should be directed.

Example

JABATAN KERJA RAYA MALAYSIA Cawangan Jalan Ibu Pejabat Kerja Raya Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 KUALA LUMPUR Telephone (03) 2919011 Facsimile (03) 2921022 Contact: Encik Kamalaldin bin Abd. Latif Penolong Pengarah Seksyen Piawaian, Spesifikasi dan Alam Sekitar Telephone (03) 4407790 (direct line)

6.6

STATEMENT OF NEED

In describing the need for the project, it is important to clearly describe the transportation (and/or other) problem(s) that the proposed project is intended to overcome. The statement of need should outline the background to the project and the reasons for it being proposed. The need for the improvement over the current situation which the project will fulfill must be demonstrated to exist.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

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EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

6.7

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

(b)

Recognised hazards such as flooding, coastal erosion or slope instability Significant disruption to established communities Destruction of precious ecosystems Significantly greater economic impacts than other options.

A detailed description of the highway/road project must be given, including a description of the preferred project option (if one option has emerged as a result of pre-feasibility studies). If more than one option still remains open as a result of the pre-feasibility studies, then a detailed description of the transportation concept should be given. As a guide, the highway/road description should include: (a) Description of the high-way/road project supported by all available technical data Map, diagrams and photographs sufficient to enable a reviewer to clearly understand the nature of the project and the location of all the project components A summary, preferably in table form, of the technical, economic and environ mental features which are essential to the highway/road project.

(c)

(d) (e)

6.8.2 No Project Option. Included in the discussion of project options should be the "no-project" option, which should cross refer to the discussion on the need for the project. This will include discussion on transportation problems that will continue to grow as a result of a "no-project" decision. The impacts of not proceeding with the project should be presented in this chapter. This provides the project initiator with an opportunity to highlight any technical, economic or environmental (including social) benefits that are likely to accrue from the highway/road project which would be denied to the public if the project does not proceed.

(b)

(c)

6.8

PROJECT OPTIONS
6.8.3 Alternatives to the proposed project.

6.8.1 General In discussing project options, the chapter should begin with a concise summary of how the reasonable options were selected, and provide the basis for the elimination of options determined to be not reasonable. Justification for eliminating an option can include: (a) Significant conflict with State or Municipal system planning

In the discussion of options, alternative transportation management systems should be described. This discussion would include upgrading existing transportation systems. Before major new highway/road projects are proposed it must be demonstrated that upgrading existing transportation systems will not solve the transportation problems identified in the chapter setting out the need for the project.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

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EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT 6.8.4 Route Options. Each feasible route option should be presented as a brief written description along with appropriate graphics and data displays. Graphics can include maps, conceptual diagrams, aerial photographs, satellite imagery and other types of visual aids. Data displays should include preliminary assessment matrices, bar charts, graphs and tables. The discussion on route options must identify which option is preferred and why. If a preferred route option has been arrived at as a result of a weighted rating decision methodology, then this evaluation process should be presented. nents is not all inclusive, and other subcomponents should also be considered as appropriate. However, the matrix serves a useful purpose in screening out not only those issues which are of little significance, but also those sub-components of the environment which are not affected by the proposed project or route options and hence do not need to be described in detail in this chapter of the EIA. The following aspects of the existing environment are normally described in detail for highway/road projects.

6.9.2 Physical ( Physico - chemical ). - Geology and soils

6.9

THE EXISTING ENVIRONMENT

- Geomorphology - Climate and meteorology

6.9.1 General This chapter sets out a concise description of the relevant existing physical (physicochemical), ecological (biological) and social (human) com ponents of the environment which could affect, or be affected by, the highway/road project and route options. The need for the project, project description and the project options form separate chapters in the EIA, and a description of the existing traffic volumes of the highway/road should have already been presented in these chapters (refer to 6.6, 6.7 & 6.8) as background information to the EIA. Traffic volumes will also needto be addressed as a component of the social environment, under transportation services (refer to sub-section 6.9.4). Within the three main environmental components, there are numerous subcomponents which are set out in the preliminary assessment matrix. The list of environmental subcompo-

- Surface hydrology - Water quality - Air quality - Noise - Land use

6.9.3 Ecological ( Biological ). - Terrestrial habitats - Terrestrial fauna (including wildlife) - Terrestrial flora (including tropical rainforest) - Aquatic habitats - Aquatic fauna (including fish) - Aquatic flora
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GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT - Wetlands - Mangrove and other estuarine vegetation - Marine ecosystem - Transportation services A preliminary assessment should be undertaken to identify whether there are any ecologically sensitive areas that may be affected by the proposed highway/road project. The area to be studied will invariably need to extend beyond the immediate line(s) of the road route(s) as ecological effects can be fairly wide-spread. To determine if there are ecologically sensitive areas and/or threatened or endangered species, initial contact should be made with relevant Government (e.g. DOE, Forestry Department) and non-governmental organisations (NGO's) such as the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). If these departments or agencies advise that there are no sensitive ecological areas, threatened or endangered species, then the EIA should document such correspondence. If ecologically sensitive areas and/or threatened or endangered species may be present in the vicinity, then an ecological assessment should be undertaken. This assessment should include: (a) (b) An on-site inspection - Income - Labour force - Health and safety - Cultural aspects - Community services (including infrastructure)

In the chapter describing the existing environment, all culturally sensitive (e.g. burial ground) locations of features should be clearly identified. In describing transportation services, this chapter should also describe other ongoing or planned projects for the area that could impact on, or be impacted by, and the options being considered. Other related Federal, State or local municipal highway/road projects should be described and their interrelationships, if any, with the highway/road options currently being considered should be discussed.

6.10 IMPACT ASSESSMENT


Interviews with recognised experts in the field 6.10.1 General (c) A literature review to determine species distribution, habitat needs, and other ecological requirements Field surveys and studies if necessary. In the same way that the previous chapter described the relevant components of the existing environment, this chapter sets out and discusses the potentially significant adverse and beneficial impacts that the project (preferred and/or options) could have on the physical (physico-chemical), ecological (biological) and social (human) components of the environment.

(d)

6.9.4 Social (Human). - Landscape - Population of communities (including trends)

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

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EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT Correctly predicting traffic volumes is one of the most important sources for implementing the EIA. Traffic volumes translate directly to emission volumes and other direct and indirect impacts. In setting out and discussing the potentially significant environmental impacts of the proposed project, consideration should be given to possible indirect, cumulative, synergistic or antagonistic environmental effects. It must be clearly stated at the outset that highway/road projects have positive economic and social impacts, in enhancing economic development through transport links; mitigation of traffic congestion; and reduction in travel time. Accordingly, whilst the focus of an EIA is usually on ways of mitigating potentially significant adverse environmental impacts, if a costbenefit approach is to be adopted the environmental benefits also need to be highlighted, particularly the positive social impacts. The discussion should include comments on: (a) The component of the environment (e.g. air quality) being affected The source of the impact, usually the key issue (e.g. vehicle exhaust emissions) Direct impacts and their significance (e.g carbon monoxide poisoning) The nature of the impact (e.g. photochemical smog) Why the impact is judged to be significant (e.g. respiratory difficulty and lung damage) In the case of an impact of unknown significance, any courses of action considered necessary to assess the impact (e.g. ambient air monitoring, vehicle exhaust emission monitoring, contaminant dispersion modelling)
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(g)

Indirect (secondary) impacts and their signif-icance (e.g. acid rain due to com bustion of fossil fuels) Adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided Utilisation of finite resources.

(h)

(i)

The following environmental components are discussed in the context of impacts normally associated with highway/road projects.

6.10.2 Physical - Geology and Soils Highway/road projects may adversely affect the local geology and soils through removal of lateral support or loading resulting in major land slippage. In addition, although not usually locally significant, a major highway can effectively sterilise any mineral resources beneath it and similarly take soils out of production. The extent to which these aspects become significant will depend upon the value placed upon the particular geological and soil resources.

(b)

- Geomorphology (landforms) (c) Historically roads often used to be aligned along former walking tracks which followed the contours. Modern road design had tended to modify these winding roads and today highways are usually aligned as straight as possible to minimise costs and transport times. Landforms along major highways are therefore typically significantly modified, resulting in deep cuttings and extensive embankments.

(d)

(e)

(f)

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT - Climate and Meteorology

Climate and meteorology will mostly impact on, rather than be impacted by, the proposed project. However, there may be sensitive locations where the highway/road project will alter the micro-climate. In other locations the interaction of the project and the local climate and meteorology may produce significant adverse impacts such as photochemical smog, especially in basins or valleys which do not have adequate flushing of contaminants.

- Surface Hydrology Except where the routes are aligned along watershed (or catchment) divides, highways and roads have the potential to significantly alter the surface hydrology of the areas through which they traverse. Watercourses which have significant flows (mean or flood) are usually bridged or culverted. Most bridges will be designed to pass the 100 year return period flood beneath them, but most culverts will be designed to head up for flood flows greater than about a 5 or 10 year return period. Where roads traverse estuaries, the road formation often forms a causeway with only a few culverts being provided to allow for the passage of tidal flows. Where flows are small or even ephemeral, they may be intercepted by road drains and diverted into different water courses and even, in some cases, into different catchments. The effects of highways and roads on surface hydrology may therefore be to create impoundments (permanent or temporary) upstream of the roads, impair the navigability of watercourses due to barriers and may change river geomor-phological characteristics, and to dewater streams due to diversion, thereby impairing fisheries, aquatic ecology and other beneficial water uses.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

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- Water Quality Water quality is controlled by DOE under the Environmental Quality Act (Clauses 25 and 29). Water quality can become degraded as a result of highway/road projects due to erosion and sedimentation (particularly during earthworks associated with construction) and due to contaminants deposited onto and later washing off the road surface (e.g. oil and lead) and road sides (e.g.litter). Water quality can also become degraded from the use of herbicides used to control roadside vegetation, and from sanitary services provided at rest areas. Accordingly, the main pollutants are suspended solids (SS) arising from road construction, and organic and inorganic contaminants which result in a high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) or Chemical Oxygen demand (COD), arising from both road construction and operation. DOE guideline limits for these components are currently, in mg/f.

Parameter
(above water supply intake)

Standard
(below water supply intake)

SS BOD COD Lead Oil & Grease

50 20 50 0.10 < 2.0

100 50 100 0.5 10.0

Highway spills pose a major threat to water quality, and the EIA should review the existing system for controlling and cleaning up such spills and if necessary prepare a specific Emergency Response Plan (ERP).

Page 33

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT Air Quality A possible long term health hazard is provided by potential carcinogenic materials in the environment. Amongst vehicle emissions are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It has been estimated that at least 50% of PAH in the urban atmosphere can be attributed to motor vehicles. The PAH exposure levels in urban areas are equivalent to those produced by smoking one cigarette per day. Exhaust fumes produce a marked adverse reaction from people. This reaction probably involves a combination of the sight of black smoke and malodorous. These are both nuisances and are not thought to constitute a direct health hazard. A large number of compounds, some of them hydrocarbons, contribute to the malodorous smell of the exhaust gases. Of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (N02) can be a hazard to human health and plants under certain conditions. The main oxide of nitrogen emitted from vehicles is nitric oxide (NO), which at normal concentrations has no adverse effect on plants or humans. However, NO oxidises to N02 as it is dispersed in the atmosphere, and this may adversely affect the human respiratory system and plant growth. In Malaysia the DOE limits for N02 are 320 ug/m3 (1-hour average). DOE have also set a 24-hour average proposed goal of 94 ug/m3. A short term effect which may pose long term hazards to health for certain people is produced by the photo-chemical oxidants (ozone (03), N02 and peroxycetyl nitrate (PAN)) formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen as these pollutants disperse away from the highway. Ozone is a health hazard since it is highly reactive and unstable, nd it can exacerbate respiratory problems and inhibit growth in plants. The amount of lead emitted from vehicles is indirectly controlled by the Environmental Quality (Control of Lead Concentration in Motor Gasoline) Regulations 1985, which
Page 34

Motor vehicles using petrol, diesel, or gas (LPG, CNG) as fuel, emit a wide variety of gaseous and particulate materials, of which a small proportion are harmful to people, plants and animals. The amount of pollution produced depends on the engine type, size, age, state of maintenance, speed and operating condition. The contaminant concentration falls off rapidly with distance from the source as the emission disperses into the atmosphere or is deposited on to the ground. The main pollutants from vehicles are: Carbon monoxide (CO) Hydrocarbons Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Particulates (smoke), including suspended particulates Lead Oxides of sulphur (SOx)

Air quality in general is controlled by the Environmental Quality Act (Clauses 21 and 22) and the Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations 1978. Carbon monoxide is possibly the most important pollutant producing short-term effects on human health. It is rapidly absorbed into the blood stream, reducing the oxygen supply to the body and giving rise to headaches, dizziness and ultimate collapse (coma and death). Malaysia does not currently have limits for CO exposure, but the US Federal Air Quality Standards specify concentrations of CO of 35 and 9 ppm which should not be exceeded more than once a year for exposure periods of 1 hour and 8 hours respectively. To put CO exposure in context, the exposure levels in urban areas are typically equivalent to smoking one cigarette per day.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT sought to reduce the lead level to less than 0.40 g/l by 1 January 1986 and less than 0.15 g/1 by 1 January 1990. The new limit (0.15) forms the basis of a European Community Air Quality Directive that the annual mean concentration of airborne lead should not exceed 2 microgrammes per cubic metre in places where people may be continuously exposed for long periods, such as residential areas alongside trunk roads. Severe lead poisoning may occur when the blood level exceeds 80 Ntg/m3, and lead can result in a range of physiological and behaviour problems. - Noise In evaluating the impact of noise from a proposed highway/road project, it is necessary to identify the numbers and types of activities which may be affected. Special attention should be given to identifying the effects on noise sensitive areas such a schools, hospitals and residential areas. Noise is often defined as unwanted sound, and for the purposes of these guidelines is taken to be the perceived sound emitted by road traffic or other sources near the site of a road. A sound wave travelling through air is a regular disturbance in the atmospheric pressure. These pressure fluctuations, when within the audible range, are detected by the human ear, producing the sensation of hearing. The audible range of the human ear is very large, but its reception of the different frequencies in the audible range is not uniform. The level of sound is expressed in terms of the logarithm of the ratio of its rms (root mean square) pressure to a very small reference pressure. The unit used is the decibel (dB), defined as twenty times the log of this ratio. As pressure changes are proportional to the square of the energy changes a doubling of the energy level is equivalent to a 3 dB change. A change of only 1 dB within the audible range is just perceptible, whereas a change of 10 dB is experienced by the average listener as a doubling or halving of loudness. Experience has shown that in order to rank the loudness produced by road vehicles the sound pressure level has to be adjusted to give comparatively more weight to the frequencies which are detected most readily by the human ear. The "A" weighting has been found to give the best correlation between perceived and actual loudness, and measurements to which this weighting has been applied are described as being in dB(A) units. In describing the noise impact from proposed highway/road projects, it is necessary to evaluate the existing noise levels as well as make predictions of changes in noise levels resulting from the project. Ambient noise levels can be easily measured and future noise levels can be predicted using manual techniques or computer models. Noise contour maps are a useful technique to visually display existing and predicted noise levels. Significant noise impacts occur when predicted noise levels exceed DOE limits or predicted noise levels are significantly greater than existing measured noise levels. Noise is controlled by DOE under the Environmental Quality Act, Clauses 21 and 23. DOE guideline limits for noise are typical ly 65 dB(A) for industrial boundaries and 55 dB(A) for residential and commercial boundaries. Many countries consider 55 dB(A) to be too noisy for night time residential areas, and adopt lower values (eg 45 dB(A) in Japan and New Zealand). Vehicle noise is controlled by the Environmental Quality (Motor Vehicle Noise) Regulations 1987.

