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lI

INIOI,SE RE,DIU'CTI'ON 'TECHNII'QUES, IN IEL,ECTRONIIC, SYS'TEMS


HenryW., Ott
,lqistIl:1giuis.hiediMemb'Elir o~ Technic.al St~.fif"
AT&T BElli L.a.,boratories

A WILEY~I.NTERSC~ENCEPUBLlCA'fION JOHN WILEV' ,I SONS INew¥ork '.Chichi&ster' if Briisbane... To!~(mto.' Singapore

Everything N/zould be made as simple'(L~ possible; but nO si:mpter.

Cop'J"righl,©
i'llbtisflcd

198:8 Ihy' AT t'<:T Beli laht)r;'C'{)rie.s~· ,b~ Juho W~;ley&. SOl\!;, 19:1(::
P\ltlt.~shed ~i.m!!!lta1'1-t=(Jc!sl~ Cauada, i.n

All rights reserved.

:R;epmd,udio:n £If translation of ·'IilY p<lrt of tll!s work b~}'QllClth~H permitted by ~ecljo'n Ul:] err 108; ,on he 1976 Uillted: Sl.at~s C[lp~'dgl:Lt AC~ 'i/.·ilh~mt the j."lcrmi~sio[l. of !h+ G(lpyrig!li uWn.:;r i~:L1!i1lawful. Requ~I!;L, for pei!'m~~~i~.l'I1. f~lf[her 'ilif~Tmatkm should be adid,~med to or tine Perll'l.i:~~ltrn$ Depa.rinieil1, J~ih!1 Wile:}' & $'0115" Inc. LJbmry ,of CQ!jgn.~'s Cafitfl'Qgin'g
ilk

,Puf).u;Cil.tiQIj

.Valn:
s~'S:I~[m f

-~d.
p.

Ott, He;IM~W., 19:M~ Nq~~ I~cll!lc,tioll t~c.hni.qIl!CSill electronic

..

Hen rv W. OK -

em.

,.,A ·\1!Ii1e.)'.Inter.~d~ncc publication ." rndLltlcs bibiloS.t<Jiphi~:!i. ISBN 0--4;11 -.s,:5{J6S..]


1. E~eCi.l'ofli(; l;1J:Cuits-Noise. 1. Tnle. l'K1l:l67,$.'007 W,s8. g7~2'24lB

··ti21.~ilJ S'l---dcI 9
Pril1t~d

in

tile Uflit~-cl St8~~~

ot

Ameriea

Mucb has occurred h) am~C'l: the field of ek,ctrQm&gn,edccomp;atibm ty (EMGJii1i the I lycars since the first edition of this book, was published, The (woinost important developmentsare the proliferation of digital dCdmnics Iii .the consumer marketplace and the establishment of rules on crnlssion :;;.al] tral from. dig[la~ systems by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). As a result interest ill the Mtbj eel ot EMC~]<ISincreased dramatiea.]];", Thefust edition coeered basic theory ifnQcmphasized reducing the sus.~e:pti.biht y nf electronic systems ,. There is now a need for information On ~on,t~(.)mng the em~S'Si,Qnfrom eo! ct ronlc systems. especia Ily d:igila'ls)'Sf~m~~, e and Oil ]Ol,'!{·~\~l$ttechniques for providing EMC for ccnsamer pro ducts sold
e,

'in H ccmpetitivemarker.
susceptibility

In ad dititH1

l hereis

increased eoncernabo irt the

of electro-nic. systems :I:D electrostatic discharge, Thi's edition was written to address these issues. VIrtually. an the material. eoatained In the first edition :IS sdll ,~pplieflLMe ·a~.d has been Te;~ained_ Three new chapters have been added 011 the-subjects :Pt noise Bind radiation from digi tal. electronics and electrcsta tic discharge. . Chapter T was rewritten and. now includes material on the FCC regulations: Chapters 2 to 7 were updated and contain new material; Cbapters 8 >~u1d are. unchanged: Chapters l[)~ U, and n are uew, Chapter ~I) COVC·'s '9 "'d~gh<lil c,!"l'~~]t. noise and ~ yo~ul. Chapter 11 is; on d ~gitai .circuit rad ~;atiGn,and a 'Gbaptelf 12 deals wi lh' electrostatic ..discharge, ] n. addition <1 new 'appendix has been included FCC EMC test procedures (Appendixf"). .. .l would like to express t~ly 'g,ratit:ude and app:n;cialioll to all [hose who took the time to commen t on. the fin;;t edition of thebook and 'to those who ,enr.:ouHlged me to wri te this .second edition, In particular, I WQ;U ld ti ke to thank Scott Roleson, Bob German, and Dr. Clayton P'J;:Iu1 for the. many fruitful discussions we had on the subjcclor EMC I owe.a special debt of appreeiation to Eva Carter for 'her superb editing .of the m anuscript, A special thanks al so gees In Dan Johnson who worked out all the problems in thcflrSI edition andpointed out errors" Hna,tly, I wquld like to thank: all my colleagueswho wok the time; to review this manuscript and make useful r.:omuil,enrn and suggestions.

on

HENR\'
i!;.frif4gSlt'm"

W., On

lufy 1981

"",few ltl.r~e.y
vII

PREF'ACE, TO FIIRST EDITI~ON


This book covers the pra!di~;i;l;l aspects of noise .suppression ..and contra] in ,;e1eciIOi!licCi.r,e:Ul'K.U tntcn'ded primarily for the practicing t'ngin;e,er who is involved in the design of electronic equipment 'OJ[ sYSl:.ems,.and also <.IS a text 'fot· te1JI::h~ng the pta~'l:ka.1nspects ,Of neisesupprcssion. The concepts Qf noise reduction presented in the hook can be applied to. circuits operating from <liudIofrcque!Jicies through VHF. More emphasis is placed on low- to wid-frequency noise problems, however since these are the least documennted in lexlstiiT1g literature. Some OE the most difficult and frustrating problems faced by design 'engfrie,ers eoncern eliminanon of no ise from their circuits or systems. Most bllgineers are notwell equipped to handle noise problems, sInce the:subject .1~ no.l normally taught in engineering schools, and what llteratureis avail~~bl,~' 'ivide-I)" sea nereid anwng many different ]ournals, 'is 8o:lutlolil!.> noise prob lems are usually fo:ul1d b'j' tria] <1t}d to error with little (!T no understanding of tile .mecharrisms Involved. Such effortsare very time consuming andjbe sohnicns may prove unsadsfactoryif the equipment ts . moved to 8:.. new environ ment, This Sl tuation ,is unfortun ate, -since most of ~be principles- involved are simple and can be explained by .elernentary

is:

This text began as .a.set oflecture notes for an oat-of-hours course ,gjven ~tBd1 Labnrajories and later presentedas part of dle in-hours Doh.dnning ~du:(;atioJ'llprogram .at the laboratories. The approach used in the text is de."igf] oriented, with the amount 3IlG 'co.mpJexity ofmathematics kc.p! to a minimum. In some cll&es,models representing phys,icill phenomena 'have 6e~f! slmtp~tfie.d to pI\1vide more useful results Bymaking realistic si:mpl ifying assumptions. results having dear physic.\! m~aning ~:i:eobtained, . The organizat]Dn of the material is; ss (o~lbws,ChaplG"r 1 is an introduction CO the subject otnoise reduction, Chapters 2: 'and 3 COVeT the two primary IIH;:· of nDi.se:ooIlt,O~: shielding and grounding, ans respectively, Chapu:;r 4 covers .other noise redu·ctioll techniques Such as balandl]g~ deeoupling, and filtering. Ch.~pte.l' 5", on. pa8~i\'e eomponents; covers the ,chrlfOlctc.ristics ,rhat affect the components' noise performam::e and 'their use in noise re duction circuitry" Cl:lapter:6 provides ',S!. detailed ,m:ltysis of the .shielding effectiveness of metallic sheets. Chapter 7 covers IeJi,lzYsand switcbl~s <lind ui~cus~,es methods of reducing noise generated by thew devi.orcif, Chapter 8 covers intrinsic noise sources that .result in a theoretical
Ix

physics.

PF.E;FA.CE O'cl FI,*,:T ~~1.:j10''.i;

minimum level of r'i()i};er"C~e:I"HIn Jc ,ci.rcu~Lth,rptcr 9 .dis~iJS};es nclsc In transistors an(li~tcgraUtd (:;irOuits. At tbe end ·ofe:at~h chapter is:· a SllHIIU<li!;:}' -Gf~he most import:3rH points, discussed; Ferthose desiring .lLkli'tionalinft rmatlon a bibliography is also im.:tudcd. I.n addition, Appendix A discussesthe de~ib(,ll al1d~[S"'I]M:: .in noise measurements .on vo'icc· rmq lu;mc:y:iin.aiog communications' ","y"slems. Appendii B (pn~i5.ct1ted .i[I the EOfl!110f ~i.che ck Jist) is. 'all Uye;i;al_lsllmmary .of the mo.rq com mPJd.Yll!s~d Il.;tiise. edudlorl lc~hrli.qUlc~~ H.cvicw pn)htem:s~~" tf;1;ch r dKiJJt~r can be found in Appeudix :Wilh' answers in Appelldi.:ll:. E. .1·w~h 19 express rny gratitude: to ML $, '0, Willi.an1s,. Jr. who eoUabo~ rated with me DU. an. '~j[igin,tl set Wrrintr:~~()[ 'JflQhie:.,~oifltmr scmiliwT .. Th<!.~ workprovided tile seed f t:{)rn wh lch tI{us.b,~ok grew ...T am ';3.15$)' gf,ait.efL(l totrre mallY stucl~1'J s whose enthusiasm prov~dit';d the incentive- to cominne thi.s r

C'ONTENTS
SYJMBOLS

IINTRODUCTruON D:IBsign [ng fbrEH~ch·0m.agnetiG Compahb'iJily.


EIMC R:e'~IlII;;;ttfoirll, B Typical INonse pa:th. '16 Use oj INeMbrio;'H1IE%)ry, Melthod:s IQf Neiss 1'~ 22 260 4

wOFk. SpedaI thanks to ME. F.. p, Sulliv.m ,lftdMi"s5- A. L.· W;jsse.r tor their tecliuieal e:[iiting of the m3!r:lusetipL and. 10 Mr" L. E.. Mnr.rh, .and Mr .. T). N.
Heitman fM~'heI!' many helpful suggesdons. In: addtNon I would

like to

(han k 11]1 Illy coIJe<1"gu who reviewed the manuscript, ftlf their useful es (;iOn:lffi.r;lTlts.Fipally., [w.('rL1kl ~i,keto espress my' gral~itu!ile to Bell Lahorateries for their cooperarion and support,

coop Ii t'rr!9,

Misc~;llarYepus Noise S{lurl!)es, 23 Methods of Eliminati ng Int'erien;mee:, su mm~ary..,2t6 8ibliography,' '2:7

Whipp€l11Y,

Nel~Je:t.\:"i.'Y

.Ju/}, 1975

',2

'CABtiNG
'C~apaCit:l\1e 'Coupling, .30 BMst of S nj:e~don Gapac:Jltive COLJP~ing;. ,33 it:lIdu c1iv8 Coupll~ng,. :37 Mutual ~ nductance G@:I~culations, :4(l Magnetic Coupling
Eff~c'I: oJ Sh~el:d on Mar;!~~ic CtlLJpliin~, 42 bletwe@fl! Srdisld .H'i,di !rm.ei: Cotllducofor, Slhi'9~ding·"to Pn;;!vellt Mag 19,et~c Radiation,. 50

29

42

Shielding' a. R.eoe·ptor a..g~insI Ma~fnetic Fieids, Shield l'ransfe'r I mp·edanoe '55 Ext>erim E)ht13Ji Data, 56
j•

5"2"

Example. of SglecUve. $hi.eldijng,

600

Coa;xi all G;;lb~e V:ierSiJS Sri ie!ded Twisted Pai)", .6 1 Braided Shields, 6.2 Eft,ea ,ot P,l'gtails" 63 R.ib'boi'i Cahl'Elsl 67 ElectricaUy Long Ca,bles, 69 Summary,. 701 Bibliog ra;ph-y. 700

3 GROUND'ING
Safety G rotl!l1ds,

NOise in Resistor!»,

147

73,

Si'gnal Grounds, 75 Single-P'oJl1t Ground Systems, 77' Multi:p'oint Ground Sys.tems., 7(;) Hybrid Grounds,; B1 Func'Uonall GJQIJ.nd layout, <82 Practical low-Frequency Grounding,
HardW;;t(9

Coriducto'fS" 149 Feriite Beads r ' ~ 0;2 s urnmary,,157


Bibli:ogra,phy; 158

,'6 SHIELOING
82, Nefiir Fi;elds,'and Far Fields, 15-9 Cha,racteri s,tic and Wa.ve imped,anc~s, S~ield.i.ng Effectivene.ss, 164
Absorrption
LOeSS,

Grounds"

84

, ,62

Siinghe·Grdund !Reference 16ra, CTrcu~t, 86 .AmpliUer ShieI:O"s., 88 Hrou tidiri',9 of Caible Shiel ds, 89 Ground Loops, ,93 Low-Frequency' ,Analysis of Comntlon~Mode Cholke. !9& High- fr,equency ,Analysls,of CO!fnmon~Mode Chok€l, 100 [) ifl'ere!J1t~alAmpHfi,ews. 1 Q2 Shield Gmundil1lg ,at High IFrequElr:ilcije,s,10~ Guard Shj,e Ids, 100. Ouar,ded Met'e'!is, 110 Sum mary, 1. '.13' 'BibliogFI~phy,,1. ~4
1

Loss, i: ,69 Com PQs:~te' Absorptien and R'eflec~i,on loss, Summary Qf S hieidi'li'Ig Equ~tion5, 1sq' Shie!dingl with Magne,fic Material" 182 Experimental Data, 1,85 Apertures; 187 Waveguide BelOW Cutoff; 1"92 Gonduduve Gaskets, 193

1<136

Refi action

118

CQnductiv$

Wil1dOloVS,

19:5

BALANCING' AND F'I'l"f'ERI,NG Ba.ianciU1g" 1:16 Pow9:r-SuppTy lDeooupHrlg, 122 Decoupli ng Fiilters, 12-13 Amp'lifier Decaupling,129 DrMng Capacitive Loads, 130 High - fMqlllJency F~ Itering, '33 System Bandwidlln I,t 34
ModulattitDI"!and Coding. 134

116

Conductive Do alings , 1,9B Cavity Resonance, 1,98 G',om'fding o,f ~h~el(1s! 199 Summary, 189
Bibliography
s

202

'7

CONTACT

PR:OTECT'ION 2'04

203

GI'QW Dlscharqes, 203. MetaWapor 0 r Am Dlscharg'es, AC versus IDC Circuits. 2'06

$t,lmlilary, '37 Biblliog rap hy.; 1,37 5 IPAssmV'E COMIPON!E!NTS Capacitors, Inductors, 1i 37 137

Ha
145-

TraJnstorme.rs,

Re'sistors.. 146

Contact Material" ,207 Contact IRatTlng,;."207 loads with Hi~ghIlnl0ush Cu rre nts, 208 I!nductlve Loads, ,20.9 Conta'i;t Protection Fundamentalsj 21 'I' TrsnsisntSuppresslon tor Indu.ctive loads,. 216 COifilta'C!: l1ot.ecti;onN<etwo~ks for Indl.lGtive, loads ,,219 P ~nduc~~velcaq,s GGr'ltroll'ed by a Tralllsistor Switch, 222 ReSistive Load CQntact Pro,tection, 223'

':X.V·

Contact Ipwo.tealion SelElcHon Guide~2Z4 Ex;a;m pies, 224


Sl,Jlmmary~ 2'2'6 8ibHogr~phcy. 226

lnternal

Noise S""ourrc,es,

277

D.i'gijta~ Gin::~it G rmJIlld .NGuse, 280 Pow,elF :Oistri:bLiti@,21;lB .

NoJs!e Voltage Ob]edives.


$O'IJI'RCIES

2913

INTRINSIC

NOISE

228

'Mea$!;I rill'lg NIoi;se, Voltage:s;


Unused Inputs
J

2·g:4

295 .295 2.96

"[herm al Nojse,.

.228

logh~-FamilTe'-5!:,

Grrtlr!3ict~ri5,UrcS 'of TtH3,rm.i;,1! NQi:se~' .232 Equivalent Noise Ballldw~dth, ~M

SummaJi'y. a9'6
B~:bliography,

S.Mt No[se,

238.

Contact NoIse,. .,2"$"8 Pop~tf1l NoJse·,. .2:39 .Addi.ti'Ql1of Noise. \$6.itpg·es, 240 Meas!J1rifll,!;I1 Rarr'ldQm, N Oi~H;2411 .SIWn:U!Il.~ry, 24.2
Bib~ioglaphy.a4·3

11

DIGm'f AL C!I'RClJliT

R.AD1ATIO N 306

Dflffe,r.enti aI-Mode !R1:3;oijaj;tion, ,2,98, Cio;rdroU~ng Difiteretntlial~Mod!;l H8!d'i afien, Gommon-Mode R ad latien , 31:3
Engine,er:~1f)g,DQC.\,llmenta.tlOtli·and 'Summa~ry, 21 s

Golntml Hr]g Gomm,oH"M ode R:ad~ationi315

EMe,

0·1':3

.ACTIVE DEVICE I~OISE No~~e·Factor, 244Mie,2lSlUlr,ement ·o·t :NOiiS~ Factor.;2!.46

B!b~iQ;gJl!l;p 9 hy,32
EL.ECT'ROSTA

·1.2

no D IS(~HA.RGJE
.327
:332

3\22

C-aRc:ula.tlng$l N .R8i:tio and lnput NoTs1e.Voltage Faoto r" .2.49'


Nlois!ft Vol~age

fJ10m Noi-se

Stat~cGer:lera.t;ion.3'22

H umah Body Model,


·Ei~m Pro.teylipri!

Meas~rement of Vni;lnd Ill' 253 C.aH::~,MHingN o!ise .Factor "S,:nd S j N 'Ratio frqm ¥.", -J,.~, .253 OptImum Source Re'sTstanoe. .2:55· Nouse ir,B!clQf of Cascaded ',S:tag'i;ls, 2;.57 Noise Temp,erature, ·~H3.0 8:ipo!ar Transistor NO~.M~ '2.61 JUnlctipn H~il!d Eff,e9t Transi:sJDl NQtse, 20:4 Noise· 111.e Operalronal: Amplirfi,e,rs, 2€F7 I
Summary, 272:
j

and ClJrrenl Mod@~,,25·a

Static D i sch,(;iI~g,e, 3,30: in ~q uipm.enl Design, Software and ES D prote~tkm, 3·44· ES!D\lersus EMC. 348 Summary., MH Bibliography, ,;349 The IJiecibel IWsing Jhe Dedbe~ tor other· Thal'1

AP[p,ENm;<, A

351

Power H:at~os, :351


35;3

Pow~r Loss or Nega:fiy,e .Pdwelr· Gain,

B~b.I£oigraptJIY 272'

Absolute Pow,elf Levei,


Noise

ga3

to

mGllTAL

ICII.R.cIlll~'f NQISE AlI!'lilD LAYOIUIIT


·275

Mea;sum:~mell1ts.~ 354,
356

274

:Cmc5st.:a~kUnU:s. 3,56
,S,umm'i rlg Pow€.rs E}tpress€lQ iln DeGi.t:H~ls i

Frequency versus T~m!e Domain,

Ana!log versulS D~giJtaJ CircLlW;;, D[g It~! lDgic N6j~,e, 276 .

.2·16 359

APPENDIX

Multiple Shie:lds

Reflections

of Magnetiic F'lelds in Thinr 36.2

:APPIENDiX, P'roblems O APPENDIX E Answers to ProbWems Emectroma'gneUc procedu res


COIin:pat!ibilii~

365

SYMIBOLS
A
A
:it Area Voltage gain Ab$urplion Magnetic IO$s,.(dB) flux
dCj:jj:;j ty

.APPEIN'DiIX F

TestIng

!FCC Methods o,f Mlea$u rem;efl~ 0,1' Radio, Nlo]se Emi'ssiion:s From CompuUng Devioes. 39,9 419

11'

'Multopl e reflection

correction

factor (dB)

.0·
C' n (.: D.
rd,

aw

B.

.Noise bandwjdth
Bandwidth Capacitance Fourier genies co efficient Distri bu ted canacl tance of transmission i Center Distance Diameter Duty cycle to center distaner:

o. .r
"d' E e

lim:"

between conductors

Electric Iidd
Base of natural N\lisc factor Frequency Shield cutoff f,feqruency logarithm (2:..71.83)

,1.

J~3-dB

T. for
"

h,lndwidth Re soil an t freq uency


A lpha cutoff frequency Avai ~abl e power gal n

(;~'

'G
,g!~ .$ t ! Ii It

Source: 'admittance
Forward Input Height Current Minimum arcing currcat transconductance adminance of conductor abovegroun d pi ane

MagDlietic field
&'pticiTigof ffat.ccnductors

h
I
fA

.xiil(

Direct currem 1If- noise ell rre nt


GliO\H1d.'cuncill

ORc.

B~
R'<I<

Conductor resistance .Scries resista nco: of capac:i lor


.dc resistance

Gate leakage 'Current LQl:Id'


CUlITCnt

Rf 1\.(;

Re:;;rstance of fuse' Ground res istance

Arbi trary noise ·C'lITem

JR,

Differen tfal mede current


Conunen-mcde Current Current
CUIT~ 01'

If ..

l-

Load re.sll);uulCe
: SUUPi_':C'

.1 nth harmonic n
·811

:R'~ Fjd
Rr
f 1'~

.Sblel.d resistance resistance

\Source f~sislanoe for minimum Distribured Radius Base resistance. Collector Emitter

noise facc~or
line model model

Eql!:ivalerit input' noise current time


J

reslslanc:.c of transmission in T-equivaJent

= ()

Source current Shield current

transistor

»; S

resistancein

T-r;:quivaknt

transistor

Shot noise current The rmal noise ~urrent


~l1;st"ritilm;.~OU;<; curren

resistance in T~{:quh,!.alen'ltransistormodel Shielding effectiveness (dB)


ra lio f.at~~or

U nit vector along D maginary axis


Arbi trary .inte gCF Constant Boltzmann's constant eoupling Coefficient of magnetic I nduGt,OJr{c;.e

S~l
rr.. T
h,. Tfl

S,IN

Signs:Htl-noi8JC power Sign1~l-to-noise PerIod Tr;mp~r:.:llurc Equivalent Time Thickness

irnprovement

K K k k

input noise temperature temperature

Stand.;trd reference

L
L•.

Ls

Series inductance of capacitor Shield inc! uctancc


Dist6bullr;:~! inductance L e"F1gth
l

.t

i.
l~fiC

Pu] se T.! se time


Voltage

L'T'
I litf
In

of transmission

Mini mu m a rei ng voltage


Glow discharge Common-made
fUl.1iCli911

Mn nul in dll~~an{;:c Integer Network

bseakdown

voltage

noise voltage

N
It

Contact villllagc

iVf' Q:

Integer Noise fl"uFe. ',~

Power Noisepower ourput Charge Qu,3J:lity faJ:.wr

Pn,o

'Vc; Va

V,k
Rr.

Supply voltage de-voltage Gn~und volbtge Glow disch arge sustaining voltage

wad voltage
Diffc-f1.mti.~l (m~t.'~llk) DUlse voltage Arbitra ry noise voltage Eq uivalent

'Q
'q

,R
R

Ch<.iq,ie. OJ] .electron


Resistance

y.\i
y;v
\t~

Retleetionloss ac resistance

(dB)

Equivalent

input noise voltage input device nnj;sc voh,!.lgc

Output nnJ5cvultage

v~
r

Total 'equivalent
SOI!1r0C ...oIttlPe~ " . '--~

input noise vo'ltage

V "~r Vs:

Sh1e:h] voltage:
TTILe.I.'nl noise <II

voltage

Widttll of ronduC:ltrr

Impm1a:n:ec,
CoUec:~m impedance"

NQ'ISE REDU:CT~PN 'TECHNIQUES ._ 'IN E.ILECTRONIC SYSTEMS . .

Eminer imrcdTin~1t.Load "impedance Characreristic Characteristic i'mp~,d~r,ce of tt,msrnissiQJ1 impedance [.j ne

ofmedi urn

ShIeld. ~.np~dfiirl!Ql;:. Transfer impedance \Vnvc .~ mped,8!rlce r\:ntinn;ul ~ms~ .enrremgaiu Common ~e'IUitte:rcnrre ~~t gain

Corretnion
S:]{:in depth

0(\0(:

ffi'ci,enl

Di,[,'!ec;~ri:ccpnsr<('J]t l
Relative die ~ecu:ic llom.Jarrt D aJnpfng bt.::itOF

Shid d fac(ttlr
Angle. WaViek:;rl gl.~ Permeability
·W

Relatfrve penneabillty 3.14Ui

R:esiMi·v:ity .R,rilJlti:ve l~esi:!;Uvity CondlJl!C[[v{ty


Re laJt~l.'ct.::pnd!uedvlt)1

Dc;co.ly time Magn;etic P1U'l::


R.a?iai] .f.ti;:'quericy

(2an

2'1TL

11'_

INTR,ODUICT'ION

Ti~~wiJc~Pfe'ad use <lof electronic '(;~rc:uilS for commurncatioe. eomputation, antornarion, and other pmp~'i$cs. makes it necessary tor d!vcrsCc circuits 10 operate in close proximity, AI! too often 'thew circuits affect each. other
adversely: EJec~:rom,agn~ti~interference (EM]) has become .<;! major problem fOT circuit designers, an~! it is, likely to become more Severe in the fl1(ureL The farge number of electronic devices in common use is' partly JN8pm1sible fl~r l hi S tre nd ,Ell addition th c use of integra ted circuits ~md J,arge-s6tlt integration has reduced the size of electronic equipment. As :~jrcultr} has become smaller and more sophisticated, more circuits ate being ?c+tlwded inti) less space. thusincreasing the probability of interference. .. Tod~~/ . ;; eLI ui pment ·de~jgn:er~,n.ccd to do more than jus l make: their ~)~~cms 0 perate under ideal co editions in the 1 aboratory. Bes ides rha t
;~~ff:

ci,bvioU'stask; they must also make surf; the' equipment wlll actually workin "real world, "·wi.th other ,equipm em nearby. Tbi ~ means IIIat the ,eljluipment ~bouIJ not be affected by external rroise sources, and. should not itseU be " W~I"CC: of noise to the environment. Electromagnetic compalibilil}'

{EMC) -should hen major de~i*n objectlve,

, 1n Fig. 1-.1. the b lock di agram of a [a,dio. receiver is used as all exam ple to d'epk:t the various types of interference that CJn occur inequipment. The ",~1rintbetween the various stages couduets noise, and SOme stages. radiate T1o:ise, 111ad~li ~h:m ground currents from the various stages flow through ,:i. ;commpn 'ground impede nee andproduce a noise voltage on the ground bus, Electric and magnetic lih:::l.d coupling between sig[!als Iii various conductors is' ~h:~ci hOW.ll_ These nois-e problems <llf'~ examples of inrraequipment intcrfcrS ~h0e that must be solved b~'f{';te~he radio opeJ~tl.t~ the laboratory" 'Wh,en the T'l.difl is ~nstrall.edin the: "real world" it becomes exposed ~o "additn,on.aiexternal nobesom6;,~~ such .a,s ~howli iii Fig. 1~2. Noise currents ',~re conductedinto the reed Vet on the ac pnwer r]n~, andthe radio. recei ve r i:.- .cxposcd to electromagnetic radiation frnrn various sources, II"! this case the nolse sources. are nut Linder [he designer's control, However, the unu

'.,.ill.

·in·

must still he designed toeperate


Figure 1-3 depictsthe
0 rhcr

in thiscnviroument,

5Hd~of the noise problem. The: radio caa be. a 'source of noise th'fl mayinterfere with other equipment. Pans of the circuit radiate 1101se directly, and the power cable conducts noise to other circuits, Norse- current fk)wing iril the power lead causes thelead to radiate <:ldd~tiolTa~ noise. Designing equipment tu·miIlim.ize noise generation js equally as, impnrtant a'S :d(l,~igning equipment th"I;J is not susceptible to interference.

·OESIGN1,jIJG F()B ElEG.rnOMI\.GNET1C

COMR'ATAflILIW

(Z) not be a source of poll u;lkl]l to th at environment.


·.e.lwirnmnent
"iELEPj-ilOt.'E

The cledwma~net.j,c:

is composed Qf both I<uJiatcd and conducted ·energy. EMC 'therefore has tV.'0 aspects, cml5i~ion HJiJd suseeptiblliry, S IUsoeptiljility 1:) the: ·cap:iihil.il y off (I die.vier: OF circuit to respond to eli device

1/
COIi[nJC Etl ~-"""-'--'~ -.- -_._, .
. q I I .l(al~E ,
./

unwanted .electrical energy [i,e .• noise]. The susceptibility level of a circuit is the' noise en vi mn ment in' v.ih]l:.~h the ,c'quipmem can operate "sat:is£actoli.IY, \l<'itholJ1t dcgrada tien, and with a den ned margin of safety, The: oppoSii'fC: f ~Ilsceptibil'ity is immunity. One difiic.ulty in .tklcrrnini[tg immunio (aT suscepti hil]t y) levelsi defi.l.l~ng w hal .constitutes perfo rmanee degradalion. Emissinn pert<l.'i[ls, to ~Ile in terfcrence-causing potential of a product. The purpose of controlling emissions is to limit the electromagnetic energy

tr'

~m'ined • and thereby control . ,t~d products must operate.

the electromagnetic environment jn which C..oTi ~.ro~Hng the emission from One product

·.!!le.

I~O'NlEjiI CI~"L":tJ11

r,i4:.u,r,e 1,·3. Elrcrnmic ~'irn!iLL Cm,sJdtnuiori

~'quipm£/rr silch rT.!S tiris' radio t"lm ';';ml( 'Wi.I',f! dUll may ll1fP.'fiJ.l·:'" wirh oIlier uf nols« riming flq;w'pme.m desijtIJ (Yfn wmiJ .rJrl'.W emissions,

Noise -.E~ any electrical signa;1 pecsent in a circuit other than the- desired signal. This definition does not apply to the distorrlon pr-oduetsplioduced Jil a c~ifC'~.il to noubnearities, Althou~h these distortion products mar be due u.[(ldc;sm~bIe" they are [lot considered noise unless 'Lh~y get coupled into a~lOt~er part of the circuit.. U follows that a .desired signal in nile part of a CIrcuiI is oonsidc.njJj to be noi:sc; .Oll~y if coupled to some other part 0 f the circuli. Noise s,our~.(:S C:,1ll be grouped int)p three categories: (1) imrinsit, noise sources 't'lJi at arise Jromrar1!dom .fh:lct:uat~t)IiI,~\¥i:th~,l.l phy~ie~ ~syste ms, such a::;: thermal and shut 110]st., (2) man-made noise MJ.UI'CeS, such as motors. switches, digital ek:clrnrric.s, and radio transmitters, and (3) noise due to natural disturhOllnCeS", such as lightning and sunspots. . , Interference i,~ the undesirable effect of noise. [f 11 noise voltage causes rmproper operation of a circuit, irt 'isinlCr:r'~ml'we" Noise cannot he elimlnated hut only reduced in magnitude, until it no long~r 'I.·'lU'l)~· iuterference.

mayeliminate an interferenceproblem for urany other products. Therefore it: is desirable tOC:OHlro! emission in an attempt [0 pro duce an electrmna.g:nedcaUy eompatible environrncnt. To some extent sU~FceptDhllity is. self-regolating. Ira product is susceptible .t the envirrmmcnt, the customer will become aware of it· an d may not continue to: purchase it. Emission, on the other hand, tends 110t. ttl be. 'seji~-Fegul.adng, A product ~h111 isthe source or cmi:~s'ini1 ulay not be ,l]ffe~~ed. QY that emission. As <I. result yarious regulatory bod ies have: 'im posed standards to control emissions [torn certain classes ()(rF~oduClS, EMC designcan boo approached ill eit her of tW9way.~:; one is l he: crisis: approach. and Lite 'other is the systems app.l"()\t)C]I. In the crisis approach the dt:sigl'icr proceeds with a tutal disregard [If EMC J,Wl;~ the design is finished, and testing OI-wonc· yet--lidrJ' experience. suggests that <I problem exists. ~olutioIl;S, irnptemented at this latc .stage, are usuallyexpenslce and consist
of undesirable "Hdd-o.ns .' Tbis is, otten refc rred '1''0 as the ":l:l'al'ld-Aid' approach . . A~ fGuipment development progresses Jrcm design 1'0 testing and to pro duction , the variety of noise mitilgalk!U techn]ques1!Yf'lir.able to the de~:igTlcr decreases steadily, Concurr(mtl~, cost goes' lip. Thesetrends are ~l'1Qwn ill fig. - 1-4.. Eady soh,.ll~0 ns [iJ interfercrrec . problems •. therefore ,~rf'(';. iitSl!"lI~'Ii best and l'e·<ll.ll expensive; Th~ systems approach .considers EMC throllgliom the design; the designer anticipates EMe problems at the begianing nf theprocess, finds the rcm.aining problems ill the breadboard and early prototype stages, and tests the Bnal prosctypes for EMC as thoro ughly a~ possible. This way EM C becomes an integral part of herth the electrica 1. ~ nd mechanics 1:dell,lgn ofthe product. AS' II re'$ull EMC is deslg,Dcd into-and [Jot added onto=the ·p'T,odur.:t,and tMs is 11 more cost-effective approach. If noise s.\:IPWr.;:;s·!j;lonis onsidered for one stage or subsy s te m at a time c when the equipment is; being designed, the TI01:)c mlti.gaIlon techniques are slsriple andstrai ghHb rward, Exp ericnce has shown that when noise: supprcssi{',~ i~ handl,ed this 'W<1Y, the designer should be able to pmdHt~ equipment

IDESl'uiNllNG IFOREILECTROMAGNETIC,

COMPAT~BIUTY

He,c!tto61l1<lgnedc oompatihil.ity (EMC) is the abilitv


to
0(

I) function

properly

in it:\; intended

0:[ an eJ~ctrnnie System eICdTcin1<~gnetk:'environmern,

and

Ii'MC'RE.GULA'I'ION>S

AVA.llP.,BL.f:
RELATIVE COST
TO SOLVE

TiEC.I-llNIQUES

TESTING PHASE

,f'FlOOU eTION
PHASE

AND

iNOI:SE PROBLEM

EOLlIP'MENTDE~/ELOPM"ENli,

'hIM!§: SCALE

Ffgu.re 1-4. "As t!qufpm:ei"l! (/ei>(.lop,'uf!lJi 'pm ..e(.(l~., tiJe nl.l.lIIlter 'of (WIfJ'JilNe Iloisl'-r,i?d.fJcrh:m tecnl'ljqu,fs, ,g,oesdt.i~J.L At !},[e same time .tlr~ CO.I'! rJl noise reduction g.ORS· IIp_

'ksting_

with .90% or more of the porenrial noise problems, On the other l'l.,:uld, a system, designed with complete

~Hmina!cd prior to .
disregard

to

noise.

in its operationis capable of emiuing, iI.lten" Dona]!'!!'or unin tcn!iol(1a,u y. radio- frequen c)' clle.rgy by radia tion, conduction, :6f' sl~nie other means .. Radio-frequency energy is defined by the FCC as an}' elcctrcm agnetk t.ner!..", in the, frequency range of H) kHZ w 3,GHz" The :d<lndat'ld.s,have a twofold piunpose: to. provide IOI 'lne.opnalion o:f.1D~v power t.~.m"Smjttc:rc.~ without a radio station license ,a.ud to control interference to ;u.1thor·[zea radio enrnmunicatiens services that may be. e.au-~~,dby ·~~C!uipmc;nI that emits. r,::IiIJio,-freque.nr.y energy OT noise as tii:ly~p'wdu;~t of'itli nperation, D~gital. electronics fall into the latter category" Part 1:-:1)1 IheFCC Rules and Regulations ..sets forth technical standards 1 'I3!:m:d operational conditions for industrial, scienti fie, ,and medical eq uipment .t~S:M equipment]'. ]SM equipment i~ defined las.any device that uses -radio lMaves: fOF Industrial..scientific, medical, or anyother purpose [including the ~trm)sret.of ene-rgy by radio) and thou is' neither used nor intended to beused la,radio' comrnunicatjons .. Included '.Ire medical diathermy equipment,
·IIIdus'trial. hearing equipment, RF welders, RF lighting devices, devicc-s used l(,} produce physical changes in matter, and (Jth'CTreialed lloncl,-:nnmurri:t:~iioKl!s, devices, f':;ttl oR of the FCC Rules-an d Regul ations provides H!1if orrn stand ards fOT .(he 'protection of trlc telephone network from harm caused by the conneeHan vf terminal equipment (inchu;:liltg PBX systems) and its wiring, and. 'for 'the, cempatibslity of hearing aldsaudtelephonee to ensure that pe1'SI0l1S. with hearing <lidshave reasonable access to the telephone network. Harm to the.

t(fm:iJ:l(lustriid. Sl;:'ientille .and ment eonnccte dto the tcleph Part 15 of the FCC Rules ,00ndoperatlcnat requirements 'device is any device that

cy

medical equipment], and Part 68 '(for equip" one ne'twotk},. and Regu.lat.ions sets forth technical standards for radio-frequency devices, A raJio-fr'C'4uen-

.suppressionwill almost .always have noise problems when lCslllng hCl:,"ns. Analysis at that time, to find which of the mall Y possible noise path ~Qm?iJ;ll'~ tioas are contributing to the: problem, may r:J ol be. simpie or obvious - Solut ion s at thfs: rate sta ge usnally in volve the: udditi on o [ l;;'<lr:a components thatare not integral parots of the circuit, Penalties ·paid Include the. added engineering cast and" the cost of the mitigaIi on (.;[)mp<Jnents. and their mstallation. There also may he siize'1.weight, <Ind. power dlssipalioH'JI
penalties _

E MIC iR]E,GIULATI 0 NS
Some a~~d. insight lnto the problem of interference ..antl th(,; obligations of equ~pme:]JJtdesigners can be .g;a.irlt::d from .t review of some of Ihi! mm-c important 'government and military EMC ifegulations, and speeitications.

tr:kpl1nne network includes elecrricathazards to tetephonc cnrnpany work_ ers, damage to 't;ckrhol~e company eqlJ]pm~nt.,li1:laHl:1nctiml .of telephone -company hiHing equipment; and degradation DE service. to pcnsons' other .than the user of the -rernrinal equipment. his c<iI.l.ing or called party, FCC IP~rt 15, Su bp!ari J The FCC rule oi geIJf;?·fii:li11tei'est is Part 15, Subpart J because it applies to almost an digital electronics, In Scp.t.clube.r 1979 the FCC adopted regulatiofi$ [0 control the interference potential ~)f digital electronics (called computing ueNj,r,::c:g by the FCC)" Th:e~c regulations, "Technical Standards. for Cnmrlalii~g Equipmenr" (Docket 20780), arnendcd P:Ul ].,5 of the Foe rules 'relating to restricted radiation devices. and they are LI,OW contained in 'Part 15, Subpart J of Tide 47{)f The Code of Federal RegulatIons.UndeF these rules, limits are ptaeed -on the maximum allowable .radieted emlssion in the frC4~l~TiCY I:allge' Clof 30 to tOOO MIlz land on the maximum' :,t11owahl:c conducted emission .on the ftc power line in the frequency range tif ClASHto so MHz.

