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European Diplomacy and the First World War 1870 1923

European Diplomacy and the changing balance of power after 1870
1971 - Germany unifies under Willhelm I of Prussia and Otto von Bismark This creates a rival to the already established powers of Russia, Britain, France and Austria-Hungary The Franco Prussian war has left France angry and in want of revenge Bismark tries a diplomatic policy to create a group of four powers against France Britain remains in splendid isolation Alliances included o 1873 Dreikaiserbund (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia) o 1879 Dual Alliance (Germany and Austria Hungary) o 1887 Reinsurance Treaty (Germany and Russia after falling out between Russia and Austria-Hungary over the Balkans) At this point France was completely isolated Kaiser Wilhelm II came to the throne in Germany and tried to resurrect Prussian militarism o Refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty Britain started to enter into European Affairs, Germany refused to copoperate Allied powers start to form o 1894 Dual entente (France and Russia) o 1904 Entente Cordiale (Britain and France re: African colonies) o 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente (Britain and Russia) and therefore the triple entente By this point Bismarks policy is reversed. Germany is up against the 3 powers with only the weak Austria-Hungary to support it.

Aims, Methods, Continuity and change in German Foreign Policy to 1914; Global colonial Rivalry
Bismark 1871 Germany unifies under Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia + Bismark as Chancellor AIM: to isolate france and guarantee German safety METHOD: Realpolitik using a power stratedy to guarantee Germany;s safety Treaty system fulfilled this

Kaiser Wilhelm II 1890 Kaiser Wilhelm II ascends the throne. Bismark resigns as chancellor. AIM: Imperialism gaining german colonies METHOD: Weltpolitik Refuses to renew Reinsurance treaty, to try to move away from Russia, to Britain doesnt work Triple entente formed instead reverse of Bismarks policy

Colonial Rivalry Britain had an enormous empire: The sun never sets on the British Empire o Made them very wealthy and powerful All other nations wanted to gain territory and land Germany and Italy were newly united, so they were behind the other countries Nations justified colonization by saying they were bringing civilization and technology to the other country Fiercest competition was in Africa. By 1975, most of Africa was taken. By 1900, only two nations remained independent 1905 - Russia looked for territory in Manchuria, but was defeated by the superior military of Japan looked to Balkans instead Germany tried to gain Morocco from the French, twice. both attempts failed

Relative Importance of: The Alliance system, decline of the Ottoman Empire; Austria-Hungary and Balkan nationalism; arms race; international and diplomatic crises
Decline of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire was very weak and its European territories were in the Balkans, where nationalism and Pan Slavism was a big issue. 1978, after Russia had defeated the Ottomans, Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro had gained independence o Autonomy was granted to Bulgaria under the Ottoman Empire o Austria was given Bosnia and Herzegovina to govern o Britain got Cyprus 1908 Austria Hungary annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina Slavic people objected Balkan league was created to protect Balkans against Austria Hungary The decline of the Ottoman empire provided a base for extreme nationalism that existed in the Blakans

Austria Hungary and Balkan Nationalism 3 Empires had interests in the Balkans Turkey, Austria-Hungary and Russia The decline of the Ottoman empire meant that it was quickly losing Balkan territory Austria-Hungary was failing as well in the 1900s and therefore desperately wanted more colonies southern Slavic nations were revolting with Serbia Serbia was a threat to Austria-Hungary Russia also wanted this land. The land that turkey was losing was being fought over by Russia and Austria-Hungary (The Eastern Question) while the Balkans people wanted nationalism and independence.

Arms Race 1890 Britain had best navy and control of the seas Germany started to build up its army and Britain felt threatened by this o Dreanoughts Britain brought the race back to 0 Britain was forced more towards France as an ally If there was no arms race, it may simply have been a cold war.

International and Diplomatic Crises 1st Moroccan Crises 1905 o German attempt to break up the Entente Cordiale o Kaiser declared support for Moroccan independence o Failed France maintained control nd Moroccan Crises 1911 2 o Rioting in Fez, so France sent troops to protect foreigners o Germany saw this as a French take-over and sent Panther gunboat o Germany laid claim to French Congo as compensation ut only received a small amount. o Another failure for Weltpolitik and strengthened Anglo-French ties Bosnian Crisis 1908 o AH and Russia made a deal in 1908 to take what each wanted in the Balkans and announce it at the same time o AH announced first so Russia denied that a deal had been made o Serbia revolted against the annexation of BB, so Austria mobolised against Serbia o 1909 Germany threatened war against Russia so Russia backed down 1st Balkan War - 1912 o Italy seized Tripoli so the Ottomans were distracted o Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro formed the Balkan league and forced the Ottomans to the Dardenelles o Balkan league divided up territory, great powers intervened AH wanted Serbia not to have sea acces, Russia thought they should Germany and Britain decided that it should not nd Balkan war - 1913 2 o Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece over land gained failed o Britain, France and Germany stopped Ah and Russia from starting a war o Russia and AH condemn their allies

Effect on Civilian Population; Impact of war on women socially and politically

Factors Leading the to defeat of Germany and the other Central Powers; Strategic Errors; Economic Factors; the Entry and Role of the United States
Factors Leading to the Defeat of Germany and other Central Powers Central Powers lacked manpower o 27 allied states: 4 allied powers o lacked as of military as well as farmers less food Wealth o US and Britain had a lot more money British Blockade o Germans starved of food and raw materials o Demoralization of troops o Revolt on the home front Geographical location o Surrounded by enemies o Had to fight on many fronts o Little coastline made blockade easy Invasion of Belgium o Strengthened anti-German feeling o Brought UK into the war Submarine Campaign o Un restricted- attacking civilian ships o Brought USA into the War Luisitana 1915

The Entry and Role of the USA Entry: Sinking of the Luisania in 1915 with the loss of 128 Americans encouraged public support for the war Unrestricted submarine warfare, resumed in February 1917, led to the sinking of US ships Investors had lent much money to the Allies and so had a major interest in an Allied victory Allied Propaganda aroused US sympathies Zimmerman Telegram (Germany proposing anti-US actions with Mexico) Role A year before US had any real impact, boosted morale Encouraged Germany to launch its offensive in March 1918 American troops provided relief for British and French troops inexhaustible supply of men Wilsons 14 points