- Land Use All the land which will be required for the highway/road project, including the formation, cut and fill batter slopes and rest areas, will have an existing use even if this current "use" is growing mangrove or tropical rainforest. The EIA land use impact analysis should assess the consistency of the options (particularly route options) with the development plans
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GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT existing or proposed for the area. If increased pressure for development is anticipated, the discussion should include an assessment of the type, location, and time frame in which the induced development is expected to occur. The changes in existing land use as a result of the project must be described, and any conflicts between proposed future land use(s) and the project identified.

The most serious potential impact on terrestrial fauna from road projects, however, is the opening up of areas of precious ecology which roadways allow, and this is often encouraged by the states as a means of generating income (e.g logging).

- Terrestrial Flora 6.10.3 Ecological - Terrestrial Habitats Development in Malaysia is occurring at a rate that few species can adapt to and, because of the interdependence between wildlife habitats, development in one locality may cause significant changes in the status of animals and plants over a wide area. In many cases there will be no effect but if a highway/road project is likely to produce such changes, as assessment should be made of the ecological impact. The EIA should include an authoritative opinion that the proposed project and selected route alternative is not likely to destroy any sensitive ecological areas nor jeopardise any threatened or endangered species. - Terrestrial Fauna Malaysia is rich in terrestrial fauna, having some of the largest mammals (elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, leopard), birds (hornbill, eagle) reptiles (crocodile, python), and insects (beetles, butterflies, stick insects an grasshoppers) in the world. Unfortunately, due to forest clearance, logging and hunting, many species of terrestrial fauna are becoming threatened with extinction. Road projects in themselves usually take only a relatively small area of habitat, but some wildlife may find a road-way a physical or psychological barrier to sources of food, water or trace elements (eg salt licks). Large mammals (such as elephants) may also pose a danger to motorists if they do cross a roadway. Highways and roads generally impact aquatic habitats indirectly, through flow alteration as a result of drainage works, increased sediment as a result of earthworks or substances resulting from leaks or spills on the roadway. The effects are generally expressed in a reduction in aquatic fauna species and an increase in aquatic weeds. - Aquatic Flora The main impact of highway/road projects is the increase in aquatic flora due to sedimentation arising from earthworks. This effect will often be felt for a considerable time after earthworks are completed, due to sediment trapped within the waterway.
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The issue of tropical rainforest depletion has gained worldwide media attention because of its implications for a reduction in the worlds biodiversity. It is not only the plant species which are threatened by deforestation, but the wildlife (insects, reptiles, mammals and birds) for which the forest is their home (habitat). If a highway/road project will result in deforestation, then the impact of the removal of forest for road construction needs to be quantified (in terms of hectares cleared and important (threatened, endangered or rare) species removed. This will involve an expert in Terrestrial Flora (botanist) walking representative sections along the surveyed road route(s) in order to provide an authoritative statement on the impact of the highway/road project on terrestrial flora. - Aquatic Habitats

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT - Wetlands Wetlands, like tropical rainforests, have gained considerable attention over recent years because of the rate of which they are disappearing. Previously seen as areas of idle land, swamps (wetlands) were typically drained and converted into arable land at the expense of the fauna and flora which inhabited them. Wetlands are now recognised for what they are - unique ecosystems which often contain rare and endemic species of plants and animals. Wetlands are also important for temporary ponding and attenuation of flood peaks, and the drainage of wet-lands has often resulted in increased flooding (frequency and size) downstream. Highway/road projects which cross wetlands therefore need to address both the biodiversity and flooding issues in determining whether to allow a causeway to be constructed across the wetland, or whether to re-route or bridge the roadway. - Mangroves Mangrove forests are important as they both stabilise and trap fine sediment within estuaries and serve to protect coastal margins, but more importantly their trunks - roots provide a habitat for fish spawning. If a coastal highway were to take out a significant area of mangrove, it is not only the reduction in vegetation which needs to be evaluated but also the potential reduction in the fishing, with its consequential socio-economic effects. Visual obstruction is the blocking of the view by the road structure, whether this be an earth embankment or a flyover. This is a reasonably objective effect which in principal can be demonstrated from particular view angles. For visual obstruction to be a relevant issue there must be a view, there must be observers, and some part of the new scheme must appreciably cut off the view from the observers. Visual intrusion is more subjective and relies upon the opinion of the particular viewer as to whether the impact on the landscape is negative or positive, and its degree of significance. Traffic adds another dimension to the degree of visual intrusion, together with secondary impacts such as exhaust emissions. A major highway/road project can intrude on the landscape because it is large, but more important because it is man-made and can therefore be out of character with the rest of the landscape by virtue of its alignment, materials, or lighting and/or on account of the traffic moving on it. The degree of visual intrusion of a road therefore depends upon the quality and type of landscape through which it runs, and assessment of visual impact is usually undertaken by qualified landscape architects.

- Population and Communities Land access for new, or widening existing highways or roads can directly displace individual households, thereby requiring compensation and/or resettlement. As set out in World Bank OD 4.30 and in Annex 111/2 of Appendix A2, the whole issue of displacement / resettlement has gained considerable prominence over the last 10 years. Lending agencies now place such importance on this issue that loans are unlikely to be approved unless it can be demonstrated that the resettlement issue can be resolved without significant adverse social impact. It is therefore imperative at the outset of a project that the facts be obtained as to the
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6.10.4

Social

- Landscape The impacts of highway/road projects on the landscape fall into two categories, visual intrusion and visual obstruction.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT extent of land acquisition required, the number of people who might be displaced, and the procedures which will be adopted by the agencies responsible for the acquisition and compensation/resettlement process. Highway/road projects can therefore have marked effects on population and communities. The ribbon effect where development occurs alongside roads is typical of how roads encourage settlement. Highways and roads can, however, result in destabilising existing communities, due to by-passing communities or cutting communities in two (community severance) Community severance is the separation of residents from facilities and services they use within their community, from friends and relations (and possibly also from place of work) as a result of changes in road patterns and traffic levels. The effect of community severance resulting from road routing are most widely felt during construction and in the first few years after construction. - Labour Force The potential social impact of putting a temporary labour force into a new community are often very significant. These range from adverse effects such as the spreading of disease, brawling and other anti-social behaviour thus affecting the "host" community, to beneficial effects such as improved local business servicing the labour force. - Health and Safety Adverse physical health impacts from highway/road projects are widely recognised to arise from vehicle emissions, but adverse psychological (mental health) impacts of highway/road projects are also potentially significant. Driver stress encompasses adverse mental and physiological effects experienced by a driver travelling a road network. Factors which contribute to driver stress include road layout, geometry, surface riding characteristics, junction frequency, vehicle speed and flow per lane. Driver stress includes both physical and emotional tension. Driver frustration is caused by a driver's inability to drive at a speed consistent with his own wishes in relation to the general standard of the road. Frustration increases as speed falls in relation to expectations and may be due to high flow levels, intersections, roadworks, or to difficulties in overtaking slower moving traffic. Fear can be induced in a driver by the presence of other vehicles, inadequate sight lines, the likelihood of pedestrians (especially children) stepping onto the road, inadequate lighting, narrow roads, roadworks and poorly maintained surfaces. Driver stress, just like tiredness, can cause accidents. Road safety involves not only drivers but passengers, cyclists and pedestrians. Good road design, incorporating median barriers and side guard rails, and provision for cyclists and pedestrians, can greatly reduce both driver stress and accidents.
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- Cultural Aspects Many highways and roads projects incur delays due to the discovery of sites of cultural significance such as burial grounds, or other such sacred sites.

- Community Services Community services are usually enhanced as a result of highway/road projects, as they bring people closer (in travelling time) to facilities such as schools and hospitals.

- Transportation Services Transportation services are also usually significantly enhanced as a result of highway/road projects, with buses and taxis increasing in number.

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT A particular aspect of road safety which may need specific attention within the EIA is the possibility of spills of hazardous substances which could endanger communities in the vicinity of the highway. For highways and roads which pass through, or close to, urban areas, a specific emergency response plan (ERP) may need to be prepared. However, the onus for the preparation for such an ERP should be on the companies transporting hazardous materials, not the highway/road project initiator. summarised in the preceding chapter) are best described under the key project activities. Table 6.1 sets out the main highway/road project activities, together with the potentially significant environmental impacts arising from those activities and suggested mitigation measures.

6.11 MITIGATION AND ABATEMENT MEASURES

6.11.1 General Various impacts will occur at the different stages of a project, and it is usual to split the project activities into the following three phases when discussing mitigation and abatement measures. - pre-construction (including feasibility studies and design) - construction, and - post construction (including operation and maintenance) For example, removal of vegetation and earthworks associted with construction activities may result in the destruction of rare or endangered species (animals or plants) and reduction in water quality due to sedimentation. A significant reduction in air quality, however, will probably only occur once the highway or road is operational. The practical measures which can be incorporated into the design and/or construction (via specifications in the contract documents) of the project to minimise or mitigate the potentially significant adverse impacts (identified through the scoping and EIA process and
GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT Page 39

1.0 1.1

ACTIVITY SEI* MITIGATION MEASURES RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY Line Cutting - Temporary removal of terrestrial - minimise cutting - none vegelation and terrestrial habitat (s) - Social conflict - employ local labour as line cutters & survey assistants - control weapons, hunting and fishing immunise against diseases bury solid waste construct pit toilet minimum of 3 person teams equip with first air kits - none - none

1.2

People in Field

- threat to wildlife ( hunting/poaching ) - health & safety

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

1.3

Base Camps (s)

1.4

Clearing for camps, vehicles ( access tracks ), helicopters ( helipads )

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

- temporary removal of terrestrial - use previously cleared areas vegetation and terrestrial whatever possible, and locate habitat (s) a road centre line (ie: areas which will later be cleared in any event).

- none

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

2.0 2.1 - minimise cutting - none

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL INVESTIGATION People in the Field - Temporary removal of terrrestrial vegetation and terrestrial habitat(s) - health & safety - use previously cleared areas wherever possible, and locate a road centre line ( ie: areas which will later be cleared in any event ). - restrict work to daylight hours 0600 to 1800 - isolate drilling operation by perimeter trench or bund - none - none imunise against diseases bury solid waste construct pit toilet minimum of 3 person teams equip with first aid kits - none

2.2

Base Camp (s)

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

2.3

Clearing for camps, vehicles ( access tracks, drilling sites ), helicopters ( helipads )

- temporary removal of terresstrial vegetation and terresstrial habitat (s)

2.4

Drilling holes & digging pits - impact of waste products on water quality & aquatic habitat (s) due to drilling fluid, sediment, diesel & hydraulic fluid

- noise disturbance

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

3.0 3.1 - negotiation and compensation by way of cash payment or other land ( & houses ) - resettlement, provision of alternative accommodation - reduced population and flow-on adverse social and economic impacts - none

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION LAND ACQUISITION Acquire land ( & houses ) - Loss of income, reduced asset

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

3.2

Removal of Occupants

- homelessness

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

4.0 4.1 - landscaping and planting - none

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION TEMPORARY OCCUPATION Construction of Temporary - removal of vegetation/habitat Buildings - reduction in flow downstream - provide residual flow for downstream & in-stream users - bury solid waste and cover with soil daily - provide pre-fabricated toilets, or septic tank system - minimise cutting - none - none - none

4.2

Water Supply

4.3

Solid Waste Disposal

- disease, rats

4.4

Sewage Disposal

- disease

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

4.5

Workforce

- Temporary removal of terrestrial vegetation and terrestrial habitat (s) - endangering wildlife

- none

4.6

Pest Control

- use specific cage/traps rather than pesticides/poisons - provide secure containers for disposal then remove to secure landfill

- none

4.7

Machine Servicing & Maintenance

- reduced water quality due to oil, grease and hydraulic fluid spills

- none

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

5.0 5.1 - limit hours of operation, water as necessary to control dust - recover rare or endangered plants or animal, revegatate road sides - minimise clearing - none - permanent loss of vegetation and terrestrial habitat - none

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION SITE STRIPPING Demolition & Removal of - noise disturbance, dust Structures - permanent removal of vegetation, loss of terrestrial habitat

5.2

Removal of Vegetation

5.3

Constructing Access Roads - alteration of surface hydrology effect on aquatic flora & fauna - noise, spills and leaks - provide adequate culverting

- temporary removal of vegetation, loss of terrestrial habitat

5.4

Constructing Temporary Drainage

- none

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

5.5

Operating Equipment ( chainsaws, bulldozers )