FCC Regu lations In the United States the Fr.:dcnii Communications Commlsslurn (FCC) regulates the U;l;e of radio and wire .eouuhLl.tl.ic,l.tions. Part ofits responsibility concerns the control of: intc:rf.e:renc:e_ Three sections ()f the FOC :Rulcsaud, Rcg,dailiolls'~ have requirements that are applicable 1!0 nonlieensed eleerroeie cquipmeur, These a.FC Part ]5 (tbr radio-freq u:eil~Y devices), Part 18

These regulation ~.wcre the result ofinereasing cump[ajnt~ to the FCC. about .interference to radio and television reception where digital c,lectronics were identified ar;;the source of the interference, In fhis f.uling the FCC said interfenmce W almus'l [:Ill radio. 1>'e,vices;. pa,l"t:icllltlrly those services iJ)~low 200 r.fl-f7.,iIlC:ludil1g" police ~eroIi<l.uticfl, . and broadcast services. Several factors 1;..o.tltribl!tll~gto flhi~ include; (1) d igi.tal equipment h<ls:become .more. prolifl'c. thrcughout Our sor,it~t)'
COl"nplH.e:r~ have' been H~ cause (2) t,cchinol(jg),h'a:s increased the' s~e.eds o~ computers hi t'he point where tbe~mp.utr:;[. de,~igilci is now working
I10W

with the rule-s, it C<l:fn'lOli legully be auv·etfissd since this -001,l~!J be an 'offef fnr l>,,]e_In order to legaHy adverrise a product prior to compliance. the advertiscrncntrnust containa statement fhal (he dcvicfi is complles

considered

'sl~bject to

PC:C rule,~ ilJUJ

w[U bomply

wi(h the rules prior

{Q

delivery.

reported

and arc

belfi_g ~Q1Llor use in the home: f

Fot' personal computers and their peripherals (<I subcategur)1 of:.CI<l~~B), the manufacturer must submit (he h;:.'$t ata to the FCC and obt,irn certid tfi,~;tltion from the FCC 'before It ("HI. market the. pn~d~cl_. The C,O~l~lissi~m ~i1"" ifi L so desires, ask for [II samnle product to test be:t.un: providin ~ the r. .
~I.... .1J1J I ="

lmerfe·fence (FrMn p,r-obJemssOme Lni~g: hediJrll'I ha.ve 'to conte nel with 15 yedFS' ago; (3} modern ·p~.Q-detioa u eeonoaucs has replaced the steel cabinets which slrield or reduct: radiated emanation w1tb p.lastie, cabim'~,ts'whlch provide little or ilL) shh;lldiilg.,

With radio

fr,eql!'l!e;nc}'and elec:tmnlilgnetk

Any electronic de.\'ke or S}'8,tem that. g",ner;ti tes. and uses tim ing. fm!se!"iat 11. rate in excess of -W;D110pulses (ey.des) per second ~mJ llscs"digililil tecrH1~q'!,les; inchlSiYfl o"f ielepnoIlc equipment thai' uses .. llg,i tal ~e.ch c niqacs or ,any d e'!(ill~~ (If systenr' rthat generates and utilizes 'radi,o' Irequeney elle.l'!!Y fO'f the purpose of j1it:rflt'rming-.data Ill'l)cessil~gfuncttens; !;uch ,as electrenic ootl1p1ltatjOl~s, operations, tn{il~fo(f.malio:l.Is, rec()rding, filin,g,sor,ting stori:l~. retrieval ()I' transfer .._. .. .
T

W?S intention.:illy made broad to includeas maayproducts as possible. Thus, if a product uses diiglt1l1 circuitry and has a' dock frequency greater-than 10 kHz, it is a: computing device under the FCC ·dcfnlh;ton .. This. definition covers m05,1 digital electronics manufaeturcd todav, C6mputing devices covered by thi~ definition are d1i'~'i(red i~h) two .classes:

This deJhiition

all other products (Class A and Class B-oth~:i than personal. and their peripherals] themanufacturer must vedj'y compliance ~yt;e-r:>Lingthe product: before marketing _it.. Verificatron i~ a· self-tcrtific,<I[.lqil ~1:QOcdurc wher~ nothing is $ubmittcd to 'the FCC unless specifically res ted. Compli;ancl(: is by li'.andoIll sa.mp:liug of products by Hie FCc.. The time required to do the compliaece tests rarnd re-do them if the producL fails), an,(j the time l'equif,ed to obtaln certification from the €ommission (U. required), should .!JL;:, scheduled into the product's development timetable>. Testiug must be. done. on a sample that is rep'resellruJi!!e of productio« Ul'lih, Thisusually Ievolves ",'a production or preproduction rnodel. Compliam::e tcsling must therefore b,;: .one of the last items in the development ti:inr~tnMe. 'This is no lime for unexpected snrprisesl If the producr faits lh~. tis:t . ciUUlLTCS at '~hisnoi:n[ are: difficult .and exocnsive, Therefore it is 'eo ~ .t"' ;!1.esin1.bic to approach the final compliance te ~·l with II. high dc:gl'e'e' of l:o-oodence that the product win pass, This 'can be dO-Til,:f (l)pr~)pe[ EMC i principles (as discm;scd in this book) have been used throughout the tl¢s..igo and (2.) prelimiIlary emission testing W;fl(~'. done 011 early models and F~r
c:Oll1puters

'certifu:£it~bIl -

q~t;:,.

':11

~J.e'$igt;

subassemb.lics_

C"i<ISS A: Acomputii1.g
indusrrial,
01.'

device that is marketed business environment,

tor lliCfll a commercia].

Class B: A ctlmputing

dcvicethat

is marketed for usc In a residentiel


its. use ill acommercial, indus-

environmem; notwithstanding tri~tl, or bu:sincs$ environment"

. These ruies not only spr;.'-Ciiy Hie technical standards (rimjl") [hat product mast satisfv but also the administrative procedures thai must be followed and the measuring met.hod.s that must be used to. determine compliance .. U should b.c noted zhat the limits and jhe mej.:;uren~en'tPrdccdul'es .;;lire interrctared, Tile derived .limits, were ba... on spr.:cifie:d measurement sed pmcedur'es_ Therefore compliance measarcmentsrnusr be made -[ni[mv,ing ~pe procedure outlined by the FCC in FCC/OST MP-4 "FCCMethods of Me~SUl'emefii of Radin Noise Enassioes frcm' Computing Devices" (see

,I

Since Class 13 devices ate more likely to be.Jocated in closer pn;!)::imiLy to radio 3.!ldtelevisiio[l receivers, the emissien limits for these devices. are about 10 dB more restrktivc thaD those for Class A devices, I\'feeting these technical standards is [he. obligation o( the manufacturer or importer otu product._ To guarantee compliance, the F(X_ reqeircs the mannfacrurer to test the product rOil' c.mupHance before the nroducr can be 1lIq.:-.ket<cd in" the . UI~i~ed ~taies., Tbe . FCe d.~fine:s m1lrKeti~g: .,18, ~hippin~;. seUmg, ,qrtenng krr sale. unporung, and 500 Ofl. Therefore, until a product

Appendix F).
Tests must be made ona complete system. with all cables connected arid configured in a reasonable way that tends to maximize tho emission. Fl:JoT radiated emission the tneasarement procedure specifies an open Reid (or cquiv:a1.etil) measurementmade over a ground p;h~ne with a Il:IDlCddipole (or other correlatable, lmearly pbl\3rized) antenna, This is shownin Fig, 1-5..

Table 1-1 givesthe


me asured at

it distance.

radiated emission limits for 3 m ..

<.l

Class A produd when


'.!~S B

"lJf 3'0 m, ·'I.i:~d T~~ Me 1-21 ists the Iirni ts for aCl

product when measured at a distanceof

1iI

.A comparison bet ween the Cla.'ls A and Class 13 lim it~, must be don e ,at the 's:;.lJ;ne measuring distance _-Therefore, i:f the ,t~ A timltsare extrap olated ass JO the J-rn measuring distance (using a 11 r m1!!:Ipnla6QnJ. the two sets"of ']itilit~ can then he compared as-shown in Fig. 1... " As, can he seen, the Clots's 6 ~BJimilR' are mere restnctlve by about, OJ factor of 3 (W dB). " Conoocted emission I.inlits, are specified in the rules b~{;~u.lti!r;; the FCC Jjc:Uevcsthat 'at frequencies below 3UMHz the.primary cause of interference ''-Ylt:h O:;im,muniC'..at~onsloccurs by condU'ctmg r£ energy onto the He power line ~rid suhsequently -radiating it nom the powerline, "Table 1-3 shows both the-Class. A and B conducted emission limits ..These 'woltagi;;;.~ measured. common-mode (hut to ground, and neutral to g.'f,'Qllnd) on the 1f~: power line ,U.~]Jiilg :sO:OJ 50' jl.H line:im,p'ediu]ct; ~labik;3!..

are

EM,! RECEIVER

w:nll'lin a l1ioninte{fefencr;.:ni:-q~ircmJeJ~t which states, that if usc o.f'thc product '~l!1S:e'sharmful interference, the user can be required [0 cease opesation of 1fe device, Notice the difference in :respofisib,iltt~r between t.he technical
r,~I1Ul~~I' ~'~mU10'j it'S,.

zation network (USN) as sp~dfied in the measurement procedure (see Append:ix F), Figure 1-7· s 110:'11>'8 a typical F(;(.Fconduo'tcd em lssion test setup, "Not only must .<:I. de-viae be t'C~LCd for, compliance with .the technical ,sUm:dards, hut it must also be labeled-as .compliant, and irrformatinn must be p'n)'.rided tothe user onits interferencepotential, , In addition to the technical.specifications mentioned earlier .. the rules also

"Fiigure [·5. O~e'1 -' F/tf!d" tesr s I:{. tor.' P"'(' r.' , "', ~ ... 0.1]

,.. ,',.

,,_..".

l.i!e'JIIi?l(abfe

_.

., , .Equ:rpm~m, !Imt~'t·tes« (EiFjq

',

i:;$'

100

MEI(SU.FlING DISrTANCE=3m

.,... Fre q irency


(MHz)
Me'ils;lI:rirJg

!lICl
r+

Disl~nt'lc,
(m)

l~it':~iJ !Slrcngt~h
(f£.V/m)

:~ ,.;,
'.:I; I-

,CI!.,.€I;SS,A

~(I

30-88

~8-216

JO 30
30

:2 W

Il: Cl

f1) 41:10
';..I I!LI

ZI6-1000

_,

i1iC

300
,--

2I!lO .Table 1-!2FCC Class B Radiated IErnissio[l

LImit,S

_
f-I I I I Sill I II

CLASS ,8

r''re"C!ucnC'~
(~,mi)

Mca~nr~ng.
Distance
(rn)

Fie,lcl
Strength (JA'Vlrri) ]0'0

109

~n~88

S8-216
216-1000

3 L,
.:l

I ,000:

II

1I

l:.~O
'1(1(t

:20

FI1 eou E NCYlM Hz]

10

1,2
Table 1"3; FT~qU.c,[]CY FCC Cgm!uc:~Eld IEmlissiol'l L~mrjs

t " INTI'!O[)UClIQNI

13 remova l or even rcml1:H~gof a wi·rE:~. even a change in I he logic w.in ill mos.[ or surely challg¢' the emission characterlsfies or Ute device _ \Vli.el,her this cbangetn.cbatactcristlcs is. e;n,ougtl to throw the p~uduct OUI of ccmpliance.can

.(MHz)
O,4.'l·-L6

OaSIS A ( tA,V~

(]a.ss·.B

(p.v)

1.6 -3:0

:lOnn

woo

250
2."ifJ

best be detertnined by retesting,

specificalions

and the' noninterference requircrtient,

Allhoug~l the t~r.:hnic<1il

specificatlon is the responsibility of the mauufncturer orimporrer of the product. the uonintcrference reeunement is theresponsibility af (!:Ie US{;:.r of

At the time of this writing (July 1987), the fCC has temporarily ~exemrted five: subclasses of dlgital do.... 1Qes· from mceti:ng the technical ·:standards oJ the requirements. These are L Digital electronics built into a transporration vehicle, such as ~~qii', plane, or boat, 2·- Indastrial control systeers used in an. indus:t.naJ plant, factory,. 0,[: Pt1b~lc
UWlly_

the product. In ,~dditio:nto the iJ,ilial certification or verification ofa product, the rules also ~peCif:)' thai Ihe manufacturer is responsible, fot the continued com" pliance of subsequently manufactured equipment If' tl- 'change is made 't~)' eompli 3int product, the. mea a nufacturer Pl' importer has the' resp.Qnsipili.ty 'Hl determ ine whether that change has an effect on the enmpliance of the 1~'l'Odilict. he FCC has, cautioned manufacturers T (Public NQtit_~ 3281; ApiU'7, 198'2)' to note that
Many changt~'i\'ibidl
011

3. Iudustrialccommercial,

and mCJdicaJ. test equipment:


,1pp!ianees.,. sueh
<IS,

4- t'lilicm processor controlled dryer,t:l:l power 1'001,

a dishwasher.

clothes

5, Sp eeializedmedical devices, generally usedat the directinn or under the supervision of a licensed health c••Fe practitiof!cr.
re~p..!iement of the r nHes._ Since the .cxemptions mentioned are temporary they can be- edited out of :~ny new rule-making procedure mitiated by the FCC. This would take-the Corm of publishing? :Notioe cf'Propcsed Rule-Making, which asks for comments from industry; after the comments are re;viewed a. mling is ~s.sued. If there Jcttwl~y is Interfcrenee from any of these exempted prodnets,.' a HeW rule. Il'lJglu be made, Therefore it is flrucle.nt rot' the manufacturer to design all equipmcrrt to meet the technical requirements 'of 'the:rulcS'_ A general overview of these. regulations is contained In FCC(OST 'B.~lh)lb1 62 (1984)" Since the FCC has purview over many type;.,~ of electronic products, r,~ridudi[lg digitilt electron ics, d~s,gn .and development organiaations should ~<Ive <! completeand cnrrent set of the FCC rules applicable to the types of products theyproduce, These rules should be. refere-nced during the. design, 1':0 <'IVQi~l suhsequr:ml embarrassment when .and jf a ;eomplian,ee demon.'stndio[l is required.
l

their

s:ig.tlHk<lnL.Thus a ch.an~.e

hi' the: 111::out

lace seem jl'lsignifi(:.:a nt, ire. ~jil fact very of a cireuk 9(}ard. or the aJJitli)Hi or

Each of tb ese devices Is subject to the noninterference

l:ntemaUonal lHIarmon'i2ia,uon
:l:t would be deslrable to have one intemational
BOND METER. USM.& GRQUND !"LANE. roG~rHER EMI .RECI::IVH'I Fig-IIr.!! 1-7. Test

setupfor

FCC conducrcd emission

mCitsuf<!mc.Ltts:

standard for JUtJiwiih~e emission from eleotronic productsinstead of .marty differc ilt national standards. Then a mauufactwlc:r could .design and test a preduct to one EMC standard that would he accepta blc worldwide. The most Hkdy vehicle lot acoomptlshing this objective is the Internetional Special Comrnittee on Radio lr!.tenercIlc·e (CISPR, from its tille· in

14 French). CrSPR was tormed in 1934 to determine meesurement n*tht:,d:s; .aud limits lor radio-frequency interference in order to fac]litnlc lIJtel'1fkdioual trade. CISPR has no regulatory authority, bet illS.. tandards, when .adoptcd s by gorvcmme:nts., become national St:amdrfr.d~_. 1[1 ]'9t85 CISP.RlIuopted a new set of emission standards '( Public,aiiorl, 22 ) for' Information Techn.ology Equipment (J,igit,d electronics), Many EmfOpeJ.IJi. countries have 1!dnpted these requirements as tl'nerr national standard, and more JF,e e~r.(:ctetl '1:0 do so In th~ future. The United St:t1t;S, as a. votingmember of CISPR, votedIn favor of the Vli'(;W standard. This pm considera ble pres:gur~ on theFC:C nr udopt the same stand,:l[nl~. Therefore the limits of C.;lSPRPllbiit;14lion 22. are like Iyto become the, ime maai.onaI EMC standard. Figure ]·8 compares the new CISP R radiated eltlisSl nn stand ard with the present FCC standard. The- FCC limits have been extrapolated to <I lO-m. measuring distance (011 thi~ eempmison. As can be seen, the ClSPRli.mit'5 are more restrictive in the rrt:qUCII.Cyrange from 88 to,23U MHz ..From 88 to. 2Jr6llv1Hz the nSPR Class A. limit is 3.5 dB niore restrictive, and from 21(1 to 230.MHz 'tOne C1SPR Class A Hmilis 6-5 dB 'more 'restrictive than d'l~ present FCC requirements .. Figure 1-9, ,g)mp<1pe~ the new (:ISPB, narrowband conducted emission :s!.uldal'd to :the: present FCC standard, A major diffrencc is that CISPR imposes alimit in thefrequency range of 150 to 450 kHz where n a FCC limit presently e~jsts. For Class A products the C]SPR standard is 9.5 dB more restrictive from 1.. MH!. to 30 MHz. For Class B products the CISPR 6 "standard is 2. dB more restrictive from. ij~.5, to 5 MH z.
50'

15

f"
I
I

I
l I

FCC

-.
CLASSA-

"

__j

CISPR

"50

'<
l
I
Pall

"'-, I I I II

------t:""- - -_. __
Foe:
1
I I ! I Ij

CISp,Ft

._. 'CLASS"S

40

I
10

I IiI

'0.1

.3:

00

3.0

50

100

FFI~QUENC'(,U.1H12:) J!'i~!I'll.ru.9. fCC

.15;

j:ubpart

I .lJl'ul

n!WR. ,.

f'~M~mtiQI'l

2'2.. mlrFGI'wbamt

mnd'Uctttd

.~m~~,~'~rm li'n~t~.;

S:u:scepUbillity

-';i( _.

'E

i!O

;g,. ::r:

40

f---~--------+--'FCC -4-----------l r---,---_j -. ,CI.ASSA I cIISPR

cr-

~ ~ us
0

35, 1-------------1------

r-l, ~ -

-.--.-

--

a:

lrj;
...j

..sCI'

r-~~-.J
I CISPI'l

'

llJ

iiI:

25 _.

_. I 20
30 f RE:ClIUE Ncr
j ~~Hz.)

rr10

III

~I II

moo
Q'iI:d

Fi1;:,lI['~hg.
melrlHf.I'1.·r[,at

FCC Part IS, Sr~bpUf!' J. 1;1' dis,r.~m':i.': of 10 m.,

CISPR. l'ublkrl'#QJt 22. tlu.:liaIdl emission #mi1.!

,e]e,ctronic: .equlpment arc. radio und televisson sets, home, burglar alarm [:IUd 'BC!lrjty systems, antomarlc.garage door openers, electronic organs record -turntables, ~ncl stereo/ high fidelity amplifier systems, Allhough this, ~c:gisbh l'lion is aimedpelmsrily at liiome cql,l:ipment and systems, it is not intended to prevenl the FCC from adopting standards for devices thal are a lso used putsi,de the home, To date, however, the' .FCC h;<l!~ not ;ac~cd ~:)~ lb is ~1!.l!):thority, Although it published <In inquiry into the Problem of Radio .Frequency Interference 10 1EJcctn:)i1ic Equipment (General Docket Nojlh36'9) the FCC relies On self-regularlon by industry. Should industry become lax in lhis respect. the- FCC mi~ymove toexercise its jurisdiction. Surveys of the electromagnetic environment (Heirman 1976.;. Jane:\i,']J;I77) have shown that a field strength greater than 2 Vim ()CC'UTh about E.Xo of the time. SInce therejs rio legal susceptihiJ:ity reqnlrement for commercial equipmenr, a reasonable :immunity level Obj{;lcliy~ would be 2 Vlm .. _ The governnrent 'o'f OH1ad.~ h,IS released all Electrcmagnetic Cornpatibility AdVi~oJ'y Bulletin (EMCAB ]) in whichi l defines t hree 1eve Is or grades ot im rnunity for e lecrron ie e4I.]ipm~;>I1lalildsta tes the' following ~

]0 A ugust 1982: the 'U. S. Congress amended the Co mrmlnicafi().lit$, Act of 1~34 (House Bin #3239) to, give the FCC '<l uthority to regulate the suscep~tibilily of home electronics equipment and systems, Examples .of home

16

L Pn::h,i:ulClstn'<lt meet GRAHn performanee degradatiorr, 2·,Pro.ducts t!i;at meet GRADE d~gmrl!at~o~ .

.li (1

VIm)

are

Ifkt!y

to

~,x:~eKieL\lq:;

·2 (3 Vi m) ,!Te unl:ikely ~o" e:xperiem::e


3 (to VI rn)' sha1JjJde:xpcri~nc;e performvery arduous eireumstanees.

3. Pmdu:c'i:s that mcelGRADE


anee d~,gHlda1i:iononlyunder

M.lliita.ry Siiandar£fs Am:uh.e:; .i mpo rtS!mt gI'DJlIp',of EM C sped fi:cations are tho~e i.ssuc.J by the D.,g.,. Departmen] of Defense, MR-8TD"~B1B specifies the l~mItsthat must he met; and MU,.·Sn)·462 specifies the test met hods 'and proced uresfor
Il)<lki~]g the tests contalned in.r.... lIL·SfJJA61R. These standerds aremore

strin,ge'E'lt than the FCC !'eguhHions because lh.r;;<y cover .susteptibUilY ~~wIeH i1;S e.wissiuR, 'and the f'r,equem::)" range from 30 Hz trr ·40·G Hz. The testproeedures iilpodf~cJ. in MrL"STO-46t2 are. q Uttt:: different than these .s.pedfieQlQy the" FCC, and froS m <i kes dir,ebt comp.a:rl!>OI1 :Qf the reqll1tcmtnlf}' clirficull, FormdiaN~d ~mi~sI6til d~ci milittiTY standard .spe:\:;"ifi,~s
~nclD.sed chamber (s.h~,elded,d)[)m.) testing, whereas the FCC rules require

open

ficid.te:~:fi.ng.Fqr eOlldur(;l~d emission Le5'tJ.ng .the: mintat.y mcasur,c::o cnrrenr <In/d.tU:H':: :FCCm,t;::,a~\i~reS voU.1J!ge. TJlC I;g, t.egories ,of" tests specif .. ,by M]L~:STD-4(Q,m are '(!:(gJ,mizeq as ed sJuj~~in the bleek diX:lgntm in Fig. l-W: ..1'est s .are required for beth radiated
and ~!(lh (;jucte'Q emissions' a,S well as radiated .and oonduct~d su septibill.ity, T<llble:1-4. is ,3J list ofthe ernisslonand susceptibili'ly requirementsestablished by M,tl.~TD'c46.1B. The Mm lazy Speeiflcation is a cU!.mprehe.!l!Siive document. a\nd can also be used by lndusll:)' as .[Ii g'1:[! deline ~OT des:~glli.ng. interference-free nonm ilita'1 eqnipment,

TYPICAL NO~SE PATH A hl.oc.k" ·dia.gram of 03:' typ~il:.ol!i niOi:Si,{ parhls .shQ\l,\[1 in .Fig. 1-1L ih can be seen. ~hF.r;;..e' ef:eB:H~[lt~'lre:necessary lin prod·nee a noise prU1blem.Flrst, Ihcn:~ must bera ntl.i.~f:source. Second, there must be a teC1!!fH:01 circuit that!s susepl~b.'Jc bj the noiii:e,TIJ:~td.; there must be <J.coup1ing chanl'lel to transmit the noise from' the SPlIi!O(;, to. fhee reeelver, The first sten [1.1 (:!nalyzing <I nolse prob I!em is to' defiue the .prob lern, This is, den e by J'(.$terfllinil~g wh-at tll!(;~; noise source is, what [he: [~(.1cIDtor is +' and hm" the .source and! receptor are wuplea[oge th er, H [DHQWs,thjt thete are lh fee ';!;\:lJ."$ tu break the noise.path; '(1) the noise ean be supptessed at tl~.~hgeurcli:> (2) ~he receptor qUI" bemade lasensltlve h)~the .rroise;,or (3). the t,~nsrnissicn thttlugh the CiJl~p.~.~tig chfrn nc~ caT:] be rninlm lzed. In ~om," ,"~ases, I]~ic~'e &l~ppre:ssi01] techn iquli;l) must be uppUe d to t-liVQ ':f,).[ to all three parts I[)I fh~ noise p ash.
....:

NOIS'F. Cottl:dll'l::teiJ' ·.cEQ]

CQUP'lIr:..I'G

CIi1~ssibns.r~wer

'SO"UiFl6E

C.H~NNE:L !haU!!i

and in:~e:rC\O'.nn~ctrn;g Ieads, fI:~~~e [.~I fj~f"(jre.1Wi.i·e~:-IUt oe# pmbl~m., (J~erprUcrl b~ tr, noise sor~'(ce,.~ rmpropr L )BJ;I~l"(;of!p/i,I"I,~ [h~ 1l.fJ.l:\'~, {UJd ,~ {""~fl'lill.-g d1.!mfJ.~l thut (m.!'?.!imiJs fIle .uoiSe' r,o the receptor: m

. k~w~.fic'C!uel1i[;;Y (u,~)tril 5 kHz) . Dond!~~wd ~missi:o'tnS".power ,lad! hnem:mrnffti.tl,g. te~d$,


f) .,01 5;' t(J 50 MRi Con,duC'~e,jemissions antenna terminals TUkHz ~o 16 GJ-I:l CondiJ(;;~ed! ,emi.~'ji.ons,·rnwer leadis, '~:Jl'uke~, time d00KIl.fI ·:CmlGudeJ .:sl!s,epljl'liu~H}', power leads., 310H'7:" to 50 ~Hz ·CO~dLld~.d~l!:l;l;ccptiQ.ul:~ty, P~WC'I k:.atils, U.OS to 400 MHz

·CEa6

CEm

csm
csm
CSU4

C.~U2-

CStfS
C).(J!(~

CSQ7 CSQ_9

]_n~eiti:tlod!ulatron" 15 kHzw 10'GHz ~~~cdio):1 of ll,j)ideiire~ sig~~Js, jn Hz to to G Hz CT9~~ rnud~laHorn~. 50 Hz to '2.0 GHz .cOfidluc.red '~l.lJsocpliblTity.,.~prk()s, pO-w.er: ~.d~ k (]ondu:Jt,e,q s~tsce"p.~i~:i.~~:y.~ .squelch Ci[cuit~ ..
'(''''oIldIlctti:d ~usqep[ibllHX, structure ('l')1t1I!1l0n-fnode) Cli!rrent, 60 Hz, to ·~OOl\±Ii ~ Ra:di8ited ell'! i:ssio]]S. nragnetiefleld, OU)] ttl' 50 kH~

pO'.NTF.I;OL
CIR.GlJJT

MaWR

NmSE C.ur,;"ENlT

IMO,QR

DC

REm
REm

.R::l!lliatcti emissiens.

eleerrlc fie ld, 14 kHz

til')

WIG Hz

RtWS
RSQI

RSCl2
RS03:

"R,adbtbd. emissions, spu rirDHS and .hannocics. J'adi:a~ed t.e£nnique. Radbted sU!se§p~i1b~Iit:y.,~·:agl]e.t~!:;fiplil. 0_03 to 5U kHz; Rfldi'~fe:c1 ~,ust::e!p'Ei't;itity, magUlel,ic. indu6!um:t rnekl, spikes

UYW· Lj6VEL
CIAlCU~r5

S.H~EIlD

and pow~t fr,eqw:irleie,s.


Racd!i.at()J'sil~e~pt"ibility. c!cdr,ic rich:]]" 14 kHz:to 'lU liBz
emi~~iOIJE,.~ac(i(:aJ :1I0~ ~pp(,,1.rd!l pIlrpu;scvcl:!ick::~, ';lindt'ngi!.l~driven eqIiipmeIlt CtJ·ridti:(;:(ced¢;ill~Ssi(l(ls <lH,d r"HH~ue"d I;:.iInj&~h)!8·a nd ~~Mcep;t. Radi;a[ed'

~F!~1,,~!.~1, .Inr.fd:s ,~:mmpt~" nois« S(J\!lY';e.' At ·the rfW,WI", ~111d'{he J"B~ol',m(lr i!i(iI:f: k.",,-I.~~d Iht '~~r.'[l#_ rh<'(;r).~~plb;rg ~hllri.rwt ct).rMis# .1/ r.rJI2{bKfJ'(~11 (J.r.;: rh~' mq[&r ~pp'l' .{e.fIJ'f._t .ami rtlJ~a.i:ij"m··

[{;om

l'h1.t

~lf!Jld.\'_

UMfl3
UM04

ibililf" eIlergy generators, fine! associated eomoouents, UPS 'and MEP cquipmenes
Cosdnctedan d radia!cd emjst;J.Qn;~-, c(,lImm.cT"o;;laleicctrit:1l1 and e] el?t;m:nlof,dmrn ictal equi p'1.tl;e'n[~

iUlSI:. OF NETWORiK THEORY

As an c;..;.alilpl!.e, CJI.-.)j'):~i,Q,cr timli! .shown In Fig, 1-11.. It shoWS a the' shielded de motor eonnected Willi motor-drive .. ~j]jOU]t! Mof:m IHi]s~. is imterreJfing wima l.ow~I.l:vct circuit in the: same equip!I:U>er,lL Com ffiutfl[ar noise from the: motor iscenducted ·out of the ,shieid Oft. the leads .gofmgb~ the dFivecirol1iL Prom. Icl1c le'ad¥. J~Q]&eis radiated to the low-leve] .cimL:l~tr)'._ ]n ~hiS", example, the noise ,S()UIice·cons.ist'S olEthe' <lICS between the brushes, and the ootrJ:moltw[o," Th,e·ooupling channel has-twn part!): oon.dl1lctiml On "tile IUOlt':H~ leads and rJ.d~;;rljonfrom the lead s, The receptor is the low-level circuit. Inthis i~H.se not much Gitn iJt; done ahout lh"qoJ.[[d: or the Fcc(':IJtoL Therefore' thf;". .i ~lerfereece lUUS! be :elinlin([,r:ed by brB'El.king. the; C~I!1p]Jng t channel. Ni~i8e eendnction "O'!;llof the shi,e~Qor m.diati.Oj] [,onl the. ~eads,mutil ' bi s.ti?P'ped" or beth "Steps nrl.l].'he neeessaty,

For theexact answer lo Uw: question ,DEhow any ~l<ictrit 'c:L'Dt:lJJit behaves, ~<l),l.wehl's f$ql~l1ti~oJis. rm.J:~1i:b'e sotved, Ti:le~i:·~qi.li)Jtions,:are fnnetions Q.f thw(,':l:' •.z,\ .'" 'f f: . ..... . . L ' ~ ~isf:)ace variables (:)[;}" :;} am 'oi time ~t}, Solutions for any .but ll~n..slmp~.e,sl probl~ms areusually vcr}' complex, 1;"01/ avoid thi'~ q(1lmI).lexTty, an approximate :a",~ty~~s,edu;d;qne calledt'etectric l ci rcniranalysls" is uSiell dunn.g-mfist ~~~{gn .procedures. Cireu i,i .an alviSoi Irm ~ s·e nares 'the' SP<lti<l;lv.aT.l.O'1b les and p~Qv.ides ·11 proxirn ale p solutions as Ei.fli~lct]O[ll ftime o!'dy _ Circu![ analysis-assarncs o tb;e foUowing:
1, All electric fields are confiI.nt;;: to the inrerlors d

2. AJJlm<igrre :t Dirnerrsicns

he f~el.ds.3J.e. EQnfh)ced .
of the'
cir£;:l;Iiil~ are

of" cup aCtV)fS_ to the ~ l¢Tio.!'s orr ~nduc;tQ[s. n small compared to the.. wa.:veleng.th("!5)

under'f;(,:lnsidcFaliol1_

nlny

This example is W:~OllsSled ]l:1an~

Wh:~t is, n~a~ly, imp!i~d is tb<Jite;de.m,lJ. fidds, even though 'l.clu.:,.Hy pn::seli~L,C8Jj b.¢'negle.ct~d in th-e ;~ollhllion' ofthe network- Yetthese extiem.J.~ f1e1ldsmay 1~9rne(,':t;;:ssari:ly he t1.~glecte;d where th~jr dfec,l on other circuits is'
cpli cerned.

in Cn,apW.t ~...

,.