- limit hours of operation, control maintenance facility

- none

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

6.0 6.1 - limit hours of operation - contain equipment where possible - none

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORKS Operating Equipment - noise disturbance ( bulldozers, diggers, - spills and leaks, affecting water trucks, scrapers ) quality and aquatic fauna & flora - temporary removal of vegetation & terrestrial habitat - minimise cutting width - divert haul road around large trees - workers exposed to dust to use masks - dampen ground, over exposed soil, temporary ( mesh, plastic, matting ) & permanent ( turfing, hydroseeding, planting protection ) - limit height of cut or fill slopes to 6m before benching - place a drain on each bench - reduce slope angle if soils are weak - none

6.2

Constructing Haul Roads

6.3

Cutting ( may include drilling &\ or blasting )

- dust, reduced air quality, erosion and sedimentation

- visual impact of modified landscape - aggradation downstream

GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT

EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

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6.4

Transporting Soil & Rock

- dust, loose soil or rock affecting health & safety - dust, reduced air quality, erosion and sedimentation - slope failure - compact fill material - noise disturbance where piling is involved - limit working hours - none - bench & install drainage before filling - aggradation downstream - refer 6.3 - visual impact of modified landscape

- cover truck, put in wheel wash facilities as appropriate

- none

6.5

Filling

6.6

Building Ground Retention Structures

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

7.0 7.1 - limit hours of operation, control maintenance facility - line channels and size adequately - provide residual flows if necessary - provide flood banks if necessary - none - none - none

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION DRAINAGE WORKS Operating Equipment - noise, spills and leaks

7.2

Diverting Surface Water

- erosion & reduction in water quality - dewatering of streams - downstreams flooding

7.3

Flow Alterration

MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

8.0 8.1

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION BRIDGES & CULVERTS Operating Equipment - noise disturbance ( piling, excavators ) - spills and leaks, affecting water quality and aquatic fauna & Flora - limit hours of operation - flooding upstream of structures - aggradation downstreams

- none

- contain equipment where possible - size structures to ensure no adverse effects - none

8.2

Altering Surface Water Hydrology

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

9.0 9.1 - traffic control - cover trucks - sweep roads - noise and vibrations - dust, reduced air quality - water surface as necessary - limit hours of operation - none - none - broken windscreens by aggregate

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION ROAD FORMATION Transporting Aggregate - collision with trucks

9.2

Laying and Compacting Aggregate

MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION 10.0 SURFACING 10.1 Laying Pavement - reduced water quality due to oil ( flexible or rigid ) or cement - use fast drying bitumen

- none

- return excess material to source or provide secure landfill at site

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

ACTIVITY SEI PRE-CONSTRUCTION 11.0 ABANDONMENT 11.1 Borrow Areas - erosion & sedimentation, aesthetics - regrade if necessary, revegetate - none - erosion & sedimentation aesthetics - aesthetics - convert accommodation into school, hostels if appropriate, otherwise demolish &/or remove from site, revegetate bare areas - cover all rubbish dumps with 300mm minimum of soil and re-vegetate - remove all equipment from site - none - revegetate - none

11.2 Unsuitable/surplus spoil dumps

11.3 Camp Site (s)

11.4 Rubbish Dump

- health, aesthetics

- none

11.5 Equipment - reduction in water quality

- safety, aesthetics

- none

11.6 Liquid Wastes

- remove all liquid wastes from site - none

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

POST-CONSTRUCTION SEI ACTIVITY 12.0 ROAD PRESENSE 12.1 Roadway, Barriers, Signs - aesthetics and Markings - community severance - barrier to wildlife - plant road sides, cut and fill slopes - none - provide underpasses/overpasses - design to be in landscape context - size structures to ensure no adverse effects - contain &/or treat wastes from shops, petrol stations and toilets - none - none - reduced mobility - aesthetics - flooding upstream of structures

12.2 Bridges and Culverts

12.3 Amenities ( shops, petrol stations, toilets ) - encroachment into ecologically sensitive areas ( adverse impact )

- reduction in water quality arising from discharges

12.4 Consequential activities

- limit acces by provision of barries - loss of threatened rare and endangered species, reduction in biodiversity - encourage access by providing pull off areas and road junction points - enhanced economic development due to forestry or agriculture - social benefits due to provision of resettlement areas

- opening up land for development ( beneficial impact )

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

POST-CONSTRUCTION SEI ACTIVITY 13.0 ROAD USAGE 13.1 Access - increased mobility, reduced travel time - beneficial - increased mobility, reduced travel time - disturbance due to excessive noise - reduced air quality, illness due to contaminants - reroute roading or construct noise - noise disturbance, barriers physiological illness - reduced viability and air quality, increased incidences of respiratory illness - none

13.2 Noise ( vehicles & road )

13.3 Emissions

13.4 Accidents - ensure good skid resistance - provide underpass for large mammals - danger to human & wildlife

- danger to human life

- provide clear signs

13.5 Spills and Leaks

- preparation of a practical - none emergency response plan ( ERP ) where the road goes through heavily populated areas

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MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

POST-CONSTRUCTION SEI ACTIVITY 14.0 ROAD RUNOFF 14.1 Stormwater Runoff - reduction in water quality, ( particularly first flush ) endangering in-stream wildlife and downstream water users - where necessary place oil/water separation in drainage sumps - none - preparation of a practical - none emergency response plan ( ERP ) where the road goes through heavily populated areas

14.2 Spills Into Stormwater Drains - danger to human & wildlife

POST-CONSTRUCTION SEI ACTIVITY 15.0 VEGETATION CONTROL 15.1 Manual & Mechanical Cutting labour intensive - reduced water quality, threat to wildlife

MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

- beneficial, provides employment - control use, limit to clam and fine conditions

- increased employment - decreased water quality from toxic residues

15.2 Use of Herbicides

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POST-CONSTRUCTION SEI ACTIVITY 16.0 MAINTENANCE 16.1 Reapir of Slope Failures - delays to traffic, river stress - traffic control, work off-peak hours - beneficial, provides employment - increased employment - none

MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

16.2 General Maintenance

- labour requirement

POST-CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY 17.0 RE-SURFACING 17.1 Patching Pavement - safety - provide traffic control - traffic control, work off-peak hours - none - none

SEI

MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

17.2 Re-laying Major Lengths of - delays to traffic, driver stress Pavement

POST-CONSTRUCTION SEI ACTIVITY 18.0 ABANDONMENT 18.1 By-pass Due To Realignment- loss of business - reduced traffic

MITIGATION MEASURES

RESIDUAL IMPACTS DOE COMMENTS

- compensation, assistance with relocation - beneficial, improved safety and air quality

- reduced standard of living

- improved living standard

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EIA REPORT FORMAT ELEMENT

6.12 RESIDUAL IMPACTS


Potentially significant environmental impacts which remain after mitigating measures have been applied are termed residual impacts. These residual impacts need to be clearly stated so that the project proponent is made fully aware of the long term effects of the project when making the decision on whether or not to proceed with the project. For highway/road projects, typical residual impacts are set out in Table 6.1

6.15 REFERENCES
Scientific and technical publications used or quoted in the EIA report should be listed.

6.13 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


The assessor should draw appropriate conclusions in each section of the EIA report. It is useful however, to have the conclusions summarised in a series of brief statements referring to relevant sections of the reports, together with a summary of the key issues associated with the highway/road project.

6.14 DATA SOURCES & CONSULTATIONS


The individuals or agencies consulted and the environmental data collected during the EIA should be quoted to support conclusions in each section of the EIA Report and should be fully documented in this section. Documentation of consultations with specialists should include the persons names and the organisations they represent, the form of the communication and the data. Written opinions received from specialists should be appended. The form, extent and results of any public participation during the EIA process should be reported in full.

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7.0 MONITORING
7.1 General
(1980) covers all effects on people or periodic or transient vibrations whereas ground level recordings of vibration will normally suffice, some structures (eg houses) can amplify the ground acceleration and in such cases the recorders should be set up in adjacent buildings. 7.2.2 Air Quality During construction the main containment is dust. (particulates), and as with noise particulates should be monitored at a specific location such as an urban boundary. Dust or particulates are defined as deposited particulates, suspended particulates an visibility reducing particulates. Each of these definitions is defined by their size, and the specific atmospheric monitoring method used for their measurement. Of most concern to DOE are deposited particulates which, because of their aerodynamic diameter and density, fall from the air. In general terms deposited particulates has a diameter greater than 10-20 /,m, and can be monitored using a deposit gauge consisting of an open cylinder with an internal diameter of 200mm and a depth of 400 mm, as described by ISO/DIS 4222.2. Once a road is operational, the main air quality indicators are total suspended particulates (TSP) and visibility reducing particulates arising from diesel powered vehicles, N02, CO and lead. Suspended particulate matter (TSP) requires high volume samples, as described by AS 2724.3. Monitoring of TSP should be undertaken over a period of at least a year, for the data to be meaningful.

As set out in Sections 1 & 2, an EIA is a planning tool, designed to ensure that full consideration is given to its potential effects so that wherever possible these can be mitigated by careful design, construction and operation. To ensure a highway/road project achieves its environmental objectives, it must be monitored during construction and once it is fully operational. Whereas mitigation measures focus on project activities (primarily so that there can be incorporated into contract documentation packages), monitoring focuses on the key environmental components.

7.2

Physical Environment

7.2.1 Noise & Vibrations Construction noise and vibrations will rise from heavy machinery (bulldozers, trucks, piling rigs and scrapes) whereas operational noise and vibrations will arise from normal traffic (trucks, cars & motorbikes). Ambient noise levels should be recorded at specific loca-tions such as residential boundaries, and many precision grade sound level recorders are now available (eg Kjaer type 2203). All sound level records must be calibrated to ensure that noise levels recorded are demonstrably reliable. Cabrication units are readily available (eg Bruel & Kjaer electronic calibration model 4230). Vibrations are normally recorded as vertical velocities or acceleration using compact seismographs (eg NOMIS). Standard ISO 2631

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MONITORING N02, CO and Pb can be monitored at road or urban boundaries using portable gas analyses (eg Monitor Lab 8441 contains NOx analyzer and Data Logger, Monitor Labs 8830 CO analyzer) and compound sampling techniques. As with TSP, long term monitoring is recommended for meaningful results. encouraged during biological monitoring. To monitor the larger scale effects of encroachment, comparative air photo interpretation or satellite image evaluation can be useful monitoring tools.

7.4
7.2.3 Water Quality The main water quality indicators are suspended solids (SS), oil and grease, and solid waste (litter). Suspended solids should be monitored both upstream and downstream of the highway/road activities, taking note of the river stage (low flow, flood, etc) and the weather conditions. If excessive litter is entering a waterway as a result of illegal dumping alongside the roadway, BOD levels may also need to be recorded. If no oil sheen is visible on the water, then it is likely that the oil concentration is less than 10 ppm. With all the above water quality indicators, qualitative assessments may prove adequate for monitoring_ purposes, with quantitative measurements only necessary for compliance purposes. Biological monitoring may also be an alternative to physico-chemical monitoring if it is the in-stream values which are the main perquisites for a high level of water quality.

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

Follow up surveys of community groups which the EIA predicted could possibly be affected should be undertaken every 5 years. Information on the health and safety of the communities is available through annual health statistics, and information on population and community location is available through census data (every 10 years). A complaints register should be maintained at the local JKR offices, and all complaints should be followed up by staff of the environmental unit.

7.3

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

Monitoring of the biological environment will be mostly restricted to sensitive areas such as mangrove forests, wetlands and forest areas containing rare or endangered species of flora & fauna. Liaison with interested groups such as DOE and reputable NGOs (eg WWF & Malaysian Nature Society), should be
GUIDELINES for THE EIA OF HIGHWAY / ROAD PROJECT Page 56

REFERENCES

8.0 SELECTED REFERENCES PERTAINING TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF MALAYSIA


A. Salam Abdullah. 1990. Poisonous Plants in Malaysia. Abdul Rahim Nik. 1985. Watershed Management in Malaysia: A Perspective. Wallaceana December 1985. Amin JM, Ibrahim I, Taib K.A (1993). Some Erosion Characteristics of Residual Soil Slopes in Malaysia Int. Cont. on Environment Management Geo-water and Engineering Aspects, Wollongong. Anon 1974. A Blueprint for Conservation in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nat. J. 27:1-16. Anon 1987. Malaysian Wetland Directory. Department of Wildlife and National Parks. Kuala Lumpur. 316 pp. Appanah, S. & Weinland, G. 1993. Planting Quality Timber Trees in Peninsular MalaysiaA Review. Argent, G. & Lamb, A. & Phillipps, A & Collenette, S. 1988. Rhodedendrons of Sabah. Asian Development Bank, 1990. Environmental Guidelines for Selected Infrastructure Projects, Office of the Environment. Asian Development Bank. 1991. Environmental Guidelines for Selected Agricultural and Natural Resources Development Projects. Office of the Environment, Asian Development Bank, Manila. Asian Development Bank. 1986. Environmental Guidelines for Selected Infrastructure Projects. Infrastructure Department, Asian Development Bank, Manila. Aw, P.C. (1990). The Geology and Mineral Resources of the Suncyai Aring Area, Kelantan Darul Naim, District Memoir 21. Azmy Hj. Moliamed. 1992. Potensi Rehung Buluh. Barlow, H.S. 1982. An Introduction to the Moths of South East Asia. Basu, K.S. 1992. Rattans (Canes) in India - A Monographic Revision. Beccari, O. 1991. Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo. Bennett, E.L & Goinberk, F. 1993. Prohoscis Monkeys of Borneo.

Berry P.Y. 1975, 'The Amphibian Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur. 130 pp.

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REFERENCES Boulenger G.A. 1912. A Vertebrate Fauna of the Malay Peninsular. Taylor and Francis, London. 204 pp. Brifettt, C & Sutari Supari. 1993. The Birds of Singapore. Briffett, C. 1992.A Guide to the Common Birds of Singapore. Briggs, J. 1991. Parks of Malaysia. Briggs, J. 1988. Mountains of Malaysia: A Practical Guide and Manual. Bugliarrelo, G., Alexander, A., Barnes, J., Wakstein, C. (1978). The Impact of Noise Pollution: A Socio-Technological Introduction. Pergamon Press Inc., New York. Burgess P. 1969. Ecological Factors in Hill and Mountain Forests of the State of Malaya. Malay. Nat. J. 22: 119 - 128. Chai, P. 1993. Borneo Alive - Exploring Sarawak's Rainforest. Chin, H.F. & I.C. Enoch. 1988. Malaysian Trees in Colour. Chin, H.F. & Yong H.S. 1988. Malaysian Fruits in Colour. Chin, H.F. 1977. Malaysian Flowers in Colour. Choo-Goh, G.T., Hails, C.J., Harrison, B & Y.C Wee. 1990. A Guide to the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Chou, L.M. 1990. A Guide to the Coral Reef Life of Singapore.

Chou, L.M. 1992. A Guide to the Dangerous Marine Animals of Singapore. Chou, L.M., Portirio 111.A. 1992. An Underwater Guide to the South China Sea. Corbet A.S and Pendlebury H.M. 1978. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsular. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. 578 pp. Corbet, A.S & Pendlebury, H.M revised by Eliot, J. N. 1992. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Corner, E.J.H. 1992. Botanical Monkeys. Corner, E.J.H. 1988. Wayside Trees of Malaya. Corner, E.J.H. 1992. Botanical Monkeys. Cramphom J. 1983. Sungai Trengganu Fish Survey, 1980. Malayan Naturalist. 36(4): 1620. Dansfield, S. 1992. Bamboos of Sabah. Dansfield J. 1979. A Manual of the Rattans of the Malay Peninsular Malayan Forest Records. 29: 270 pp.

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REFERENCES Davison, G.W.H. 1992. Birds of Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Dansfield, S. 1992. Bamboos of Sabah. Davison, G.W.H. 1988. Endau-Rompin: A Malaysian Heritage. Davison, G.W.H., Phillipps, K., Alias, K. 1989. Pengenalan Burung-Burung Malaysia. Department of Environment. 1989. A Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines. Department of Environment, Kementerian Sains Teknolcji dan Alam Sekitar, Kuala Lumpur. Department of Environment. 1990. Environmental Quality Report. Department of Environment, Kementerian Sains Teknoloji dan Alam Sekitar, Kuala Lumpur. Department of Environment, 1989. A Guide to the Preparation of Terms of Reference for Highway/Road Projects, (First Edition) EIA Unit, DOE, October 1989. Department of Environment. 1992. Peta Punca-punca Pencemaran Air, 1992. Department of Environment, Kementerian Sains Teknolcji dan Alam Sekitar, Kuala Lumpur. Department of Environment. 1992. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Procedure and Requirements in Malaysia. Department of Environment, Kementerian Sains Teknolcji dan Alam Sekitar, Kuala Lumpur. Department of Environment. 1989. Environmental Quality Report. Department of Environment, Kementerian Sains Teknoloji dan Alam Sekitar, Kuala Lumpur. Design Dimension Sdn Bhd. 1989. Waterfalls of Malaysia.

Design Dimension Sdn Bhd 1992. Malaysia Agricultural Park: A Gift to Humanity. Design Dimension Sdn Bhd. 1992. Rivers of Malaysia. Feasibility Study of Supporting Road System for the East-West Highway Final Report (1981), Volume 1 & 2, Malaysia International Consultants Sdn Bhd. Fleming, W.A. 1989. Butterflies of West Malaysia. Foo, T.S. 1990. A Guide to Wild flowers of Singapore. Frahm et al., 1990. Mosses & Liverworts of Mount Kinabalu. Francis, C.M. 1984. Pocket Guide to the Birds of Borneo. Friends of Penang Hill, Jutaprint. 1991. Penang Hill. Frim, 1991. Manual of Forest Fruits and Seedings. Glenister A. G. 1971. The Birds of the Malay Peninsular Oxford University Press, London. 291 pp.

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REFERENCES Gopalakrishnakone, P. 1990. A Colour Guide to Dangerous Animals. Gremli, M.S., & Newman, H. 1993. Marine Life in the South China Sea. Gumit Singh, K.S. 1991. Where's the greening?. Hails, C & Jarvis, F. 1987. Birds of Singapore. Hajek, J.J (1977) Leq Traffic Noise Prediction Method. In Environment and Conservation Concerns in Transportation: Energy, Noise and Air Quality. Transportation Research Record 648, TRB, pp.48 - 53. Hans Urich Bernard. 1991. Insight Guide: South East Asia Wildlife. Harrison J.L. 1969. The abundance and Population Density of Mammals in Malayan Lowland Forests. Malay. Nat. J. 22: 174 - 178. Henderson M. R. 1974 Malayan Wild Flower - Dicotyledon. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. 478 pp. Hj. Kamaruddin, K. 1992. Hutan Hujan Tropika Semenanjung Malaysia. Ho, S.L. 1992. Coral Reefs of Malaysia. Holloway, J.D. 1976. Moths of Borneo: with special reference to Mount Kinabalu. Holloway, J.D. 1986. Malayan Nature Journal. The Moths of Borneo, Part 1: Key to Families; Families Cossidae, Metarbelidae, Ratardidae, Dudgeoneidae, Epipyropidae and Limacodidae. Holloway, J.D. 1988. The Moths of Borneo, Part 6: Family: Arctiidae: Subfamilies Syntominae, Euchromiinae, Arctiinae; Noctuidae misplaced in Arctiidae (Camptoloma, Aganainae) Holttum, R.E, & I. Enoch. 1990. Gardening in the Tropics. Holloway, J.D. 1985. Malayan Nature Journal. The Moths of Borneo, Part 14: Family Noctuidae: Subfamilies Euteliinae, Stictopterinae, Plusiinae, Pantheinae. Holloway, J.D. 1989. Malayan Nature Journal. The Moths of Borneo, Part 12: Family Noctuidae, Trifine Subfamilies: Heliothinae, Hadeninae, Acronictinae, Amphipyrinae, Agaristinae. Holloway, J.D. 1987. The Moths of Borneo, Part 3: Superfamily Bombycoidea: Families lasiocampidae, Eupterotidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae. Holloway, J.D. 1983. Malayan Nature Journal. The Moths of Borneo, Part 4: Family Notodontidae. Holttum R.E. 1964. Orchids of Malaya. Government Printing Office, Singapore. 759 pp. Hong, L.T. et al. 1990. Proceedings of the International Rubberwood Seminar. Inger, R., & R Stuebing. 1989. The Frogs of Sabah.
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REFERENCES Inger, R. 1990. The Amphibia of Borneo. Inger, R., & P.K. Chin. 1990. The Freshwater Fishes of North Borneo. Institut Pengajian Tinggi. 1986. Water Quality Criteria and Standards for Malaysia. Institut Pengajian Tinggi, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Jacobson, S.K. 1986. Kinabalu Park. Kalyuzhnyi, D.N., Kostovetskil, Y. Davydov, S.A. & Akselrod, M.B. (1960). Effectiveness of sanitary clearance zones between industrial enterprises and residential quarters. In Survey of USSR literature on air pollution and related occupational diseases, Washington. pp 179 - 183. Kamaruddin, M.S. 1991. Rafflesia: Magnificent Flower of Sabah. Kayastha, S.L. & Kumar, V.K. (1980). Noise as a factor in environment pollution of Kanpur city. Philippines Geog. Journal. 24(3), pp. 127 - 142. Khoo, K. C. et al., Crop Pests and Their Management in Malaysia. Kiew B.H. 1984. Conservation Status of the Malaysian amphibians: Malayan Naturalist 37 (4): 6 10. Kiew, R. 1987. Malayan Nature Journal. The Malaysian Heritage and Scientific Expedition: Endau-Rompin 1985-1986. Kiew R. 1989. Conservation Status of Palms in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Naturalists 43 (1&2): 3 - 15. Kiew B.H. 1984. Conservation Status of Turtles, Terrapins and Tortoises. (2): 2 - 3. Malayan Naturalist 38

Kiew, R. & Kay Lyons. 1992. Malayan Naturalist. Annotated Bibliography - Malayan nature Journal 1940 - 1990. Kiew B.H. and G Davison 1982. Conservation Status of the Malaysian fauna: I Birds. Malayan Naturalist 36 (2): 2 - 34. Kiew R. & G Davison. 1989. Relation between wild palms and other plants and animal. Malayan Naturalists 43 (1&2): 37 - 42. Kiew, R. 1991. The State of Nature Conservation in Malaysia. Kiew B.H. 1982. Conservation Status of the Malaysian Fauna: I Mammalia. Malayan Naturalist 35 (3): 3 - 19. King B. et al. A Field Guide to Birds of South-East Asia, Colin London. 480 pp. King, B.F., Dickinson, E.C. 1987. A Field Guide to the Birds of South-East Asia. Koh, Joseph K.H. 1989. A Guide to Common Singapore Spiders.
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REFERENCES Koh, P.T., K. Hsuan & Avadhani, P.N. 1990. A Guide to Common Vegetables. Kottelat Maurice, Ng Peter K.L. and Lim Kelvin K.P. 1992. A note on recent collections of freshwater fish from Terengganu and Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Naturalists 46 (2): 7 12. Kurata, S. 1976. Nepenthes of Mount Kinabalu. Lampe, R.E. 1985. Malayan Saturniidae from the Cameron and Genting Highlands: A Guide for Collectors. Lamure, C. (1975). Noise Emitted by Road traffic. In Road Traffic Noise (Eds. Alexander, A., Barde, J.P., Lamure, C., Langdon, F.J.) Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London. pp 85 - 129. Lau, D., Penans - The Vanishing Nomads of Borneo Lim, R.P., & S.W. Lee. 1992. Hill Development - Proceedings of the Seminar. Lim, Francis L.L & Lee, Monthly T.M. 1989. Fascinating Snakes of South East Asia - An Introduction. Lim Boo Liat. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of Peninsular Malaysia. Lim, K.S. 1992. Vanishing Birds of Singapore. Lim B.L. 1979 Poisonous Snakes of Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. 61 pp Lim, M.T. 1989. Malayan Naturalist. Conservation and Utilisation of Malaysian Palms. Lim Kelvin K.P. 1992. A Guide to the Amphibians & Reptiles of Singapore. Lim, K.S.. 1991. Pocket Checklist of the Birds of Singapore. Lim C.K & Barlow H.S, 1988. Frank Swettenham & George Giles Watercolours & Sketches of Malaya 1880-1894. Lim B. L. 1981. Ular-Ular Bisa di Semenanjung Malaysia. Locke, A. 1993. Tigers of Terengganu. MacDonald, S (1967). Geology and Mineral Resources of North Kelantan and North Trengganu, District Memoir Geology Survey West Malaysia 10. Macmillian, H.F. rev H.S Barlow, 1. Enoch & R.A Russell. 1991. Tropical Planting and Gardening Madoc, G.E. 1985. Burung-Burung di Semenanjung Malaysia. Madoc, G.E. 1992. An Introduction to Malayan Birds.

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REFERENCES Madoc G.E. 1956. An Introduction to Malayan Birds. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. 234 pp. Malayan Nature Society, Penang Branch. Nature Trails of Penang Island. Marsh C.W. and Wilson W.L. 1981. A survey of primates in Peninsular Malaysian forest. University Kebangsaan Malaysia. 107 pp. McClure H.E. 1969. Estimations of birds population density in primary forest of Malaya. Malaya. Nat. J. 2: 179 - 183. MDC Sdn Bhd. 1986. Malaysia, Environmental Quality Act and regulations. MDC Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur. Medway, Lord. 1983. The Wild Mammals of Malaya (P. M'sia) and Singapore. Meredith, M. et al. 1992. Giant Caves of Borneo. Milton O. 1963. Field notes on wildlife conservation in Malaya American committee for International Wild Life Protection Special Publ. 11: 18 pp. Mohamad, A. 1991. Pokok-Pokok Untuk Tanaman Bandar. Mohd Khan bin Momin Khan. 1985. Tigers in Malaysia: Prospects for the future. J. Wildlife and Parks. 5: 1 - 23. Mohd Khan bin Momin Khan. 1989. Asia Rhinos - An action plan for their conservation IUCN Gland Switzerland. 23 pp. Mohd. Khan bin Momin Khan. 1970. Distribution and population of siamang and gibbons in the State of Perak. Malay Nat J. 24: 3 - 8. Mohd. Nor, S. Wong, Y.K., Ng, F.S.P. 1990. The Tropical Garden City - its creation and maintenance. Mohsin A.K. Mohammad and Ambak Mohd Azmi. 1983. Freshwater Fishes of Peninsular Malaysia. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang. 284 pp. Morgan, R.P.C. 1974. Estimating Regional Variations in Soil Erosion Hazard in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 28(2): 94-106.