.2Jl
FOT example, .a 1Ol).:W power ampli:fier may radla te toO 'mW . df power. These HJOmv\.' are cnmpleti(;:Jy negliglble as far as the an:JIlYS]5 of the power amplifier is coneemed. However, if onlya 'small, p[~;j:"centagt:: this radiated of powcr js picked up 'On the .fhp1l..lt a sensitive amplifter, it may produce .a of large noise- signal. Vllteuevtr possible, noise coupling cbarmds are represented as equivalent lumped cemponeur nctworks. For instance, a lime-varying electric field .cxi::;t]ng between two conductors. can be represented. by a capacitor connecting· the: t WD conductors (see Fig, 1-13). A time- varying magnetic field .t~l at couples two conductors can be represented by a '!1HJ'rmd inductance between the two circuits (see FIg .. 1-14). For thii.~ pproach tobe valid, the physicu] dim}eJ]s~ons of tb e circuits must .a be small compared W thcwavelengrhs of the s.ignaisinvo'ived, Thisassumption i~l11.adethml1ghoul 1i1:1Os;t of thisbook, and it is nonnii~Iy reasonable. For example, the wavelength of a 1-M Hz· signal is' approxim ale ly 3(l(j m For a 30p.-MHz sigTI~l, it is 1 m. For most electronic circuits, the. dlmension~ are

21

COllliDLlC'IIQA

1. WHH CUR RENTl's .

smaller than rhls. Even when this. assumption representatios is still usefulfor 1. The solution
world" tkms.

i:~ not truly va.hd,the the following reasons:

lumped component

PHYSICAIL REPRESENTA,ION

of Maxwell'sequations is not practical for most "rea! noise problem ~ because of tire eDmrlic~l ed bou ndarycondit

2. Lumped COmT10rlCnt representation, allho.ugh it does not necessarily give the correct numerical answer, does dear! y show how nolse

!ELECTRIC • FIE.W

EQ UIVAt.ENT CIIRCI)IT

~ig-lJLIr~ ]-14. fWJen:

/,wj/

cirrt-t~'s .~r.e· o~p·led by c

{1

maglii!{k jidll.

ffit:· .wupUIJg '::Wl hi1 .(i!fm~.$f!me,d

ru' a

~Tm[.t(M.in!lt.~ct=~··(, ..

1M PE;bA1\IC E ToO -G ROUt,~E) , -~.


.

depends

on the system parameters.

Milxwcll"s"eqjualiom!i, even if possible, clearly. "

On the other hand, the solution of does not show such dependence

PHYSICAL Pi;EPA ESE.Ni ATloON


~iglIN'

EO LJJV A LENT
CIR6unr
(mI. be 'e!fT.e:o;;t!11te·d

1·13. Wi\i.M

rWiJ

drG.ii.ts are c·o.tlpled. by an ~'h'!..:{d.(;fi.da., thp. (,Quplf~g

by

(f

cap-acitor ..

In gcnera~. the numerical values of tile lumpedccmpcaents ,lIe extremely difficult to calculate with any preclslon, except for certain special geomett.j~s" Onecan conclude , 'however> that. the:se' components exist, a no as bei·sho~'n,. the resultscan be very llseful even when the eomoonents are.orrly defined if! a qualita tive sense,

will

22
M:ETHIOOS OF NiO'IS;E: COI!JIPLING ClOndiUCIivel,y Coupliedl Noise
PO'UER
~~UPPLY

·23

,CIRCUIT
1

but often o1l'edoo:ked, ~va 10 couple noise iI'r~~i ys a eircuit is .on a conductor. A wire Tl,ir1 througha nblsy environmen t may iJQd:; up noise and then cQud"l..IC[ it to another circuit. Therei l C:'I"O..scs interference. The solation j s to prevent the wire from pick-in g up the neise, or to remo ve the noise from it, by dccoupling before it interferes with the snsceptlble circuit, The major example in this category is noise cOllducle:d imo a circuit On the power suppMy leads, If the designer of the ci rcui rh as no control over the power supply, ]£ other equipment ls connected to the power supply; it becomes necessary to. decouple the noise from thewires bcfmc they enter the cireuit. One ofthe
l110;;;t: pb v ious,

SOURCE IMPEDANCE

C~.Rcun
2

or

Jl'!il,iP'TI!.] -Iii,. Wne:1l .rwo .cii"~·uj"l,~Ij.i"'-~ l:Of)i'IItO~1 pO~lle.r :~U.pp(f·, CEJ."JTi!.nt ;a drawn h ~1~e'" ~().ll'age at rhe:other circtm:

one clrcui: "!fecI.!.

CoupUng th~ough Common Ilmp,edanee


Common impeGlance coupling occurs wile n currents, from twO' different circuits flow' thn)ugh a. common Impedance: The: vuitagJ;.'. drrrp across the impedance seen by each circuit iii in[l'1,l'cl1l5cd by the other. the classic example' ofthis type of\~oupHrig is .showuIn Fig, ]-15. Tile ground 'currents I and 2 both flow tl.utmgh the common -gn.n.md· impr;:.d:ancc. As fat as circui t I is concerned.rits groundpotential ]s mndulated by groundcurrent 2 Hawing in the common geoundimpedanee. Some noise signal, therefore, is coupled from eircuit 2 tn dr-cuit Lthrouga the ~ommongiound impcdaace, Another cxtlimpk ()( this. problem is, illustrated in the power. distribution cil'cuiitsh(')\'{nin Fig. l-HL Any change in the supply current requir~J by

'ttf"cuil: 2. affect the voltage .tt the terminals of circuit .1.. due to the ,cbmmol"i impedances 'Of tlre power ·supply lines amI tIl!!:. internal source )mpedance ~O[ the pqwe~' ·.sivpply. Some impvovcmf!l:it can be obtained by c:9IlIicct!1g the leads. from circuit 2. closer to the power ~upply output terminals, thus decreasing the magnitude of the common line impedance. 'I11.iecoupling Lhrn~g~l the power supply's inl~rtla]imp·eda1"l.c:e 's(iliLremains,

wm

however ,
EIIe!Citrlca.l1Id Radiated Magnetic Fiefds

CiRCUIT
'1

'CIRCLIIT

2'

electric and magnetic fields pnwid.; another means of noise. elements inet uding conductors radi ate 6.1 ,0 magnetic eel fields whenever charge is mo ... d. In :addi:l:iQIJi this unintenticnal radiation: c to there 'is the p:n)h[clli of intenrional radiation i'"I"om' sources such as broadcast ·:statinIif\and radar transmnters. When the receiver is' dose (0 the source tr.ear5eid). electric and magnetic: fields. arc considered separated}" Wh en t.he receiver is far : rom the source (br fir:ld.)~ lher<:ldia:ti:~)il ]~ eensidered as, f '~bmhined elect ri.c.~IlI;.r m <lg.rtdic 0 I.' electromagnetic radi at.to 1:1. '1<
t"tWpl ing. AI:] ci rcuit

MIS'CELILANEOUS
G,a.l"a.n~cAction

NOISE

SOUROES

C U~RE fi!lli
1

GROUND

I,

......

GROU!ND C.tl R:A:E:NT

.GRQUrND
VOL,TA.BE CIRCiJli:2'

C'oMMON

IMF'IEOANCe

GFiOUN"i)

!
'~

FlgUl'e. 1·15. ','WJen /'W(J circuits share a: mmmwl' gWl'md:' ?:fle{:lf!,d by the. gm.wrd (;UI:T'('{l! 0111u: luther ;(,rir.:~u,il,

th~~' ,IP'"ow-ut ~'otmg,t!.. J each 0

lit disslmilar metals arc used in the signa] path in low-level circuitry. a noise ·v(,lt<lg.cmay appear due to the galvanic action between the tv 0 metals, The presence (If moisture OF water' vapor in con junction with the two jn ctals producese chemical wet cdl.The voHage developed depends' .on the two
one is

"M~SGaLAr4EOUS

N01SE "SOURCES

metals usc d sind is Id<lt~d to their po,~ilions i~ the galv8iUic series shown. ht Table 1-5. The '[.ar~he.r apllrElhe metals are 011 tltis. table, the larg~r tilt; developed vO,H~se- If the metals ~nc the same no potential difference can develop, [n addition t<i produ·ting ,I noi e voltage] the: use of dissimUa.r metals can produce a: corrosien problem.., Galvanic eorrosion (_~ usesposi tive ions From one metal to be transferred to the other one. This, gr~ldliidly causes thl; anode materia! to be destroyed, The Tate .of corrosion de pends on (he moisture can tent of the en vi ronmen t ~fit! h~w far aptri't the metals are in the gaIvnnic series. The. farther apart the metals arc in the galv~mi,c series, the fu~ler the ](1111ransfer. kn undesirable, but corn mO!JJ, com bin ::ninf\ of metals t is <illumi'r!umand copper. With thiscombinetion, the. aluminum is eventually eaten awav, The reaction slows down considerably, however, ifthe topper is coated witblead-ti[J solder since aluminum and' lead-tin solder arecloserin the g.dv<fnic series, Four elements are neelltd before galvank action 'CU[iI ,occur:. 1, Anode materiel (higher rank in Table ] ..5) .1",-5)

'~~~.~.~~~~. ~-~~E~~~i:"~~'~-~-'~'?~-~:;;;-::~_'~~~~':'~:::"~-::......~ ..~~ ~.M~~~~:JE .__ ON


CORROSION -_ ----~ ANODfiE CA.THODE

'<...
Figlllrre 1-1'7. GQ'/~mr1ctWfi:m e<:m occur
(J.T!

NQ. Kl ISTURE - BE WEE' -. ELECTRO'DES


m:oi,~'lm~ J'.I: pm.\·~nt

J:f iLli'O'

a.kdmil'.J,r·meroW's rue jOifdeJ all.:.!'

Ihe

.~·.I~

rj.o.("e.

Gal.'V..:micac60n can take place even if I1TtOiS,tU'FCoes not .ger between the d (inodl;: and cathode. AI~ that is needed is some- moisture on the stlrbcc
~'h~re the two metals come together, as shown in Fig. 1· H. As, seen in Table l·S, tine metals of the galvanic series are divided into five gmups".When dissimilar metals mu~t be combined, it IS desirable to use

2. Electrolyte

(u::;ually present

all moisture)
between

mClats from the same group.


anode llnd cathode (usual iy EI.e.c1rol.yUc .Action

3. CaU19de m.a:te1'ial (Iowei'" rank in Table

4. Conductittg
present
',I'$:l

elCict;ri al connection c
leakage path).

.'$\ .5-Cermd type' of 'lCou05i!cmis due' to electrolytic

Table ~-5 :Galvalnic$eries

ANODIC END (Mos! suscepnblc to (lI)W,~!()n) Group I 2. Zinc 3. Galvanized steel


Group 11 4. Ah.]!:'n·inlO.m2$
,5., Cadroium

13.. Nick~1 (active) 14.. Br1!J~s 15, Copper


16. BiipIIze

aetion. It is caused by a ~.ir.ec"[ nrrem llow:il1g between two mdrd$- with an ekc,trol.y~e (whkh could c ,e. 's]ighlly acidic .ambienr moisture) between them. This type of corrosion docs not depend Dill the Lwo metals used find will occur even if both are tile same, Therate of eorresion depends ·.Cnl the magnitude. of lhc;' currentand lho conduCli.vlty of the eleetrolyte. Triboelectlrilc Effect

Omup

]V

17~ Copper-nickel alloy


1R. Mum:l
t 9. S~hmtsolder 2R NLekel [passive)" .2.1. St,1 irrless steel

6. A~unli{h~ln 17ST
7. Stetl g,: Iron 9.. Stainless bled.
(active)

.~. :di<JiFg~'can be p.rd,cltn:;eu onthe dielectric material within a I(,:',~ bl:c,~ f the :(l,ieIBctric does nut maintain contact \vith thecable conductors, This is called the,. tribcldedr:ic: effect, It is ~:;'U3JUy caused hy m cell ellt~c8!l b.e.uding n r the ,cable: The' charge acts.as a rrolse voltage, source within the dibk:_ Etiminatj[jJ.g sharp bends and cable. merion minimizes this effect. A special r'tow .;npi~e-'; cah k is availa ble in w hich the cable 'is chemically: treated to mi n imize .the· possibili ty charge buildup on the dielectric.

(passive)"

Group

ur

L2, Silvcr
GrO'L!p V ~3. Graph itc

or

u.

10.. Lead-tin solder


'Lead

12. ·!'in

24. Oold 2.:.1. Plalil1um C..ATHODI(' END

C()nduc,toli' Motion If .a wire ismoved through fa In agnetic "field a voltage ismduced berween ends' of the wire. Due to power wiringand other circuits with highcurrent How ,~ttu y magn etic 'fields ,c·xi"sE .itl most environments. If a wire l.!V'ifh. a <tow-.I.evel signal lis then .allowed to m_{Jvethrough this field, a noise voltage is·
1

:27

j;mju!;:;ed m the wire. This,p1iobl,em can be especially troublesome vihratiorsul environment. The solution ]8 simple: prevenlwirinigmoliml cable damps and other tie-down devices.

ina with

.' Most edigjtal electronies devices must co.mply with the, FCC rules (;:HlJ oomputi~,g devices. before they can be marketed in the. United States, • The fol,lowing are tempnmFily exempt Di.gi.tal electronics in transportation Industrial eantrol systems, Test equipment Horne appliances from the FCC requirements; vehicles

The following chapters present k:chtliqucs by whichInterference between eleetronie d~~~lJlits can be. lciirnill'<lted, Or <it least reduced. The primary liliI,¢tilods available for combatting interference ,rp; listed as follows: 1, Shieldi~lig 2- Grounding 3, B"tl,ancing 4. Filtering 5 _ Isola tion 6. Ser.ar<itiul'i and orlentarion.

Spec! a_Uz.ed medical devices • Electremagnctlc


function properly cornpatibiiity is the ,'ltlility ()f: 'an electronic system to in its iIltcrd:!cd t:lettrt)mag,nctic cnvjronrncnt.. has Iwo aspects; emission and suscep-

," ~1~~IiIOmagl1etic compa tibility

[lbdu.y_
," Electromagneric, .' Three .A noise source A co upl ing channel ,.A,_ susceptfble receptor dornai
T))_

eompanbillty

should be a. major design ohjectlve. a noise problem:

items are necessary

to produce

'7 _ Circnitirapedan ce ~(;vd control B,- Cable desi gn ~¥, Cancellation tCCh11 lques (lfreque:.ncy ortime

• The three pi!i1!li1aty

meansof

n018e coupling

are the, following:

Conductive coupl j ng
'Cammon impedance coupling Coupling

Appendix II, pr4;~Cflted in the form ofa .checklist, is a sum m,liy of [he mrrrC commonly used noise . reduction techniques. Even with all these methods available, it should beremembered [hat noise US1WUy cannot be eliminated; it can only be minuniaed ttl the, pointwhere it ]U) tonge. causes iate rference, In .all but the simplest cases, a single unique solution to H:len.oisc reduction problem IHly not exist. Compromises are geT]erall "i rcq ulred, and which of the many ulternativc i;;ohJilio as is the best ean be the subject of considerable disagreemen to. in thIS book we will present t he lcd"lni4.ue~ which ar~ useful for decreasing interference. Decisionsnn which techniques should be used in a specific case, however, are things: that must be; determined by the system 'design engineer. SUMMARY ., Dc~ign~ng c;t,I'u.ipmclIt that does not generate des~g.] tag equipment d:l<lt is Hut susceptible noise is as, imp(,rlllril as

by radi a ted electromagnetic

fields in an blerns

" Metals In contact

with each other must be galvani.c~~Uy .cumpatible.

'.' There are m \lilly techniq ucs by w hi.ch n oise can be reduced electronic system ~ a un ique solu tion to most noise re ductienpro does not e~,i:st.

to n (l]se,
q±dy' in:

Bel] Laboeatories .. P'h.ysiml Design of Efecfrorrix:' Systems. Vol, ,2" CIl<ipu~.1' (F.lec.'} trochem i~E1'Y and Prptect,iol'il of ,SIll:ff:lOe~).. Prentice- Hall. E£lgicwuud Cliffs, N..J., . W7IJ. ,(,.JSPR. J'(lbUc~tion 22. "Limlts and Meth(')ot; of Measurement of"R~!]iu Interference 'Ch1H1lCtCri».{ics of l[1.[oO'rrnHti~1n -:redmotogy f.t<Jui.pme nt." 1985_ Ct.,de or Federal Regtrlations, 'rifle 47 {47CFR), Pan 1:5". Subpart J, "'C::o:mplH;lng
Devices, "

• To be cost-off ccti v [!.~ noise suppression


the design.

sJiJ.tlllddbe considered

'Cohc'i'l,T, J., ~I1d M(;;:O)y L G. "Rj~l-A


March 1915,.

New Look atan Okjl Problem."

QST'.

• N oise sources can he grouped 'into threecategories: (1)_ intrinsic noise sources, (~) man-made nuise sources, and 0)' noise due to natural dish.l..baflCe.._

EMCAB L "Immunity of Electrical/ EleCirt)Oi~ l':;q'l.Iit}n1eal Iruended to Operate jn the CllIla<j.ia![1 Radio Environment," Govemmem of Canada, Department of Cemmunlcatlons, IssucL, September l'~'i'. and Issue 2" August 19l5:2._

28
fCC.'" U ildcrs(andung .lh~ fG.'C Reg.ulalioti5 Com::.. c.rnI~~gComi'mtiJ:lg'DtW1()~~""

O.~~.r

l1Jdl~j[i~ 6.2, ., ~K4.

FCC, -'FCC

~tho-d~ ()J M€i:rs'!JI~mcIll.oor Radio N(ltstiEm.Gdml~ ft.OTil, Comptlfin,g Devices, ,. FCcrOST M"P"4,1!983. FCC, . "Co Inmj~~jHtI Cau<io.n$,rg'lit~st Chaf1Jg,e,~ "I\Ihi'ttcJ Co.mpming Eqn~prn emt." In Pllhtk

CAB'LIN:G

Not~ce' No_

3281, Aopdt T.~9t-:2.

H~!;:m.l:<'ln. I),

N. ·'Bm'.adc:Bi;;;l EktrrYJIl1aglletk EI1IYL,ronment Ncar Telephone Equjpmerit.' IEEE .NafJrma! T eleeommu ~licnti()ns· ,Confie're!loe. 197(~_ JillIlCS-,;. D, E" c'.[ ~il. "N.(IniQ11lIi7.·ftl.g Rattia1i9'Ei .Expj)<&ure h.rUrt)8!1 AreJls of the Unhe~l
Sta~.8g Pmee'fdi~lgs ."

'of thit

5tch lrJ1!!(luulQ(J'al

Rr(1dimiI!)J~ P'to~e(;liWl Ass(!eia~iun_

Aprii . .1977. Mertc], H. K." InleJ"-iil1!iti!Dt1al ·!lnd N81iOIl<11Ra.dioFr,t;q~,ellcj' [nteri"e:reIloe Re,gulati;()n~·_"· on Whil~ Consul tants, G~ETllllntown" Mid"t 1978. D MIL-S'"f~I)A(iJ B. "'Elc4~nJm1JJgueUclnlerfe:re[jte Chatac~.eri5itk R'tfquiremems tor
Equ.ipml:lll." Ap";i'l 1980'_

MIt-S'fD-.;!62,
Jlllly

19f)} _

"Ele,~n'in11,gl'lelic:

'

Interference

'.

(:h~lmc1e;rr$lks~ Mea~,ur~:r;utnt (j)l."

Ras~k, W G_ "'Gcr;:mi.nR;Fl Protec~;()n Regl.!btiol'l~' Affeding: .EDP Inst.1U<ltioilS,·· EMC'TCf.linoldgy,. April-June 1983. .

1'his r:;h'apteris- devoted tD cabUng, 'and cable .,shi~Jd{Hg. afi(n,:.ll<lp~er 3 covers gI'9u,nci}ng, Silloe the; subJects dfca"bk ibieldin~ andgmnlil.dirig are dosely [Idated , these two chapters should be- s:~ud]ed together; Chapter 2, .fpI[ ~x"mpk, . show,s that a cable shield. used ,to Buppl'~Ss, eleetrlcfielss should be g(9fu1!n:_ded~ but Chapter 3, e~i:lilr"uns where. that g,t.oIl['ldS:ho~ Id be made, . .!C~bk;:.$arc imp:of~4n t beca use 'they arethe fclnge.st P1l,m:.d:r a -::iystiem ;JlJd ~il!etdore act as eJfirdent .;1nt'c:i"ln~-s· th~t 'pick up and for i~d[al<e, flO:.i'$f:_. Th~s ,. leT covers +he~o'U:pU rng thecha.nr~m:s. tb;ut 'op:ur between 'fields and . ., ,<tnd~G'~weem: ,c,ib~es (cIUsst<l)]k),. BotEl 1,lri.$.hl.e~dQdnd ~l1ieli:.k"?d'cables a \n;;, considered. ~~n rhis ch,<lipterwe assume ..the ;fq~ lowing;

Wtil:te. D,: !;~_ :L EJe'ctrom;~gni~t.ri In'(r·l"kf,eKl~~i"-~rJd CompatfJ:H{ry'.%L 1 (Elcdri~.<Il Nobe "lid EM]: ·Spec;Hl:c,atiOl:l~)." UOJ] W'il,ite CG.ns~l~m Ge.rn~::mlOW.[j, Md., nts,
1971-

Whitt::. D,E,

.1, Eli;l;tr'mYl.lJg~J:e:[.fc Im'e1!i?lSenr;e dml :t'ompr)tiNlifY; Vol.·2. {ErxH Te~ M\C;lIH)d:~,' ~mi.(lPri)c.e"~~fIliS)..non W~Ite ;C{)Jljsulta~ts, ·Gcr"m,~:rnt'l1""'.n ~ [Wi;!" 1974-.

'L ShIelds are made. oLnonmagnetilZil:1ateIiillls and h8!.ve a thlcknt":ss· much less than BI. s,kI1J. depl~ at the '-frequelilcyDf interest, ~ 2" The tc"Qcpto;r Th TIg't 'cqnp:l:6dsq tiglniym the so ur:_® ithati tlOiad~ qOW[l ~e~uft~.· .
3', ]ndu(;:ed currents in the receptor .circult are smal ~e.n0 ~gb noth) di:sh)rt the -o,i~itlrat field, "(Tfi:is does nQtapp~y to a~hi,eJd <lte~nd~ih:e receptor

'(,:~rcuiL)

4 Cables are short t~Qfnprt[ed

(0

w[lv!;":le[}g'th,

~I~pe ta.hle(i;. are, assumed shostcempared . ro a, W:8Jvdeng~h. the COiJ!p~ing between C:Lc,cuihcarr be represen ted by lumped. eapac'itan~ and inductance ~(;twe,e;n. the condectoes, Tijecimuil can thcrl(Je. arwlYZied by normal The- first is capacitive or electric wbkh. resulrs lEnnI thehHera0tf9t1 '()[ dr~lric nekls b~t w~n :m:rc;:,UUs._ Tbi~ lYpe:. t)f ,o.llpting i:s' commonlyident]f]:ed .iu .the. U'terntnre as ~k:ctrosta;tu(: CO:lJlpJ[\I1.g ~·'::InQlwttJ.tls.mi~J:W)'rtle·r sinee the ~~e~d.s <:r~'not $~atic:. The seccnd js inductive, or rrl,1lg.ne~t~c,.couplIng,/ whk1] resutts fro.~n the. iiiit;eH.ction between the ma~neiic fid d;s of two circuits, Thistype co.np~i [Ig is eomnicnly lIesc.[i[l'ed[js electrosnaguetic, a-ga!n mis,~eadi~g [e~mi.iiQlp~gy si,nce, no deuric J'iddS ~rC involved, The t:h~rdis .<lcomPlntlt]on lOll electric ,~~ld'm ll:g~.e"tjc field~ ?J'nd is app.ropt!atdy t8ine~ elcctmm:1f;n;~tic co tlpliH.g f]l~ "oupling,

network (h~(Jiry. Th eee types of c,oupHr1g:sam eonsidered.

qf

nr U~t .s.hi.ddi~ ~hvd(~r~h<lJii .<1 ~kE.nt!ep!h •. ~m:l'~ <lIddilhiiml. ,~nidrJi!'lgi~p.f·-~~M[h~.!(id(!:~lh:;it (la.lIC.lI Meil b"ymetbi:>d!:s. in (h:i:s t;'ll:1i~t,eJ:,. The ·e"fiect is, ,dltSi;:I).~~dju.~the,r il'l Cll,ap~et 6.

30
radiation, The rechniqnes developed to: cope with elc.ctrk; cDupiil1ga.re 'iil~'A1

GAPACITNE

ceuau N,,'
th.e pi~kl1~'~·.o~~age depends

Equ.aJicm 2"1 does not show dearly how


the various parameters"

ron

appropriare for the electromagnetic case. Foranalysis in the nC:iF field, normally consider the electric and magnetic fields 'Separately, whereas elecsromagnetic field case is considered when the problem is' in the field. * The circuit ·c'~!,l.llingthe .intcrference is .called the source. and clrcuirbelng aftectedby the interference is called lh(.i receptor,

·we the
far

Equation 2-1 can be simplified for (h.e case ~ben R Is a lower impedance than the .i.mpe~~Hl'ct. the :stra,Y Df capecnance .L!, pius. C;!«. ln most practical cases this will be true, Therefore, fl"ll"

the R
~.f,""~

1
[1

]fl{C.

+ C2d

A simple

roupUng between twoCOF'l!tlii..lClOf{:; is shown in FIg.. 2-1. Capacitance ,Cl: is the slm!i capacitancebetween ccnductOIS 1 and 2. Capacitance C, a is the capacitance between conductor 1 and ground" C2.(; is the total capacitancebetween conductor 2 and g;TOU~J, ,Imel R is the rdsistfJll!!Oc of circuit 2 to ground, The resistance R results "from the circuitrv connected to conductor 2 and is: nN j,j 'stray component. Capacltanee i;~ consists 01 both the. shay capacitance of em; duetor 2. tor g:n)u nd r:; and the dfe:tt n f .:.lJnyc.i reui ~ry connected to eonducmr :2. The equivalent clrcuit of the oQliplun.gi~ ,~]5Q shown in fig, 2-1. Consider the V(lUllg.~ V.i' on cond uctor las the source of interfcrcnee ~rmlconductor .2 a's the. affected circuit OF ,,(:t:r.;plOf •. Any capacitance connected dire.clly a~FO~S 'the source, such. !3S C, t~[n Fig, 2- I, can be neglected since it has no effect 0 n the. noise eouphng. The noisevoltage V; produced between conductor 2 and ground can expressed as ft111{)\v's:'
rcpn>~~Tll":.itin:rJ capective

uf

(2-2) Ekctric field (capacitive) coupling can be rnodeled as. a current generator, ctJ[lneeted between the receptor circuit and ground, 'with a magnitude of i-c Y1" This is shown in Fig. 2"9.4.. E'CltIation 2-2 is the most important equation describing the capa.cilivc ~;()upBng between two conductors, and it cIeadr shows how the p!'ck.np yb1t<ige depends on the parameters. EqUlittion 2·2 ::;ho.W5. ~hill the flU~SC i.I'Qilag"c i~ ,clirt,cUy p.roporti(.)nal te the frequeijcy {.w =·2ir!J of the nOISe ~2'j'urc:e.the: resistance R of the affe cted circuit to ground" tile capacitance C, ~ ~j::t:we:enconductors 1 and 1.' ~nd '[ magnitude 0 f !n e voltage VL• he. A~sumiug·'lbat the voltage and frequency of the noiAe SOLl'[{::C. carnror be changed, (his leaves only two remaining parameters for reducing capacitive ~{Jupling,The. receivercircuit can be ppe-mt'l;:d at iii lower rcSist!lV1cl(: level, or capacitance en can be decreased .. Capacitance en cal] be decreased by pmper orientation of the. conductors, by shie lding described .in the ne xt section), or by physicaHy ~cparalti ng the conductors. l f l b c con duetors arc moved farther apart- CL~ decreases'. thus decreasing the Induced voltage on conductor 2;.~ The effect of 'conductor spacing on eapaci tive coupling is sli0 \VTIin l'ig .. 2~2_ Asa n::fcrcncc, 0 dB is the ca,urding when the conductors ~te separated by three times the conductor diameter . As.can be 'seen :Lnthe :figl.lre, little addiliurt<ilT attenuatien is gainr;d by' ·p.w,i"g the L~nn\du'clo,s a dist:ln.cc gn:a~er than 40 times their diameter (1 in. in the case of22-gauge wire}, If the fC5.\-S(;:l.ncc from. conductor 2, to.,g:round.· is Il:!rrgc" such that
R..

be

(2-1)

. ;;_,...

. (C' (..) llJ~, ,.~ -t '1(;

then Eq. 2-1 re duces to


(1-3)
Ai:PA·<sN.n
F.~Y5~CAL

1\"

em

n III;,' ~_Lr:-,iT 11 A_bLu T

"The c~r3dt;H".ct! bet.wee.n two ptm:il!e.l conduerers of diameter (t aE~d spared .0 ap'<lIt is C!_ = ~Eh:oS:h-'(Dhn,. (fUn), F'i;lt' Dfli ')0. 3, this reduces to (.", = 1TeI In(201.rt) •. (Frill). where
E.

=jUl5 x 1(1 "Ja~(lJds.~r meter (Flm)

fm fr!=(t !;P"·cc=.

EFFECT

OF s.Hrew,

ON CAP:ACI'I'i!\f:E COU~LlNG

33

.:>'
.r!!
u;!

"'.

'r' ._]

.<

o
<i'l

>

~;D~
.>r':f .~, ffi IJ.I I

.y
.,l__

W,

....
t'<J

2:.

o
Z

s
W

w $. "-J

rr

~,

-c
'N 0;;

Qli
'N

Under t~i5 condition the noise . gl1Ol1nd is dee t-o the capacitive
N
I

o I
00

u.;.'

O.

preduced between eonducto r 2 and voltage divider ell and ex,' The noise vqUage is 'lil1uc[1cfldent of frequencyan d ~s Q f a larger rn:agnitude t ham when 'Ris small, A P]9t of Eq, 2~'I versus ,t_.) is' shown in :1-"(;- 2-3_ As can be seen, the, maximnrn noise coupling is.given by BtJ- 2-3_ The figure also sl]ov.'S that the

\10 ltage

0 ;:.:~
D-"-'
<;(
r-

I I ~

2<2... At a frequency of

<litto"d noise voltage

is ,ldw·ays

less than or equal to the value given

9Y

Eq.

.0:(

II:

fb

(jj

I--"'"

c>J.

~.,
I '"<t

/ /
i
to

Bquation 2·2 g;ives avalue of noise lhat is 1A1 times 'U::J(':. actualvalue. In almost all practical cases, the' frequency is much leSS: than lilts, and Eq, 2·:2, applies,

EF1FECl"O:F o ,....
QI
(\i,

S.HIELD ON CAPA.CITIVE

COUPLING

aJ

0-

~
I

Fitstconsider the case where the receptor (conductor 2) ha~inlln~t~ resistan ce to .ground; If a shield is' p laced around conductor 2, theconriguration becomes that of f:ig_ 2~4. An equivalent eircult of the, .capacitivc coupling between conductors is included. The voltage picked up by the shield is

(8 P)f; = pIC]'

=lO 1,,",,1-11 MDl388NIldnOO

~I

= (" ."

CI.~+ C'~:c:'

t~s

)'V

'I ..

(2-5)

'32

35

I~ II
I II
i-

Since there is no cunemHow con ductal). is

through

CiS

the voltage

picked up by

(2-,6)
If the shield is grounded, the voltage Vs = O,and the noise voltage v'" on conductor 2. is likewise reduced to zero .. This. ease=where the 'center coml~H::tfti doe's. not extend beyond the. -shield=-is an i4ie(i~ si tnation ::ina not typ.kal. " .'In practice, the centerconductor no rmally does extend beyond the shield, and the situation becomes that of Fig. 2-5. There en is the eapaciaance between ccnducmr 1 and the shielded- conductor 2" and C.2c; is lhe capaciranee between conductor 2. and gmul'id. Both of these capacitances exist because the end s rtf ,{.:onilllclor 2 extend beyond the shield. Even if the ~:hidd is .grounded . there' is a noise voltage 'coupled to 'conductor 2. its magnitude t.~ex'pr~s~ed as follows: (2-7)
eli' and hence. i~ , in Eq. 2-7 depends ... on fhe length of that extends heyond the shield. For good eil:dJ"lc field sbieldi'J'~g, it til' th{~!'efore necessary (1) to ;ninimize lht!: le~1g.fh oj #t8 cetftt?-r ('.end~{'wr ika! .e:Kl;euds .beyond.lheshid:d .and (2,) lr): /p'roV'ide a good gr(JIunti Q"I the shleld. A single groerid connection makes a good li,hie.lJ gn~und, .provided thecuble is not longer thanone-twentieth of a .~.a.vellengt:IL Oil longer cables multitl1]e grounds !Il:a}' be trecessary. If ill addifion the receiving conductor h,r~ linite n;~l stance to ground, the ':mmgl;mq:nl is that shown 'in Fig. 2;'6. If the .shield is grounded, the equivalent circuitcan besirnplifled as shown in the figure. Any capacitance ,Jir1ec.t!y across the source can be neglected sinceit 'has uo .effect on the noise .'coupling. The simplified equivalen! eiscnit can be recognized .t:s, the same ;~ircuit analyzedin fig. 2-1 provided eli, is, replaced by (he sum of C"G and C!.o;. 'fhcr~Bo'l'e~if .

z o o
.rt------1I(I-·.
:>
-~-

._j

ur I._
;:I

III

'0 :w

0;(. "> u a;' ;;;) u

~.

{
0;:

t!

<>

....

,e
.~

l!!-~

(1--------11 I II

& <> ~

'" .~ ~ ~
..z:::

.. '"
.;::

::.. -...

~~ ~ -5 'i:
-5 -.
:u:,
;:::. ;:;

The value ccndnctorZ

Qf

~::::

". .
::;,

:::.

e :::;

z D __Jli= :!:2z U:J >- U5 'J: W


(J)

C
OJ

.« §C. In:::

",' ;N

1.:0:

.. ~

G..

uJ !I:

(2-8)' This is the: same as Eq ...2-2, which is for an umhiddcd cable, except that Cj~ irs greatly reduced by thc jnesence of' [he shield. Capacitartce Ci~ now .eonslsts .prim.ad!y of the capacitance between-conductor 1 and the ],1[Q-

34

,IINilJuCTiVE: WliPLI NG

>----2:

II I

,-.....,!--~~il ~ ~~t ----111


1'

o
o

~'

'I!i

I"I'LYSiC~t 8E PR[;jIt~'J:" - jOr...

.:.---------1:(1--.... ------1111 .('~------I:'lll


:>
,.

•N!

~-~··~~~-III
EUUI,V"'Li:~Jl (I·~CUIT

~H.lE'LI~1 .E()IJ'lw\lE~lT ClRCl:1!r ~I) ~WR (~.PDUt<lD·m~~IE LID'

.'!ihie1ded portions

i.~:lIt Cl\tst.s from


i[l'G.!uded ~n Ct
2-

~·o:nd.uclor.l

of c{)Inductor 2, If tile shield IS .braided, .a~:y t,rpa(;itano~, ~O. lhmugh l!he&u)!C-.'iin the s.hicl.d trU.lS['also he 2

ilNDUCTIVE COUPLING \Yhen acunent ! ftlow.s 1n a closed circuir, It produces a, magnetie flux :~: which ]S proportional to the- c·u:rre.nt. The"(;:Gn~t<mt of prupnrtiQllalhyis· called the 'iHd~c:tirrl!t~~ hence' we carl' wrire L. .

'The~n{t\'lr.;tH[lCe v,ll~e dep~!1d!l)(]In lh~~t:n1it1ctry of the Circuit and the :magn.etic··p.ropenie,;> of the medium 'oonb'lining the field, 36

38 When current flow is a mutlrl-al inductance


ill 011 C: circuit

INDUCTIVE

COUPLING

39

produces- a ftux in a second circui t" the re

114 between circuits 1 :ml..!.:2defined <)S l2.