Morgan R.P.C. 1986. Soil Erosion and Conservation. Longman England. 298 pp. Nathan, A., Y.C Wong. 1990. A Guide to Fruits and Seeds. Ng, F.S.P. 1989. Tree Flora of Malaya, Vol. 4. Ng, P.K.L. 1988. The Freshwater Crabs of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

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REFERENCES Ng K.L., Peter. 1992. A Guide to Freshwater Life in Singapore. Ng F.S.P. et. al. 1990. Endemic Trees of the Malay Peninsular FRIM Research Pamphlet No. 106. 118 pp. Ng F.S.P. 1978. Tree Flora of Malaya Vol. 3. Forest Department Ministry of Primary Industries, Logman Kuala Lumpur. 339 pp. Ng F.S.P. 1979. Tree Flora of Malaya Vol IV. Forest Department Ministry of Primary Industries, Logman Kuala Lumpur. 549 pp. Ooi A.C. 1988. Insects in Malaysian Agriculture. Overseas Economic cooperation Fund, 1989. OECF Environmental Guidelines. Parris, B.S., Beaman, R.S., Beaman, J.H. 1992. The Plants of Mount Kinabalu - Ferns and fern Allies. Payne, J. 1990. Wild Malaysia. Payne, J., Francis, C.M & Phillipps, K. 1985. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. Pengurusan Lebuhraya Bhd, 1989. New Klang Valley Expressway North-South Interurban Toll Expressway. Erosion Control Interim Report, Volume I. Phillipps, A. 1988. A Guide to the Parks of Sabah. Piggott, A.G & C.J. 1988. Ferns of Malaysia in Colour. Polunin, I. 1987. Plants and Flowers of Singapore. Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Poore, D. 1987. The Vanishing Forest: The Human Consequences of Deforestation. Protection of Wild Life Act 1972. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1991. Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainvillaea. Rubeli, K. 1986. Tropical Rain Forest in South-East Asia: A Pictorial Journey. Santiapillai, C. and Jackson, P. 1990. The Asian Elephant - An action plan for its conservation. IUCN gland Switzerland. 79 pp. Sato, T. 1991. Plants and Flowers of Mount Kinabalu. Searle, A.G. 1980. An Illustrated Key to Malayan Hard Corals. Seidenfaden, G & Wood, J.J. 1992. The Orchids of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Sepakat Setia Perunding. 1991. Preliminary Geology report, Projek Jalan Raya Simpang Pulai Gua Musang - Kuala Berang, Pakej 6, - dari Aring ke jambatan Pasir Pulau.
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REFERENCES Shaari, K., Abd. Kadir, A & Mohd. Ali, A.R. 1992. Medicinal Products from Tropical Rain Forests - Proceedings of the Conference. Shaari, K., Khoo, K.C & Mohd Ali, A.R. 1991. Oil Palm Stem Utilisation - Review of Research. Silcock, L. 1989. The Rainforests - A Celebration. Sitit Hawa Yatim, Zainuddin Baatu and Mat Isa Marzuki. 1986. Survey of mammal and bird species at eight game/forest reserves. J. Wildlife and Parks. 5: 24 - 52. Smythies, B.E. 1981. The Birds of Borneo Soepadmo, E. & K.G. Singh. 1973. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological Resources & National Development. South East Asia Association of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering. 1985. Series of Seismology, Vol III - Malaysia. Spenser St John. 1986. Life in the forest of the Far East: Travels in Sabah & Sarawak in the 1860s. Stevens W.E. 1986. The Conservation of wildlife in West Malaysia. Office of the Chief Game warden. Federal Game Department, Seremban. Malaysia. 116 pp. Strange, M & Jeyarajasingam, A. 1993. Birds - A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Strien Nico J. Van 1986. The Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus Sumatenses (Fisher, 1914) in the Gunung Leuser National Park Sumatra, Indonesia: Its Distribution, Ecology and Conservation. Verlag Paul Parey. Hamburg. 200 pp. Supplementary Feasibility Study and Detailed Engineering for East-West Highway Project (Phase 2) - Final Report (1982), Malaysia International Consultants Sdn Bhd. Symington C.F. 1974. Foresters' Manual of Dipetocarps. Malayan Forest Records No. 16 University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 244 + 144 pl. Tan, T.W., Hugh & C.S Hew. 1993. A Guide to the Orchids of Singapore. Tan, T.K. 1990. A Guide to Tropical Fungi. Tho, Y.P. 1992. Termites of Peninsular Malaysia. Tweedie, M.W.F. 1983. The Snakes of Malaya. Tweedie M.W.F. 1983. The Snakes of Malaya. Singapore National Printers. 167 pp. Tweedie, M.W.F & Harrison, J.L. 1988. Malayan Animal Life. U.S Department of Transport, 1987. Environmental Impact and Related Procedures, Final Rule. Federal Register, Federal Highway Administration, Urban Mass Transportation Administration.
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REFERENCES Vermuelen, J.J. 1991. Orchids of Borneo Vo. 2. Wan Mohd. W.R., Dansfield, J & Monokaran, N. 1992. A Guide to the Cultivation of Rattan. Wee, Y.C. Nature Society Singapore. 1992. Proposed Golf Course at Lower Peirce Reservoir -An Environmental Impact Assessment. Wee, Y.C. 1992. A Guide to the Ferns of Singapore. Wee, Y.C. 1993. A Guide to Medicinal Plants. Wee, Y.C. & K. Hsuan. 1990. An Illustrated Dictionary of Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Wells, D. 1990. Malayan Nature Journal. Malayan Bird Report, 1982 - 1987. Whitehead, J. 1993. Exploration of Kinabalu. Wells D.R. 1985. The forest avifauna of Western Malesia and its Conservation. ICBP Technical Publication No. 4: 213 - 232. Whitmore T.C. 1975. Tropical Rain Forest of the Far East. Clarendon Press Oxford. Whitmore T. C. 1972 Tree Flora of Malaya Vol Il. Forest Department Ministry of Agriculture and Lang. Logman, Kuala Lumpur. 473 pp. Whitmore T. C. 1972 Tree Flora of Malaya Vol I. Forest Department Ministry of Agriculture and Lang. Logman, Kuala Lumpur. 473 pp. Whitmore, T.C. 1972. Tree Flora of Malaya, Vol. 1. Whitmore, T.C. 1972. Tree Flora of Malaya, Vol. 2. Whitmore T.C. 19 Palms of Peninsular Malaysia. Oxford University Press Kuala Lumpur. Wischmeier, W.H. & Smith, D.D (1965). Predicting Rainfall-Erosion Losses from Cropland East of Rocky Mountains. Guide for Selection of Practices for Soil and Water Conservation. USDA Agriculture Handbook, 282. Wong, I.F.T. 1974. The Present Land Use of Peninsular Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur. Wong, K.M. 1990. In Brunei Forests. Wong, M.P. 1991. Sipadan: Borneo's Underwater Paradise. Wood, E.M, et al. 1987. Malayan Nature Journal. The Coral Reefs of the Bodgaya Islands (Sabah: Malaysia) and Pulau Sipadan. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.00, Annex A3: Environmental Screening. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.50,: Cultural Property.

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REFERENCES World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.00, Annex Al: Sample Outline of a Project Specific EA Report. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.00, Annex A: Environmental Assessment. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.40,: Tribal People. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.00, Annex A2: Checklist of Potential Issues for an EA. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.00, Annex D: Wildlands: Their Protection and Management. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.30,: Involuntary Resettlement. World Bank, 1989. World Bank Operational Manual, OD 4.36,: Land Settlement. Wyatt Smith J. 1979 Pocket Check List of Timber Trees. Malayan Forest Records No. 17. Wyatt Smith J. 1961. A note on the freshwater swamp, lowland and hill forest types of Malaya. Malay Forest. 24:110 - 120. Yap, S.K., & S.W. Lee. 1992. In Harmony with Nature - Proceedings of the International Conference on Conservation of Tropical Biodiversity. Yates, S. 1992. The Nature of Borneo. Yong H.S. 1981. Magnificent Plants. Yong H.S. 1986. Malaysian Butterflies: An Introduction. Yong, H.S. 1990. Orchid Portraits - Wild Orchids of Malaysia and South-East Asia. Zulkifli Yusop, Anhar Suki and Baharuddin Kasran. 1990. Postlogging Effects on Suspended Solids and Turbidity - Five years Observation. Paper Presented at the Workshop on Watershed Development and Management. 19-23 February, 1990, Kuala Lumpur.

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US Department of Transportation, FHWA ENVIRONMENTAL HANDBOOK

March 1985 ( Adapted to Malaysian Conditions, May 1993 )


ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANT CHECKLIST

This checklist is used to identify physical, biological, social and economic factor which might be impacted by the proposed highway/road project. In many cases, the background studies performed in connection with the project clearly indicate the project will not affect a particular item. A "NO" answer in the first column documents this determination. Where there is a need for clarifying discussion, an asterisk is shown next to the answer. PHYSICAL. Will the proposal either directly or indirectly :YES OR IF YES, IS IT NO SIGNIFICANT? YES OR NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Apprcciably change the topography or ground surface relief fcatures ? Destroy, cover, or modify any unique geologic or physical features ? Result in unstable earth surface or increase the exposure of people or property to geologic or seismic hazards ? Result in or be affected by soil erosion or siltation ( whether by water or wind ? Result in the increased use of fuel or energy in large amounts or in a wasteful manner ? Result in an increased in the rate of use of any natural resource ? Result in the substantial depletion of any nonrenewable resource ? Violate any published Federal, State, or local standards pertaining to hazardous waste, solid waste or litter control ? Modify the channel of a river or stream or the bed of the ocean or any bay, inlet or lake ? Encroach upon a floodplain or result in or be affected by floodwaters or tidal waves ? Adverscly affect the quantity or quality of surface water, groundwater or public water supply ? Result in the use of water in large amounts or in a wasteful manner ? Affect wetlands or riparin vegetation ? Violate or be inconsistent with Federal, State, or local water quality standards ? Result in changes in air movement, moisture, temperature, or any climatic conditions ? Result in an incerased in air pollutant omissions, adverse effects on or deterioration of ambient air quality ? Results in the creation of objectionable odors ? Violate or be inconsistent with Federal, State, or local air standards or control plans ? Results in an increased in noise levels or vibration for adjoining areas ? Result in any Federal, State, or local noise sriteria being equal or exceeded ? Produce new light, glare, or shadows ?

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US Department of Transportation, FHWA ENVIRONMENTAL HANDBOOK

March 1985 ( Adapted to Malaysian Conditions, May 1993 )


ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANT CHECKLIST ( Cont. )

BIOLOGICAL. Will the proposal result in ( either directly or indirectly ): YES OR NO 22. Change in the diversity of species or number of any species of plants ( including trees, shrubs, grass, microflora, and aquatic plants ) ? 23. Reduction of the numbers of or cncroachment upon the critical habitat of any unique, treatened or endangered species of plants ? 24. Introduction of new species of plants into an areas, or result in a barrier to the normal replenishment of existing species ? 25. Reduction in acreage of any agriculatural crop or commercial timber stand, or effect prime, unique, or other farmland of state or local importance ? 26. Removal or deterioration of existing fish or wildlife habitat ? 27. Change in the diversity of species or number of any species of animals ( birds, land animals including reptiles, fish and shellfish, benthic organisms, insects or microfauna ) ? 28. Reduction of the numbers of or cncroachment upon the critical habitat of any unique, treatened or endangered species of plants ? 29. Introduction of new species of animals into an area, or results in a barrier to the migration or movement of animals ? SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC. Will the proposal directly or indirectly : 30. Cause disruption of orderly planned development ? 31. Be inconsistent with any elements of adopted community plans, policies or goals, or the urban strategies ? 32. Be inconsistent with a coastal zone management plan ? 33. Affect the location, distribution, densily, or growth rate of the human population of an area ? 34. Affect life-style, or neighborhood character or stability ? 35. Affect minority, elderly, handicapped, transit-dependent, or other specific interest groups ? 36. Divide or disrupt an established community ? 37. Affect existing housing, require the acquisition of residental improvements or the displacement of people create a demand for additional housing ? 38. Affect employment, industry or commence, or require the displacement of businesses or farms ? 39. Affect property values or the local tax base ? 40. Affect any community facilities ( including medical, educational, scientific, recreational, or religious institution, ceremonial sites or sacred shrines ) ? 41. Affect public utilities, or public, fire emergency or other public services ? 42. Have substantial impact on excisting transporting systems or alter present patterns of circulation or movement of people and/or goods ? IF YES, IS IT SIGNIFICANT? YES, OR NO

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US Department of Transportation, FHWA ENVIRONMENTAL HANDBOOK

March 1985 ( Adapted to Malaysian Conditions, May 1993 ) ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANT CHECKLIST ( Cont. ) YES OR IF YES, IS IT NOT SIGNIFICANT ? YES OR NO 43. Generate additional traffic ? 44. Affect or be affected by existing parking facilities or result in demand for new parking ? 45. Involve a substantial risk of an explosion or the release of hazardous aubstances in the event of an accident or otherwise adversely affect overall public safety ? 46. Result in alterations to waterborne, rail or air traffic ? 47. Suppot large commercial or residential development ? 48. Affect a significant archacological or historic site, structure, object, or building ? 49. Affect wild or scenic rivers or natural landmarks ? 50. Affect any scenic resources or result in the obstruction of any scenic vista or view open to the public, or ceration of an aesthetically offensive site open to public view ? 51. Result in substantial impacts associated with construction activities ( e.g. noise, dust, temporary drainage, traffic detours and temporary acces, etc. ) ? 52. Result in the use of any publicly-owned land from a park, recreation area, or wildlife and waterfowl refuge ? MANDATORY FINDINGS OF SIGNIFICANCE 53. Deos the project have the potential to substantially degrade the quality of the environmental, substantially reduce the habitat of a fish or wildlife species, cause a fish or wildlife population to drop below self-sustaining levels, threaten to climinate a plant or animal community, reduce the number or restrict the range of a rare or endangered plant or animal or climinate important examples of the major periods of Malaysian history or prehistory ? 54. Does the project have the potential to achieve short-term, to the disadvantage of long-term, environmental goals ? ( A short-term impact on the environmental is one which occurs in a relatively brief, definitive period of time while long-term impacts will endure well into the future. ) 55. Does the project have environmental effects which are individually limited, but cumulatively considerable ? Cumulatively considerable means that the incremental effects of an individual projects are considerable when viewed in connection with the effects of past projects, the effects of other current projects, and the effects of probable future projects. It includes the effects of other projects which interact with this project and, together, are considerable. 56. Does the project have environmental effects which will cause substantial adverse effects on human beings, either directly or indirectly ? YES OR NO

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CHECKLIST 1. This lists all significant environmental effectsa known to have occurred in past highway and road projects in developing countries. This is arranged to permit: (1) ready acreening out of non-pertinent items by checking the column 'No Significant Effects'; and (if) ready grading of significant environmental effects by degree of effect. The checking process of (2) above fumishers the information needed for preparing the IEE.

2.

3.

Table 1: Checklist of Environmental Parameters for Highway and Road Projects For (Name of Project)

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Page 72

ANNEX I SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH HIGHWAY AND ROAD PROJECTS
The following is a listing and brief description of environmental problems commonly associated with highway and road projects which have not been normally considered in the planning of such projects. An additional listing (Annex 1.1) describes other environmental aspects of 11 & R projects which are normally considered by Bank staff in the planning and preparation of these projects. 2. Construction Stage : (a) Will the project construction operations against excessive soil erosion/silt runoff from cut-and-fill areas, including use of temporary holding ponds be needed? Will any exposed areas be left without proper resurfacing/replanting which would result in continuing excessive erosion? Will the construction operations involve other hazards of the type listed in Annex 111/1? Will the construction plan include provisions for monitoring to ensure contractor's compliance with specified constraints?