(2-10)

The. symbol dJl~ represents the flux iin\:.i'r"t:uit2 due to [he current I[ 1.Ti circuit 1. The' voltage jndu,c.ed in ~ldosed loop '(j,r a.•ea A due to a. magnetic fidei or flux density B can be d,eri).lcdfroni F.lt-n~day's law (Hayt, ~9]4,p_ :nl) ant!

y...

is
F,~.,=

- -,rlr'-~A d~

B:- {fA

_
~

(2-1.1)

where B ~lnd A .are vectors, H the closed loop is st1~ti nary' J.II:ulthe nux n density is Sinll~i)id\llly v,uyiirig with time but-constant 'OV~1" the area of the loop, Eq. 2-JJ reduces to

VH =jwBA. cos

f)

.1'+

As shown ill 'Fig. 2-'1, A is the area ofthe d(·~s.ed loop. B i:-; the rms \'~dUiCof

the sinusoid,lny v.arying. flux density of frequency ~!!r~d~4ns per sceond, !Jtild V.... is fhl; vms value n r the induced voh.a:ge. .S'ince, !lAc'o:,; f1 represents the total rnagnetlc flux (q\~)coupled H) the receptor circuit, ..Eqs, lfl and 2-12 can be combine .. .dw express the induced

voih~~C in terms' uf [he mutual follows:


v

inductance

AI between

two circuits,

as

Equarions 2q2 and .2"13 are (he 'bask equations describing iuo1ll'c:tivc coupling hetweeu two clrcults. Figure- 2~"8 snows (he inductive (m<lgnetk) otJupling. bctw(;;:~n two circuits as described by Eq, '2.,-13. tlis the current in the interfering circuit, <l.tHI M is the term that JC"OOl:lTlL", for the. geometry -and .,the .m.~ignet.i,cr_:r.o perti es of the medium bel ween the twn circults, The pre~ctl.ce 'Of win FQs. 2~12 and 2-13iliI!:Il.cates that the coupling is directly pn.l'p·OTli()ntllfo ftequ ency _To reduce the noise VOh,.lgc . B, A. OF (,:0$() must 'be reduced; The 8 ·t~nn can be reduced by phY~',cal'separ<ltim1 the circuits .or by twistin·g the source wires, provided the current trows jn the twisted pair .and not through [he .g;r{) rnd plane. The conditions nc:cessa."ry for this a re u covered in a later section, Under (!lese eonditiorrs L\."is.ling .causes the B fields trorn each 'Of the wires to ~~~'HlceL hearea of the receiver eircuit Gaff T be reduced by placing the conductor closer 10 the ground plane (if the return ~!lncnt ill through the gffJi;Uld plane) or by using .two conductors twis'lc:.d ·h-\~etb.er (if the return earremis GIl one of the pair insread of the grol.ulcl p1.an.e). The cos If) tenlt call he reduced by propel! orientation cUf l he source ~~d receive r eircui rs, , . It 1l1<1Y helpful to note some differences between magnetlc and.electric b~ fi:~]d··cO'UpID~tg.For mag.lte-rtk t:iie!,] ~nlJLpHng.anoise voltage is produced in series w'tb the receptor :comlue.tor (Fig, 2·'Sl.B), whereas for electric field Cf.Iup]il1g.~.Oj noise currentisproduced hdw.~Gtt the :rer;;ep~ot d;H"U:ilK'tOT and &round (P~g _ 2~gA),. This difference can be used in the fojl.]p\v~ng test to disti,nguish between electric and magnetic coupling. Measun:' the noise Vd:I!age across the Impedance at. oneend qf thecable while d.e·cr·~m;li1g ~hc impedanec at the opposite end of the cable (Fig,. 2·9J- If th.e measercd tn)i;se vtilta:gc decreases. the pickupis electric, and ir the measured noisevoltagc iucrease s, the pickupis IIUl gneric.

or

.. ~fl 1jif di I!N=fclJ~:j-.!~-d

..

{2-131

MAGNETIC CUTS

or

F! ~,LD A

Oi:NSJTY
AREA,

AT

AN

ANGLE

OF,~

·'EgullJ~:i{jn 2-r~.i~correcr when rhc M KS' ·~'.i'ste;l.li. o.f i!.u~it& bel'ng LIse,,!.. HiUX doow.y h' is in, Is· per sg U;:!H~meter (or tesla}, and area A is in HI~I~H!'. meters. If B is Q1prcsso::r! i:iI gilll~> an t'If A f5 in SC]lJlIfC ~~'~lI:i:mde.r,· ('(3-5 ~l'~tCiii1)., 'Ln~ ;'i~ht ~i.de ,of Eq, <'.:-1.1 (t~e . ..llm.!~L b~·[nuHi"p~led by lO-~ .
..... gJ).en;

!'I~F RE_,Er,lTA"m:m

·~H""'£.lCA.L

MUTUAL

INDUCT.A.NCiE

CAlCUlAnoNs

41

Calculate the mutual inductance bctwe·en the two nested {opl:il.net loops .5hownin Fig. 2-JlOA, assuming that the sides of the loop, are' nIll!chlonger than the end's (be." the coupling ccmribured 'by the end conductms can be' neglected), Conductors I arid 1 are
(,;:lITy'ing

Ex~mp~e 2.~.

current

[1

:whir:h induces a voltage VI'i I~HO the loop formed by conductors 3 and 4, Fi~Ufe 2;-10.8 is ,1 cross-sectional view showing the spacing between the conductors .. The m·agneti.c f1U:l:. rlinduc(:{] by the CUii'l:1rJ11in conducto- 1 -erossing the ..I,oQP beh';'ccn conductors 3 and 4 is

012 =. Conductor

iI.p-.!. I

,2:'lTr

.'- .. ..-

I~· at = '-,-, 2:u

I j.

In. -..)..
u

(f. .
'J .

(2'-15}

2 ·,.ti:>ocontributes an equal flux due to lhe. symmetry of the. as the flux produced by the '~~un6n£ tn cond!'cwr L Then~fur~ the total !lux coupled tn the 100'(1formed by rconductors. :::tal1d 4 is twice that 'given by Eq, 2-15. .. or
con~lUd?rS _ This flux is in th€ same- direction
B

F1gure .2.-9. (AJ

Eql.lil!aieii1

dTl"{li{

j01' dec/Til:

fit'ld

COllpUJ'lg:

(B)

f(,ftli~ale.11r

ri1l':m~j(}f mal~lelic

(2.-16 r

Jield

GJIIplltJg"

MUTUALIN'DUCT.ANCE

CALCULATIONS

1:0 evaluate the expression in Eq, 2-13, the mutual inductance betweeri the source and receptorcircuit must he known. M'ns[ texts do not pay much attention to mutual inductance calculations Tor pn!!ctkal circuit geometries,
.;'lcIIQ

Grover (l~n3),.however, provides an extensive treatment of the subject, Ruchli (197~) develeps the uselu! concept uf partial mutual inductance. "'his concept nf partial mutual Inductance Is further developed jn Paul
(19S6);

Before the mutual inductance can 'beealculated. (rn expression must be determined for the magnitude, of themagnetic flux, de.J)sity as .~ lunction of di~Mlnce. rom 11 eerrcnt-carrying conductor, Using the Biot-Savart jaw, one f can write the magnetic flux density B :.H a .distancc r from a long currentcarryl n g condu ctor as ('2-14) for r greater than the radius of the conductor {H ayt 1974., pp, 235-237) _ Thercfcre the magnetic field is directly proportional to the current I and i~nveIse1.y prppot"ilcii.lal to the distance r, Using Eqs. 2-14 and 2"W,. one t;;m determine the mutualInductance for an}' arbitrary c:rmngLU"<:l;tion conducto.s by calculating the magnetic "flu;.;; ouplet! to the pickup. loop from each c current-carrying conductor indlvidllWly and then snpeJ:imposing all the resultsto 0 btain the tot;JI f1 [IX cou pi.ing.

n.

.
'b

nr

42

Diviid:in:gEq, 2·16 by l~.tl[ld sebstltuting tbe mmtu(lI indnetnnce

4..- x .10- Him for ,~, we'o'!:ltain

1l,S

.M=4xUI

_"'i~l:;•... I

(b)

(2-17)
by substituting

The ....·Jiltagecoupled between the two lnops.r>au be.calculated t the: rcs:~lt from Eq. 2·17 into Eq, 2-13,.

EFFECT Of' SH'IElD ON MA.GNETIC COUPl!ING If an ungrounded and nonraagneticshield is now placed around conductor 2., thecircuit becomes that of Fig. 2,1 i where MIS> .ls, the mumai inductanee bet ween conductor 1 and the shield; Since' the. shield has no effect on the geometry nr magl1el]e propenies tfie medium between circuits 1 and 2,. i.I has ne effect on the vcltage iIi.duc,e~jinto conductor 2. The shi,eld d(les,; 'howcvc:r, pick lip a voltage due ttl thecurrent in conductnr 1:.

or

A g.w1IJ!ndconnection OIl one end of the shield docsnilot d:umge the ,s,itualio!]. tt follows .rhere.fore thm a nonmagnetic shf.e.ldphICi!1.i atOml d '!l conductor and gT(mnd'ed at one end lias no effect on the m,agnc,ticallyinduced voltage in that conductor. If ,however. 'the shield IS grounded at bothends, the voltage 'inducedi nto the shield due to MIS' in Fig, 2-11, will cause shieli:;l·r.:urre.nt to ftow. The shield current will induce a second. noise voltage into conductor 2, :lliid. this

must be taken into ~ocQll!nt Before this, voltl~:g~ ',c~n he calculated, the: coupling that exists between shield and Us center 'conductor must' be determined. 'For th]S, reason it will be necessary to calculate 1h,u: magnetic <coupling between a hollow conducting tube (the shield) and any cQI1I.(luctovplaced inside the tube, before continuing the discussion of inductive coupling. This concept is fundamental to a dificl!]~;sion of magnetic 5 hi clding and win be n¢¢ded later. .

,i

"'. .,..
I I
I
::'1E.

.
e,

... -

MAGNETIC COUPLI'NG EI,ETW!I!N SHI.El!D A.ND' INNER OONIDiUCTOR Firs;t oomSlder the magneelcfield produced

mlfform axial eurrem, us shown in Fi:g; 2-1.2. If the hole in the tube is
concentrlc with the outside or die tub~,.·there is no magnetic 'field' in the cavity and the total m~gU'!etic; field is external to the tube (Smythe, p. 278},
43

"by

a tubular conductor

carrying a

45
MAG~~ETIC
FLUX· I.JN ~Si

/\4 =
._._

T' -s

q,

(1-20)

CURRENT H;OWliN,r;
! NTO iPAriE;A

Since. all Ul'e fluxprm;tuced by the sh ield current enci rcles the ce nter tonGue'tor, the- fimc q; in Eqs. 1,-19 and 2~2G the same, The mutual inductance between the sbield and center conductor is therefore CllUallO the. self. lnd1..l ct ance of the ~hie ld

is

PERSf'ECTI "I Ii:

.(1-2'] ) Equation 2-21 is a most importan! n..::s!!ltand one thatwe will often have ~t)0C<l~Jon refer to .. Itwas derived to shew that the r~lu!H{d inductance to l!o/i.WUff the shield ami the center conductor is e.quallO the shield inductanee. Ba.'!I~d'on the reciprocity .ot· mutual inductance (Hayt. 1'974. p, 321.), tile inverse m ust also be true. That is, the mutual ]Jil~Iucl.ance between toe .cen tc.t No..:.,.Ict ;i conductor be placed inside the tube to form a COOl xialeable. as shown in Fig. 2-1-3, An of the flux (p due to the ournmlls in the shield t~be cn~~iJ(':ll the inner conductor. The. iuduclance of ;t:!:Ieshield. is e'q]ual to es

"(:2-19)

conductor .and the shield is equal to the shieldindnctance. The va:lidEty ~f Eq, 2·21 depend's only Qn l.he,~ fact that 'there ]~.. no magnetic 'field .i.1l tht.: cavity of the tube'due Hi shield current. The requirements for this to be true are that the tube be c.ylinlh:ical :i!nd the current ,de [lsity be .u:11.iforrh. around t}w. L'.ircumjerelwe of tlr.(~. tube . Equation 2·2>1 applies regardless of the .p()~ition of the conduct,or within the tube. 111 other words, the two ciOndLlCh1tS, do not have" 10 be coaxial, TI'Ie voltage VII! induced 'into the centerconductor due to .<1 current is in -th,e.'shield can now be calculated. Assume that the shield current is produced ·,I:ly·avoltage V;~iruluccd iiHO the sru[dd rrom some othereircui LFigure'2~ 14 ~h()"~'s the' circuit being oConsid,"~rcd: L.~and R, ,:;r"t: the inductance arid T.es;i~t~nc,c the shield. The voltage Vj.,r:ilS equal to .of

FLUX UruES --~

MAGNETIC

(2.22).

TUBlH_A;R
--

CONDlJCTOI'!.

CI,JRRENT Is FL01.I\m~G iNTO PAIGE

47
The currcn
t

I~- i:-:. equel

lu

I ~ = LV~ (_
-

:... l'w 1- RsfLs

l.

).,

b:i.mff

Five Titrle~

(2-23)

Cable
Coaxial cable

Impedance (!l)

Frcque
(kHz)
('1.6 (L7

nc~i'

Cij,lGffFrequency
(k]-l7;) 3.1)
3.,)

Therefore

V.i..= (iwM~:) ..(.


. L_~ Since. L::;
=

R.G-6A 1 .)

'100 + R_~lLs

..

Q-2.4)

RG-213
RG··214
RG-62A R()-;'NC RG-5{;C;

75
5U 5'0

Double shielded
Douhle: 8hie.lded

(}3
'75

0.7 1...0 U.8


2.2
7'..(Ir 4JJ

M [from Eq, 2-21).,

1.5 1:6

v
A .~lot o~Eq_ CUI"ve ts defined

= (.
.

JrE

-..

pr)" ~>

I'S"

.u~s

V~ .

..

(2-25) for this


.

2_-25 iss;~wwn tn r:tg. 2.-15_ The hrC;:l.k" frequency ,(IS the shiele!" cutoff frequency (w,,) and (iccm'~ .lll

50 ;Shieldctl iylisted pair 75.4E 12.5 24 Ga_ .22Ga: ,SI;ieldcrJ ~ii1gle 24.(}a_

W._O
4,0 11JI

3.5 7.5· &.U

Dcubki' shielded

35JI
20.0.

or

.Co

f=-·'-· 2'lTL_,;·
q-~eqll..l!encyhart any other, This is due to. rheincreased t -'~Iuminmn -foilshield, reslstance

R,_

The noise voltage induced into the centerconducujr is .zero -<It de and im::'liclS~S l(i almost VS" a t ,~ frequency of 5Rs I L~ iadl s. Thcrocfon:'"D f fi.hich·j : current isallowed ttl flow. ;9. '\fr,hagc is-ind-llce(linto 'the'center conductor that Tl:7'a:rly equals the shield voltage at: fueqti[~n;~ics !r"';~NI than live time~ the shield (~utoff (rc_qu-r;:m;;y. This is <I very important property .. f 1:1' oonductor inside ,<I shield, Meae sured v~~lu~s theshield cutoff frequency and five timc~,thb frequency are of ta~lubted m Table '.1- I for v,.tfiQUS cables, For most cables •. five tiTtles (he shield Q'l1lh~ ff freq ~!L::lii!C_y 15 ncar the hi.gh f;nd0f the audie- freq uency band; The ahrmiunm-fcil-shielded cable listed has a much hil:t~r;;,I shield cutoff

of its thin

M('!gnetic eoupling--Op~in
Figure 2-16 shows the magnetic ,,5mr;.ldis placed around conductor

Wire to Shi.e'lded Conductor conplingsthat exist when a uonmagnctic 2 arid the shield 'i:-~grounded at (loth ends, is shown :')cp:,!:'!r:ned from eonductor 2. W·

rn tills 'j]gutie the shieldcomjucter

_'L __
.·3de
..... '\ CU~8 V'S

I'

--Vs

.simplify the d.r8J.wing,.SIflccthe shieldisgrounded H1' both ends, the shield :(rrrl.:!lt I'ldWs "<mid induces a voltage into couductor 2. Therefore there are two components. of the voltage indaced mto conductor 2; vo.l1.age due to lI]feC'li mdncti nn the induced shield .rn conductor 1.. and voltage dueto . ,cmrellL. Note that tbc-~t:,tw~Ci voltages .ate of oppots'~le, polarity. The total ~lOise 'Voltage induced into conductor 2. is fhercfore

r.t;)

(2-27) If we u;'>€; the identity of Eq, 2.-21 and noh:." that the nWlua.l inductance Mu from conductor l to the .shleld is equal [0 thernutual iuductancc M,"J, from conductor 1 to conductor 2. (s,ince: the s.hield· and .cQJ1duQto.r 2 .are Jocated in the same: place in space with respect to conductor 1), Eq, 2.<~.f becomes

I-OG OF ANG lJlAR FREOll ENe'\( m


f'~gUir:C' 2-15 •. Noise ~;(JiJag.!l eenser conductor ill

of coaxial cnOl;;:due to shidd current:

SOURCE

CoNDUCTOR

(3)

C©NDUCl!Ofl

SIrlIEI.O

'SHlI.ELDEEi

CONIDlJGR;l1'i

lOG
'.grmmdc:d

Of ANG'l)ILAF! FR~au ENCY w


l,oliaJ,;e

fig;1loc .2-17. IHaguetit; _field mU[11df. notse ill bOIlI·(,;'fU1.t) !;!en"['15 fn~qum·cy.

for

1m

[f.,t,~I~kJt'kd(]ml_~b.ie1d~.:.J ~·.(1bii.~sMdd (

If w is small in Eq. 2-28·, the term 011 brackets equals 1., and tile noise. voltage ]::Ube same as for the unshielded-cable. If (dis large, Bq, 2-2~ reduces to (2·29) Equation 2-28 isplotted in .Fig. 2-1T. At. low frequencies the noise pickup in the shielded cable is the same as tor 01.11 unshielded cable: however, at frequencies above the shield cutoff fiequ~f!cy the pickup voltage ;.~tops, increasingand rernai fis constam. The shielding eft'ectlvCIH;St>. (shown crosshatchedin Fig.. 2-17) is·therefor.e equal to the difference between the 'CUFV'C forthe unshielded cable ·and for the shielded cable. Figure 2r 1,8 shows .<1. transform.er3!liira1 ogy i!;;(]!lI iVa]en.t .circulr for the configu]"atioll of Pig. 2~16._A~. can be.seen, the shieldacts as. ~ shorted turn in the transformer to short om the voltage ifF! winding 2..

Fill:un~2i-~l\I, ·TI'~II.sfb'fm~l· cmulOKf oj ml1,~n !~£·iilJ. wupUn!i' ... f gral'm,d~d at· br'th. fmd.\· '.,\r~~, is ·mr.id!" tal1!,'<i!'r ffum ,~t (.l,t M,,). jE"

1'0 ~

.sMp.M'f!a mMt· wiltOn shield

is

49

SHIELtmNG TO PFI:EVENT iM:A~'NE,li~CRADH\nOII'\il

T9 pl!e:v'~nt :n~di!,itioJ;'l. thesource

of the, Interference

.may be ,shi.~lded-t"'igIJIe

2-19: shows theeleetris mildr.m~gnG(tCf1cW:\l~uuoufidin; :;I. CUH~!lt·C"lH)'~ng conduiGlOr l.oca,tl::d in frc{: space, If;[I shieldgwunded at one poin t ]8 placed around the conductor, the electric f~dd HFle~'wiU terminate on the shield.. but there will beva:ry link: :ef[e.c( on the magnetk field, This is shown in F:ig_, 20-20'.Ifa shield curreut equal and opposite to lhatin the center cOndtH)tOT is made to flow on theshield ,it generates an equal but 0PPQslteexlernal magnet]~, field" 'jfhi~ fieldcancd$ lhc'miigne[1c 'fi!d:d caused by (he center:, CCJII),thH;tqf l!;~t~rnall6 (he shield. This. re$IlI~.s in the CDhdld6tn shoWn In Fig,
2;2'] , ,with j1(:ifitelds external to' the; shieM.

1i'jl!l~"~ .2<:l'{L. F'iddi\' ,u'Tm:md ihi~~ld~~d, COliauCfor; "Ide{d' g.rfJ.wrJed; ,til om: /Wfrl1,

Figure' 1.<2.2.,'s,bows a circuit th;d is gIQ~l]l!ed ~t both :'e:mlS" nd. d,m:i.e:sCl', a current II. T(),'p:F~v~enllm1~Vlc<ticidd faJj,a[~(Jn ffml:'l th~s clreuir, l'he s'hi~~d l mll!5t ho grounded 811 hl)<thends; .and the return CUHitIlI' Ul1;lstfIow from A :w B in the sh~~ld.(Is in thefigure) instead ot 'in dlfl gmund pian~ Oft in the figu:re-r. But wby shol!lld Nile. enrrent return from pJ)iIll A to 8 lihrQllg~the,
shl etd~nstc:acl of through [he zero-resistanee groumd p.~ane'? The equivalent

cirrnlt ean be used. to analyze this cm~fig,uration. By writing 'a mesh equafien ~wund th (3,gfUtHld loop (A - R 5,- L s" /3- .A) ,the shield Clfffcrn l. .IilC<if! be'
dete .•. lldned.: '-.

~ig1lYl'e

carriffn§

2--11. Fj,~IJ'$, {r,rtilJrul 5M~lii<td ~~f;n{ltlqQr:, skiddjfro!Ultldi. and a t:Im~nl equar ~o tiN! mnJl1('.r,O,1" ,r,rn'rerJl tm! '["" fh~~' pP'o#Je' O dfrel::tldl'i-

(2·30)
where M is the mutua] ]nd[!'ct.aIl16~ between the "SfuieIdaNd ,,~n'U;l:1~lJ]~udtJr :i3.ndas, pre'liiol!JJsly shown ,~Eq" 2"1'1)" .M= Ls' J\:faking~~is 'suh~ti[atu~t\l and re<j.u~mg1hg p.r.pchm::es th,lse~pI\e'Ssionf6][ l;~::

~ni,e,f:lhkh:i cutoff ,f1elJ!Uency (Qr,' the sh~ ,co'rr.rent Hppro8!cbestne center cld ~ ..dactcrcurrent. Because' of.~ theliJ1tl1013Jl induetanee between the shield and ,'9fi1.ter ';c,~ndl!l.c:~Qr.'~l ona.Nial tabl~,",(j{,llr;,ill oornn:Ol1J:-ITlf()~l~choke:' (;se~~ap. [er 3):,<lnd" th it sh ield provi,ck~~O! returnpath w~tl:! lower Wt.J.I'CI[cUlI ntldUbiam:e th()!h~hri grau!lid plarte at hJgh f'l;~luen(i,y- kr:;. the. fn::qu;e:Il(1' decreases 'tiekr,,\' 5'w fhe .2~ibft':r~mrIde less .\h,d k&~in:~~lliet~chiddiug as nmr:e of t ht ~ s
1.,- ~

,',

6~'[rent returss via the giumrd pIa~lt" . Ta prevent r~di(J.~i~n of a ,magfl,e,tf:cfi;el..d ir()m~'11f._YJr7.,J&u::1or. gr~~mdedat, oatil ends. the conductor should be shie.l4ed. If,,,d #ie ~hiefd shmtld be groiJRd,ed "Ilt both, ends, This provides: ,good magnetic fu::lq shielding '~t

,,,#f!'

NO GflO'UND " GOtol'NECTlCNS

.. A

ground plane.

frequencies onn~l·clc.rab~y above the shield ,CllJ;tof.f' kequency. This reduction Tn the radiared mag:rir;:.lic field .is not because Qf the: magnetic' shieldin.~ properties of the s,hidd as sueh, Rather, the-return cunnclitt on the shicM generates a fj,eld Ih,iJt cancels theconductor's fj,r;ld, If l,h!r; ·groumj is n::m(lved from nne ~nd of the -circui«; as ~~hm;v;n in Fig. 2-23, then Ih,e. shield SIKHi4~1 not be grounded at that end since (be. return current must. n.nw :lU tlowon 11mshield, This is true especially at freqU!tmcies less than the sh~eld cutoff frequency. Grounding "nth endsof the shield.Jn this case, reduces the shlcldincg since sorne currem would tel urn via [he

m~

" ~
~ .~

;;;:'

SHiIELD~NG A R,ECEPTOR: AGAIIftt,liST MAGNETIC fmlELDS


Th« bej.·t ilv~ly to protect agaim:t N'mgru:!{i.c fidds ,at ~he receptor i.t to decrease fhe: area of me receptor loop, The' area' of int~r,est is: the tot;!! area ellc.lu.sed

by d,.,urrenlfirm' in the receptor tircuit. A~:~ hnport~ant aons!ch::ration is the path tak~:n bj" the: curreutin returning to the. source, Quite often the current rctums by a path other than the one-intended by the designer, ,mdfherd(Jire the area of the loop chang,es. If a nonmagnetic ,o;;hie1dplaced around a conductor causes the current to. return OVCT.,1 path that encloses :ac sma~~er <,trea,. then stlm.c: ptmecIiowaglllil1stm.agnelicfield:'>lAiU have been pfil)vi.dcd by 'the shield, This protection. however, [$ 'Jue to the n;:'du:c:ed ~.oop,ne~ and not toany magnetic shidding prOpL~li't~es.of the, shield. Figure 2:-24 Hlustrares Ihc effect of a shield .on the loop area of a 'circuit. III Flg,. 2_24A the source V, IS connected n(1' the h')~d R[_ by a single cenducror, us it] g agrou ad retn m path _ ~Ihe area en r;] ose d by ~he-enrren lis therect:anglc between the .conductor und the ground plane. In FJg. 2<24B a shield i-x placed. ..aruund tile conductor and grounded at both ends, If rhc current returns througb ~he'shield rather :tha:n tnre ground plane.uhe area of the loopis decre~s,ed, and a degr~e of magnetic pr'(),tI':ction is pmllidi;Jd. The

53

154 ;tuTTe;<lJtrew:ws thro IlIgh the shield if the fre queney .is greater ~hanfivc lim ~s the shi,t::ld c·l,ltOfl frequencyas previously s:1.10W11, A sbu~ld placed around (he "c.dn>rJuet:Of and gro.,ullJded at OnE .en<J only ,ilS sb owni IlJ I:;;.rg_2.24(::, does nor ~h.·~ngethe loop ··<I."e and theref~r~ pmv~cl:esnn' to irgrtetk pr.okctio:n:. J Tl1e [ltr31ngQm~nl pf Flig. 2"24B (_hjers notpeatect <rgain.s;~ m~grlttkfield~ ar f[le:qLle'mc;~.esbelow the shield ci[t:of[fi!~gL1eJlIt}Tsin.cc then most of the current rennns through the ground plane- and n01 :through the- shield, Th1,5 Circuit should Q\l ,n;qiide~l "t low fn~qtJcTlQQS' l\Jr two other reasons: (1) since tht: .sllir:,M ]8. one (if the clrcuit eonductors, any i~Ol\seOu.rI'cnt init will prodaoe an JR· drop in the ·:shi.e~dand JppeJr to the cii:JCuut s ,<I' noise voltagc"lInd (2)""lr a there ]()U ~~rfJt"ere:nce. gmu Ad potentialbetween in 'the two ends OFthe 'shi el d. this WQ ,>\illlshow upas a, noise vo! l,ag.c jrt the :"(;iTl:ui. S t Wfwrl(!v~l ii, .circili"i is giO.U1uj,e,(j at bo.lf~ ,&rMls~ 'Qnij/ a lii·Hi(ed·wn.ount of iN th« grouna. loop _ Sr nCG lhi"~ ·cLlrfr:nt fiow~ through the sign fd cnnd qtto~, il IilO~f:'r.: v()U1I!ge isproduced in tbe shie ld ,. equal tf) thi($ shield enrrent II mC"~the shield f:~~iSWn~lr:_ This i~~f1ow[l In Fig, 2-25, The ClIHCru Is is_the noise .currem in fhe s!1!let~ d LIe tn .:'l! g:mun d diUe:ren!1,ai. or Wi ·~xlc·TlJ.a~ noise e.oLlpling. If vo.l.tages are addeda.mund tho. ]np~lth:10p, the "following ·exp.ressu('M:l is obt.l~incfl: (2.32)

55

{2·-33}"

tn:iig!Tt!i!t. jkl:d

fir~Jlt~[!timj

is pos~:i,ble because of the

Irtrge·.no[St:. cr4rreJir

.rruiuced

WheJ;:Jcyer shield C:UUl2:nt flow::;,. a n'iJIste.volta:ge~·5 prcdueed in the shield due 10 the l~R ve]t.lg~ drop. s: Evej]-in~l!e ~,hie1crisgt0urlided,at ·_Only nne -encl, shie.ldnpise"cllmm:t~[ti'flLY stiil flow due to cap,tcifl ve coupli l1,g. r~ :t~'l!e:s'[lfdd, Thtj4ore~ .rna,xirnum .for 'llii~'1e rotection. til' low frequ~m:iI(!!S ,. the shidd should. not. be, on~ of the .Sfglltd p i()nd~u~tOfS,. -n:d{.me,end of the circuit mu,~:t be Emicr.ted jmm gt41.t:I~d, a .., At high frequencies a ~Q2Lxi<l] cab le eontams fhre.e· i$01Iatec:!l.Eo[lduGlf}r~; tIJ the (;:ent~fcon(iuClQl', (2) the ·ilUiler surface aT the shield 'comlt!c.H~r., and 4i,) onle,f[)uFfsice of the ~hidi:! condl1~,tor -.!he, ,Inne~~md outer s.urtJ:e~ . tb,"~'· tHhec sh~e-.ldare i5Ci]i<ltbJfrem each.other by skin effec,t" H~·r:.refore,t1ll:e noise ~qw.p]ing discussed cm_'~i# does nUl aocl.u·;be,ca:l]~e lh(:, srgnar cnrrern f1?WS ~7fi the. inside. ~:n]"fare of 'the-shield, the rlois-e current flows ~llf! (he· outside,
and there iSfl(~ commen impedance .

·~Is
)

.also be r:Kptes~.ed in t~[ms of the impedance. The: 'shield transfer ~mred21:nc.e 15i .at pl'~perts of ~fie':sh.icld thmreotMl:::s the epen d~'Guit voltage (pe;r unit length) de~'dopecl h".t~lween 'th e ee nter i!:l:}[1jti,ut:tor and the shj;eld, to tnc shiel d current, The ;hl,eW tF~nsfer' imped.a.,nce can be writren .as shneid transJer 1 z; "".s: (.£1\./.. ).... ' T.· tH

llleshleldm.g- drective.nes!)' ofa cablecan

MQ1E: E CJJRAi::M1

(2.-:3"4)

Zr: is the ·t.rang)t'q;:r imped:all(.;e in 'OhB~~ pJ\$f md"eT,. 1.~ is the sh:iel~ c;ufreIit, V "'is. he VQJl ageindueed t between the lnternal (..j(H''i~dudor:s ~Dd die ,sHidd.and l is the iengfh..oK the :cab]e iIJ Jr:l.. ters, e .. At I.GW frt:quenci~ the rransfer, imypc,r::!a<nce. equal to file dc resistanee lJf is Hi:es,hidd" This lSi·cqui\ra,le;n:t:tto) the sesults obtained in Kg, 2-33. At higb~T :fi'equelldes (,~bQve: a .niegahe:rtz for typi:cal·"Cables),. the ,tn[l~f¢l' ~mped1m~e detrea8d due to skin effect, and the shielding 0{ the cable mceeases. Sk~1l

where

EOUN ALENT

G I RGUn

effcl::t·C8iUses th"eno"i&e cnrrent in teri:lain en the outs;itk surfaee.of the shi.eM, ana the .sh"l:naicul"rent ~m the Inside, ai1d:tJle~reif"{:u;e ellminaresthe 'Common l! imp~daJli;:;.e C011pling ~.!etwe,en -thb two cmren 1;$Figare 2,·2.6~s a: piot of the; -Enagllltudq of the 'trans{Je·r .i:mp~dB!rtce{nmmalil!e.d to the, value of the .. cp;~·~;]~ll).nceRdJ d DOli .so.lidtub!!llm: t>hidd_ If the a shield is braide.d., not s~l~id, the· t:r~~n5fel' impe(}@:oGe will increase. with [[equcncy above ,a.IJoutli MHz.1 ~~. shownin Fig, 2.-32..

56

';1 •

CABLING

5G-hILOH ERTZ 06CILLATOH

10 ,uRNS OF gO-GAUCOii;WIRE, ~.:I~ DIAMETEH

~t

r CABtE 3. TURNS .GON!;!';NTAiIG WITl-Il1. l·IN. OiAMIETEH

tz- ssr

;J:C1']J;J~

noise voltage measured across the (me megohmresistor

in this case
and Is called'

FAEQUE~CY -Hz

1'1gure 2-.26. MagtJit+tdfc'. OJ"normalized.

:t.'r(vfSje.r irnPe.J.((fmt for

a: !;nl"i~ $fji~~ld.

-eXPER.MENiT At OA,T A

The m<!-,gnel.iil;field s,hieIding properties of various cable confisuraf o ns .were measured and comp.aTed, The test setup is s,hQw:n in. Fig. aad the t,t::~~t n;~ulrs arc .:tid:i1:11<l~ed in Figs: 2-28 and. 2-2.9. The frequency "(5f!kHz) is ~reatcr than. five tunes the shield cutoff freq!;l~ncy fora'!! the cables ltstml. ."he .c:able~ shown in Figs, 2-28 and 2-19' represent tests cables shown <:IS L2 m FI.g. 2,.2"'/.

2-27,

hi circuit!). A through F (Fig" 2-28). both ends of thecircult are zrounded. They provide much 'less magoeticfi.eld attenuation durn do ~·in::uil~.G tnll"Ollgh K (Fig. 2-29)~ where only one end is. gj,:;unded, .. Circuit Ain Fig. 2~28provides essentiallynn m.ag!Jetic n~~d s.bieldlng. The

o dB, 10 compare the performance of all the othe-r tirc.u.i ts. II.1 circuit B,. the sh~e]djs grounded "at one end; this has no effed on the-.magnetic shielding, ffii(l!:m:td:ingthe: shid~. at both ends as ln configu [a tion C prevides some m~gnetic field. protection hera usc the fre:quency II) above the shielrd cutoff ~qu,e:nc:y . ·nkp],OlectioI'l WO.ldd be esen greate;!!' if it were IlOl ·ro. 'the ground loop funned b:y grol!ll1d.ing both lends of the .c:ii.1'"cu't. The magnetic ~,6.ld:in'duces n klrge noise CUITCr1!t into the low-i rnpedence ground loop pJnsisting of the cable shield and. the two gry"I,md points. The shield noise ''"'lIT~,mlthen produces a noise yo~ta:g(;; in the sM.eld, as was shown in the preceding section. Use of a twisted pair .as in -circuit D.· should provide, much .greater ma.g;rtetk field noise reduction, butits effect is defeated by the ground loop fprmed by' cill'(;uil grounds at both ends, This can dearly be seen by comparing lhe attenuation o{ circuit H to that of circuit D. Adding J shield with one end gn.HJndcd, U) the twisted 'pair as ill E has no effect. Grounding the shield at hoth ends .as in F provides additional protection, since the J9W-impcdanoe·.~hi.eld siHl];!~ some of the m;agneli.caUy induced ground-loop ~rrem away from [.he~signal conduetors. In general, however, none tit the ·t:i.'r~~itr;unng;u.r~tionsin Fig.: 2-1.8.pmvide gpod. magnetic field protection ~.cC:3useof the ground loo ps, If the circuit mustbe g;rolii'ide:d at both ends, .c;Pllfigrmatio[]s C Or F should be tised. Circuit G shows a !51gniftcant improvement in magnetic field sbi.eldlng .. This Is due to the vc:ry small loop area formed by the coaxial cable and the act that there is no ground icop (0 defeat the shfdd ing, Thecoax provides a very-small loop area since the shield caube represented py In'',e~ll~i\lalent
conductor lIocated on its center axis,.. This ef.feC:livcly locates the shi.e~, at or

~as·O.8 V. The pickup in €.Onfiguratiofl A 'is used as- a reference

verv near the mug uf the center conductor. 'was expected that the twisted pair of ci:rcl,l]l H would provide considerablymore shielding than the 55 dB' shown. The reduced shieldi ng is due to

it

.2'

CABllNG

ATIIENUATION

dB

q (FIEF)

eo

55

l~1

~~---~J;~
FREQ1JtENCY

50 KllOHEFlTZFOH

AU. TESTS

FREOUENCY

;. 51} KILOHERTZ
/jl/

FORALL

TESTS

Figure 2-28,.