(b)

A.

Environmental Problems for Major 11 & R Rehabilitation Projects (Most Bank 11 & R projects have been in this category.):

(c)

(d)

1. Project Planning : Projects usually involve few if any significant adverse environmental effects because they are limited to rehabilitation of existing 11 & 11, hence problems commonly associated with new H & R projects can hardly be expected to occur, including problems associated with disruption of surface hydrology, excessive erosion and silt runoff, inadequate attention to resettlement issues, encroachment into precious ecological areas or into historical/cultural monuments, flooding due to inadequate culvert capacity, etc. The 1EE effort for such projects should be limited to checking with government officials concerned (including national highway agency and NEnPA) on whether there have been any significant complaints on any environmental issues stemming from construction and use of the existing H & R system, and if so, to prepare the TOR for an EIA for evaluating these complaints and for recommending mitigating or remedial measures which should be considered in the planning of the new project.

3. Post-construction monitoring (new project) :

Will any continuing postconstruction monitoring be needed for ensuring adequate environmental protection? (See Annex 111/3.)

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SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH HIGHWAY AND ROAD PROJECT

B. Environmental Problems for New Major 11 & R Projects


1. Encroachment oil. Precious ecology : Will the proposed H & ll. routing encroach upon precious ecological resources, including forests and swamps, which could be avoided by feasible rerouting and if not, how can these losses be feasibly mitigated or offset? (See Annex 111/5.)

6. Noise and vibrations : Will the project result In noise and vibration nuisances to neighboring properties and if so, how can these be feasibly minimized and offset? (See Annex 111/6.)

7. Air pollution hazards : In urban areas, will the project result In discharge of air pollutants from motor veldcles, especially carbon monoxide, which under adverse weather conditions could cause serious air pollution hazards to nearby areas or communities, and if so, how can these be minimized or offset? (Note: Usually the control of carbon monoxide from motor vehicles is feasible but for most other air pollutants the problem must be approached from a regional rather than on a highway project basis.) (see Ref. 11.18, 20).

2. Encroachment on Itistorical/cultural ntonuntents/areas: Same question as for (1) above.

3. Intpairrnent of fisherieslaquatic ecology and other beneficial water uses : Will the changes in surface hydrology caused by the project result in impairment of valuable fisheries/aquatic ecology, or of other valuable beneficial water uses, and if so, how can these be feasibly mitigated or offset?

8. Highway runoff pollution : Surface runoff from highways may contain sufficient petroleum drippage plus spilled materials (including toxic and hazardous materials) which can adversely affect aquatic ecology and environmental aesthetics (see Annex 111/4 and Ref. 11.2).

4. Erosion and siltation : Will the project result in excessive erosion and silt runoff (and impairment of downstream water quality or in damages to land values) due to excessive erosion/silt runoff from exposed areas which are not properly resufaced or replanted?

9. Highway spills : One of the most serious hazards posed by highways is accidental spills of hazardous materials. The EIA should review the existing system for controlling and cleaning up such spills including appropriate recommendations, from the regional point of view (see Ref. 11.2 and Annex 111/4).

5. Environmental aesthetics : Will the project result in unwarranted depreciation of environmental aesthetic (scenic) values due to (a) lack of resurfacing/replanting of exposed areas, (b) blocking of scenic views, or (c) inattention to the aesthetic appearances of the H & R structures (see lief. 11.6, 7).

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SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH HIGHWAY AND ROAD PROJECT 10. Construction stage problems : ( See Annex 111/1. ) erosion and silt runoff: Will the construction procedures protect against excessive erosion/silt runoff from cutand-fill areas, including use of temporary holding power if required? other- construction hazards: See Annex 111/1. monitoring: Does the construction plan include adequate monitoring to ensure contractor's compliance with specified constraints? 4. Erosion and silt runofr. Same as B(4) above. 5. Dust nuisances: Does the project design give reasonable attention to minimize dust nuisances caused by road usage? (See Annex 111/8.) 6. Construction stage: Same as B(9) above. (b) 7. Post-construction monitoring: Same as B(10) above.

(a)

(c)

11.

Post-construction monitoring:

Does the project plan make provision for any needed continuing post-construction monitoring for assessing the actual environmental impacts of the project and for recommending needed correction measures? (See Annex 111/3.)

12.

Critical review criteria:

Does the project involve any of the overall project critical review criteria listed in Annex 111/10?

C. Environmental Problems for Rural Rondo


1. Encroachment into precious ecology : Same as B(1) above. 2. Encroachment into historical/cultural n:oituments/areas : Same as B(2) above. 3. Inrpairntent of Tsheries/aquatic ecology and of other beneficial water uses: Same as B(3) above.

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ANNEX 1.1 POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS COMMONLY IUNDLED BY BANK STAFF IN THE PREPARATION OF H&R PROJECTS

A.

Problems Relating to Project Planning and Design

1. Disruptions of surface hydrology resulting in impairment of beneficial water uses including fisheries, navigation, community water supply, recreation and others. 2. Disposal of sanitary wastes for highway toilet facilities. Usually this involves appropriate use of subsurface leaching systems. 3. Traffic congestion and hazards at access and exit points, especially for expressways. 4. Provisions in project post-construction operations plan for minimum adequate O&M program. (See Annex 111/9.)

B.

Problems Relating to Socioeconomics

1. For rural roads, does the road network plan provide for reasonably equitable set-vice to rural residents? 2. With respect to resettlement, are the proviions for property compensation and for rehabilitation reasonable and fair? (See Annex 111/2.)

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ANNEX 11 REFERENCES FOR OBTAINING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF HIGHWAY AND ROAD PROJECTS

1. Detailed Design and Environmental Irnpact Assessment of the Second Stage Expressway System, (Final Report), PCI Consortium for NEB, Bangkok, 1986. 2. Errvironrnental Considerations in Highway Planning by California Departrrtent of Transportation, John Meersman, etal., for Department of Civil Engineering, Standford University, December 1978, approx. 250 pp. 3. Environmental Impact Assessment for Bali Irrigation Project, H. Ludwig for ELC/ADC Consortium for DGWRD, Jakarta, 1981. 4. Environmental Impact and Related Procedures, Department of Transportation, Federal Register, Washington, D.C., 30 October 1980. 5. Environmental Intlmct Assessment Policies for Thailand, P. Ruyabliorn and fl. Ludwig, National Environment Board, Bangkok, 1985. 6. Errvir-ortntental IrrrpactStatement, PA-23, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, 1985. 7. Environmental Quality Standards and Criteria, the Problem in Developing Countries, P. K.ira vanicli, S. Pairojborioboon, and H. Ludwig, NEB, Bangkok, June 1985. 8. A Graphical Solution Procedrtre for Estimating Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Near Roadways, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., March 1981. 9. Guidance Material for Preparation of Environmental Documents, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., February 1982. 10. Guidelines for Review of En viron"tentat Impact Statements, Vol. 1, Highway Projects, USEPA, 1976. 11. "Highway Maintenance, It Costs a Lot Only If It's Not Done", P. Fossberg and C. Harral, World Bank Report, July-August 1979. 12. Interim Guide for Environmental Assessment (HUD Field Office Edition), Voorhees for Department of Housing and Urban Development, June 1985, approx. 500 pp. 13. Manual ofNEB Guidelines for Preparation of Environmental Impact Evaluations, National Environment Board, Bangkok, April 1979, approx. 160 pp. 14. Mathematical Approach to Estimating Highway Inq)act on Air Quality, Vols. 4 and 5, USDOT, Washington, D.C., 1972.

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REFERENCES FOR ONTAINING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF HIGHWAY AND ROAD PROJECT 15. Mobile Source Emission Factor Tables for Mobile 3, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., January 1986. 16. Noise and Vibrations, Present State and Countermeasures, Japanese Environmental Protection Agency, 1982. 17. "Use of Vegetation for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise", R. Harris and L. Cohn, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ADCE/USA, November 1985. 18. "Vail Pass Highway, Respecter of Urban Ecology", Civil Engineering, ASCE, June 1980. 19. "Viaduct Built from the Top Down", Engineering News-Record, 28 October 1982. 20. West Side Highway Project, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Federal Highway Administration, Region One, 1977.

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ANNEX III GUIDELINES ANN FOR ALL TYPES OF PR OJECTS

Annex III/1 :

Environmental Constraints for Projects Involving Major Construction Operations Resettlement Post-Construction Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) Control of Pollution Emissions and Hazardous Materials Encroachment into Forests and Swamplands Effects and Abatement of Noise and Vibrations Dams and Reservoirs Environmental Standards Operations and Maintenance Problgms Critical Parameters for Overall Project Environmental Review

Annex III/2 : Annex III/3 : Annex III/4 : Annex III/5 : Annex III/6 : Annex III/7 : Annex III/8 : Annex III/9 : Annex III/10 :

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ANNEX III/1 : GUIDELINES ANNEX ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS FOR PROJECTS INVOLVING MAJOR CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

A.

Introduction

1. Most major construction projects of all types involve certain impacts on environmental resources that are significant and can be very serious if not properly managed during project planning and implementation, and which tend to be overlooked by many planners and engineers because it was not necessary to worry about them in the pre-environmental protection eras. These constraints, which must be evaluated for all projects at least at the IEE level, to determine whether any follow-up EIA will be needed, are described below.

B. Environmental Constraints During Construction Phase


2. Almost all major construction projects impose quite significant temporary hazards to environmental resources during the project's construction phase. Hence these hazards need to be accounted for and the proper protection measures included in the project FS, and their cost included in the project's construction budget. The FS/ElA should describe these hazards and how they will be managed. 3. The most common serious problems posed by most major construction projects (during the construction phase) are shown as follows:

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS FOR PROJECTS INVOLVING MAJOR CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

HAZARDS

CONTROL METHODS AS NEEDED

a.

Runoff erosion during rains from unprotected excavated areas resulting in excessive soil erosion. Can be very damaging to marine ecology, beach/recreational areas.

a. (i)

Careful planning of cut-and-fill to minimize erosion, including resurfacing/revegetation of exposed areas.

a. (ii)

provision of dikes to hold runoff to settle out soil particles (with use of flocculating agents where affected resources are sensitive, such as corals)

b.

Safety of workers from accidents.

b.

Appropriate safety measures ( consistent with local country economics ).

c.

Communicable disease hazard to workers from lack of sanitation (water supply and excreta management.

c.

Provision of decent housing, water supply, and excreta management).

d.

Insect vector disease hazards, especially malaria from imported carriers

d.

Appropriate control of anopheline species in workers' camp area, especially spraying.

e.

Slum hazards, i.e., where will workers live after construction is completed if they decide to stay?

e.

Appropriate planning for this, such as provision of acceptable permanent housing.

f.

Cultural hazards due to differences in customs of imported workers and local villagers.

f.

Appropriate planning for for this contingency.

g.

Use of hazardous materials (toxics, inflammables, incendiaries, explosives).

g.

Appropriate planning and controls. See Annex 111/4.

h.

Dust/odors/fumes which are hazards or to workers or nearby residents.

h.

Appropriate planning nuisance and controls.

i.

Noise and vibrations which are hazards or nuisances to workers or nearby residents.

i.

Appropriate planning and controls.

j.

Quarrying operations : (i) Safety precautions (i) Appropriate procedure to safeguardworkers, nearby workers / residents, and wildlife. Degradation of environmental replantblasting area.

(ii)

Failure to clean up / aesthetics.

(ii)

k.

Accidents or other disruptions of utility services (water, gas, etc.)

k.

Appropriate planning and prompt repairs when accidents occur.

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS FOR PROJECTS INVOLVING MAJOR CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS


l. Description of street traffic for prolonged periods including : (i) (ii) Traffic congestion Blocking of access to buildings l. Careful construction schedulling

m.

Pollution of groundwater by dumping of construction spoils.

m.

Careful planning for spoils disposal.

n.

Local flooding from watering of excavation, flushing, pipes, etc.

n.

Appropriate planning and controls.

o.

Dredging and filling in lakes, rivers, bays, estuaries, coastal areas.

o.

Careful planning for water use.

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ANNEX III/2 : GUIDELINES ANNEX RESETTLEMENT

A.

Introduction

C.

Additional Information

1. Prior to the Environmentalist Movement, it was common practice In the DMCs, for major projects requiring resettlement of families living in the proposed project area, to compensate these facilities only for their nonmovable properties, with little attention to the problem of "rehabilitation", that is, of assisting the family in finding occupation elsewhere and in achieving an earnings level equal to the without-project condition. The rehabilitation problems were simply left by the project planners (including the participating international assistance agency) to the local government's Ministry of Public Welfare (which invariably had no sufficient funds for this purpose). 2. Since the advent of the EIA process, it is now becoming increasingly recognized that provision of funds for rehabili-tation (as well as for property compensation) must be an integral part of the project's core budget.

5. Study of equitable resettlement solutions in Southeast Asia has been pioneered by the Mekong Committee (Bangkok). This work has been summarized in the Mekong Committee's publication No. MKG/36, "Environmental Effects of Pa Mong", 1976.

B.

Rehabilitation

3. Rehabilitation usually will require training of the resettler in how to manage his new occupation, for example, a lowlands paddy farmer who is moved uphill to grow upland crops, or is moved to an urban center for employment. 4. In addition to training, rehabilitation costs usuallywill include some sunsidy to com pensate the resettler over the period before he can be expected to achieve earnings equal to his earnings in his original without-project setting.
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ANNEX III/3 : GUIDELINES ANNEX POST - CONSTItUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM (EMP)

A.

Purpose of EMI'

2. Report preparation, including frequency and distribution 3. Cost estimate 4. Funding: Recommendations for sharing of costs and for financing. 5. Benefit/cost analysis: An approximate evaluation of benefits versus costs for the EMP, based on with and without EMP conditions, to show that the EMP is cost beneficial (not just additional overhead). The E MP should be the minimum cost-program needed.to protect sensitive affected environmental resources. 6. Provisions for periodic review/revision: The EMP should Include provisions for annual evaluations of the data collected, In order to delete collection of data which are not needed, and to add collection of Important data not included in the program.