R~'.I·!f/I'\:·~if

lnJ't~f.'l["1f'.Qup1rl~g '('[':P'ftimem; (

d.r:r;r.rr1:!!· grqrmq~d

m Duill end:\'.

the lact fh,n -some electric field coupling is now beginning to' show up. this cart be seen In circuh I, where aUenuationincn;:,as.c:.') to 70 dB by pl.aciug a sbield ~Tounu the Iwt5:~ed pair. The fact that attenuetion in circuit G is better than in i indicates that iu this case the particular coaxial cahle presents ,OJ} 'smaller loop area to the magnetic. field than does the twisted pair. This. however, is not necx~~;sarily true' in .gerreral. Increasl ng the number .of turns

per foot for 'either of the twisted pairs (H or l) would teducc the pickup,.l.n genler:aI,chclJit lis preferred til circuit. G~or lm~r.freqllency ~agrll;:Flc shielding sincein J the ..shield is not also one of the signal oonducto~~. .. G:roundi~!!. bothends of the shic:ld 'as in d1'1cuit '·dec.n:;l,a s es the :s:l:uekhug sJig_hiU.y. l'bl5~ is. duetn the high .s.hrieldcurrent inthe gtoundloop fo~c~ by .the schield inducing unequal voltages in the two center CQ,mluc[Q:s, Circuit K provides, mote sbjel?~ng th'a.n.~sin.ce~tco~ bh~:.s ,t1:U:f :~a,tun~~of Ihe, c.miX G '1iI.ith those of the twisted pmr 1. Circuit K 1.1> nor norm;'l,Hy desirable s~nu: <lny 'noise vo]tag:e~~ currents that do gel onthe shield canflow down the s~gJ]al. or

.conductor, It is almost alwayS better to connect the stueJd and sdg~al conductors' togerher 3:[ jsstone point. That' point should be such [hal: 1101::;£. "curr,ent from the shield does not have to now down the signa J conductor 10 ,get to ground.

60 EXAMPLE OF SIE!lECUV:E. SHIEiLDING C,OAXIAIL CABLE V:ERSUS SH~ELDEDiTWISTlE:D PAIIIR When comparing coaxial cable WllJJ, '1~~h]dded twlste d pair, It is impcrtan t to' reOogniz'e -thetLS~Ililnes;s of both types of cable frcma propagation point .of vie;w,iITlr:sp'ectiv~ of their shielding eharaeterlstlcs, This is shown in F~g. 2<lL' Shielded twistedpairs are very useful at frequencies below WQ kHz_ 'In ~pme appJi,cations ,the frequency may reach as high as' 10 MI-Iz. Above fMHz'rhe lossesin the sbielded tw~Sted pair increase considerably. . .on the other h.. d, coaxial cable; has a m unifonn ctmracteristic impedance with lOy.'Cr losses. It is useful .• therefore, from zero frequency (d~) up to VHf frequencies" with some applications extending 11p to UHF. 'AhDve OJ, lcwlumdred megahertz the lessesiecoaxlal cable become large •. aad wavegnlde becomes more practical, A shielde d twisted pair har:; more eapaeirance than a coaxial cable and therefore js not m; useful at high -;req:uenck:s.or in higb-impedance circuits. A coaxial cable grcunded at one poi m provides, a good degree, of pr(lt1e,ctionrrom capacitive pickup. Bill' if a noise current flows in the shield, <!! noise VOIt,igC is produced, Us magnitude ~:sc:4ual to the shield current 't]~C~ the "'iliierd' resistance, Since Lh~ :!;:hield.ls, part .of the signal. path, this ~I;ise vo]ttl,'ge' appears as noise 11l series. with the input 'signal. A doubleshielded, or triaxial cable with jnsularien between the' 'two '!)ihictd~ can eliminate the noise pmdlLI'Ced by the shield I~sisl';:ii1Ce. The noise currear fiow3in the outer sh ield, and the signal curren l. flows ill the inner shield, The '~Wfl current'> (sign,a] and noise) therefore do [lot flow through a commcn Impedance. . Unfi:ntul:lately, triaxial cables are expensive and awkward W use .. A 'CK1'<lXl:aI cable at high frequencies; howevervaets as a triaxial cable. due to :Jd.n effect. For a typical shielded cable, skin effect beeomes Importaot in

The. shielded loop antenna it> an example where theelcctrk licld is sclec~' tively shleJd,cc! while' tile magnetic field Is' unaffected. Such an antenna. is useful in nullo d irection finders. It can :dJ lso decrease the antcrrna [j oisc pickup in broadcast receivers, The Tatter ~m~ct ]~ significant because the majority of lccal noise' sources generate a predr,m'dnan.tly,electric iJel1l, Fif.un;·2~3UA shows the basic loop antenna, from Eq, 2-12, lrnc magnitude rtf the voltage pmdlu .. in the loop by them~g,ndk tield is ~d
• ' • y

more

v"., = 2nJRA

c;l..1.s·(j,

(2-3S)

The "iHlgl~O' is measured b c ~w~efi ~ magueticfleld he: and a perpendicula r to ~,hi;plane ofthe loop. The tool'), however, also actsas a vertical antenna and picks up a voltitge d~-e to an incident electric field. This vcltage is equal to the: E field rimes the f~ffocti'ii'e height 'Of the antenna. For a. circulaj: single-lcop antenna, the cffccti'!;'c height is 2'iTAIA (lIT, lY6t-l,p. 25-6). The inducedvo llag{;. due to the electrie Ilk:.ld becomes '

V
The angle R' ]~: measuredbet

"

= ---

2wAE
iii

f;OS

rr .

(2:-36)
field and [hcp larue of the

loop.

ween Ute electric

To eHmin.ne pickup from Ehe electric field, the 160p could be shielded as shown ]11 Fig, 2-308. However, this "c~mligU1";atjIQn .aH(-,wsshic,h;l current to. How, which will. cancel ~h'e magnetic field as well a s the electri c nel J _ To preserve the magnetic sensitivity of the loop, the. shield must be broken I.n pnivcnt the flow .-of shield ClUTeiH. Thus run be done as-shown in Fi£. le--30e by br:~;:Lking.l-heshi!e]d at lh~ top, The resulting antenna responds only to, the magnetic fieJel: wmpOil~nt of an applied wave,

.1
\ ;. t4QI'IMAL

UMII

BASgClOOP

LOop 1f."jTH S.HiEILD IB,

:r-,
fie.la'_ .

l.OOf' Wllihi

Sf-' LI T SIH!ELO

-v-,

.t.OR!i.tA~
~lMI'T

c
. ff[du ce,\· e.!f\'.fritt fie.lt.ll!?'lr.i.I~ pa.'i.:.~iiJ8u:!f!glit.t[e:

~
I~H.,~

~1i:g~lr't'2-30';, Sp'Hr .\·hiP.l'd 011 lQop ·!l!U~rjrJ·(.Iseleclh'el

F""E(Jl,IeNyY

Vi.gun: 2.:U, Us(ful frequency

tar.:ge _for v,ar,imu :rrnll·.tI1l~ssiotJ

lines:

62 about 1 .MHz. The noise current, .Hows 01'1 the' outsici e surface of the s;hield \vhile the ·s.igoal current flows Ofn the inside surface. FOI"tbis .r eason ;:1 coaxial cable is bel tel' fQr use in .high fic qpenci·et;.. A s·hieldcd twisted pai r has ch aracteristics similar to a triaxial elihie and is not }1'S expensive or ·awkward. The .~lgtlal current [JOWs in the 1\v'O inner coaductcrs, arrd any noise currents. [low ill the shiel.d. C(Jitlmon-n~:~istane·e ,ollpl,lng· is eliminated. In addition .any shield current is coupled equally l.mt) both inner eondactars by murual inductance, and dl'e voltages therefore cancel. An unshielded twisted pair, un[eS':>i[s terminations are balanced, pTovi'(j.es ve ry liu~e prorecrion against capacltive pickup, but iti~ Yc:ry good frrr protection .a_gaiPl5,[magnetic pickllp.The shielded twisted p.a:it provides the best ~hieldif!g for low-frequency s:igna:ls, in. which magnetic picknpis the major problem, The. effectiveness of lWtstingi'ncl'Cases as th e number of twists per urrit lengrh inCf[6<1!)CS,_

',ErFEOT

OF PIGiiiAlL$

BRAI.DEID SHIELDS Most cables are actually shielded with braid rather than with a solid cond uctor. The advan tages of braid ate fir!xibi Iity, dura bilit y, ~t,r~ngth,' <Ind long Ilex life" Braids, however, ..typi~!i~.Hyprovide only .6(1-:98% coverage and are Iess effective. as shields than solid eonduetors .. Braided ~hie1d~ usually provide just slighHy reduced electric field shielding (eX(;Gp1 .at UHf' frcquendes.) but greatly reduced magTle.tic:fteldshicldin,g_. The reason is tll;at braid di~lO:!lS theuniformity (')Fthe shleldeurrem. A braid is typiG1iUy frornS lo 3QdB less, effective tba'n a solid 5,hl.e!d "for protecting against. nmg~';tiL: .fields. Al higher jfrequcncie~ the effectiveness of the braid decreases further. This is because the braid' holes become-larger compared toa wavelength, as l.he frequency increases. :Mu!Ilple.· shields offer more protcerion, but with higher cost and k:&~~ell:ibmty. :(:;tblCs with double q:r even triple shields .arc used .ill some criticnl ,!pplications, . Fig1Jn;;,?~~2 [Vance, 197"8, Fig. ~<}~14)shows the tran.<;fc"[ impedance fQT ii typjcal braided-shielded cable. normalized to the de resistance of theshield. Tile decrease in. tran sf.e.t impec ,iute arou nd 1 MHz is.. ue, to [he ski n' effect d ofthe sl]iek!, The slJb~e.q;:Uc"r1lincreJse in transfer impedance' abovel MHz i~ due to the hole:.s in the ·braid. CUfVC5 arc given for various percentages. of coverage of the braid, A~ C411 be seen, for best s,hielding the ·bnlid should provide ,at [ca~l 95% coverage. Cables with ve1")'. thjn solid alumiunm-foil ·sh]l..~lds··are aV(I,ilabl'cand provide almost W09h coverage and mote'· effeetiveeleetrie !ldd shielding, They 'a.r'e·· ot as lj.lrnng as braid" have a higher shield cutoff frequency due I!n n their higher 'shiehjrcsi~lancc:, and are difficult (if not impossjhle) to terminate properly. Shields ;}Ie a~~n ,avai~ab~e that comblne a' foil shield wjth :3.

0.1L _
1[jE

_j _ _l__L.L..!_LJL..1...Il

__

......L~I..."..-'L.l__l_~

F11.E:QUiENC'f,-Hz

'Figure 2,.3'2~ N(),rmaHz~d !·I'lJ.'~~fnimpf'Ja7lce of a braided-wir« t1rll'ld''t-Ow.'N.1ge (!rorn I(Ai~lC:C', .1978. ©W;Iey),

sllMd,

a.~ a: Ium:tiOtl o.f Pi.TC(·(jI

bra.id; and these shields are intended to lake. advantage oil' the bestproperties each, while minimizing the disadvantages. The braid allows proper 3t~O~u::rmin'alion of the shield, and the fell covers the ho les in the braid,

at

'EFFE,CT OF' I?liG,l'A~lS'


The magnetic, shielding previou s !y discussed depends on (l uniform dist ributlen of the longitudinal shield current arcund the shie.1ddrcumfer;enc·c. The magnetic shielding effectiveness. near the ends of the cable depends. 0..11 the 'Way the .braid is terminared. A. pigtail eonncctioa, Fi~. 2-3.3, cause,~ the 'shield currentto be concentrated on one side of the shield. For m axrmum pn"ite ction, the shield should be terminated uniformly around its cross. :~ec,tj(ln. This can be .... OLlCHnp]:is.hedy using a coaxial ecmncct:orsuc.h as the b

64
TEH:MIf'ij\AL STRIP

l! ,. CA,IllWNG

SHEATH
d'

OUTER

BR AIOCD
SHIELIU

"

\.'

,/.SDLD5R
:SH lEW SRAI.D

10 CHiASS1S,

"
,;
\

EY~ElEl

'CENTER;'
CQrilo'UiGTO Ai

'~'igElr,e2-1l3.

trutes cuu,tn:1 Oil-One

PiJ;MU shidd· COfJiJ.eaiQpr sjalJ' 'CY ,~'hidd.

tC'6l'rll:al·

BeNe, VI-rIFt Or Type N connectors. Such a conrn .. ~dor, shownin Fig" 2:-34, provides 360'" electrical contact to the shield. A coaxial, termmetion also provides complete covc:tage of the inner 'conductor. preserving the integrh y
of electric field· s,hiclding"

CRIMP (lAr;;oLDE:F\ S!=tAID onFiECTL¥TD ~YEL~T

GiROUfriiDED GH:ASS19 OR $lHillELO

Figure 2;.J5 shows one method of providin g. a 360" shield termineti on without us;ing a connector. The use, of a pigUIU terminarion that is: only a smallfraction (in:h~ total sbiekled cable length calli h 11 vc a signifkam dIe ct on the tvtal nois-e :C()lIp.~:i,ng toa cable. for example; the cou:pliing to a ].66-m (12 It) shielded Gill'll!: with the, shieldgrounded at both ouds. with a-em pigtail terminauons shown in Fig, 2-3..6 (PaHf 1980, Fig. :8a) .. The terminating impedance o.f the lihit::ldr:d conductor. was 510n. This ·figure shows [he indlvidual contribunons of the magnetic coupling to the 5hicMed 'portlon of th~ cable, ihi~ magnctil coupling to 'the unshielded (pigtail) portion of the cable, and the. electric coupling. to tl:!~: unshielded portion 'fjf the mote. The capacitive coupling to

1~-

is

-l

1(J -7

L_.L_M.LllllL_--L...LI_jJ.IWL____l--L.!..1JWl.!_.J....JL..L.LLUJJ--'-.l..J.--LI.iJl

" l(l[I

~K

'l'O,K

1'OOK

1M

FFlI1:QUENCV-Hz ,F'jp,,~, 2.-16 CiJuplb.tg .. ,/.enmml'lrfm c9i1al,i.m


W {r

n (ftom

3, T·m :l'hidderi: (':(INe w:i,rh


f'a'ui', lJif,,(), @.J5:EE),

all

I)·em

pigmit

le."~'fflirr.fJ[;O'J_

'Cirq.I.t~

65

S7 lhe shielded portion of the cable was neghgi,bIe since the shield Wll$' grounded' an d the termlnatlng .l.l~lpe~ance low. As ..can be seen in Fig _ was 2~36, abeve 100.kHz the primary co:up~jng tu dIe ;cableis from inductive '[)Qupling intO HIe. pl.glaiL. . If the terminating imped'llilOe of the shielded ocmductoT is. il")lcreased fmm SOlO HW(i.H; theresult ]S as- shown in Fig."2-37' (Pau] I:900,.Ffg. Sb).H~,te the ci!!p,acitive C:O~lplillg to the pig~aHis· the predomlnaat couplingm.etJisni:sm )lOQv.e .~ kH1:_ Under these conditions '~:rre coupting .at 1 MHz is. 4.0 dB () i?l.t:~t!e( tban what it would h.NveQ.een i,[' lhf;'- cable ,had been ·,co.tp.rl~tdy shielded (nop:igbi I). Themsximum benefits d,f .::1 w:ell..!.s,hi,elde:d cable wirl[ only be.realized if. th e fj,hidJ L~ p.ropc:;rly l:¢rmlIl.81.tecl. The. requir-emeots o[ 'ji p[~peFs'~jeFd termi. naticn ar,e,

Widl theusc i':ilIrcabl~s is IUw t.,~~e~~~re:iJ,teri lo tb~ ~e'r["i1iiliat.u.aj]of the: e.,ible. T~icadva~urge' of nf1bon c,~blcs· lstl;l<liJ.~hey :aHuw ]o~W:i::O~l J'I1)ui~iple.te nniIlatioml. This is th c prilmnyreJSOH f Of usmg T!h han '" tHb~cs.. _, .~ Ribbhuc<.lQ!ies. h!lNe J 8coond'·"ldvaut<l;g.(;L Theyarc "eonlrnUe,9 ~abl~s" beeaill5t the. pClc~i~lO,tI~E1dorientation of 'the wires' within the cfllJk is f~):ed:, , 'ike~l1e- ~)ndUi;:loI:S Oil''apdn:t!t;:d wiring; board. A normal wiring.harness i{j a. ~"~ari~k~mn~b ~~" beca Lise,the ros.itioll! [md orie1T1lation of ~b e wires OIlfbi [1. 1hi~ i table .is ri,t I;I·d~m {~mrv[]ric~ from .. me ih.amL'Ss to Hm next. Therefcre the ( n:oise'pcrfof.n,l<UioC :o:f <L "ra.n~tom ca.ble" cat;! vary from one unit 1'0 the-next, major problem :assochtt.cd with the-use ()fd~,bon[,W:lbleg ifelMCf, 10 ;the '~a:y [he [nd~v!dll,ali cO~ld]JcVw:'O are .<'I$.~gnedwi~h .n::,'S'pr;:..(;~ t? s~gnal iead~ an d
"

Am aj.or ~(I<st:isS"ocki.led

l1J.c

1. AY'[,lTY lew..- impedi8J:(1Ce grcsndcosmection


2. A J6tf (OIll'Wi with the shield

~Pllnfl;'s -

~-:::.~..

1 ....-----.-------;-,

----,-----,-------,

!ElOTH. ~ri.lj):S 'OF SHIELD


f.I=lKfli

GRiOU~'I)E;D

PIGiAILS=13

Q'fI

EXP'.EA!IME!Ni:rAL 11) -z- ,_._. . .. ,.

+ ++ ...

Fil1::ure-2-38Ashows a: ribbon cable: wncre.Oi.ne condlut~(r[ LS.a gT(-).I!..H1,d and ~n l17e rem.a~n~ngt.:Qnductor~ are $lgn~J le;l,~b. ThlTs ·~onfigur<it~on . is. M.sed lJ~i::lllJ8,eil rni~limil.es. thenulnber of' comh.~c'tor,s required; however:, it har ll:h~,e.prnb]em~ _. First, il produteS' large loop ,~F~as .b.:t~e.en .nU~'s!gr!a ~ Kondl1ctor~; atld. the,]]".gmundreturn~:, which [f;;suhs. m rad. atw~ and .susccpti bH.i.tv. ·l'hesec6i:n d p!I'ei'bte.rn ls th~ common wlpede·nce G(,1Hph ng,pr<:~d~oeq ~11era- aH ~be:~ig;tl8Ll cUfldUJCtD~ use' t i:l~ same g,w un(j[ctIllHI. T~I~ thinA '1?'[i()b1em~s. [;:n)s~m~lk.b~twcem t he .1Ildividua! condudow-b6th capacm Yf:J· and .m:agneh~~,.the,re,ku:c: this con nglll ratiloh sho~~to seldom be' usc d. If itis used, it11e' ~ing,lc gmun~ shou ld be .,~s5ig}),edb,l ~~'fle l he center ctmdutWIs tu of

.'

".

. ',.

.',.

. ... '

.....

F~gu[e 1-38.13 t4how& 'ai:)clt!cr c:c;mflgl[Jr~lbtm- Inthis arnln.~!,::i[ttellt tile IOOlp ale,alS. arcsmall because eadl cundl.~ct~r has a sep ..rate ground return nextto 1:l(.Si!~ce.eaeh 'cDndutlOl:has a separate gronnd retnrn, 'Cqmmort jm'pbchul"te. ftO~pling '~'l\elimmated, ~ndthe t:[(jssta!kb~tween le,:.t!ilsism~n:umiied- Tbi~ is tfie. prderred~Jt~fifigm'.~Jio~] for 11 ribbon ca"ri:lle,r;;vell!though' It dqr:.~.requm:::
\!J .~
IiJ

m.i:r:rimize the loop are-as ..

fv/~re. asrnanv ..·:~e1we~Tl


1(]-~I-------,,:;>C!-.J.......,.,A

~t~br~'.5 ti i$'

oobliuc~prs \~~"pig .. 2:~38A.. In applic;!liolls whcr,e nGS-~ta,.~k pro b~en~ ,rv.~(1 grcmrtd~m.ay be required b.ehvcGu }sign1! i

~billdu·cwrs ..

F:R,EOUENlCY~lHz

Figure" 2l·;n... CQ\ripliJ~' .f!;> ,rittmirw.tiicm ',rtq[:tuh 100{l §J

a 3_7~m. 5JJ:ji~ld~-dcable: ,.vfth ,~from Puul, 198C1;, :©. 1.£11:E),

arf

'8~rm

pi'glrlU .1¢'m.ri,IW(W,.H.

Ci'rcfoiir

"A_ connguHl.fion that:.is. only s]]g'hdy infierij or to. p]g-. '~-3:HB~:f:lnd~nf: t~lm use1\25%fewev coudactorsis shown in Fi~ '. 2-38C J'h!lbC .c(.Jnfig'l!rauol.l'~ i5'Q has a sronnd conducter neNt to evev)! :signal" o.o.t:lduclnr and therefore I.ws small i~op areas:' Twos.i~Jj["lj)~co\Ddu6t~r_s. ~hl~r¢.. ~e.~l'cJ'm]d, so ~heF~..is ·:so'rm;. ? wmmon 1111:rpeda:!lCe ourpli[lg., jlnd rhe crosstalk rs l~lghev than '. WI FLg.. 2aJ:Si~ c because there .j;!,; no gEQJ;WId betwe;en 'adj a;oentt-ijg,nal conductcrs. TIH~ oonfig,~[ratkm. may pmvj:tk adequate pe.rf-rmnanGc in s',gmt:appli6f£~.i,o~lS: . RibbDn cables .arc :8i:lso.aV1iH;a:ble. w.ith :<I. grolil'ld pl'Hl!~ across the w~tllh.o:f t'l+e ~ii,.b!~: shown i[I. Fig" 1.-38D •.,In tlns case .the .100'P areas !<l('r c!elel"n~in:rl as ~¥ the spacing betw~~n the signaL 'C~IH:!lUC1:or and the gw LIm] plwoe U~J-'h:r u. Sinl)e ~his Clhm:nslon is l;cs~ thnn t.he,J:ead~lo-ie'mJ spa:ci[lg. in the eable, the !i!:)OP' areas are s;~'a.lk. thanin the altemare ground oonfiguI8i[40n ~~fFig.

68

I~ @

0 .0

(J

00@

The precetling :;maly~is. as assumed that the: cables were. short oomp:a're'~ ,~ri h .a wavelength. What 'this ·.I'~llny means is that JU the.currcnt ~n theYHble [10 1:11 phase, Under these 'cir~l1msta:~CJes~heheory _predwts th<lt o?th tll~,ele!r.;tnc t ~~d the magnetic ti,e,ld GPuphr(g 1:~"Crea$,~WIth frequ:cncy indefinitely _ ][;11 pif.. ;:tice, however, the !;ll'lIlPJing levels off .ab~ve some frequenc;y. H _ A1; c:abk~ approach ,g_ qu~rtt!I-w<lvdength. in length •. some '0'1: the current in the cable is our of phase- When the cable is ahalt-wavelength long the o;ut-of-pb.l~Sie currents will cause the external coupling.ro he. zere d-ue_to ~~·ri~el.I''1t:i.O.I:I.f.lf .... ThIS. does not alter l~.'e _d.;ep¢~d:eI]G(:. f t~be CO~lp'ing re.ff.·cct'S .. o bn the vunous other parameters of the problem. It oni), changes [he numcdcal' result. Therefore the parameters that 'determine the 'coupl.ing remain (iH:: same, regardless of the length of the. 'cables, Fiaure '2-39 snrowsrthc coupling between two cables with and without the .assu~ptiml 'that the cables are short. Theresults are similar up to the poi m
Where

the, ph 3si.ng effects start

b) occirr,

abou l 0 ne-tcntnof

.8:.

wavelength ..

}\:lbuve-his point the actl1al.qJ\lpling'dcne.ascs, t because the current is ~ot ·a11 m phase .. whereas the short cable approx.iIriation predicts an increase rn the

'"
I

SIGNAL
CQfljig!irmr{)m'~

/(8)
(d1eMa~ gUJ!md~.

/"

./

iFi.gut~ 2-3'8,,, RJbboi.l~ ruble gMm~a/ sign!1If.~igntrUgrOl.m.d;

(..4:) s,i./~g}e·.gwt(1td; (lJ) ,~iglU.!l (I!ter .grtlr,md pli1J1e.

(C)

AP'F'AOXi!;,1J11r"IOiN .---:""
., . /' ;/

SHORI CA'ElLE

./ ;/ TRANSMiSSION . MODEL !LINE

2·38B •. H .allowed to do SO, the ground. current

eonductor, for the same reason that the current returned em the shield !fit Fig. 2~2Z.However, Un.IciSS the ,cable is terminatedwith a fuU-wIdth contact to the ground plane, '[he, return curr.em:s will. be forced out from under the signal leads,and thelooip area win increase. Because i.tis, c!.ifficuU ro. terminate this kind of' cable pwpcdy" it is; not often recommended ...
"Shielded ribbon cables <.Ire: lso available; however, unh::s5-[!he·.strield is a ptOpc.dy terminated with 11. 36if connectlon (a difficuLt thing to do), their efi'ecti\'.f..'ncsss is consaierably reduced. The effect of shieldt:crrninaiion on the radiation from dbboI1!·c~.bh~:s was dlscussed by Palmgren (l'9t8J.). Palm~'TC"npoints eut that the outs'ide conducto:r:sln a shielded ribbon cable are nut as; well shi,clded as the conductors located closer to the center of the cable (typkaUy 7 dIlle~~ shield.i~lg). This effe~lis due te the nQirlu.nifO]~m~ty

wm

flow under the signal


I

/.
~.

I
I I

I I I I RS3'n1N I I ~L_
I
WAVE R'EGloN,
__
~~L_-L

I
STANDING
__ ~ __ ~

LOW FAEQi,iIEN~Y
~

lOGf'
}..

of the shield current at the. ()UU;id~ledge. ofthe shield. Therefore critkal signals' should not be pJac-ed on the lJI.utsidte conducrors of shicldedr.:ibbon cable-s, .. .'.

)J23A/4
Fl,ogU!'1! .. -39. 2

EI"e:tJrit.field i;:t;llIpIiIlS b~rwfef.'1[~'I~blf$ u,!,i~~g!h~·shor: ,ruN~ qp'pm:rimrUions .


li~e.

lind

fflf!'

tral1.l·mi"s.siO:fi

mmlei'.

ool,,]:pli~ng..U rise in cQupli ng pre'a icted hy~_I:le'short .cabte ,ippro,xirumian the. ]~, truncated at a quanc'i'-w8iVdenpth~ it pmyidrD~' au ,8.,ppro,){lIIlatitNl to the actual L'tllipHn_g, N(l<t~ thatthe -unlls .andpeab) produced by the .phaslng of tfu~. currenrs' are not biken into account umle. these f!:in;um~taw:::es. H:DWeyer, ualess (Jncis 'planning to take advantage OlUW8C ~ull s. and peaks in the .de~igf!l of equipmen ~:-a dangerous .thiI)lg to dG-their locatIon 15 n ot

A . S, "Nuke Ccm:Erol 1m: Loowl..evel D8Jt1'l ~~y~teoK E!e1.~1~'Mned.tmriull ,1, Skpt~;Lnher 1962. "0nhy .• W., <1M Keith. R. 'Tml.fding R~dlientlll, .tll< "T\vT$[ed Wh~~,:" IEEE lnterna·,HuB.al Symposium Ij~l EMC' Ut)'uIcler CaLo., .A u;gust 1t),:) 1... 'Bue!Hnan,
lJm\(].n,

i~·J:{;cbl"R.

Importaur. (1917).

FgI moreint'o;rmJ.!ion

ciil<lha!y'ziug long, .e~tble~Y::;~c Paul (1979) ai~d·Srnlth

f), Efecuical ll.'lw.rierenIT.<HlIyden Book eel'., .New YQI!.k, InM. f.ic~h ~. ~. O. Pi'{I€li(;fll De}fgn FW EI~ctrcml(1gn'effc ,Chmj){1JltUilY· H ayde n Jj no ~ Co, . ~'New "tnf~. 1971. 1\retk:rkk ResGlIrch :Cu'rp,. {:[,fu;l:dpv'CJk'~m Rad~o l'r~'rFM[n(:y 1m!:;tj6n'!11l.:f?. Vo:L 3' . (Melbo'ds of Ele(,'1:f{)'magriCti~ Int.~r~l1lr~nQt s.ufl'rrc~~i·Q~)- Fw(ferkk R.eSi~areh

-Co'rp."

Wht<ifOil.

SUMMARV' • Electric fields are much easier to guard 8iga!lnst thanmagneric ~~·dds_ ,_ The use eI'f nonrn agl!1!clie sh~~lds m~u nd C(mdlrcl{)ts p,nlv~d;es no r(Ja~·

"Gthve~, 'F, ·'·lii.lcl(~nO'l,n'~ Cal.¢uJQtknis-Wor].;jng stlnl:l1eo:t :Society oE AmG:rl~, l'973..

w.

MfL 1%4.

. Fnr:m.u,las f!tld. T8Jbk:s."· In-

HUY~TW. H, , Jr.

E,n:glnff::ring

Ebxfromagnf'Jfc.s.

'3rcl cd .M~Grl!w"Hull,

Nc,w Y(!rk,

netie sru.(;!Min'g.
,. A sh ieM grounded,j!
II'

Atlt>.erg:.»«

[974,

Elee:tdeal

OnC Of U1Ql:e·

points' shields decrease

a:g{ill1sl

ele .. tric fields. e

I'IT.- ,Rtt-fere.l.l~:e D(u~ for York, 19'68..

CI1,H<1ctedstics 0,f Tta I)Slrdss.k~n Lines," A rtech.l louse, Hn~'. I?hdj() bjgtrw(!r~, 5~ll e~d U(i'ili'8!Jd W, SAms& Co." New ..
h~(:""'cCIl .optn . _" ~~
(1~ld
-

tilt) that: use: .~ twist.e~tp'air ~~,.a 'coaxbl ~ab.]e if t.he through the &hidd inS:lea.CJl .in the g1o\mdl :rl;':ltlil~: of

Th¥ k~y to m agnetkshielding

Isto

the ~r;e:<1 frhe. loop" T ~1 Q


C(J:J;TC;1 ~ Tel

Mohr. ~ .. J.. "UOJur'hfl"


l";:

urn E~

pran:~"

~.I:.)-

t'""

... 1:1.

-and 'Shicldc,d

Wirc~ Lines. over

:;(;GruumJ

IEEE

TriuJ:MC:!Wtt~ (i1.i E.i'P1C,

• For a waxlal cable grounded at both ends, ",[[tnnHy 1.]], :of lh,GrciHU] enrrentfiows in the shield at frequencies above ri.;",c ti mes the shield .CilllOf'f frequency, " To.prevent 'rad~:alinn from a conductor, w(Shidd -gr(luniiJcd'~t both ends' is useful .above the 'shIeld '{;utoff frr:que·rtcy" " Only a~imikd ameun t, of luagnetic. s,hle,~~lingE p(Js~ihle in a rece ptm eircuitthat is grounded at botb ends, d LtC ro the -g.rm1nd ]OG'p formed.
II

J'\.1Ofri~c:miR ....Gr:mmlMg Y{):rk, I ~W •

Sept¢lnhel' 19J6: Sl;tldditJ/'f, Tedwlip:~'e-s iJl l)HrJl'W'!"1!~!]tatio». WH~y, N e;~v


i[~
.[.0\:'"

'rffJI~.le, 1),

<'Elim[~Jaliou

or N:ouse

Le'<:el brc~ its :" lSA


.

Ali"!l:m~t, YO],.

rz.

Al1g1J!~t, 1%,\),

~1ilIlg[eM, c. "Shi~ld6d FI:l~ CaM(]~ for EMI .& ES:D R'e.ch.Kl1:0Il. " [EEE SI~'mpoSimtl ·.oIl E.~1;c. Boulder ('oio" ]'9'Si; [!ali!!, ·C. Tt....S'ohltlon

the s~.·gnal p:1lh.US'e.~Jshi~~(]ed'tw!sveJ p:<'I:ir~lr ,!11rt8!xia~.c,<i1b!,e atlow frequencies,


I1Ic;d. hl:part
.0 f

A,rry .8.hf~~.in· :\'vhlell.nojsecurrents d

flow H~,ouid

l;in't~ in. Homcgeneous 1PlruT" C. R. "Predict LOil


'flrcdtdkin~. 19'78,

nf the Tmnsml,~di(:);[j··Li ue Equation ~ fill: Thnee-Cenductcr Me-db'," lEEfi Tran:MHNir:u;s Oll £MC F~~~TI~f}' 191~,. Cab~].~; CompJl'isQfI, of Madel niln~(ji(;{dillS on Ii: Me. Augu.$l·

Qf' Cm&Swlk ill Rlbhlilil and .Experimental Rcsuirs." IEEE

.. At h!'g~ frcq ucncies .8! coaxial cable acts as a triax.ia ~t:abh~ d ue toskia effect, _ The. shieldl i]g ef1fec'tivel'ie.~~s twisted 'p,iri];' increases as thenumbes of of tw:iit:s p~.ruriitl,~,rigthin~~i:e:l~t. . • 'The 'magm:t'ie .shi.elditlg effects listed 'hercrc'4'uire a .c:ylh~drkJI f>hiehJ with uuifocm distrihution o(shueld 'Cur.[enJt over -t~!e ciFcl~mf:ei~ncc ()~ the shield.

Fhl:ll, C; R, ..P"edictkjp 'J[ ;Cmssbl,k]m'·oi.v'ing Twisted Pairs .f,J;f W1,C~,-.part I;, .,A. ' ·'I'm nsm ig$~0~1."·Une .Mcu.;Jet rtl', "rw;i~t,eld~W P~1 ire tr~," IF:FE Tt~~:t~(1ctim\!.~ EM C, lIm
MlIY A979,

.J\l~I, C, R" (Cp'c'C.cUdii.)I1 (;rcis~~iilk InN] Vilig Twis1.e.d P<!irs (1r Wi re;;,-Pn rt n. ,A of $jmp!ifi.l':U. Lo~v.Fr.cq:lH;m.. P'Pi:dktiGlilMddd, j ,. IEEE IhJni.tfUioii'':s ~i~ EM! C.[i,I<iY
1979.

B.lElUOGRAPHY
Bel(JleruEFlgiIle~iing, Stafr. ,EJgutoniDI Calr.fe fi.(md[Ni{)k"i~owa~d New Yt!'l::k, 1966 .. W~·S~m~, &. 0.1
0.,

.I!'~ml,C:. R "Effec:~ of Pi:gtaih .cln frog;stalk t'Q BtL.j(,kiJi-~hicldG~ GlbJc{" fE. EE Tr.(1fiSa(.liiWJ;S on BMC. A,u~l!st ~9S:['1.. ;PJ;ml, C. "i'rlnde~ling"~lld Pretiictitm pf GI:('![l,fi.d Shift",ai~ Pr'ilnie:d Ci'rclll~B;Gards .." 19~6 lERiE~ SympD'sium. OJ! EMC. Yo.r'k. Engiifilcl, ~6L;r.l1b-e'r 1%(i. . Tl,\je(llj , A, E. '·hJ:cl\.Klam;e~)J~cl,.llMio(1s ''111 GL)f;l~pl,*xhllteg;m[eQa rcuit Environa

~t

menlo ,;

1Blltll.J.O-U;l·lW{

fiJf

ite~:~IMch Ciwl D¥veJopm~/j.l.


EleclffmulR~<':H~

BtM lL!l'IbOTIUDr'il:s. P1~Y~'iw'lD~sign of gh~(:,lro~h:: Systems., VoL 1.' Cbar[er (Ekc:tnc.lii·lnwrfctc;m;t:). Pre.n!ice-l-lf~~L Ei\g~ewo,oo C1ilTs. N.J., l'~no." .

Hi

Sllli~.h:, A, ~A, CUlcq)linf}tJ:j' Ex.''erfiat Wiley,. New York. :1977"

'Septe,ul h~1' 1972. 6ddsm T,.:C!.nS!Jtr'l.:~i()fI. Lines. rill,


New York •. 19:N!.

-Smylh.~, W;

R. Stm.iG (fJul D'y.nrnw\; Ete.(:u:.inJ}I'

jo,-l,Gr~wcI

72
Timmons, F.: ·"\VinnJ:,Catile H3~ Mall'1' FaCC$,. ]Pan =1;." EDN,MaT<:,", i~fm. Trompeter, K "CI.e:a!ltIlg: p SigtUll$.:witn C:la·x:_" E/;~(;tr"O.l1iic,prod~r:us Magazii'J~,. U J~:[y16,. 191'3_ \i'3IlGe, 'E. ·F. C():.~lplfllg t~ Shielderl e~Me5" WlIey. New )'ol'k. 1978. White; n R. J,Ele.C:tr~/tJagnf1#~~ /rUarjel'eNc'e and Coir}{:NUtbility, V(~L (EMf Ccm~rol "3 Me.thod~ ~~Fl~1 Terc!lm~'(!ju~)_ DQ.n\.Vhit-e CQmsw.tants. Ge~n'lantowffil,Md" 1973.