1. Prior to the establishment of the EIA process, project implementation was usually limited to the phases of: (i) planning/design, and (ii) construction/startup. The EIA process has added a third phase, (iii) postconstruction monitoring, with the purpose of making periodic checks on the actual environmental impacts of the project over the years following completion of construction, as compared with those projected at the time of project appraisal. This environmental monitoring program (EMP) furnishes feedbacks for use in correcting any serious project deficiencies and for use in planning of future projects.

B.

Component of EMP

2. Virtually all major projects will exert significant environmental impacts, hence will require an ElA which must include the proposed post-construction EMP. This should include:

1. Technical aspects: a. Roles of NEnPA, national executing agency, and project management (usually the project management is responsible for the detailed monitoring, using consultants as heeded, to be done following TOR prepared by NEnPA). b. Administration and coordination (usually the EMP will involve a steering committee with membership from all significantly affected national agencies).
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ANNEX III/4 : GUIDELINES ANNEX CONTROL OF POLLUTION EMISSIONS AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

A.

Use of Treatment Process Equipment Developed In Industrialized Countries

1. One of the most difficult environmental protection prolems in developing member countries (DMCs) relates to the use of processes for removal of pollutants from waste emissions which depend upon the proper functioning of equipment of thetypes used in the industrialized countries (ICs). The Project Consultants responsible for designing/implementing the system commonly assume that, because such equipment does solve treatment problems when used in the ICs, the same will happen in the DMCs. Unfortunately, the Project Consultants are usually not involved in the project beyond the construction and start-up phases, when they themselves are present to furnish expert guidance to ensure proper equipment operation. The assumption made by the Project Consuilant is that the equipment will be operated and maintained in the DMCs at the same level of quality as in the ICs. Unfortunately, this is rarely the case, even when the Project Consultants' contract provides for training of local O&M staff while the Project Consultants are on the job. 2. The reason for this is shown clearly in the history of pollution control activities everywhere, including the ICs, in which it is noted that pollution control equipment is operated properly only when the applicable laws and regulations on maximum tolerable emissions are actually enforced, including operation of an effective periodic monitoring program. "No monitoring, no functioning" is the common saying. While such

enforcement is the rule in practically all ICs, it is not the rule in most DMCs, because of lack of understanding in DMCs that effective monitoring is essential to the overall pollution control process and hence the lack of willingness to fund the monitoring. 3. The project FS must take the difference in O&M capabilities into account when selecting processing equipment and in planning the O&M program.

B.

Control of Hazardous Wastes

4. Control of hazardous wastes, especially spills, including toxic, incendiary, explosive and inflammable materials, both within the project area or on access routes, again usually means use of IC-type equipment, hence involves the same problem in the quality of O&M to be expected as described in (1) above.

C.

Environmental Standards

5. In dealing with control of wastes and haz ardous materials, one of the aspects to be considered by the Project Consultants in doing the FS/EIA Is the existing environmental standards of the country. These must be taken into account because of their legal aspects, but the Consultants must also realize that the existing standards may not be very appropriate because of the fact that most DMCs/NEnPAs are still in a

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CONTROL OF POLLUTION EMISSONS AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS beginning state of developing capability in the difficult problem of setting appropriate standards. Instead, the MOM tend to copy IC standards which may be quite unaffordable, or to set standards which are too low. Details on this are given in Ref. 12.1 (Item 12 below). 6. The Job of the Project Consultants is to make an objective evaluation of the problem and to recommend the optimal costeffective solution which will be reliable, together with the justification. the used water may contain a large quantity of pollutants which may be very difficult to remove because of the large volumes involved. This plus heating of the water may drastically impair stream ecology and water quality. 11. Where recirculatory cooling towers are used (the usual case), various types of chemical compounds are added to the recirculating water for purposes of slime and corrosion control, and usually these contain toxics, especially chromium (which in the hexavalent form is very toxic to people, animals and fish). Hence provision mustbe made for removal of the toxics from the cooling tower blowdown, and extra special care is needed to ensure that the system will be kept properly functioning to achieve 100 per cent treatment of all blow-down, that is to ensure against reserve supplies of chemicals for chemical treatment systems, and for electrolytic systems a reserve power supply or a place for temporary storage of blowdown.

D.

Plant Area Drainage

7. The plant surface drainage system should be carefully designed to prevent flooding of the plant area (a matter of proper civil engineering design which is often overlooked in the DMCs). 8. The plant drainage water has been often regarded in DMCs as "clear" or "clean", whereas it usually contains considerable oil from plant machinery drippage so that an API-type separator is needed prior to discharge. 9. The plant drainage may also contain spilled toxic materials, such as chromium spilled while loading hoppers feeding chromium into the cooling water system (see Item 6 below).

F.

Storage of Materials in Plant Yard

12. It is common practice in DMCs to store solid materials either plant inputs or out puts, in open areas where they are exposed to rain, resulting in washing away of some of the materials into the plant drainage system. The environmental implications of this need to be assessed, and roofed-area storage furnished, if necessary.

E.

Cooling Water System

10. Plant cooling water systems in DMCs sometimes are of the non-recirculating type (single pass) which require huge volumes of water to be extracted from a nearby surface stream, and while the used cooling water Is usually returned to the stream (to maintain the stream flow quantity in the dry season),
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CONTROL OF POLLUTION EMISSONS AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

G.

Disposal of Plant Sanitary Sewage

13. It is often possible, when a sizeable investment is being made in building an effective system for treating plant industrial liquid wastes to save considerable money for treatment of the sanitary sewage produced in the plant or near- byworker residences, by processing the sanitary flow by septic tank treatment or primary treatment only, with the effluent then discharged to pass through the industrial waste treatment system.

economical and safe solution will be to haul the waste for landrillihg disposal at a site where there is no potential groundwater use, with precautions to prevent surface runoff. For details, see Disposal of Industrial Solid Wastes in Eastern Seaboard, National Environment Board, Bangkok, 1984.

J.

Disposal to Unconfined Ocean Waters

H.

Final Storage Pond

14. It is generally necessary, as part of the plant's overall system for treating industrial wastes, to provide a final holding pond (fur nishing several days of storage or more) as a final factor of safety before discharging to the environment, especially to protect against "spills" of untreated wastes. The ponding action evens out the discharge flow and thus can greatly reduce the environmental damage from the spill. In addition, the final pond serves to act as a final treatment or "polishing" system.

17. Whenever the plant is located near the sea, where access to unconfined seawater is feasible by use of a submarine outfall, this method of disposal will usually be much more economical and provide much safer protection to environment than systems discharging to streams or to confined marine waters such as estuaries and bays. For details, see Ref. 12.2.

K.

Post-Construction Monitoring RequIrein ents: See Annex II/3.

I.

Solid Wastes

15. Industrial plants can usually dispose of non hazardous organic solid wastes and refuse most economically by means of sanitary landfilling, either by building/operating their own landfills or by contracting for this service with a municipal system. 16. hazardous solid wastes represent a special problem requiring very careful planning and attention during operation. Usually the most

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ANNEX III/5 : GUIDELINES ANNEX ENCROACHMENT INTO FORESTS AND SWAMPLANDS

A.

Forests

1. Encroachment into forests and swamplands is one of the most disruptive effects of highways, roads, pipelines and transmission lines and other adverse impact on the forest/wildlife resource which is often very severe. This is due both to (a) encroachment by the project per se; and (b) even more so the subsequent follow-up encroachment by people which is made possible by the access into the forest area furnished by the project, including encroachments by rural population in search of more farmland or firewood or food (poaching), by entrepreneurs in fields like logging and mining, and by illegal operators (especially logging). Careful attention must be given in planning the route alignment to select a feasible routingwhich minimizes the damage, and to the use of enhancement and protective measures (to be funded by the project) for offsetting unavoidable degradation. Enhancement and protective measures may include: (a) establishing forest reserves; (b) fencing off of the H&R and/or policed monitoring; (c) establishment of new rural village occupations so that the villagers will be economically better off by protecting the forst /wildlife than by using it up. 2. For these reasons evaluation of the forest/wildlife problem in detail, including assessmtnt of the intrinsic value of the forest/wildlife resource in the overall national resource context may be required in order to determine the need for con-sidering alternative routings which will avoid degradation of precious irreplaceable resources whenever possible.

3. Whenever special enhancement/protective measures are to be recommended to be funded by the project, they should be clearly justified in terms of economic and resource conservation grounds, including projects of the future status of the forest/wildlife resource with and without the recommended special measures.

B.

Swamplands

4. A similar problem is encroach-ment into swampland zones, either freshwater or estu aries, which are usually rich fishery reproduction/nursery zones, as well as habitat for waterfowl and other swamp-oriented wildlife. 5. In addition to the offsetting / protection measures noted above for forests, another alternative where intrusion into precious swampland Is unavoidable is to use engineering measures to recreate a similar swampland zone in the same vicinity.

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ANNEX 111/6 : GUIDELINES ANNEX EFFECTS AND ABATEMENT OF NOISE AND VIBRATIONS

A.

Types of Noise and Vibrations

B.

Impacts of Noise and Vibration

1. There are three principal types of noise and vibration environments, namely: (i) general audible noise; (ii) special noise; and (iii) vibrations. General audible noise is noise commonly encountered in the everyday living environment. This is the noise environment of most concern because many projects result in tempo- rary or permanent increases in exposure of humans to general audible noise. General audible noise can be adequately described by either the equivalent A-weighted sound level (Leq) (which is best used to describe 8-hour exposures such as for occupational health). A variation includes a nighttime weighing to obtain a day-night sound level (Ldn) which is useful for assessing 24-hour exposures such as from highways or airports. 2. Some noise, such ns infrasound, ultrasound and high energy impulse, cannot be measured by average sound levels. Human exposure to such special noise (such as sonic booms) is infrequent (as compared to exposure to significant changes in general audible noise) and the abatement measures are not similar, thus special noises will not be further discussed. 3. Many projects which cause changes in general audible noise also generate vibrations. Vibrations transmission may be generated by airborne noise (for example airborne noise from vehicular road traffic causing vibrations) or transmission may be structureborne.

1. General audible noise 4. Commonly experienced problems caused by changes of levels of exposure to noise are public health and welfare effects. In the range of 55 dB to 75 dB, impacts are of the "annoyance" type resulting from interference with speech communication, general wellbeing and sleep. Response to such problems varieswith the receptor, for example schools, offices and similar receptors where ease of speech is of primary concern, will not have the same response to an increase from 55 dB to 60 dB as a busy commercial district. Above 75 dB, the possibility of severe health effects occurs such as loss of hearing (Ref. 3). 5. A summary of protective noise levels used as guidelines in the United States for preparation of noise criteria is presented in Table I (Ref. 6)

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Table 1 : Yearly Ldn Vnlues that Protect Public Health and Welfare with a Margin of Safety ( US ) ( Ref. 2 )

Effect

Level

Area

Hearing

Leq (24) S 79 dB

All areas (at the ear)

Outdoor activity interference and annoyance

Leq 55 dB

Outdoors in residential areas and farms and other outdoor areas where people spend widely varying amounts of time and other places in which quiet is a basis for use. Outdoor areas where people spend limited amounts of time, such as schoolyards, playgrounds, etc.

Leq (24) 56 dB

Indoor activity interference and annoyance

Leq (24) 45 dB

Other indoor areas with human activities such as schools, etc.

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2. Vibrations 6. Vibrations of structures may be due to airborne acoustical waves or solidborne vibration. Groundborne vibration is likely to accompany some mitring, construction and other industrial activities. The frequency range of vibration inside buildings which may result in human response is between 1Hz and 80 11z with human sensitivity to acceleration (by vibration effects) decreasing with decreasing frequency. Some basic threshold values for acceptable vibration environments is presented in Table 2. 7. Structural damages may be caused in industrial areas by vibration-exciting machines, in mining areas by blasts, in construction zones by pile driving or other activities, in residential areas from traffic on roads and railroads, etc. There are three general categories of damage, namely; (i) threshold damage consisting of visible cracks in nonstructural members such as partitions, facings, plaster walls; (ii) minor damage consisting of large permanent cracks in nonstructural and structural members; and (iii) in settlement and displacement of foundation.

9. Noise enclosures (barriers) attelruate noise by enclosing either the machine or the operator. The enclosure should be as heavy as necessary to achieve the attenuation and should be impervious to air flow. An absorbent lining should be provided to limit the increase of noise level within the enclosure resulting from reverberation. Partial enclosures on barriers are of limited use and the dimensions must be several times the wave length of the frequency of sound. They must be placed close to the sound source or receptor (Ref. 4).

C.

Noise and Vibration Abatement Noise control in industry

1.

8. Noise control at an industry is usually achieved by reduction of noise at the source or insertion of a barrier between the noise source and the hearer (receptor). Reduction of the source is usually done by the machine manufacturer by modifying components or processes such as use of belt drives in place of gear drives, welding in place of riveting, insertion of resilient damping material between impacting metal parts, reducing response of vibrating surfaces by increasing the stiffness and mass, and reduction of air turbulence.

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EFFECTS AND ABATEMENT OF NOISE AND VIBRATIONS

Table 2 (Ref. 1) : Basic Threshold Acceleration Values forAcceptable Vibration Environments

Type of Place

Time of Date

Continuous of Intermittent rms Acceleration ( m / sq / sec )

Impulse Shock Excitation Peak Acceleration ( m / sq / sec )

Hospital Operating Rooms and Other Such Critical Areas

Day

0.036

0.005

Night

0.036

0.005

Residential

Day

0.072 t

0.1 N 0.01

Night

0.005

Office

Anytime

0.14 t

0.2 N

Factory and Workshop

Anytime

0.28 t

0.4 N

= duration seconds of vibration, for durations greater than 100 sec, use t as 100 sec.

N = number of discrete shock excitations that are one sec or less in duration. For more than 100 excitations, use N = 100. Daytime is 7 am to 10 pin. Nighttime is 10 pin to 7 pin.