GROUNIDINGi

one of the prim3rr'y ways of mminriaingunsenrrtednoise and Proper U$C Qf greuadingand caihBng,in, 01.)mn]mlt]VrI ~ can 801¥e '<1 al'g~ PSliICen[age of aU noise preblems ,. A gao.d g~'(.II.l('lcl ~y$lem m(u:~t be ~e-sig:ned; iti£."i,';ri~hhlj :tl1inkiug to.b.,.p~r;t a g[t;}llud"system perform well if :j~··:thm~ght has;b~en. given to it~' design. h. 'i~ difA.q~h lO believe thm ~xPt<T1~.uvee'ilgln:ee~jng tIme should be devqted tl:{ stJrlin g fJ'ul lh(: Ir(] I"HIre; ~:i(ai~so{ circuit grQuiliding, but 'in the end, ntit having to solve myskri01;1t:,. .:;IDIlojsepn']bk~)ITJt5 .'t,pr;;c the.£quLpm.(mti~ buill tilPid t~sted savesbeth money and

'pickup.

~KoJmdingrs:

to·

sy~lem. is th;~l it t':~l,n provide and .emission, wlthoutany addi·~ti:onal per-uuit ms:t[c, the P"OiJut;["nUCl' o'rdy ,vsl is the engi neeLing time _ wqitir.ed tocj:e~sign the system" hli(;Ompf!.rl·son~ ailimpmpGl"lly d~"Sjgned )lind .systcmmaybeu primal)' source ·of Interference andemlsslen and :ef'Qt>e' requlre ',CCi~ts,~detablt:: e;!gincf:ring 1ime to etirrrinate.rhe problem, ~~m;e properly designed ground sy"stelUs,;afe~ri1Jy cnsl-.dh:;cti·~~c_. . Gfound~ frl·n in~~~~W'''ll' t~rit¢giJri~:s;(1") ~<rh~:ty_gr()mid:S".an.d (2~ ~,ign~1 uds, If thegrou (~d· conn eeted to the earth l hnUlgh ~,il oW 'imp,eK;l~p.~Ge is", ; it may be called an earth grcnnd, SlIfety g,f;ou nds B,re usual lj;'.at G'ar~h weU-desigllJedgrf.llH1d

~itiF;'

'O:ne. J~rVant<lge of a

,~rote(;U.Q1l g;liij!)t unwanted interference a

:p\'!l~'e:n(uwl~, wllcre.[.'j;~:-vignaJ gmumis may '9f m.lX nt~t be atearth pciien(i~L]~) eases ,<I si;lfety ground is reg uiredata poi III Ih 1Ui~tln~~li l~lh'efor a al ;gr~~~ln(,~, this m~~y and cfom.p~i"t('<lre; noise p roblem, the

S.AFE.TY GROUNIDS

'qf'ely consldcndion'Sm~l[lirc '~hc (c,has's]x \llf CIl'i;lc:l,SUiC f~)r·dl'!·{':;Hic:·(;:.qu~pm(;;n~ ta)Je gEmlJ~ ded, Why Jdils is so can be seen in Fig, J.-.~. Ttl the: l;cft-liMd tclii~g,"[~m it;, ~Jhie~:s1m}' Z! imped.anc:c b,etw~~e:ilJ .apoirrt at petential VI ~·~Hli.a the ''Gj\~si;is.'and ZJ ls lh~,·"StraYiJ~i()~d~~K);_~ bC:~WCCN uhe GhiL~~i.s aniil ,!;l:rnmH:L T~~e Rql~nrl'al of tile chassisis determined I:lY imp~~l~nm 2:1 '~ntj ZJ o\l:Ung '<1811. IVfJ:it:a,ge d'~\ii:dcr_ 'll"hJc l:h:±~Sl:~pot.entia ti~

(3-1)
'!IlG dlaSSI(3 -eou ld be a rdatiyely hi~ pot~T!iti ill and !he ·,IS hYrck n.1l'zar:d, ·:-;iru;c: it~ pOiten~[#J i~.dererm ined by the, re !JE1Ye val lies of d)e stray impeda nces

74

SIGNAL

GfiDUND$

75

r-------,
GtclASSI$

Ct!ASS1S

SEHVi QE. CiN iIRANCE

'---,
'~ \ \1 \

r----'

I
I

~ I

V1

o--AN\-1
Z~ .

.. '

L__ ---J~... J
"'TRAy.'·. '" .
1
~'7.

-1
~
I

l1i5'V

I I

'I"POD''''''O'<--

-'

...

2:2'

L_~:::::.r
I

I I

BFlIEAKDOW

M
I.'",J[ll~~_

Figure J.1.. Chl'ls9,i,):.fl:auJd be gj{l'!maed for

sa/f)!,),- OtJr!11'W.i"se, ri' mll;!¥'r~d11'l41I;Plg~'ftl'fL~

r~'~'d Ih,o.[lgh:·'s1f'~Y .imp€dances

(11:.(1)01' hrsu{mio'li .lne~kd(Ji'I'fI (riglrr}.

over which 'then;;: is v,r;rY'liule control.

If thechassis

is grounded,

however,

its poLe'ntiat .is.: zero since Z~ becomes LeW . _ ,. The right.~hH!OJ diagram of fig. 3·1 ;shQws {I second .and :rn,rm.nre dangerous situation: a fused ac line enkrIng an eElc1osun~- If there t:ino.uld be an insulatitOn 'breakdown, such dl<l,.t lhe' :(It ·lirl!e. comes ill contact wIth the chassis, the clLas~iswould then be capable of delive [tug the fun curre nr capacity: of the fusep clrcuit.. Anyone cn.m]Flg in contact ~h.h the dl<l*,tS ~ln:t ground would be connected directly acrossthe-ae power llne, If.the: chassis is grourlded, how6'ver.,such an insulation breakdown will draw J large current frQI.n the :ae line and cause the fuseto blow, thus removing the voltage from

theehassis. In tb'~ United States

ac power dj~lribution and wiring standards an: contained intilJe Natlonal Eleetrical 'Code- One requirement of this . code 'speci'fges 'that USN ac power distribution in homes and buitdiqgs must be'", three w·ire.s}~tem. ~i;\, ,shown in Hig. 3~1-Load current f:1~)'w:sthrough. rhe hut

rL:_-,
I I I
\

.... _ SERVice

ENTRANCE

w~re (bl.~ICk) which is fus~d, and returns.through the neutral wire (vd:llte). In ?9dWiOIt a safety .f,li'lJ;lun.dWII:.e (green) ]l1USt he conneeted to ~Il cql,fil;mJ::::nt i:lnclnsure-.s and hardware .. Theonly lim~ the green wire carries current is '~ming a fonHt; and lb en 'On ty ..momenrarlly until the. fuse or bIeak~r opens tht;, 4;..'"ircuiL Since no load current flows in the ~afety gJ<lUrrd. it has: no IR !~ro.p. and the enclosures connected to il. ,;;In;:: always atground potential. The Nafional Electrical Code specifies that the neutral and safety ground shall be connected together at only cnepoint, and this point ~h:Jll be at 'the main servlee entrance." To do otherwise would allow some of the ueu tral curren t ~e<tum On '~he ground 'conductor, ,A combination n5J23(pV8y~lcm is ·s,~nHI81I". ,c'Xcept an additionalhot wire·(red,li::;·aJdcd, 'a.s shown in Hg. 3-3. If ;tbe ]mHI.require;~l'on]y 230 V the neutral {white] wire shown in Fig. ,3"3 isnot :rttluircd.

~?'

HOT (BLAGI<)

1---'!I
L--

1,1iS,V'
NElmvi.L

UlAD ~ (WHilE)

SiIGINAL.GRo,UIN!DS A ground is normally lI,(!;finc,d as an .equjporenti;11t point or p1'anethat serves


a reference potcnti,a:1 for a circuit .or system. This definition, however, is VIIut representatl ve of prat;tk~l~vound systems became they are not equlporen tia]s; also it do~~ not emphasize 'lh~ im.pDn<l1]ce: tlIf the actual pa th
:[]IS,

t"""-~ LOA![? ENCLO~iURE

'I

,-~I

~
~ I.
iL.....

GROUND (GREE'l'I~

__,,__J

"trJru~[_~'1

• AU~"wi!.b!~: exceptions .arc electric ril(lg<ls, w,aU-mmm Lei! ovens, counter-mounted coo'kln:~ and elecutc clothes dryers, For these ~p(p~lian~~s. case. may hu connected to, grou:nt.llvia the the nemral ~i~, Set! 'l~leN~:tional Electrica! ·COda. p'~I~groph ~50"60, 19B7. tA pOil!ll where ,the' !{o&t~gc 'd![)~s not change, re.~r(lle5S nr'tne. current lIpplied to 11'or c!nIiWTI .

':fWDI it-

'76

.SIN(;;l:E-POliIIT

GROUNO

SYSTEMS

77

t~leu by th~ cnrrenctn


designer

rcturning to the source,

It

is important for the

to know the actual current

path ,inorJclF to determine the Hldia:tcd

emission or the sillsceptibility of a circuit. To understand the lilni!tat~ont;; Mel problems of "real world' ground systems", it would be better to use ,j ,dr;:.fiI11tIO:n mare representative of the -actu Ot] si tuation. "fh!.e;reftliliea bette r definition fo.r a sigttal ground is 11 iow-impedasce pmh lor current to return. 10 the .~·uurce (On, 1(79). '('[tis "current concept" of a ground cmpbaslzes the htlpo,[Jt.mce of current flow. :l.t implies: that s-ince current i'~: flollving through some IIIl~te impedance" ttlll::re will be a difference in potential between two ,pbyskaUy tii¥Pl3J'ate:(l points. The equipotential concept defines what l:L ground ideally should be", whereas. tore current com:.:c:pl de'fll1!eswh<,"~ ;}
,ground actuallyis, The actual path taken by the gr{)l,md .eurrent is irnportant in dctcl'mtrtJng the .lli1aglil rie- coup ling, between circuits, The magnetic or 'in ductive COt! p lin g e is, proportienal to loop area, But what is; the loop area cif ~l ~yst!(.:;:Tll containing multiple ground paths? The area is the total area ~mdtlse.d bythe actual current now. An important consideration in d"eb;;rmiIl;6~g this areais the. ground path taken by the current inretursing t() the source, 'Oft.£;Tl this i~ not the' path intended by tile designer. In de';)igniJ~g<J/ 'ground it Is important to [15k; How does the current [low'! The path taken fly the ground current must 'be"determined. Then, since :dny conductor-carrylng current 'win have ;3. voltage 'dm,p" the .etfc,ct of this voltage, drop on th,r: performance of the othcr circuits .eonnected to jhc

In general, .Etis desii.ahle ro distdbut!~ POWCT in ,<I manner that para llels , the gr(}und structure, Usually the ground s}'ili~ertlia tlc:;.i.g))..edl1nst."aud then the pow,c::r is distributed .ill if} similar, manner. In the [o]lowi.ng discussion (l·f groiJuding techniques, tWQ kceypoiJlis .st~;(:nl!,J.be kept ill mind:
l, AJI eenductors,

mav~~a finite. impedance, generally consisting' of both resl"l:ance and inductance. At n 'kHz, a s,tmighl length of 22-g.·:mgc

wire one ~nch above a ground plane has more inducnve reactance than

,ests.:t anee.
2. 'l\vo-physica.Uy
potential.

separated ,gn:n.md points arc seldom at the same

The a,c: P'(?l~"',er ground is of ll:1:l'fe JJ'radiulf V'ait~e (I~ 11 signal gr{)I~nd. The ~9H~ge'm¢asmed between 1wo points, .on the power grUl:IIld is typically h~uldredis, Get mijlivclts, ,and In some cases many volts. This is ·ex(,.'!c.;,.,;,siyeor t ~o'W:·It:;v;e:~ sigIl.al circuits. A singlc-poiet comH'!ctIon to the power grQund. I'S If:5.pal,ly £1:([ IIi red for safety ~ however,

ground must beconsldered. ' The pWpCI signalgtound sysrenris determined by the lyjJC of circuitry ;br,:· frequency of operation, the size at the lSy tL~m (self -co uta imid or disn%uh~(l}, and other constraints such ,as safety ...No OlW g;ro.uJ~dsystemis
appn.~pria'tc' for ail applicarjons. Signa~gIOund~,dlS,tiany f<111 into one. of three, cascgorles: (1) ~i]llglu-poi~~t grounds, (2) multipoint g;roullds. and (3) hybrld gn .. mncis .. Single-point and multipoint grounds ,arc shown in Fl.gs_ 3-4 and j-5 .. respectively. A hybrid ground is, gh:ow:(I in Fig. 3·6" There ,ITa: two subclasses of single-point grounds: those with series connections and those with parallel connections. The [iI~Tk~rComlccti(.m Is also c:~dled '<I. common grouud or,d;llsy chain •. and the parallel conneetioniscalled a s~p... irate ground system.

;With regard to noise; the most undesirable single-point ground systemis the born moo ground sy~tcm. 'shown in Fig.. 3~6. This ']$. .a seriesco nnection otall the individual circuit grounds, 'The resistances shown represent the impelij.~lncc of the ground conductors. and Xl' 1~" and l~,arc the grm,mQ, nu:t~i'l1S'Of

CIA.CUrT

:2

Ci'Rl;:tliT

J"igwr~;~~·6,. C(lmmul'l
ll~!i.n· sMndpoim,' V'I#'

'ha.~Ihi:~d~aJl(,(.!II~

'!1(Q,iUlJ

Sjts,r'~m is U' s,;:.~I,p',~ Wor.md

!':tJllI'I<'ct,Wrr

,untl is .rnulesitqMe .from

I~

of SimrJ;~ !!i'ir.ing'.

78 circuits 1, 2', and 3, respectively .. Point Ai~ potential M


riot

79 at zero potential but is at


:l

(3-2)

(3-J) Ahholl1gh d~is cireuit is theleast desirable smgle-polnt gm1i.lnd.ii:rgs}'s.(~m,. it is prebably the mostwidelyused because of itssimplicity, For noncrhical circuits it may be pcrfr:clfy satisfactory .. Thl~. s)'.~Lt:m should not be used between circuits opemting ,<It widely different power k~vds, since the
high-level stages produce large ground currenrs which in turn adversely affect the low-level stage, Wilen this system is used, the most criticalstage should be the one nearest the primary !,'Toull'ld point, Note that puin t A in Fig. 3-6 i5·111(~ 1,["J\vcrpotential than point B· or C. . Th e. separate .ground system (parallel ccanecnon) shown In Fig. ~1-7is, thg most dys:tIable at low frequeneies. Thatis because 'thereis no cross c~;.mp]lng between groundcurrents from different circuits. The potentials at pClints.A and C, for example, are' as f¢lUuws: (3-4) (3-5) The, ground p oremial of a circnir is now :J funeti"t:m 0 f the groun d current and impe dance of that circuit only. This system ismcch anical] y cum bcr1i::om c, however, .ll!e~~s<lry.

A limitation of the single-point grol11i1,dsy~!em ceeurs at high frequencies. where the inductances 'of the ground cnndnctors increase the ground impedance. At still higher frequencies the impedance ,!:IIthe ground wires can be ~c::ryhigh i.f the h:ngtll colneldeswith odd multiples of-a. quarter-wavelength ... Not ;only\\lill these grounds have large ·itnpcdaIH::c. but 'they \vill alsu act (1$ antennas and ra&ale. nolse. Ground leads shq~M always be kept shorter tb.m, On c -twentieth of a wavelength to prevent lad iation and. to maintain a loW itnpe.9:<tn{;e" AI' high frequencies dli;jI'':;~S i1ifl su(;h thing .(1);; 1l ~iVlgle·pc]lint' grcund.

MULlliPOJNT GROUND SYSTEMS "J he multipoint.


ground system is used at high frequencies and In digit<li drcuitry to' minimize the gro.undimpcoonce. In this system. shown in Fi.g. 3-8,. circuits ·'ate connected to the nearest available lew-impedance ground pirllle, USIJ<l.Hy tile chassis ..The low ground imped ance is du e primarily to the ~P¥;'C:I i~dw;:ta.l1f;;e.ut: 'the: gmu ndplane, l'hc' COn 11 cction ~ between each eUfcull .~'n'd'lbt;: grQund p!ane should be kept aashort as-possible 10 minimize rheir imped.ance. In vet)' high frequency ciJicuiitst"he length ot theseground leads must be kept to ,I small fraction of sn inch, M u Itipnint grounds shoul d be avoided at. low frequencies since ·.g.rq'und currents from ~.II circuits flow t;htnugh <I: common ground .impedallce--'tlleground plane, At high Irequeneies, the Common impedance of Hie gruund p!.::mc can be reduced by silver plating the surface. lnercasing (be thickness of the ground plane. bas. no effect-en its high frequency impedance, since current flows vl1]~y on the surface due to skin 'effect.

~mt~in

or

large system .an unreasonable

amount

of wire ,is.

CIIRCLlII
CllRCiJlT 1

.CIRCUlI

cCIFlC:!.i·iT

:2

CI RClJlT

CIRCUlIT 3.

'L,
GROUND PLANIE

lij'iJ1:ill:m ]"7" . .'Ii!pi1h~t,j!" ro'~lJ'd ,,}~·tem is g jrequ('/'I{;Y ~n:JUlldillg bUl if m~.c.ll(lnu:/,I(ly

(I

pm·alle.l 8.W!fmt cumbersome.

cvmll.'Cfilm

and II!'Qvid ... go.o·,i law,s·

!ltlII(".~~

Fi"i\iIl!ru 3"8 .• Mullipm'at gnmmf :sy.\·remis .fl 1l'oo.d. choice at j'requlwcir..f R J -R, ~li,d L r - L, srloJtld be mr.nfi-riized..

.(Ii1Q'Pe· MHz. [mpl:.. 10

,80

8~1

NotmaHy at freq lie ncies bejow one ill e,g~! hert.z(1 single-point gnnmd .!:IYstcm is preferable; above 10 MHz. a multipoint .:!;);nnmd system is best. Between "1 and 10 MHz a s]r!.gle-po]:nt grouad can usualjy he used, provided the length of the longcs~ grQund conductor is less than one-jwcntierh of wavelength. Ifitis greater than olile-twent1cth ofa wavelength, a mu1.tipoim grou» d system should be used. . Many gr()undsys,tem problems (lCCUras the result o r to rmnon impedance coupling. Curmnon impedancecoupling becomes a problem under one 'If more of the Iollowinj; conditions; 1. A high-impedance ground. (usually ton much inductance)

HVBR<JIIJ GROUINIDS

,I

A hybrid grm.md is one in which the system-grounding c.onfi'gm·~rion appears 'differently at diJifcr·e.l:ltfrequencies .. f<lg._ure3-9 shows. a cernmon type hybrid. .ground system. thnt acts as a single-pain ~ Ijr:l)und a tlow frequencies and .;-t multipoint ground at b.igli frequencies" A practical app]kHtioIl of [his. rfinciple is tbe cable-grourufing scheme !)hOV'iJ1l~1l Fig, 3,-38.. At low fre. qu(:[!eies the 'cab.11;.i shield is single-point grounded, <lad at hIgh frequencies it

is multipoint grounded,

2'. A l'{'ge gro undcurrent (often d ue jo power frequency curren l.,~ or magnetic :G,eldpickup) J. A very .sensitlve (i·pw noise-margin) circuit connected to. lhe' ground

A different type. 'of hy11dd gl"QllIndi'S .s.hQ\\'1JI in Fig. 3-10. This hybrid ...ground, although not :3i~ common as the; nne ju.:;,( rnerrtioned, Is nsed when ,1 number ~ilf h assis mnst be grounded to 'lhe power syst~.in green wire ground c for Mlrct~! reasons, butitis 'dc,sirabl,~tn have a single-point signal ground for the circuitry. The chokes provide a low-impcda nee safety grou nd <1r (H~W~r Iiae frequenc.ies, and groandisol a Hon rtl h.iglle!' frequencies,

Single-point grounds overcome these problems by :s;cpamting'gwllnd currents that are likely to .interfcre and I()rci.ng them to .fiow '01]] J:iHL~re t n conductors. This is cff~Gti.ve at low frequencies. However, the si 11 le current g path" "Hid lQng lead lengths increase the Inductence whieh is detrimental at high keq~·t:.ncies. In addition ~tt high frequencies. slngle-puim gnmnds are almnsamrpossiblc te.achievc because.parasrtic capllcitance closes the ground loop.
M1fltipoim
groUIids overcome

these problems

gTOlIrfd impedance. The ground systc m isintercl,mnetted ,Of parallel paths (~I rid) or.a solid metal p~<~tc plane), g (a t:re.alcgwuud locps that may be. prone to magnetic .obvions ~o;iu'Lioni;s to keep the area of the loops small

plane .and to a,,'ui:ci multipoin; .grounds rn irHvoh OF microvolts) (.:1 rcai ts: DigilallogIc.cin;l,Iits must be treated as high-frequency circuits, ductc the high freq1i:M.mdb. they produce. A good lowinductance .groundis necessary s ca any priuted wiring board comaiuing (j~;J;tgc number of digital Itlgic circuits, The ground can bc.elther 11 low-lmpedanee ground phute. or a ground grid (see ChapWr' Wi. The ground ph~n,e provides a low Inductance grOil.l11d return fl)r the powe:'r :supply and signal currents-and allows Ior the possibif ly of' using cunstant Irnped •. inoc: transmission liues for s[gn.3J.~!nterconnections. A. gmund gridmirrimizes th( ground inductance by providing m<JiI1Y parallel paths [OT ground return currents Bind can be almost as effeetive as ~.ground plane, ,AHhough the, g:rovtrd on at digi~al logic board should he multipoint, that does not m6<i11 til all the po·wc.r Stipp] icd to the board shou hi be tnu ~"[~point gfQuudcd. Since the high frequency rl~gil:ll.logic currents should not nnw through the power supp~y conductors feeding. the board, arid since. the. power is low frequency {de), it can b($ wi red as a. singie poi nt ·.grouliul, even

by producing avery low try ".i~.a.rge. number Milltipoim grcmnds field plr,:kup. The hy using a grid or with very 10\....noise-margin (I.ow

:ftglll'e 3-9,. A h)JbtM g1"Qi.md .c,().m:i~ctiorj ·rhll/ads fnmlllipafirl .~rowjd 0:1" /1iJ]1r. r,t''(}uk:m:if"L

lr.!;

tI.sifjgl.~·p.(I,nnl.griJllfJa ill hJ'~'j"i'?ij'.ff.l';fH:ies

rP'.I.a

I ~ ( >.;., :>;.

l
J
t *

('
;,{'/::';;/f,/_':/C
~?7.;

1.

...

. ....;.

~ ~" ,

though the

logiL~

board

g.fOUll!.Iis

multipoint.

Fi&:"!ln:: .3~:W.. A hybrid :a sb~gte-point grmmd

(l~

gm-Ilnd connection IIJ.f1( ~f,t, os il n!J.!ll/.ipa.ifi(g/Of!!.~d.11 low jrrf(jw!.'rit'ies a"I'd hilt'fl fr'i:'4r,tOt~tli'.i.

ipRAGTJeAl.

!.OW-FREQUENCY

GROUNDING

,GfiO.uND
GRtOUND (L:OW-liEVEL
CIRCUITS} SlGNAL tRELAYS. MOiORS., H~G H-!POW EllA. CIRClJ'ITS)

NOIS.'"

HAf,lIDWA'Fili Gl:A;Ollt10'"
{CHASSI1S. .. HACKS,. CABI NET.sj

"'Ar:. POWER GtIROLJNI){:ONNECfEIj, TO HA:FlDWARiE GRO IJNO WI; ENFlEQlIl RIEi]


Flgu:re 3-11. A pr.i'EI!et'fwiri1.!g bm,frch~'i"1 three !i£~ptlrore grmmd syssem«, O!1·~ for ,Il~ digHullogIC,. om:, [(JT {rilt 14)1!o!-fe~efanalog drcrl,ir.s, ami one fm tnt' "!j,i~isY'" .r:iT";:'II.i.r~..

~Fiillllf.e

~'.U.These thre«

dr$si.~s9i gn;m:J:Ja.ltrg ,('Q1.~.r.wc:t.fm1s lio~!d tn' Up! s:epamr,~.tq tWiii<l noise s

"C()!lplfl1r,..

'FUNCnONAL

G:ROIlJN:OLAYOUT

When different types :u:f circui ts (]ow~I:i;V(:~ar1alog, digital, nqis:y, etc.] are : ·l:l5.cdi n the same system .or on the samepri IIIed wiring board, each tUU·Sl be grounded in a manner appropriate f(!r U~a:l-trPe of circuit. Then thedifferent groundcircuits should be. tied together, usually ·'ita . ingle point, Figure 3-U shows an example of this on a printed wiring board. PRACTiICAL lOW-FlREOUENCY OROUINIDmNG

Mi:}sl practlcal grounding systems ,ll low frequencies are.a combination of the series and parallel s,i~~gle-pn.int round .. Such a comhinatlrm is a earng promise between lhe need h) meet the electrical noise ·c:rit:cTia. and the .goal of avoiding more wiring cnmplexity than necessary, The key to bakmcing these fa.ctOF,s. S'lI(,:C.cs..,fil.U.ly is to group ground leads selectively; 80 that circuits of wide Iy varying power and. nOISe levels do nut ~.haJ;tl.the same zround return wire, Thus ·sf:vcral low-level clrctl]·~·' may share 'J comnmn ground :return, wh ile other high~I<c l C'iF,eU]ts share a: differen t .ground -return ... e conductor. . , Ml)i~l s)'.~!ems require aminil!"'lum of t.hree_··sejJat:m.e grQwui retums, as shown in Fig. 3-12. The ~igtlal ground used for!ow-]evd electronic "C1TcrJit:s shou ld be sepal's.ted from the "noisy" ground used. fi):r circuits such as reIay~

:!-lTldmotors. A third "hardware" ground should he used for mechanical ,~~closul'e~, c:]]a~sis,racks ~al!lld ~iCl on. ~fac power is distributed (luau ghout he system, tile power .ground (green wire] should be connected to the. hardware g.r.mmd.· The three separate ground return circuits, should he .oonn·CBted together <It OInly one point, Use of this basic grounding c~,.mf'bgu.ration in all equipment would gt<;13:tly minimize gro~mJ.ing problems, A~l illustrution of h~}wthese grounding prinCiples might be applled to, at nine-track digilHll:a.pe recorder i~.shown hl Fig. 3·13- There arc three :sih'Tlal grounds, one Boisy ground, and 'One hardware gr(H1nd. The most scnsitlve circuits, the nine read amplifiers, are grounded by using two separate grmmd reiums. Five amplifiers are connected to o~e, and four 'are ·COIl~ nected to the other. The nine ,\rnte ;amJili'5el's,wi1ich opera te at a much higherleveJ than the: read amp.lifie.rs, and the iI"ltCFfa.ce and controllogic ate connected to a third ground return. The three de motors and their control circuit.s, the relays, andthe SOkJIOfd5 are conneeted W the.ncisy gmtmd_ Of these elements, the caps.t<'l[J motor control circuit is tile most sensitivet jt is propcriyconnected closest to the primary gro!.lnd point, The hardware ground provides the ground foOr the enclosure and h..mas.jng, The signal ;gmHnds noisy ground, and hardware ground .should be connected tog.ether on Iy at the: source [)r primary power, that is, the pqwer sup ply. When ·dle:sigTI]Ug the ·g,ro.Llnding system for a piece of cqu.ipmenlt,a. block .diagram similar to· Fig~ 3-13 can be very useful in detemr:ining lEhe propel' 'interconnection of the various circuit grounds.
T

84
R;l;.CK 2

PANEL

1~,11' E.RFAC:E lOGIC

[}IGJiAL

D,lG'lTAL
CQ'NTHOi. LOGi~ 'PiRIMAR'l' POWeR 1~'i'lIOut"m

CAl'STAIN

'MaroA

GIHCUIT

UPPr:f:'! REIH MOTOR ()IRCUIl

RI<EL MOTOR C'FlCLl~i

Low~n

I"!,ll!lni JeN. El,,(~{,.()niG'circuus

ftJiJ.fur,md·

connections .. Rack

1 StJQk~5

correa gr-o,mding;

·.rH

eqm'pmenl

rlu:f.:!> ,·fum./d

IrrNe Si!p{):rc.i~!' gW'mul

f):rck ]- .~r10we

lmwnecr grQlJfJd,i.r[,g' .'

--~--.---

cS,IG~A GROUN.OS- ~

'lack cannot return l.n ground through the electronics ground. AI high freque.ncies: somo {]f lher.ad:;; noise curtc'i1tcan return on ~h·[;:. electmnics g~(mnd due to capacitive coupling between the rack and electronics. This capaeitanee should therefore be ktpi assmall 1i~ [lt~s.:sible Rack 2" on til t _ right, shows auincorreet installationin which the circuit ground 1" connected to t.he'-T<lcIk: round." Noise' currents on tile ..rack can nUWrCIUl'l1 on the g electronics gwund, ana there jsa ground loop between points 1,.2; 3, 4, and
d~.1!";((ll j(jp~ rd;'~Fd.'r,.

Figilr~J.-liJ.

Typil;'CI/

g,mm4irrg ~YS!fm ["', ..Nfl1/Hrft.:k

L
If the installation does not provide a good ground connection to the rack 6~ip:-nod ,it is best to eliminate the questionable ground, and then provide a definite ground by some other means, or be sure that there 1;& groundat 1:10 ~U" D/.1 not depend on s11ding drawers, hinges arid sc on, to provide a. lIc1i.:'l.blc: ground eonnection. When the. gro und is. of a .qu estinn able nature, performance may vary from system tosystem PI rime t9 time, depeuding 0(1 whether Or not the 'ground is made. Hardware grounds produced by intimate contact, snch as weldi.rig" I:Jm?-iDlg OF soldering, are bener than those made by screws and holts. When. joining dissimilar metals for gro\rn4ll'ig, care must be taken to prevent galv.arllc corrosion and to ensure that galvanic volta~cg are not troublesome. Improperly made g1iOllIild connections may perform perfectly well 011 new equipment but may be the ."'UI,ITC-C: of mysterious ~rf)uble later.
a.A. clreulr grdlmd ttl' rack ('tOIlDG conncerlon rmry be required for electrostatic P~Ncctitm.. Se~ Chapter 12~ dkdli:1 rge

Electronic circuits for any large sys.tem are usually mounted in relay Tat,-:!::::; or c..a.bhlel~.. These mcks and eah .. inets must he ·.gnJumh;d for safety .. I.q some svstems such as elecrrumechanlcal telephone, ofGces; the racks serve as the return conductor for relay swi"khing circujts. The rack ground is 'pftl,::~I very rio'i1JY,andit may have fairly high resistante due to joints.and seams-in tile nick ()'r in pull-out clr3Jwe[~, Figure 3-'14 shows a typical spjlcCm ~onsi:!jting ofsets of electronics mounted ou panels \",hich ·ar..: then mtl.lJItted EQ two -relay racks, Rack number l,on the left, sh!_jwscorrect grounding, l"he panel is strapped to the rack to provide a good ground, ·and the racksare IStrap:pc:d togetherandtjed to groundat the primary power source. The electronicscircuit gronnd tines not make contact with the panel or rack, h thisway noise currents on the

87 connectlens .are to be made a chassis, the metal should be protected from '''{hen electrical
10,<1

metal.li:i.: s,I1Ffac'e,S[LCh .a~

~()nOSldn wit'~t a cOilduc.tivl: coating. For example, flllish ahnnlnum wkh a conductive alodine Or cijf(,-

mate fimsh instead of the nonconductive anodized finish. If chassis lm;~to used as groll.mel. planes, careful atterrtiun must be paid to the el~ctfjcal properties of seams, .. joints, and openings. .

he

The effect of isolating the SOU1ioe, from ground can De det,e;mlined by .ccnside ..ing u.low-Ievcl transduecr connected to an amplifier, as shown in Fig. 3-16. Both thesource and orre side of rhe.ampllfier input arc. gruunded. Fur the case when; R'C2 ""f.R, + R'E:[ -I- R, .. the noise voltage VN <It the amplifier terminals Is equal. to

v;v = '. R-r, +~''~;I",R


..!..

][R

R('[..
'C1

+ R(,.

·I~r:;.,
and

Since two. ground points are s,eldom at the .same potential, the difference in ground potential will couple into a circuit if it is grolludc.:d f~t more than' one point. This condition is illustrated in Fig. 3-15;, a si.,gnal SOI.m::c: is grounded.a; point A and ail amplifier is grounded ;-!t point B. Note-that in this di$cu;s!:j]Oll an amplifier is generally mentioned as the loud. The amplifier is simply ~l c(:nvcnient example, however, and .the~roll[!d.jng methods appl:y l(l. mil' type M ~Cla~tVolta~e' V", represents the difference ill ground potential between

:Exampl:e3·1,. Consider l.~e case where the. ground pote!1ti,:j) I,in Fig. 3·-16'js .equal. w 100 mY, a value equdvfI'lictllt() :10 A 'Of ground current O(;llwi.m: through aground resistance of 00:.01 If R~= SOUn, Rc,= R(·.l = ] 0., :0,.. R.l: "". Hl In, then from bq, 3-6 the noise voltage at the amplifier terminals is ~5 n'tV. Thus almost all of the lOO-mV ground differential. voltage iscoupled

into the amplifier,


The source C~U:l be isolated r'rom ground by adding the impedance Zsc;, 'IS. in Fig. 3-17, .h:le ally , the: impedance /",o;(;wO\*i be infinite, but due to 11J ,3.kagc·n;sistafT]CC. lrrli9 capacitance it- hils. some large finite value. For the .case where RC:l '<{, R. .Rn + N J_\ ~md Z"~,~> + RG" the nillisc: vnU"~ge ~'" <l1I he.amplifie r term inals is.~l:itOWIl

points A .8tndB~ Flfi Fig, ::q 5 and subsequent iUmitm.tit~[IS, two different -gro1JrDd sym bels are used to emphasize thai two-physical] y s,cpara'Lc.:d grounds are. not usually at lh~ . potential, Resistors R:r.l, 2\ndR('"~ represent lhc resistance of the conductors connecting the ~,j_)Uf~i.~ to the amplifier. In Fl g. ].-15 tbe inpu t voltage. to tbe~m plifier is eq ual to V~ + Vi:;, To eliminate the noise, one of the ground connections must be removed.

MIme.

s.,

~iimino;llinn of the grcuud connection from an ungrounded p0\'.... supply. er

used. ~S. di~ol,ls~edlater inthis eliminate ground connection A atthe

,-IlB means the amplifier must operate A differential amplifier could. also be .chaprer. lt is usually easier, however, to

.V.·= ,. . R -, ] [ ~ .,] V R . N . R,. + Rc ~ + R~ Z.~(.- G

( 3-'7)

sou IGe.

Fi:guu

3-15_ Nc,isf, ~'·oliagi.'.VG/1!I,m couple

.imo the "li?,Jp4/.ie,rif the (:in~rfir IX gmwul,eJ


.

aJ mOl'"

l:hi1t) O'lt'· poin«.

.'l1o:'rQ~S

.Flglln! 3~I6. With fWO grl)lU.l~ r;mmf,ctfoIfS. ftr.r.rdl of" rhi! gnl'und:pf;'remia( the i{!,Jd 4f noise, .

d!ff~n:.m·f! appears

·88

.3' - GfiOLPNDENG

-,t

.I.1.·
• I

C~S

EQ""tJIVALENT CliRCUiT

PH'r'SICA.L RELATIONSHIP'

~i.:!il'un· J~l'i', . fa!8f .4


pf1te.11Iia{

111'fft'n'I!('"e (Way

impe~'.ilm·.rl .t)n"'t'-f.l~ .rh~' .\·:r~fU·C~' .ami grOWN] kp.~ps most fnmr. Ihl: J'Q,rld' and reduces noise.

'4 I'll!: grr1Wul.. -

..SHI'ELID cm"N ECT'll_rJ' n:i COMMON

Most of the noise reduction (),blaincd by isobriug the Source is due lo the second term of Eq. 3~7. trzS(i is infinite. there is no noise voltage coupled in to lh t~elmpH Iler. If the Imped ance Z~G from source to grOt.l!nd is 1 Mn an d all other values: are the same ,!S" in the previous example, the noise voltage. Oil the amplifier terminals is. from Eq.::q; now only o.oss f.1.V This'~!F; a reduction of 120 dB from. the previous casewherethe' source was grounded;

F.igure ,3·J.~" Ampti;tr,e.1: .\;I.!id{~ 5,ho~dd m~ .cO,lm~~cwd ~o tfu!..llmpf:ifi,<'t ir:mumm,

GROU'NID~NG OiF CABLE SH~ElDS


,$'1'iieldsom cables used for low- frequency !o;ignals should be grounded

AMPUFlER SHIELDS
amplifiers fire often 'enCloSed "!TJ a .metallic shleld to provide. from electric fields. The question then arises 'as: to where lh(; "Shield s:hcm-Idbe grounded; Figure 3·,18 'lihH\~'~ till: parasitic capacitance that ext~ls between the, amplif6cr and the shield. From tile equivalent circuit, it can be seen that the stray capaeitances C'J!Iancl CIS providea lccdhaek path from output. t.o.input, I r this (;c_cdbad{ is Ilnt elim.inflted., Ihe amplifiermav oscillate, The only snield connection that will eliminate the unvi1.r1ntcrlle.eJ. back path is t.he one ~~';WIi"I'1 the' bO{Jom of Fig_.3./,8 where flie shield is ,{II c.onn~cted to the. ~mplifier common terminal. By connecting the shield ito the amplifier common. capat-ilam::c C:s is short-circuited, an'd the tcedbuck is eliminated. This shield connection. shlJluh.l be made even if the common is not at. earth ground, High-gain protection

If the shield is gmund!:1d at mote than nne point, noise current. will !loW, In the case of a.
gn)(lnd,

one point when 'lI'te signalcircuit

has

at only

:a: single-point

shielded twisred pair, the shield currents may jnductively couple unequal ~r(iltage.s 111toth e signal cabl e arid b0 a SOUICr;;. of noise. In. the ease of ceaxial t!iJ!b]e~ the shield' current g.cnetat·es a noise vp!~age hy causing alllR drop in ti:l,r,.'i shield 'resistance, <.::> was shewn [1:1 Fig. 2-25- But-if the shield is tobe grounded .eI~ onlyene point, where should that point be? TIle top' drawing.in .scurce .. Generator VG1 represents the: potential of thcamptifier common. tannin ,II above earth ground, and generator V02 represents the difference ln .ground' po'ten1ti,ail between the two' ground. po'ints._ . Since the shield h;1S only (IDe: 'giouml, itls the capacitance between the ~nput leads ·a.nd the' shield that provides 'the noise coupling. Theinpet shield m~:y be grounded at <lH)' one of four possable P01IDIlS Ihrougn Hie dotted 'connections l~bekd A, E, C, and D_ Connection A is obvilHlSly not :~.esirable,; since it allows shield noise current toflow in one of [he ·signal

Fig. 3,·19 sha\-v~,an amplifier and [he·Inpu; signa] leads wid;1 au ungrounded

91

CONN ECTION B

of an ~n:gro.ul1.de;d.'fmpJiffi;e, chnlneoct!ed la' a glQunded· source is Fig, 3.,2dfL Gen[Jr,irtor VGI[~pt~~eJlli:i the DUtil';' il:i~;dCif th&SQ'UI,ti? common termina] ,alxwe. rhe "l±dlJlI~ ':grqund ;;It its loc(~titi [I. The fourpossible conqectin~s f orthe 'fnpfl1r cable; ih]~ M. ;;l re again shownas the (!eElsheel .lirH'::S labeled A., 8-, C, find. D. 'Counection C is obvlouslynot l.k:S~F:1hle since h allows 8.hjgk! noise CJTIT~i!1 lo flow in QrllC .of thl; ~ign;}.~ cOli1dt~do[s in order ~~ to FC3ich ground. EqlL.dvalent c1l"cuit.s are shown at tbe,\'M1iuQm of Fig, 3·,2'.0for ;sbieldconnf;![:tion s A.B, .andD, A~· can be seen, ('mly, PJU nectlon A' produce5t10 noise,.voltage between due: amplifier inp~t terminals .. Ther@.fo",.e .. fot the case '01 ~ gro'und,ed ,YGlirtNln.d ungroun.ded o;mpHjiet., the. inpw shidd :'iihor~ldb(~(:mu16ct.ed to' tlu~source comrrum t6.rmtr1(.d, eVi:ln if this jwbu is riot ~t dmh jJWUhd." . . Preferred low~fn;C,ll.!Cl;U;y shtdd gn.)l1r1!iling schemes {:Or both shielded Jw:i·(S.tt.d p:lir arrd ~(bxlal. cehle 'are shewn in Fig, 3<;1:L CircuitS.A thrpl,lgh D arc grounded atthe amplifier or the son):'Ce,.bur not -, bothends; at
'File case
,~ihQv;)yin

Fi~uj,~ J,]~" Whell ampfljil!:r· (s, w(jtmd~J, 10 ,(fmp:lifi~t:' WmJfJO)~ •.

t:f1~ biS!

sh~M 'crnmeG~i:mis C; wi~h shidd ('OiIti,~'ci~d

leads. 'This nOl~~Qcurrent ftow]ng through the' rm.ped&Hoe",Qf1be: :signa.1 lead produces a noise vo!nag,e' j I") SCFic&\Vith the signal.

Th)e[h[e¢~oweF. drawings' in Fig, J~19iaire equivalent 'C]F"Cui'ts rm g'round. ing ccnneetions B ~ C,. .i!ncl iJ. Arry exlr'<tneOiUSvoHage generated between tne amplifier input tenuinats (poin,tsli and 2) i~ ano~~[!. voltage: With grounding al:r:artge.m6r:il lj i,i. vQI tage is generated across the anlp'Hfi~firtpiIJt tezminals dt.i"~ ta' the g,~:t).era"toFE V::n ,8!;n.ti V~E. and the c.ap,.ii;;jl~ye vQU~ge divider' f9m\i:e.d !;~YL~ and C2.' This eonneeticn ,hlo, is ullIiO:!tj Sf,j;ct(!ifY" For ~"fo1Jnd eonneefion C,. th!tre. i~ nQ~'Qlbige' Vi!, regardless of the v a'Jl1LC, of ,gel"lerat!ol's V~! Or V~I" Wlth ground connectio'll D, ,,<! vul.t<.'lg};~; :i!$ geneir'zyh::d £±Ci'"(J:,)sbealnp[iner t i'npcut rtrmitr.i~s dQ~ 00 generaaor 'lI;Jt and the 'l;ap'a'Citivt: voltJge divider- (:1 (~"l.TIl!e only' ~nflec~,ior! thrut precludes <I noise ~oh;8!,gj;l VI:! i~~onnBct:ion c_ Th.u!!)'",.fOcI' 4 drcaU WiU1 an Mngr(muaed ,.o~rr't;.'e. and. {rgnn~J1.ded. amp/iji'e.r, the inpur. shie/.fshouid qtW(lYs be. connectedto .~he amplifier eommon !ermin:q,l•. even 'if thili point 11$ nor at earfil gr.ound,

,md

\112.=0

Fi~.I!1~:~"20. ~Vh~'rj §oufte is" .g~oI).JJdid, the; nest :rJIr.d,d -c mI1wc·t:ir.m !:s:.A, 1,.1/,1{1 ,~hiNd'co.1!11~'CWI[IrJ 3 iilW so.wn~ t:O'nm~'tl, The ~'()nf.!.pJ.~tlNonCJ21'l lll.\·(f b~' used. Wilrl ~J ,Jifk(el.lI;r,~l (lmp!~p:eF.

.• f! IEll Dim TWIST E.D S


. PAIR

flow theough thelower "impeo J net s.hiehl,ratnMt[ than thee center conductor . r"n the cas:~ of circuit E th'e~hleJded twi"s,u:d. pair Is also gnJbIndeuat both, );nl ds to' shunt; somco.f: theground- lCH)p current 'from the signal conductors .. l f ~thtdili:Qnal no]re i.mmuIlllY is required, the gn~ulilld.oop m ust be broken, This l ~:~ru bc' dN;.e· b): lJ.,sing (rl~.ns.rQnne:rs", optical couplere, ·DJ:: <1 differential

SHIELDE;ID TWIBT~~ . 'PAjlR:

)I:mp:Hfie~. An :un,d.kJ.tion fif the. type of .p~;.Tf qtf]'l.8JI1,CC ;hl' bc' cxpe(~tt:d from fh~ ~'pl1iligu[-aHt)p~,~hOI"([1in }-iig, '~,-2I caft' he ebtained by rete [rin ~ to 1~1'exl3'sl!:Ils " t $.01lh~ magnetic cQl);p~in,gexperiment presented in Figs', 2-28'lqd' 2,-29, -

.JL
GFlOU.ND lOOPS
C OA;t,IAl CABtE

.Gruund loops 'at times ".... be a $OmCC. "Of no! se _This ls especially t r,n:re he n In w the mu ki.p]e g[(U!rlJi points are separa te,(lby ,[I large .d]sttlHcc:and are
.,'d~;~neclcd 10 ~lhe
<1.C

power :gmund,

GOAXIAL

CAE! ~E

.5HIIEt.DED tWISTEO PAIIFj

IE.

[i~:cd- In. these cases i;~is ,fie,(;e'SI'j;'~v·Y rrrlwidc some fi,.)rHt Qf discriminanonor In itofa!iqn against die gwun e-pa t'h noise, F~g~u:e::t-11 shows ~ "S)'ste.m gi.'O:unded :}It' l'tv(f .:~fifl¢reilt PQ,intc~· ith a w pot.eiJ l'ia,~ daffl=rel!lce between the ;gft1l1r~df!",A~ 'sbciw~l ill the figWY, l hi·f:;'can '.cause <11'1 11nwanted )]O~~[l. v.o~,t8igeill the cU])c"lf~t. The" mXl:gnitudcdf the noise v'dU~~g<; -omr:a-red ~D fhe ,5i.gnaJ level in the circuit lsi mpa[W!nt: it th[,:' ~ 8~~nI'3:1-10-nQi:se·r<.~;Ho is-such th(~l circuit op~natl6n~s <lffe:(;t~d; s'tr:;:ps must be' t}1l"kel,l to remedy ~hC:. itu3!.dotl_ Two things can be ·d(m~,as shown ![I Fig . s .5.21. Fin;;l" the gro'Ulnd loop CJn. O.e,<.lNO;ldcJ by removing one "Of. the' gmumb, tlrL15c:culv~n~ng thesystem 10 :3. si ngle:.-po~l]t"ground, .Seeond, the ,.em-~c:[ of
the multiple gvol1m:!c.iin be ellminatedor at h~,,,sl rninimiz.ed by Isohdln~ the: ~'\1ifo:cini:qits_ Isolation can he ~t~hi'.cv0(1~)y (1) n.J.t;tsfDrm.ers,. (2) eornrnonffi'Qde Gihbkes. (3) opti(,:~\l ~O'l!r~ers. 4) b2l.1:anced cj[l{,:uitry, Or (5) f"equency( ""e;l~iC:tivegn:'Ulnding {hyb.rid. grounds) , FigU.re"3·2j ~JlOW~ tw:o c;h¢nits iSC!1I<l:te~1 wi~Jh :~.lraE11s"l\."N:rru:;,':, The g:\l:oufld .hi6lf;C VO ~w.ge now' :lIPpe';:lIS hrHwccfI the lr:9:m;;fOr~tierwindings un drlp.i at "the

or when ~'bw·l~\'r,;1analog circuits arc

COAXIAL

CABLE

tiputto

die

C:~lIC~lil_

The It"Qise :c,ciIJPH.ngisprim~.rily

Ii functlouef

the

p:an'l.o.'i1tic ca'rklcilance b:e.{M~~:n h~t[;IIl ~fhrme'r ~i !]diilgS, as d i~~t.. &~~d in the t <

Fil:ut~' 3,.21. fr,f,(j',~fn~y,

Pr'l,/<.!r.rI!:JgmlltJdBd

.ndr,p.m~_~ shr,ddi?d, 1!ii'Iml':(] pa~"r~ at.r.d ~1Xl:d.jl'l caM~ m lljlt, [01'

CIROlin
'1 . r" .(,----.,' UND LOOP' __ 'GHG ___~}.: 7
ail

-CIH:QlllIT
.~

Wn:ciI1th~ t>lglJ.~d '!cin::uitis, grfiund.e-d atboth !t:'[1,(11i:. th¥ <[1.HOll m of noise reduetion p"Ossih.h~~s ,~im~leJ jlY the differencein gruu'~d pNC{l11ia! and the .sMs!;'':cp,tibiiity ef the ground loop. to magneti"!:; .n~ld s, The ,prefe:rred shield' groundconflguratlons for cases where .rhe :si.gnmi. rCllit it'" -grounded :d hfllp ci ends are showa in circuits E and Fof Fig, 3-21. In circuit F tl.e' shield o.f the. coa:x.i<ll able ·~s c grou nded at baHt ends te force some Il:murlJd c.toop ,currel1lt hl

rr:

VG

94

·G:R.QlIND lOOPS-

ss

I C'"r"1T

_----,,-...< ·11 '-

~"""!!I~.c_. 1_~_~_'lI_'IT~

CI.RCLJIT
1

.Cl:Rc:urr
2

secnon 011 transformersin Chapter 5, and can be.reduced by placing <i ::;1hield between the ~vindings.A1thnu:gh transformers .can give excellent rc!\ulrts, they do have disadvantages, Th:ey are large, havelimH~~d frequency .,1::sponsc, provide 11I(} de continuity, and are costly, In addition. if multiple signals are'cormected between the circuits, .ml.lltif.)le transformers arc rcquired, III Fig, 3-24 the lWQ circuits aIC isolated with a transformer connected as a commcn-mode choke that will transmit ill!.: and differential-mode signals while ·rejecting cemmon-mode ac 'sigmJils- The common-modenoise voltage now appears across the W]nd.]lil"g.~ the choke. Hull. n'(,)l at the input to the of cir:euiL Since the common-mode choke hr"~i) no effect 'on the diHbcl1.tia.l signals being .transmitted, multiple sigtla~. leads can be wOl.i1.r1d on the same core without crosstalk, The operation of the cummcn-mode choke is describ ed ill the nex I -seN.lOl:l. Optical ~Qt!pling (optical iSO~;ltCI~ 01' fiber optics), :<15 'hown In Eg, 3·-25, is a ,,'cr}, effective method f)f ellmluating common-mode noise since it cornptetet y breaks tbe metallic pa th b etweenthc two grounds. It is most useful when there are very large differCIlC(:s i.n voltage, ,h.etw~cn the two grounds, even thousands of \'011:':" The undesired 'commoiHnQde noise voltage appeata across the optical coupler 'imd not across the input to: the circui; ..

Optical couplers s:uitaMe 'for analog

are especially useful in Jig'ital. circuits. They are: Iess circuits became linearity through the coupler i"'! not i,dw':ayssarisfacrory. Analog circuits have been designed .• however, using opti,cal feedback techniques to compensate 'foE the lnherentnonllnearity of

the' coupl,er.{Waaben, 197~).


Balanced circuits, as 'shown in Fig, .1.26" provide another wal to 'discriminate. agaln$,l common-mode ground noise voltages. In thiscase .thecomn1on· mode voltages induce equal currents in both halves of the balanced circuit, andthe balanced reeei ver rcspo nd S OIl ~y It'), the ditkn::ilc;e between die two lnpms _ The better the balance, tho larger ~s the amounf of common-mode

reiection. As frequency

increases, it becomes

more a:nd more; ditT~cL1h. o t

.achicve a. high 'degre,e of-balance ..Balancingis discussed futherin Chapfer 4, When tile common-mode noise voltages are ~.rta frequencydifferent fTom l)b.t:, esi red si'g;nal, freq u ency-sclecnve (by hrid] groundin g can be used. d

CIACUlT
1

CIRCiJ~T t

CIHClllT
1

CIRCUIT 2

:r'il,:llm

choke;

3-.24. A *ro~mJ loop'

bt'l i'I!('~'nJ.~W6n::j~:I:!S njrj

~e bwk~,~ by inSb'ltl!X a ,romrrW;htfJQ.ae

~1ig re 3·16:. A !u.rlallci.:d dn.~tr u


C.fn:"l:A'iIS.

~ilitl

be ,ruM ro :ca.r,t~·d md 1M. !!ffl!.'c.t

ora gh;Ul1rd

[oup !'N~twet!'h :t~w,

9& lOW-FIR~(mENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMO:N-MODE C!HOKE seats (I si.gnal voltage thar is c.OI:.m<ecycd to the load .RL by conductors with resistance Rm and RC1- The common-lllCid'l:: choke i~.:r,epr'en:::nled 'by the two ]uquc:tQrs Li and L~.anJ the mutna] inductance, M- if both wlndings are i.dc:ntkal and closely coupled on' the sar:tl:e core .• ll::n':'n L I' l. '2' and M' are cqmil- Vo]tagegene:ralor Vc.; represe nts a "Cornmon -mode voltege due eithe r to magnetic coupling III 'the ground ]001' or to a ground differential voltage. Since, the conductor resistance Rn is. m series with Rr. find of much .5mal1er ·11l,1.'~tl itude, it c:Iln be neglected. Thcf.irst step istn determme the response of the circuit to the ~igl]ltJ.i. voltage neglecting the' effect of V(~" The circuit <of Ftg._ 3-27 C:8;[l be rconwJn. as shown in. Fig. 3-28."Thisfigure is siIDilar to the circuit of Fig, 2-22, There it WH~ shown [hat ,eft frequencies gn:!::ater than oW =:5R,t I L~., 'virb.laUy all the current 18 returned to the S"Q'I:Irce through the ~ec.ulld tOl.mductcrr and not through the ground pi JUlie. If L1is chosen such lh,tl the lowest signal frequr;:.ncy is grcaiter than 5Rc2l L~TaJfs, then 1(; = Under these conditions the voltages around the top loop-of Fig. '3-2'$ C<lU he
~T

A trails_former can he. used as a ccmmon-arode cb~k~ (ak;Q' called 13. I01I):gitli.r~jna~ choke. ueutralizing transformer, or balun). when 'ooIl"ncc.(ed~, l~.s ~how[l rn Fig. 3~27" A tninsiorrn~r connected in this murmer presents a low _ llIlipe.dafl~JC.10 [he signal current and allows de coupling, To any commonmode noise C1HTent, however, the transformer !s a hIgh impl;:,dance , The signal current shown in Fi.g, 3-27 flewsequally in the lwo conductors. but in bippo.sUe directions, 111is~s lhe· desi red current, andit is also .knrrwn as the differential -cin)uil current or metallie circuit current, Thenoise currents

flow in the same direction -along both


mode currents. Cit-cui! performance

lC!)ndu,~tnTh 'and.

are called

common-

for the cemmon-mqde

'choke

of Fig. 3-27 may be

analy.zed by rc.fe-fring to taeequivalent cin::~liJ, Vo!ftOl.gegeu.er.~tolf Vs. repre-

u-

:,summed as

follows:
(3·H)

CIHCUI'I'
1

CIRCUIT

2'

PHYSICAIL. RELATION.SFtIP

R t: is much greater th an R C~ _ Eq 1W tion 3-9 is the Solme (hal have been obtained if the I;:hoke n'H:! not been PT,e1if?TiIL therefore It :dfect OIl th~- signal WlTilSl'Ilission ·~~oong as the choke inductance-is l .e;m.H! h that the signal frequ lmcy W b gteat.er th an :5 R ("]I 4_, g
provided

wO

uld

hti,~

no large

r---'lis 'V,
I/o
EQur,v ALENT elRCI,J IT is" 1%',q!1i~eJ., a ·c(.m.EJ\'!ml.-~.'lO':&~


h

,
I

1
I MI
I

I
I I

... ,,----+

lu·---dro.h
C((1l

Figur,e '3·2-7. Whi'fiI de'


J:.I.~ed' so break

'VII' iQIJII-j'ref.]u(!tu::y.' a gmw'1i1":1oap.

(:,Q}.~#l'!uiD'

b~

.'

98

Tlre reSP"'.)rH"'~ 9:f[tie 'ei rcuit o'fHg. 3-17 to rile wmTlflon-modi':_ vQ']l::age:.V _ can be d;;h~TmiT1E,d by oo:n:suQ,edng,the ~q~iv~']eilJt ci'tcuit'shQwn in Fig_,3"2;~ If the, ,(,;:~o~~e ere [1(c)t pi:"I;:~I:nllt., w 'trm ,(::cjrnplek noi sevoltagc V;,,; W01.,I['d t~ppear :acrossR-t, • Wh~Eli the dm,ke IS presene, thie noise voJtsge 'de\'r::'~nped '<li~tGS;S R L can be deH~lln~ped hy Wirit~flg t:qitlad~M1S ~~o1llnd th.e ·tWD loops shGwl!'Il in, the illustration _ SEu1{Ilnfng voltages arou ndthe; ontsid¢ ~oopgjves (3-10:)

':~ 1 ~'--~--,.,.
:f-"
-I'.~

ANG,IJ LAR IF.R~.Q UENGY,

ti;J

Fi:gu~~J-3": NO'i,s;; VlJJ'~_'g'-:mQ:~ be ,;~igrdj'lk~'nr i'l' R C2,(S fm;g.t_

(3-1] )
Equ:Jtib'l:l

VN=~'

VGRn/LJ~r+1\c:f'1£'
in

(3·14)

3·l] c(tfl besolved 'fef. l~~,giv!ng~he follow1ngli,es.ult: 12

=:i;, - jwMJ!
J~La

~ plot of 'V\iIVpis, sh,oll1.'n~[!Fig. 3·3TI. To Inrn~mi'l:e_ thisnoise volm.ge., RC2 slipuJd, b:e t.e-pt as"~m:JlJ'l$. possible, am1lhe choke mdl!~~aHCe ,L 1>houW be

+ !?C2

(3-U.)

s.i:!\:;ih thai
(3.-15) wlieJe. lli !S the frequency of Hk noise. The choke <tho must~tIJTger:~'tol]gh ',<iny lin bal1iLne~d de cum:~lS nowing in the drCtli t does net ca ~~e
!iiamratl:u!l-

RellJ:l'em~e:riTIl:g that L1 = L~ = M= L, '<lI]J,l sust iWllIlg Eel. 3·12: i'rJ~Q 6q. 3,·1u., ~~d 5:o:INll1g, for 1], giv.es ' (3-B)
The

~~l

The ,eq.mmiOIl-mof .. : d'itdke f.hpwl] ,iu Fig. 3,2.i can be eat-iil.J'made ;s~'[ilp1y k
the
lWQ'

,.

,.,

rmi 5C v(lu."'g.ev.",. is cq_ual than R. L.' we can write

to I,R.[_, (lnciSlITcc

R.~C2 i8

n (lrm{~I~)'m ueh h~$:~.

wind [h~r.:(rU1!du.cwrs connecting

circuits '<lTound a ill.a.gE1c1:k'eere, .as

~~----------L----------~I1
1

eonduetors from t1J.HJrethal1Qne eireeit m,<1Y 'b'e 'vmtm.darouLl.d the same CO[~' wit~oi\ll[he "si'g;naJ cireuirs j ntceferln g ~6fflSStJlkilillg~~. In~his .. 'Nl<1'j nne' d,H~e'G'Jn' b.6 used LO, provide J. eormnon-mcde f:ch.Qk<e-for nm·ny crrcuns,

shawn in Fig. 3.:(1.th~'1>!gmll

L., LJ ~UI .
I

I M I

t2_1

L
~n
'co.nlli'ijctO'H'
:r: • ~. •

C~RGLIIT ,2

m:g~~~ 3.,31..;1n e.f!s), u-iilY ~o pf(Jf~ a cCJmmo.r;htl'lli;<c,l!e dmk.t the ~irc2dl to wi.t:lJ' both a,a~~",~d_ t(if'Oit;fpl,mlrlg{lf'!k "'~(m~, ,ClJI!l'ilr.ll1 ,r..ubk, m(l'f. uls,o ,bo.':' tl!il.'d '[,PUp{~(;e (}f /il~ u: A

=.

tq'l1Jdr.Jli3w~ ,~hO,w~L

1011 1100 HK~H-F'R:EQOIENCY


:3 .. GRO[JNIOING.

ANALVSIS OF COMMON-MODE

CHOKIE.

The: preceding anajysis, IOf the comrnon-rnode . choke was a .~oW-ft,eqll~nC;' ana]ys.is. and ]iIL-:g~edec1 dfet~t of' porasitie cap.;:II::]tanc,e. If the choke is t~ the be used at high frequcneses (10 to ron MHz), for example, t.Q hlGc'k common-mode currents on cables ,1$ discussed in Chapter 11, then the stray capacitance- <l'CTOSS. thewindings must he considered. Figure' 3·)2 sh QW$ t h.~ equivalent circ\~il of a two-conductor transmission line containing ,I cummOiI1-m,odecho ke I(LI and L2). R..:: jand R C'l' represent the resi stance {:} r the windings of the choke plus, tile cable conductors, <lind Cr is the Slrav capachancc .acress the windings of the ehoke. Z1... D~the cOi~lmon-moc!~ impedance 'of the ~',lIb:le'arid VD~i8,the eoommon-.mode Voltage driving the cable. In. this analysis Zl_ is, not thedifferentia] .. ode impedance, bur the m im p¢:d<!~cr;.. of~the cable a~ting us an ·.utt,entia and may vary from ~bom 5'{1ttl .350:U. The" insertion 10~:5of the choke can be defined as .. tbc rrario 01" the; common-mode current without the.choke to the common-modecurrent with the choke. For RCI ;:;_ C1= Rand L-] = L,= L, the insertiou loss (lL) (If R .the chokecau be v..'Tl tten as

IL- Zl\.~

_. ".

, IR

.'

·n4{ ... )2 + It .~(')(.·"s' . . ,,~, + 2R(Z, - w LC ZL' )]~ + r21~Ul/_. -I' wCR-:ZL]·!
.'

.'

[).'Rei
-

+: ., .1. -.(1.:1..... "." ., ..

21 C )']'2
.~.
,.

2.

c'.

(3-16)

Figures 3~33and 3~j4afe plots of Eq .3-1'6 for the casewhere RC[ = R~'2 =:) n, and Z" = lOG in, Figure- 3-33.show:s the insertienloss for. a lO-~tH choke fOfvar~ol.tsv,dues of sh "'TIt: . capacitance, and fi:g. 3-34 shows the insertion less for a ehoke with 5 pF of Sbll.1:Jit capacitance and various values ()f il1all!.]ctaI'H':e.. As can be seen from these two figures,. rhe Inscrtiorr loss

Ff!EiQIJElNCl (MHz) .Ei~ure J-3l.. hlSl1l1i(m J.o$:1· &f II 1Q-p.. H wmmoJll.mQrle.

choke H'iiJ!r wlriou,s; valu~'~'of snunr '

-enpact.t!l·,tJct!.

c,
r--~--III-( ~----.

. " I·' _1,· .. · jf the choke '. . "."'0.M'H' Ii.!l!",._" not """IV much With .t te.. mOJ.w:;[ance .1." .. ' .. OIbpv'e' I' , .z does 1.',,-,. v .... J .,. ,.. . -.' TJ".

b~we'v,e'r,
. shunt
•..

n-wS,f m~p:w{;am
.·.t, __ .

it varies . ,C;:onsidemblyd-.. as .... fml'clion a . ,.,.." '


i: .

'.'

plica tion " .. re b cvond sdt-"'esou;,u'Lce. The. p. res.erlJcc.. o....I t ~ a' 11'1 tnese ap·' <. 'v .] ~' .. ,' .. " :.: ' ..' .....•elvlimits-the maximum ins.ertion toss pOssllJle a: pa:rasltlccapac.l,t<in ce se.ve~ ··'IB '".. ..'. f: 1 '-i: ' " ' h ~." . .;' .. It IS·ct'I.. c., fftcuR. ..to obtai;n m;o.re 'than Q to 12 1.1, m~cr 10 [I 0_$ ~ug trequeUG;H::s. . •.. . ,
.J' ." .
I

capacuanc eanf.~no"...... ... .'.-- ". . -..

'.' .... "

parameter m: etemum~l,g .'.re.~


.s .
I,

r.~er~nnan:{.'·e' of the chokeis the )" , . ..' ... " . .~. I d .' the v ..lue of mau,tta.nct. A,ctuaUjr most chokes I!lse .

of the. shu fit t:ap_a,clt~l ee., .'~e n


. .. ',' .... "." '.f the

above 30 MHz, by ttns technique. .... ,,' ,.' ." At these treqlLl!encie:sthe choke can be thoughl o~.as au ~,p:n~l:lf:I1U to th:. _"'. '.' '._ c' .. cornmon-mcoel .' nolS~ . irrencs.o Tb,e total eom.mon-modeI}Q]:S<b: l:1iJillTf;:.I1 l ' on1"the .. 1. ,,: ~ .'.' . .f'_· d,e"errrUn... ·d· bv the parasitic'.1" C<l'nacltaI1lCe,.nul tile m( ~C[•.. ·.... G:i,blc 1S, therefore . .~.. .' .,' .
'at freque.ndes.
< . •• . ' •.

,WL.

• ••

anee of the; :c.hoke.

102~
3 - GHOUINOI W2;

Figwre J-JS. A ili;f!i.TI.''fl[i_<l( .tJ'mI'Nie~-(Jr 1~,~tngl~-enrt'/!d amp[~llt.rwi.th !ri(j!rJsfQrme~-crm' be


f;Q l'e.d,U~'!; ,r:tw,

I~'['ii

4_f~['\' pi

a C'rmlf.1'J<:).I'I'-modl! .NQise HI.1f.a.ge,

DIFFEREN'nAlAMPLlFI1ERS A.··.d.iffl;.. rennat' (ur bOi,I:Jn1c.ed-iililrJ·llll). anu Iifier m.~"(J be used , to ;1. . ,... '. . ' 'of ' .~ <•. -up ~ el . .h e fl ect ,0 ~lcommorlwl11od''~, no ••~C voltnase, T~n'S IS' .sb ' .' .'. "l ",., uecrea. sc t e " i,., . . . , .J' , \0

The response of either circuit ~n Fi,~, 3-3S~o, the noise voltage can be determined from the equivalent circuit showu in Fig-, 3-3,6. For ,resistance R n much t~lr:ger tbao R G' the LDPllL voltage to the amplifi·e,r due to conanca-mode noise voltage Vr; is. as follows; ., ..

of Fig': 3-35 where V'. 'II. . ., ,15'" '. owe.. 1'1'] rne upper drBiWing , , ., ~-', ' .... G 1.S ~ue LXlmnHln -mode (J~O ' d . ," _ diHerenh~],r a.... ·i'·{.!· > .m:lS ,tw~) mpul yo-h< p , lief ]..~ " .. _ -: .' <::><' .un norse \'o,I~<we_. The •• s. V:' d" '. b voltag~ is ecrual to the ,,,l,,Pll' er ' g'<un ;a~~,s, "''M~'fi' . '. '! <2In.,- V~. and t.·he OU.lp.u~ .. • ~ '.1' '" I,... ~.A) If ch d"-r-i" ,. . mput \inHagc~V _ lIe '" . 'II;) ," unes E e . l!~~:renc~1Il If:Le twa

VN= V~ v2 ,_
If

,,

c.

(.,
~ 'RI_.I

+ iR~i + R, - Rn i-Ro' '·G·

Ru

RL~

)V'

(.3-ri)

"', use to S6muJatc the .,. " '. . ,<11.1'1. rIi.fiet_ The lransJonnt:::r .pr'.' ,., b" ' penommuee of <l tn.ec.·. balaoc.'ed , . . .~m,J.ry .•~t; ill ~rOumled c~ t ..... ..' vo Itag,[l_Sacross the two' h,l\.!ves a,reV ' - .,' .. '. r.:n'er tap and the
>

b.edower dra:wJng of Fh:: 3-35 show' he - . ,- 'I tHl'Ip,1ifkr 'carl be "d' _.-' r ,!>O:w <I s.mgle-'ended (or tmbalanee:d.)

'fir'

,-'~·.~·II

'.......... ""1

rt'", -

~.21"

Examp]e
RC1

Rq = ltol H, N~ =-5'00.0.;, then from Eq. 3·17" V,.- = 4.6 mY:, If,howc'veT R.u and Ruwere. 100 kfi instead of 10 kH1 theh V."' = 0.:5;mY. This .represen ts an almest 20 dB decrease in the input noise voltage.

= Rc

3..2..

= 1 ni. and Ru "" Rl..l

in

Fig,

3,·36, Vr:;= lOOmV,

= I.o k.n,.

(assl,.lmin&. Oil L . turns. ,., u, ", J ." ,equa .'. I t;i.lld V V2, A 1.f:J..ie'r -. nda. ry.' V{~lt<l."a.e J ,< ".,,'t;,.)'.' ,-," 'I' . e [0 ~., - scr;er. !:> cq ~a~, to the gai n times t:hJs voha: Crt; difrc~ . .2' .. mp~]h e,J: output ~g~ju is tlmphrrer oLltpuL _g renee, dupbc-atmg the balai-l,eed

From Ex.afu.ple 3·2 it is obvious th.u t increasing theinput mTp.,t:!daLloe; (R I.- i and F..£.2)J of the. diffe.rential amplifier decreases the noise voltage coupled 'into, l~e <tIIPp!ifier due to Vc' From Eq. 3-17 it can be seen tbar de;,cr~lsing "the' ::;buroe resistance R" also decreases the nois-e voUage coupled into the

'SHIeLD

GRQHIII'OING

AT HlGH fflEiCiU5NGIES

a,mpl~fier. Figure. 3~37 shows a· way tomodi.fy the dr,cu!ts 01' Fig. 3~35 to jin::lfea.;;ethe input impedance of the amplifier [0 the common-mode -voltage Vir wirboetincreasing (he .inpl.1ti.1l1pcdanoe t~] the signa] voltage '1._ l-his is done hy adding te$j1>tot' R into the ·gro.und Iead 'as shown, When using 11 ']igb·im.pedanoe Jifferefi~i<il· ampllfies, both the input r;al~k shield <lnJ the E(ciutce common should be .grounded at the source as was shown in: Fig.

3f2.1B-

S!H~EILD'G:ROUND'ING .AT tUGH IFREQUE.NCIES J'H frequencies less <1I1:1nMHL,. shields should normally he grounded. at one I ,!lind only. 'Otherwise, as previously explained, large power-frequency curfj}iliS ~~t'iin flaw lin the shield and 'introduce noise' iurn' the si.gna I circui L 'nne ~-ingk~poi[J'~round also eliminates theshield ground loop and its associated g
magnetic pickup. At frequencies above 11\;'11120r where cable' length exceeds one-twentieth o o.nl wavelength ~t is often necessary [0, ground a shield at more til an one :~Q~IIilto "gnavanlee that it remains II! .gwHnd potential, Another problem iJeyelDps at high fn .equencies; stray capacitive coupling rends to complete the t£;~;ound loop, as shown in Fig. 3-3ll. This makes it difficult. 01: impossible u.. :r jll~itita1n isnlation at the ungrounded end .of the shield. -lt is therefore oom m.. n practice al, high freq uenc les, and wit h di gital o ·,ti"i·,cuits,. ground c~lbl!: shi.elds ill both emit. The noise voltage due to a. to ~.iffeFe,n:ccin ground potential that couples into the dr<Ctl.it (prima!'ily ,It

power fi"e.qu~I!I'(;ir:..i> and its harmonics) .'can. usually be' filtered out. bc.cau.<re there is a tarle frequency difticmn'ce betwcett jhe m)lse arid (h;,; signal £req)uency_.At frequencies abevel MHz the ~ldn effect reduces the ~nupling due to signaland noise .curcnt I'Ip~'i.l]g'()nthe shield, Th~s skin effect causes tIlC noise current to How on the outside surface of the shie~~l and. the sign.al. cmrent ro How on tile inside surface O.E the shield. Tl:le rnuhiple ,g;r011Jidalso. ~;T!:ivi;de:s degree of m<lgm;.llC sbLelJi1il<g at highe~ (Tcq~ncieswhell a coaxial Gable is U81:d.' •

104

106

107

Tbe characteristics pf the chcuh shown ,in ,Fig_ J-38 ean he put ttl' ad\\~m~ge hy replaCing the 8tmy cnpacltancewiah anaetual capacitor. '~hU's f()imh~:g a combination 01: hy.brid ground. At ]owhequenc1cs, a ,sIligle-poinl ground C:.x'i~1ts.~sii:lcethe impedance, of tim aap,aciltlf 'Is largevHowevcr, m higb, frequencies tile capacitor becomes a low impcdance , tl:H.u~, ,convening the circuit tt}, Qntf h;,lVi,og a Imdtaplc ground. Such a groaed configuration is often "Useful fOT circuits tn~;,lt must operate over a very wide fr.erqueDcYrtmg,e,
1IMPUFIEiR' C01\nliofil

GUARDI SHI'EL:DS
'Noise reduction greater than that obtainable with a ,dIffer'Cntial a.nplj~]er can he obtained by using an 'amplifier with a guard shield, A'inar.d ~bield h:: placed around the amplifier and h eld at a: potential which prevents earrcm flow in the unbalanced source impedance, The: effect-of a guard shield cal] best beexplained by considering an examplein which ,'I guard shiuldis used to cancel the effec,~ of a di.ffereriH,;e in. ground potential.