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2. Vibration control in industry 10. Abatement measures to prevent vibration from having harmful consequences include: (a) reducing vibration at its source, at the design stage, and by various steps to improve balancing and centering of moving parts and reduce play between them, and careful design of gears and transmission systems; (b) a reduction of working hours and/or the introduction of short pauses during the working day; and (c) when manual operation of a vibrating tool cannot be avoided, shock absorbers may be mounted between the body of the tool and its moving parts, vibrationdamping materials may be inserted between the handle and the operator's hand, special vibration-absorbing gloves may be worn, the tools can be suspended to reduce the influence of the vibrating mass, and duration of exposure can be reduced by avoiding over-specialization of workers (Ref. 4).

4. Noise and vibration abatement for projects with permanent effects on urban or suburban noise environment 12. Activities which may affect the "neighborhood" noise environment are many, from the local restaurant or market sounds to an airport. Most control measures are regulatory, including land use zoning and environmental quality standards for noise. Most abatement measures which have been developed for noise and vibration for highway and airport projects are applicable as well for other projects (Ref. 1 and 2). These measures are summarized as follows: a. Acquisition of property to serve as a buffer zone between the source and the receptor b. Construction of noise barriers or devices; however, costs alone often rely on barrier as a general alternative measure c. Noise insulation of public-use buildings such as schools and hospitals d. Management measures such as prohibition of certain types of vehicles for highways; time use restrictions for industry, highways and airports; and flight pattern restrictions for airports e. Improvement of equipment or vehicle structure, for example USEPA has demonstrated noise reduction from trucks from about 82 dB(A) down to 72 dB(A) at a cost addition of about 3 percent over the baseline price (Ref. 2) f. Improvement of structural design including buildings, airports, highways, railways and other structures to reduce transmission of noise and vibration

3. Noise and vibration abatement during construction 11. Most abatement measures during construction are similar to those described below, that is, use of sound barriers and noise reduction from equipment and vehicles. Additional abatement measures may be required in special cases such as use of vibration-free piling tnetliods where con ventional pilingwould be hazardous. Except in special situations, because noise and vibration from construction are of a transitory nature, no attempt is usually made to keep them below the threshold of human perception but rather to prevent health or structural damage. Thus the key to control is effective monitoring and enforcement (Ref. 3 and 6).

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REFERENCES

1. Dentonstration of Truck Progrant 1, Program Suntntary, Truck Noise Reduction, PB-82220328, EPA, December 1981. 2. Department of Transportation, Pederal Highways Administration Noise Policy and Related Environmental Procedures (Federal Noise Series, Vol. 111) EPA (PB-285940), July 1978. 3. Guidelines for Noise Impact Analysis, USEPA (Report No. 550/9-82-105), April 1982. 4. Occupational. Health Safety, ILO, 1972. 5. Protective Noise I,etiels (Condensed version of EPA Levels Documents), EPA (550/9-79-100), November 1978. 6. "Vibration Problems in Civil Engineering", O'Neil, D.B., Instrumentation for Ground Vibration and Earthquakes, Institution of Civil Engineers, London, 1978.

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ANNEX III/8 : GUIDELINES ANNEX ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

A.

Appropriate Standards

1. Setting of appropriate standards (and/or criteria for environmental quality is a basic task facing the national environmental protection agencies (NEnPAs) of all D1VICs, and probably the most complex, difficult and confusing of the host of problems. At first glance the problem seems simple enough. All the NEnPAs need to do is to: (i) review the standards (and/or criteria) utilized in other countries; (ii) adjust these to be appropriate for the local national situation; (iii) establish these officially through legislation and promulgations; and (iv) monitor to see to it that the standards are followed and complied with. However, on Item (ii) above, adjustment, to be appropriate for local situations, is a most complex assignment because setting the standards which are indeed appropriate for local use involves not just the basic principles of environmental protection, such as preserving scarce and irreplaceable natural resources, maintaining community environments that are reasonably clean and fit to live in, etc., but also involves, at equal depth, the basic principles of the national economic situation. This means consideration of what is affordable, and the national cultural traditions and values including the mole of enforcement in the government's relationship to society and socioeconomics. 2. A common approach used by NEnPAs is to review the latest standards in use by IC agencies (which Dave done most of the work on the subject), and the standards set by the international assistance agencies (IRAs), which are often adaptations of the IC standards. The USEPA standards have been the most used, because not only has EPA done the most work on the subject, but also has a liberal publications distribution

program so that EPA publications are relatively readily available. The next step is to obtain a standard to be utilized locally. Often this results in promulgation of a standard which is simply unrealistic in that the local national establishment will not be willing to make the expenditures needed to achieve it. 3. An appropriate approach to setting standards in DMCs is to review the history of their evolution in the ICs, such as in the United States. Such review shows, except for a few standards that are directly health-related (such as the amount of mer cury that a human can tolerate), most environmental standards bear a close relationship to the country's status in economic development. By this means the DMC official can obtain guidelines on selection of standards appropriate for the country's current development situation.

B.

Water Quality Standards

4. The principles noted above have been recognized in some DMCs in the establishment of water quality (WQ) standards much less strict than for the ICs. For example, the USEPA standard of safety of drinking water froni pathogenic hazards, as judged by the coliform index, requires an average maximum density of total coliform of I per 100 ml, which is readily met in ICs where O&M quality is high. An appropriate standard used in some developing countries Is 6 per 100 ml. Slmilarly, a turbidity of 5 ppm is commonly allowed for filtered water In developing countries, com-pared to less than I ppm in the ICs.

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C.

Occupational Health Standards

5. This is another area of confusion in many developing countries, in trying to set meaningful standards for protecting the health and safety of workers, including protection from exposure to toxic substances, from explosions and fires, from excessive noise and vibrations, etc. Again, the answer Is not in copying IC standards, which may be unaffordable, but in setting requirements that match the existing economic/socioeconomic situation. 6. An excellent reference for detailed information on occupational health is the World Bank publication, Occupational Health and Safety Guidelines, Office of Environmental Affairs, World Bank, June 1984.

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ANNEX 111/9 : GUIDELINES ANNEX OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS

A.

Quality of O&M Equipment

1. One of the most difficult environmental protection problems in DMC9 relates to the use of equipment for water and waste treatment, for air pollution control, and other environmental protection purposes, which depend upon the proper functioning of equipment of the types used in the industrialized countries (ICs). The Project Consultants responsible for designing / implementing such systems commonly assume that, because such equipment does solve problems when used in the ICs, that the same will happen in the DMCs. Unfortunately, the Project Consultants are usually not involved in the project beyond the construction and startup phases, when they themselves are present to furnish expert guidance to ensure proper equipment operations. Tire assumption made by the Project Consultant is that the equipmentwill be operated and maintained in the DMCs at the same level of quality as in the ICs. Unfortunately, this is rarely the case, even when the Project Consultant's contract provides for training of local O&M staff while the Project Consultants are opt the job. 2. The reason for this is shown clearly in. the history of pollution control activities everywhere, including the ICs, in which it is noted that pollution control equipment is operated properly only when the applicable laws and regulations on maximum tolerable emissions are actually enforced, including operation of an effective periodic monitoring program. "No monitoring, no functioning" is the common saying. While sucli enforcement is the rule in practically all ICs, it Is not tire rule in most DMCs, because of lack of under standing that effective monitoring is essential to the overall pollution control process and hence the lack of willingness to fund the monitoring.

3. The project ITS must take this difference in O&M capabilities into account when selecting processing equipment and in planning the O&M program.

B.

Reasons for Problem of Inadequate O&M

4. A common assumption by the International assistance agencies (IAA9) is that the O&M problem in DCs can be solved by use of appropriate training programs. While these are helpful, the basic problem is usually the low levels of pay for O&M personnel. Once trained, the individual is prompted to seek employment elsewhere with pay matching his new skills level. 5. The 1AAs, Including ADB, need to give more attention to this problem in formulating Bank-sponsored project's.

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ANNEX III/I0 : GUIDLINES ANNEX CRITICAL PARAMETERS FOR OVERALL PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW

Based on experience of the U.S. Council on Environmental Quality, a number of questions have been developed for testing of the overall environmental appropriateness ofproposed projects. Adapting these to suit DMC conditions results in the following list of questions: 1. Will the project create unwarranted losses in precious/irreplace able natural or other resources? 2. Will the project make unwarranted accelerated use of scarce resources in favor of shortterm over long-term economic gains? 3. Will the project adversely depreciate the national energy and/or foreign exchange problem to an unwarranted degree? 4 Will the project result in unwarranted hazards to endangered species? 5. Will the project tend to intensify undesirable rural-to-urban migration to an unwarranted degree? 6. Will the project tend to increase the "income gap" between the poor and affluent sectors?

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF QUARRYING ACTIVITIES

1.0

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

- flying rock fragments (safety) - dust (air quality, health) - sediment (water quality, aquatic ecology)

Quarries are listed within the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order 1987, and as such an EIA is mandatory under section 34A of the Environmental Quality Act, 1974 for : Quarries : Proposed quarrying of aggregate, limestone, silica, quartzite, sandstone, marble and decorative building stone within 3 kilometres of any existing residential, commercial or industrial areas, or any area of which a licence, permit or approval has been granted for residential, commercial or industrial development.

2.1.3 Activity 3 (Rock Processing - Crushing & Screening)

- dust (air quality, health) - noise (health) - sediment (water quality, aquatic ecology)

2.0
2.1

KEY ISSUES
General Issues

2.1.4 Activity 4 (Transportation of Processed Aggregate)

- trucks/traffic (safety) - spilled aggregate (safety)

The key issues generally associated with quarrying activities are noise, vibrations and dust associated with blasting, and their adverse effect (or impact) on people living nearby (within 3 kms). These and other issues are presented in the following sub-sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.5.

2.1.5 Activity 5 (Abandonment)

- vertical cliffs (safety, aesthetics) - building & plant (safety, aesthetics)

2.1.1 Activity 1 (Site Clearing & Earthworks)

- removal of forest cover & terrestrial habitat (biodiversity, aesthetics) - loss of fauna & flora (biodiversity)

2.1.2 Activity 2 (Rock Extraction Blasting & Rock Breaking)

- noise (health, tranquillity) - vibrations (health, settlement)

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3.0
3.1

SPECIFIC EIA STUDIES


Noise Study

3.2

Air Quality Studies

In order to undertake an assessment and prediction of noise around a proposed quarry site a Noise Specialist will typically carry out the following tasks:

In order to undertake an assessment and prediction of air quality around the quarry site, an Air Quality Specialist will need to carry out the following subtasks.

3.2.1 Measurement of ambient air quality

3.1.1 Assessment of existing noise levels

Noise measurements would be undertaken at the nearest residential area using equipment such as the following : - Bruel and Kjwr precision integrating Sound Level Meter model 2231 with Statistical Analysis Module - Bruel and Kjwr precision Sound Level Meter model 2203 - SONY TCD-D3 DAT recorder The model 2231 meter allows measurements of L,o and Leq to be made directly on site. The model 2203 meter and DAT recorder enables calibrated recordings of the noise environment to be made, so that additional analysis can be undertaken at a later stage if required.

The main pollutant emitted from the quarry will be pulverised rock fragments. These finely pulverised rock fragments will range in size and form both deposited particulates and suspended particulates. Deposited particulate matter is dust or aerosol that, because of its aerodynamic diameter and density, falls from the air. In general terms deposited particulate has a diameter of greater than about 10 to 20/m. However there is no sharp dividing line between these particles and the smaller particles of suspended matter that more slowly fall out of the air. Suspended particulate matter is dust or aerosol that stays suspended in the atmosphere for significant periods. Its exact definition is dependent on the monitoring procedure adopted. In general terms suspended particulate has a diameter up to about 10 pin, although some particulate up to about 50 pm can be collected, and therefore measured, by the monitoring system. Ambient air monitoring for particulates (both deposited and suspended) can be undertaken using samplers specified in ISO/DIS 4222.2 and AS 2724.3.

3.1.2 Prediction of noise due to operation of the quarry

A computer modelling technique will need to be utilised to ensure that noise controls set by the Department of Environment can be achieved by the proposed quarry project. In some cases it may be desirable to measure noise levels from a trial blast at the site to confirm/calibrate the computer model.

3.2.2 Predictions of Dust from Quarry Operations

It is usually sufficient to utilise simple models for predicting dust emissions from the various quarrying activities, which can be used along-side USEPA emission factors.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF QUARRYING ACTIVITIES 3.3 Water Quality Studies The acceptance criteria need to take account of : - type and quality of construction and building materials - building foundations - age of building - duration of vibration effects - characterisation of vibrations

Blasting, crushing and processing (washing) rock for aggregate results in fine material which can be washed into receiving waters thereby adversely affecting water quality due to suspended solids. It should be sufficient to sample the closest watercourse upslope and downstream of the quarry face for pH, COD, BOD, suspended solids and oil and grease in accordance with DOE requirements. The suspended solids content of the water will inevitably increase as a result of quarrying operations, and practical recommendations will need to be made to ensure that the off-site water quality complies with DOE industrial effluent criteria.

Physiological Criteria

Human sensitivity to vibrations is very high with discomfort levels being affected by : - position of affected person - direction of incidence with respect to the human spine - activity of the affected person - community - age and individual characteristics time of day

3.4

Vibration Studies

Depending on the quarry location, vibration limits may need to be determined for the quarry site on the basis of international recommended acceptance levels for : structural criteria physiological criteria

The intensity of perception depends on the physical vibration parameters : - displacement, velocity, acceleration amplitudes - duration of events and damping characteristics - number of occurrences - vibration frequency

Structural Criteria

Induced vibrations may cause deformations and a range of forms of distress to building including : - cracking of walls and slabs - aggravation of existing cracking - displacement of equipment, cladding and roofing elements - fatigue and overstress in principal load bearing elements (continuous vibrations)

It may be desirable to monitor vibrations arising from a test blast at the proposed quarry site using seismographs set up at both the nearest residential area and at the closest ownship.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF QUARRYING ACTIVITIES 3.5 Fauna & Flora Studies

Quarry sites usually only encompasses relatively small areas of land. The amount of habitat is therefore usually insignificant in relation to the surrounding land area. It may be sufficient to undertake a qualitative assessment of the existing fauna and flora, in order to confirm that the area is not ecologically sensitive through meetings with DOE, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Wildlife Department and Forestry Department.

3.6

Social Impact Studies

The views of the nearest local community should be sought through interviews or a public meeting.

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