, '~_

SlUE LO UiELD

A.'I

p,on.NTtAL OF P{llN" A

~
FigmeJ.4t!.. Guard ~J'Iidd ;iI' pmcnHrl1

oJ prJ!1ll

... eiimiIlfIJi!:snO'Ist! cIITrcnh. 1

Figure 3:·-39 showsan ampJilier connected by a shielded twisted pair to ~

grounded source. VGi~s ,J. tonlmOll·m()d~ vol:tage due [0 !l difference in ground potentials, lit and R" are [he differenflal sign'll voltage ,anu SOUrDC resistance, resp(:etjve~y, Rm D,Sthe input impedance 1lO [he: ,:~rnp]ffiel'.-Cl(; and C~G an: stray capacitances between the amplifier input terminals and ground, ]rlcJudll:lg the cable C'i:lpacinncc_Tbe:re are two undesirable currents flowingusa result of voltage ""e;- Current I, flows .through resistors R" and R:., and capacitance Cw- Current 12 !lows through resistor R I and C2:.G- If each cerreut docs not flow thro,ugh the 'Sa.TiI1'~ total iHtpc.d.liI:nc€: Eherc~v m be.a ~ differential input V(',lt:~ge tCl. the amplifier. lf', however, .a guard shield is

.
r-----~-~~-':l~\-~--_--~'
'I

SHl~LO~D '.

J'

[ r-'--i"
I ~CIG

,.-----

--

!I

~v
I

R.,~

f,;

----

... ~\r

l.__ - --- .,'

~,1'

I
a,
~'j!,lUI:'~

341.

'-;"",,,<_" • '.,';~ld, _I.~runl'l~t(,'ted ,10 r}.ui~I',f ,A di1'mj:gl:i the (.Ilbk


L:I'~ "." ~,,,". , ,.

:sf1Jdd-

1011

' GFIOUNOUNG

GUA:RD, SHllELOs,

Notice thet the a·l"npLifitel' nd shield co.nneclions of Fig .. 3·41 do not a viql;:l!te any or ~h¢ pn:;viousJy describodrules. Thecable shield is grounded at .only one point [priint Th,e input cable shit:ldis connected to lht.: urnplifier common. The shield
amplifier corarmm terminal.

Al

around

the <J"lUpliller

ls also connected

lO

(he

In the guarded amplifier Ijf Fig, 3-4], any RfO\U1d point at potential IJ inside the amplifier guard .sh.ildd increases the.capacitance fmm 111.1:nput i leads to ground (u.i;'Iglmn)ed capacitance], "therefore. tor the scheme to work, il m:.f;;.am amplifier mu-st be powered by self-contained batteries, or the else power milS,1 be brought in through aaelecrrostatically sflid.ded transformer, No. point of l he guard shield tan COBle in cnmact wi iIi greu nd R
without nullifymg it!". effec.tiveness. A practical circun.therciore has a second shield placed arcuad the guard shield ~d guarantee: the guard's .integrity, as shown in Fig. 3-42. This second or external shield is grounded to the local gHl1,.l11l point B, and satisfies the .~af;~yr~(1 uirernents. d, ~

-,--,,.,j\JI!l:_"v.~"'~ti---·-'-

L'l2·=oa

,_;;&.--~

l
, Flg\lIn: 3 ~ ·'·'rl'·,'''r;,·"l extlm",. 1e a., 'C·",·

. A gl.l.afd'~h~cklis usually onlyrequired when extremelylow-level sig:n.ah are bei ng measured ~ or when very large common-mode voltages an; presc nt and ali other noise reduction techniques have also .been applied to reduce the rro!s~pi~~kup to all abso ~ilte min imum. A. guard sh~e rn J ybe LLS(:(l I.d l~:rm:md a ~1ngle.,crilti.cd amplifter a:'>'well. as a diffcrcnti.,~l arnpflficr. Exa>mp~e 3·3. Considera numerical example .. as illustrated in Fig, J·4~, where. /? = R., = n, R:.= ],·6 kf!., Cn-G = C~f';= lon pF, and 11(; = .Loo mV l~L 6.0Hz. The reactance of W(JpF is :2ii Mn at 60 Hz. The differeruial Input
I

1_.J..

II)

.,[. I' ~.,~ .. " r, lL~,f... c l!f.'ed.. jior

b.

~ucm[shidri: .

noise voltage across rheampli be wFilwn as

r1 er input

Eerm;i.im"IJ.£::; 'without

u guard shleld '..

tH

.- R-, ... ), VC?


~2

.. .. ~cal values mto EC!., "1· p the : nutnoise .s-us, me Hlp .. . ...... Lr -t.h.. u: '0f 'i'e grl.l." rd '~~·Ie.]d . 10' V e use • ~ ,. '" ,,,,,ullage withe ut the guan srues ~s .,·tL. ' . - ., ,' ": sh . .',. F:' r 3-44 the . ·1". .". ., ... :~,:nee tool (mmd to 2. pF, <l-S s. }Own to 19.. .• reduces,. each :ule S .~,ll!paeh,<l!, "' .. -. . ,.. rplifier ·mpu l tenmn ·o IS '''·l'''~' h,<> . .• r ~. .. .. . .. th .. . •.... '. ..i::I:ifreif:ntia1il'lput HOI'Se \'o~t~g~ ,;1C.l:(j,~S .:I~ .... ; , E' 3~18 but the. input ..•. ...IJ:..'·.ld ill . lace c:~n shU he wnlte:ij as Su10V.n.11l 4· .• .. .:_ ·.;gu.l.rlj.S·ul!,;: . ._' . ..... , p.~ ·1 ced to O.2 j.L V·· . ':! ~ dB .. ;·· provc:ment. The 2.-p.F J J''+ ' ·..oise vnlta-.le I:> now. rec ~.II.L::· I h.•. f' ct t'lnt t1 . '.. . d'. ..I,e] •., "l'~ I,' . .. . "" , ,. ·le·_gldars· ·.h'.· .lld·· ~.,. not ncrfect. ,. ,e3!pauQl<lnce· to gr(l'I,U~d ~I::; ue to, t. e . a d ' __ ., - " '.' d and (he ilonlfle , ce to ~r~un .: .'"' ' edecl ihf;;TCwould be no capacl.tan .. .. If. ]t were ..p I :,'... ... H should be noted that the nm~.t: voltage .cOUipled ltaze '''Oll. ,.. l)e 'lccr.o,. ..]1, "i'! , . . . .,.. . . hl ." . - .... . .. ~ \'0 .. ",'"' .. . .. of the noise source IS ln~"I",eJse'l.I, 'fl· '. as w·· . II, ...er 1[1 creases .. .: .. dle Cb,c(luellcv. IIl.,,'lO the a:m.p.' '.;~ ~ •..,'~ce ,.~ the . f'rcClmmcvis inc[e:a~ed,

.. . ~'71ectrvdv ·r""'"
1'-

.•

SU.bs.htU.tn1g

,....

...,

OW. nc i l.·ne.·Id·.

.,,101

".I·¥

.'Lh , .....

I'

'II"

I Z~G"

• _,I since 'the ~ m'pe~,ance

ro·

L).

f C. I c; an ..l· .,

..:I ..

2:G

l.Iec:r·t:"""

u., .

'1

::::h_,_..- - _._-'"
NO· ~LEn;;;1 GAL
~(lNI\IECT!ON BlOn~EE~j'5HIEU!S

GUARDED METERS Even for those who do L10t ]nte.~d tq Gi;sI.gn ,cqu,irment using a gtlar.d shi:e'ld_ there Is.srill a good reason tonnderstaad tho ope:mting priudpJes_ Mally m::.,~ me asuring Instruments are being rnanufacnrred w'ith a guard shidd (see Pi£':

r--·.-·~--I

GiUAF\[)W

METER

~~~

I'i,(;l

HjG;HI

"

I ;1

3-45).. It is up to the user ro d~~il.nect ~11,e. guard sbiel d to the PFQPr;,r place j;~ the 'circuit being measured, When .~user does not understand the purpose of ~1guard shield, he' ~r sheis likeJy tolea ve It open Or conncet it to the meter ground; neither of-these cl:mnectLO]l!t)produces optimum results. To lake; maximum advantage of the guard. shield, the. following rule 'shol,lld . be foUowcd: The gUilrd' ~hield should abvil)ls be connected. such rita! no. common-mode current Canftow through any of the inpat resis.rcuu:r::s. TI][~ 11Om1<l1~y means connecting the. guard to the low-impedance terminal of the. source, Ex.unp:le 34. Refer to Fig. 3-45 ...The: problem is torneasarc the vnit,age across resistor R.<; neither end ..of which is grounded, w.ith11 guarded dlgi~al voltmeter.\l{hat is the best connectiou for the guard shield? Five possible w.a.ys to connect the. gnard shield are shown in Flgs. 3A6 through 3-50_ Voltage \lG is the gl'.olIJ[ld dif{clIe:ntia.1 voltage, and VN is thebattery uoise

loWI

01 I
. GAOON.D

I I
I

L_~·

.1--

C;U.!J,ROED MHEH

-'-'-"-1

I I

I
~.
,d'

I
GUARD ~

I
~FlOI!JND·1

L:._~

'SOLlFICE

G!'1;OLJND ¥'igilln: 3-i15. Wh.~1.l.a· .gUt/"ded ""Wi·!:'.!' is .r~.n.nifwf.

.1Sed.

(.I

,cammO/i;

ljmb/em

,is 'where to

C{f1UU:C.s

.rJi~ gIi:ilt4

.PFI_Ool.EClION":G",IN!;TVG

mill.
g,[!'e:J na .p,roII!Cl.iOfj, agilitlS.'·

'~i~~

347. Guard

'COlJll!ecl.ea

tel

sousce wound

V~-

113

I~-'~--I:
HIGH

GUARD EID Me:f.EA

I I

I
\

i
I I

_.

._~_~-J
GU AAD N

or ,CON N EeTIE!)
,ft.,:P.

'l~iUI,tC3.50~ (i~tanl'rJ'ull'Ollnff-t,p.,ii;,nm'.\'e't·~lrrerlts ~i!

M 1,\ «ll!t',V",}f()w IJrruugi: fI.,,_,. R.l-1- Z,'

z~,
NC.l" R~2",and

_y,\, flows !lllWtltJ;Plmp,edanttS


riU ,tlln,\!':
HOXSie C_1UU:[jt W'

be 0011 pled in to rhe amplIfier. 'fhe co[medl'ons. of Figs .. 3-4::1:,3-49, and. 3-50
fl.o\" through
the meter input

Z. ,1ndeaose,s a noise vottage'.lt)


circuit

<'!.uJ arc

ihei'retor~ Ullqesl-r:ahlr:-

FI~

~----~·~,~--~~ry---~I/

SU'MM1ARY
• At Iow freqtl~l1d~s s;ingk-'Point ,grl,lUlld system shouid a • At high ft'\equf(![Jcics and in digital ;,hHU.ld be, used. be used.
gWil,lTid

~;jrCU!.iuy a m~llip.o'int

system Lc

• A low-freqnen(Cy svstem should have 3. luinirrunn of thrt:e sep.<rra ground rd.i!1rm;, Tnr:~c .shOuld he: Sigt1J] ground Npi,l-OYground

Hardware ground • The basic obje.ctives of a good ground systern are to .1)r1inimize the noise v~~nag,efrom two ,ground currents Ho\\dng through a 00 mIII on impedance,

112

115
114
81BUOG,taAI?IHY

• FOil 'the case of <it grounded in-PlO ,cabl,e shield should

ampjifier with ao. un,ground ed Source, the be connected to the am:plifitF 'co-mmofl

tennlnal.
., For the case of agrounded source wit:b an ungrounded ampli.ficr. the inpul cable shield sl'lOuld be connected 1I) the source common tenninal.

, ,_., , . e Io C' :>ulT{l:tii,f1,g liaclill.h=d Embs:iml due til N k' chi E. 81m] Bfa. sher', L. ,"1 ec.h,"UCI,.ue Dr "(.' '., ' . .' " ." I IiEE '1':.1ecaeil.'U .. " ';~~ "0 J,,, . ~,~ in. Eie.otr,mic 'Da.'ta. Pmcesslilg. Syskm~. '''''O''I~'' ' ., -' ~ , ,01\1 mOII,-"'"Ov,,. . . . . " . tic C':omp' ,(libil Lt¥ SvrnpOS!.TJ111, 19.82.. ,,' tromagne le " .. . .. '. " ". " SA j /'V I 17 ' . tiou (If Noise in Low lL.evel Cllil)llltS. J~ ourna. ,(I" -, Ni:dk, 0.." EI rmHl:l I ' ".. ., . ms allv (This C(h..tC l~ norm., J !-ci:;::;ud] every three ,-'.e..', .} • . • ~. . . '". T'7~' " . "'. ' ", PI,;" Corre.[lt 80w." lEEE b\\'~C Symp!)smJ11. 1:0>, Ott H. W. '(:,],(lImd-i\ , all Wr.. . ' " ,. , ," '.. :'. ",' h P 'f " a ace OplOCOi!lP lCI Ci ~curt5,," hue:rnllUU([l,a ~ Sol~d-S tate 'lilVaabc~l,~. Big ,er m~ '.11.... 'I> 'F 'b ua rv' ]9"75 t;' C(lTIfCIlJ: nee. Philflde~ Fu.la ,dl.• eor U." J ". .... ,.",.,,,I,r,cm,sR'· '.3 ', ..""'" , ' . '''''I~''I'rl"·'·'ilrf;ere'nQf I'lfld Ccmw,atil,ility, Yol. :'.'(E, Ml Con~ml \VhI'EC D, ..'. DI,p.l1 Or1il+,f',I l~:Irll. , '.',' . .l T.:~ "" G Me.'£huCi;;11'11... ccI11mqu ) ""'''11 n.fl1dte: O.msul.t:ln~~" ~"m antown, tvH"., .! s • . "'vl,. n p.
'.' ." • ..:1'

• A shieldareund
ampl ifi.:;:r :cornmOl1"

.a h~gh-gain

arnpUfiet

should be connected tOl!:u:;


ell cis,

:,o!J."llguJ;L 1965. Nftuwmd F;leune.a


. , ". ",' .. ..,

/'

j"'

",,0

. . .' dt: N stional Fi re Pwtet:uon


{!, '. '

As:;:O'~>'l.IOT1"
. .'

'.'

,JDosteln,.

Tn'"

M'~'

<L$"

r9Wl
. .

-c.,

,I.

• When a signal dreui t is grounded is susceptible to noise from:


,Magnetic fie Ids'

at both

the grnu.nidloop[orrncd

c .:

,~,J, ...

~)'.

' ...

Diff ercntial grouudvo 1 tages • Methods, ,!.f brea Common-mode

king, ground loops are:


,cl:l!o~e

Isolatioli1 transformer

Optical couplers
DiffeFeF.ltillLrampl~fi,r:rs

Guarded

<l!nlplifiers,
sigpal, 'cab),es are usually grenndcd .

• At high frequencies, shie]ds around at more than one point.

B,IBUOGRAPHY
Ad]', R_ "App!yiJ;lgOpffl,-[so~alur:s," Electronic Produa»; June 17", 1914, Bell Laboratorles. [':hys.ical tJ(~sigfl- of Electron«: Systern<;. Vol. 1, Chapter (Elcetrieal lnterference)
]>.i'efit roc- H;aU, Eoglewo()d

Cli:ffs. N.J"

191ft

Hraw(I, H. ·'JJ(.m'l Leave System 1972.

Grml.m:Hn,g to Chance,"

EDN,I£EE, Ja~W.lrr 15,

Kucttman, A. S, ."Noi~e Co tUFol. in 'Low Level Data Syste.·lil~",.. Elettro71Je,dumlca{ Peslgn. Septerabe r t%2, . . O.shmall, ft.. H .. "Designer's Guide to Opti~al.~ouplers." ED'N, Jllly 20, 1973, Denny, H... W. "Ground;i~g lor the C.oiluol of E~L" Don White Censukants. Germaetown, Md", 1983" Fk,chi" R" O. 1::./~ctriml Interference. Haj'denBook c«, New' York, 1:964. 'Ficchi R. O. Praaical Desigr: For. Erectmmagll€lic: Cml1p.tdibility. Hayden Book Co., New. York. 1971. Frederick Research Corp, Handbook (J,n Radio Frrquinr::y lntf::'ference~ V9t :3
(Metl:iodis Hewlett-Packard, of Electrnrnagnetie IlIferkr,cflDe Suprcsslon). Flic'lllcrkk Researelr 123.

Corp,., Whca!hm, Md." 119'62.

rsm,

FloJSiti~ M6l1s'u:remerr.(.:,:

and GrifJJuuling.. Appi~~catioU'nn,Dte 1:"idl'niq,~e,~ lrl;'StruJ1;!l!nt.t1tion" i~

~b)1rriHJ'[I".R. Gror,imling ,t:i¢d Smeidi'ng York;11J17.

Wiley., New

SOURCE
II

! .",.._....L._-.,.....

LOA!)

BAL,A,NICINGi AND 'FI,L'T'ERING:


VNi

A h<llanccd circuit is a two-conductor circuit in which borh conductors and


all circuits' connected to them have the, same impedance with respect to ground and to all other conductors. The pmpose of balancingIs to. make: lb~ noise pickup equal in both conductoes. in which C:i~C il will be ra .collim(il1-

mode !'iigmll whichcan be made ~o cancel out in the 1113id_ Balancing is' an often overlooked=-though in many ca15ts cost-effective=aolse rCc!Hctfnfl technique. which may be used rn conjunction with shielding when noise must ln; reduced below the le vel obtainable with shle rdi ng alon e. In (1'1.1 d ili,{ III it is used, In some app~iCi1tions. 1]1place of shielding as the primary no.i1;b:" reduction te chnlq ne, The Lise of a Jifi'crCl1li,jl amplifier, as previously shown .in r~g_ 3·35, W3.~ the first step toward a balanced system .. The amplifier provided at halanced load, hut the source wasstill unbalanced dHC. to theresistance. R., Balaneins the source with respect to ground completely balances thcflystC~, a::;show~ in Fig. 4·1. [II the general case two common-mode noisevoltages ~"'I and VN? arc sbownjn series with UH~; onductors These noise voltages produce c noise currents' INr and !N~.- The soureesV; and V,) together prnduci,: thl: s.. g,1tl:i.1curn;nl l: The total. voltage VLch1',-?ek)'r("u ~~nlSS thee' iQad Is equal ro E
the iollowlng: .

VN2.

l~------

r-----~--,
I
I

The first two terms represent noise voltages. and the third term represents the desired signal voltage. If l,~.]is CqtH11 t()·l'\'l and R I isequal to NUl the noise volt;igc MCroSS the load is' equalto zero. Fquatioo·-I-l then r,edu~es to

(4-1}
rcp[eS1l::nt~ a voltage due only to. h"lC ~~gIml current (, Inthe balanced circuit shuwn in Fig, 4"2, V~ and ~12 represent indl1cti\"~pi,clru]J voltages, and current generators, 11 and l~ represent noise that ~:; capacitively conpledinro the circuit lhmngh C:'I and C L'. The differ~~ilcc in ground potential, hetwccn source 'and load is represented by Fe<'The noise voltage pwduced between load termjnals 1 and 2;, due to cap ... .... couJ.di..i e piing, can be determined by referring hi Fig. 4-3. Impedances R, and R:

I
II

L._._.
lOAD
.

which

F!&u~~ 4-2:_ A ba1,m ..eJ drcuit" ,:diu;w.ing in,dudive mid c.QPI!l~'f~lve f.lofse v.oltrrges i;r¥ro a ·d;ff~r.~r1c~ ;/~',g,romui poti!.1lliaI b.et~liee,tJsource (Inti rom}_

116

117'

'ns

119

2'}
i

ElAilANCED IP.AIF!

,
J
COAXIAL

r ~

I
CABLES

"

\ !
'f

tr should

be noticed

in Fi'g.. 4-2 that the difference

LI1 ground
lit terminals

potcnti,Gl:I

represent the total resistance to ground from conduttors 1 and 2, respectively. For c,apaddve cmJ:pUi1rg the noise vo Itage, inducedinto lhc. voltage V-,)~, Eq. 2~2) ( conductor l due to

(4-3 )

1 and 2 ctl the load. Thc.~'C\foh;;:tges cancel, produci ng no new n o.isr.:vol rage across load, The degree otbalance, or common-mode rejection ratio (cM'RR). is el'hled a", the Tati() of the. common-mode (OJ' ~oD~gitudin:.110101S.e 'Voltage to' 1 f1i,e differential (or metallic) noise v(_,~t,~g.e produced by it. H is· .1;I~1;I~~ny ~~rrctisr;d in decibels (dB) ..* This. conversion from common-mode to differential \i'oll;.fgc results from the unbalances present ill the system. Refer-ring to Fig .. 4-5, the balance (or CM.RRI of thecircuit (ill dB:) i:;;,

~~G) bctwe~;n source and load protieces equal voU",ges.

t~e

The noise voltage lnduoedin toconductor 2 due to voltage V) r,s


{4.4:~ If the circuit isbalanced, resistance R, allitRz are equaL If conductcrsI and 2 ale <i twisted. pair, capacitance (3fslliou]d nearly eq ual C.~2,' Under these oondilioJ'i:l. V~'[ approximately equals V~2.and, tJ;]c .cap'lc,itiv,e]y ooup]e~ noise vbU,<lges cancel 'at the load, A ty,;ri:ste.~ pair lean therefore provide protecnon again st capacitive coupling i:f the elrcuh is bal anced. Since a twisted pair can 'also protect ~.gaJ]nst magnetic fields, a balanced cii!'t~uit using a twisted pair 'eanprotect against both magneticand electric fields without a shield over theccnductcrs. Shields are snll desiraole, however, SInce it is. di:fficl,lU to obtain perfect balance, and hence additional protection may be required. Twisted pain; or shielded twisted palrs are usu.aUy use-d ~1Sthe conductors in a balanced circuit, since a 'twisted parris IIl:IJer,ently a balanced eonligeration .. A coaxiaf cable, 011 the other hand,i::l inherently an unbalanced eonfigeratien, If coaxial. cable is· ro be used in <J.. balanced system > two cablos shoul.d be used, as shown in. Fig. 4-4. . Balance If the source resistances,
= 20

log ~~:.

(V)

dB'.

.¢uinrnOl1.-m.o(!c of' V;v. TheIl,

V()~tilgC

:lie equals
Balance

R~ are small compared tq.'_.tht: load R t.» then the V,...., ,m:cl VC C<lJI be: used in Eq. 4-6 in place ·

2q log

vC: (V) .
M

dR.

(4-6)

the source-and 'load in Fig. 4-5 are physically separated by an appreciable listancc, the balance deftncd jn Eq, 4..6 ;1; norrnaJiy used bCC:lU5l:' both measurements can be made at the same' end of the cireuit, [he bette. the balaliil~, tht: greater is lhe nOThc reductien obtainabh;:. U' 'the balance could be made perfect, no noise C01lll1d 'enter the system,

If

1.20

121

1
1
dB 'Of b.al'l'In~c is r.easona1j;lIleto expect [rum a ~ell-des]gned circuit. Balance bet In than this range is, possi nk:. but special cables: arc usually required .and Individu<l] circuit trimming may be necessary.
TypieaHy'()n-~o Sys~cm .ll21~rl:pe is dependent nil source balance, ::;i~'liIa] ~<i;d ~ balance,
and

Knowing tile balance provided by the individual components" thai make up a .systern docs not .allow prediction of overall system. balance when the components <LF·e combined, For ·exampk. the unbalances in tWO of the ~coUlponentsmay complement each other such that the combined balance is j.!,re:alc"r than that of either of the ii~div.id'llal cornpcneuts. 0111the other hand. the: components may he such tn-at the: combined balancc js Ic~s than that of ~t~hc.;;rof the individual components,.

. .~h~ew~lY to guarantee good overall system balance is :1:0 specify the l!':i!:laru;ce. each cemponent considcrabl y high~li ~ (or han the desired system jl;);1;ll:,t:riH::~. methrnl, however, ma,," not pn'H:.Iut:c the most eecn cmical This ;resign. In .Hl Nheliwist unbalanced system, thee transmission line portion of the circuit can. be balanced by using hvo- transformers, as shown in Fig, 4~6.

load balance •. as well ll;S the balance ·o.fauystray or parasitic impedances. Bot 1:1 resist ivc :ot"ll!d reactive. balances m u.~l he 0 btained be tween l h e lWQ iit1ml conductors. Therefore the resistances an1'1reactances clcach conductor to ground must 'be equal. The magnitude. of any noise coupled into a b:alancctJ circuit is i~ function of the degree (If unbalance and is directly 'pFOpnrtioual to the cnmmon-mode noise. voltage. Balance is never perfect, find some
noise voltage {XHlples int,o .the circuit whenever commca-mode noise vol-

tages <rre~lmsenL The ,wmmfH'!.nlode, nolse voltage can he decreased by propee sbielding ;mru g.rtn.l.nding, as discussedin lhe previous chapters, and by elimina ting~h(: ground. at one 'end of the d rcuit.
A circu it is btl i]t with 60 dB of bBlhU:i r;c_ The cables are nOI shlelded, and each cable pi.ck~up.:1 common-mode voltage of ap]Jrux.~·ms:tel)'300 mV due. to clcetrjc field coupling. The noise eouplcd into the load is NJ dB below this or 300 .,.~V: f a groundtd shi.eld is dOW placed around the I conductors, the eommon-mode pick up. voltage is reduced to B mY. The nors-ecoupled 'into theamplifier is 60 dB hdqw that, or 13 11."l. Th~.sexample shows that the.effeets uf ~hicldi'bg and bslancing. are <wdit.ivi.:l- Tilee shicldinj, l~~U"1be used to reduce the amount of Cil.ltHmufI<mndc voltage coupled into die conductors and balancing reduces that portion of the eommon-modc Y;D.~t;lgt.whiehis coupled Into the load. Ex;..mple 4-1.
<'-:jl~:llt hal ancc abo depends 011 fht operating freq ucncy, Ncrmally, the i higher the frequ ency, tile harder .il.. lis to obtain good balance ,lbelC'<luse str a}' C'8p:luilanct: has more effect on circuit i:J,iian:cc at higJ't rn::qucrfc~'.

1I NEl ....lA NCEO SYST8M

"'FI;, mI;·~s;I:ITiiig tile balance of ~n,jiv[(jual ~-:jI('!I[t;; or components, Stallilard 45.5·1976 :;hould he used, ..

the peoccdures .'

ot IEEE

122

~23

Sin~c the conductors areusually the most si.lsce.pt~hie to noise pickup, this ~¥s:L~m be very llis~IIJ]ltL reducing nuise. The transformers also brcal; any ground loops and therefore. eliminate the noise due to a diife.renCeill ground potential hch ...een the load 'and sonrce,

call

!f>ICK![JP :

Jjl5COUPLING C....

i'A.GITQR

LOAD

I'iL

s~31:cms the de power-supply und (lilst'rihmlot1 systems ..are, common to many other clrcuits, J tis very important therefore to design the d c' power system so that it hi' nota channel for noise coupf ng bet ween the circuits connected to it, Th c object of a rOWe,! distrib uticn system js .to supply ',1 nearlyconstant de voltage toall loads; under conditions of v<llfy~ng inad currents. In addidol1l ,s,ny <Ie :s.igna[s, generated "by the load should not gencT.ate anac vc)h~ge acrossthe de P?ViIe"r bu~. . lileaU), a power supply is 11 zero imp;:dancl!.source'. of voltag«.. Unforru. nately, practical supplies do not have ZCrO impedance, so they represent a :SOU['X of coupling bet wee n "the, eireuits using them. Not enly do: the supp Iics ha vc fi nlte impedance, but the eondnctera used to r;()'nll~<Ct them to- the drcuit ',l'~W to' this .irrrpe-danec, Figure 4-7 shows ajypieal power ·~.ish:-ihuti"l,Jfl SyStDIli1 as. 1 might (rp]1c.ar- on a schematic. t TIi~ de .souroe--<l bOlt~~ry,. power su-pply, or converter-c-is fused .and connected to the variable to-ad R,. by a pair cd' conductors, Alucal bypass CflpadUJ.r C may nlso. he connecte .. I·ac:n.]~~ ~ the load. For det~]lcd an a]ys.is the s~mplHlled circuit ,of Fig. 4-"" ill ustbe expanded intothe circuit of Fig, 4--8. Here, R; represents the source resistance the power' supply 'and isa function of the power-supply regulation, RCK~S.tOr- R, represents the resistance of the fuse. Components R T' L.T ·arid. Ct represcn t the d]slrih 11ed Ie:si~t;u]ct!"~Irdlu.:1arH.;e, IU,d, capeci tanee > respectively, of the t transmission line used to.connect the: power source tothe [o(li~I.Generator V..... 5 a lumped noise v(:i]tag~ representing noise coupliag jnto the wiring 1 from other circuits. I.he bypass capacitor C has resistance Rc and _illdudam;~ L" associated w-ith U.ReslstUir RL, represeats the load. . . Tile noise pickup .can be minimized by the techniques previously covered in Ch~iplen; 2 and 3, The c£fcc~ -Of the filter eepacitor is. discussed in I! ~ater section. When the filter capacitor and V, . are eliminated .' from Fig. ·iI-~, the circuit ~l.f Fig .. 4-9 remains. This circuit is used to detemeine the

In most electronic

II
'1
1

.or

[?,e.dQfrri!'lIlGt::of the power ,distrihlltioil system. The .. problem Ca[J be' simplitied. further by' dividing the ana~ysls tif Fig, 4_!9 into twtl. parts, RrSll ~et~rrnine the static or de performance of the system, and second, defermin.;:: the transient Qr noise 'penoi[ij],O'ince of thesystem, The static voltage drop is determiaed by the maximum load CUTICnt and ~he resistances R!i' .R.F' ar.~d R: r: The source resistance R~ ~iil rn be decreased by··impro~ing the regulation of the power supply. The resistance RT of the power dlstribution ]in~ is afanetion or~he·cros.s.:.sect.iomll area A and ~C:i'ig'l.h i of the coaductors ~lr!d the resistivity [p) of the conductor material,
{4-7)

v._~,

SOll:RCE II
II

. FU5·E

DIISIRiBUT!ON S.'I':~HEM

~--t--_"""""""_~_'"

~L.JL

'~24

The resi~ti.vjty p e.quals·L724 x 10 6 n~crn for OOppCL Tille mmlmum de. iO!,!d voltage. is

f"l\RALlH

WI~e;s
.Z'o
,;oil

I .•'¥r.;--... -r
.-

zn

,cush- '11

(. .-..
_'."

D.)

(4-8)
Transient noise voltages on the power distriblnion circuit are produced hv sudden changesin the current demand ofthe-load, If the current change, i~ assumed :tp be Instantaneous, the m,~gnit1ilde of the resulti[J:g voltage ci:Jangf¢ .&S ;[I tanction of tbt:' characteristic impedance C?'b) of the tmn:}m~,.,sioti line: (4-9) The -instamaneous vo'll;lge change .tl.VL the load will then be (4-10}
\'II HE aVE R G RQ!,)lND

Z:u-

ti:
60

com'
3

(.,;.)

d)'
~!1i

FOI'I 2h1d
.

.:>"
'.-

,I]l'-~'

Z-

in (o.)
,;~:

~Pi\.HlILLEL fLAT CONDuCT'Oiis

aCJD"8S

l-T

_1_

_I_L
h

T~''''--i

tJ.Vr• = tllLZu·

The "rJ:S8 umptlon .o;f an instarrtaneous change in current is rca listlc for {l,igind dtr'[,:iI,J:hs" butnet necessarily £0 fQ1'3ma~og circuits, Evenin the-case ofana~l)g circuits" however the GD aracteristic impedance ohhe de powet. di su:~bufioll
t

tnrrrsmisston line can be used <It; a figure of. m,erit for ·comparing the noise. performance ~(lfvarious power dlstribntioa s:yslems. For best noise performance, j'. power transmission line with as low J characteristic irnptJdat1ce as possible is desired ...-typic;aUy a few ohms or less, Equ<ltion4-9 shows thai the .line should therefore h~,ive high capadl~nce' andlow inductance, The,jrjductance can be reduced by using a. rectangular c.Io·s3~~e;c.tl,on~ll c<mductm; instead of a round conductor and by having two conductcrsas dose together aspossible.Both of these dforlls also increase the capacitance 01 the ~itllt. ,a;s'does iHS ulatlng the con ductors with a rna terial having, .'1. high dielectric Wi1~t;J:J1l. Figure 4~10 gives, the !{;h.'!vacteristic impr;dancenOF va rious conductor oonfigurarians, These equations can be used even if the. incqi1aHties: listed .in the figure' are not satisfied. Under these conditions , 'howe-vel; the ¢'jlKltiol1s give higher values ot~Q than the actual value since they neglect fringing. Values of thr: reiative dielectric constant (E,_) for

!'LA T GQ~l)lJ~TOH

S. SLOE. eV sillb~ FOR 1'1 >;;. '1, Z'" -

I~f-

_l-l

23Q

~r;:-'In

'." ·.. ,m .' w! )1

~~,

la;bl~.¢·jIR'E!Rat~\I',eDieile<wk= COnl&ta!l1ts ,of lIMrloufs


Mat'lIria~s

Air
Poljcthyicne :fo.am Cellular p,olyeihyleflJe

1.1),

1.6
2,.3 2.5

variousmaterials are listed in Table ·~1. The .optimum power distribution 11ncwou.ld be one with parallel flat ct.ll1l.dwc:tors, .as wiele as possible, pla~cecl one OR top o.f the other, and .as close together as pus-sib le. Toe demonstrate. the difilc1!lh.y· involved in providing power' dls~tiil;n~L]on 'systems w'ith \'e[y~.ow im pet)<moe,.il ishelpful 'to" ·w.o:,k sJo,llle.nu-IP ~d~<1.1
examples. Fir.st co nsider 'two round parallel wi res spaced l ..~ times the; r d~arneter apart wi t h Teflon dielectric. The eharacteris toe lmpedanceis <is follows: Z(l

].3

Tellon

Polyelllyl.e.tle.
PolyStyrene

2.1
3,(1

Nylon Sillcon rubbe f 'F'ol}'I.'in}'kh!orlde (PVC)

3.1 .
35 '3,6

E.poxy re.sil1

(2.l)ii2 cosh

-1'2.0

.'

-1 .(. -

1.::.)= 80

..

n.

Delrin Epoxy g!as~ Mylar Polyuretftane

3.7 4.1
.5.0 7.. 0 1125

1126

T (the did:octric had b.e~:nflj[. f~i;.imp'I:::.d8!iic.c' w€.l',Il1ej. be 1]5 i);. l'he8rGl ual lmpedanee it> t~d.wt;en these two. values ~'lnil:epart qf U~~:field is in T;eflon and part im. . air . A v:a'luc ·Of· LOOn is reasonable In lhi~e.a~". As "<;l 'Second el'{,impi"e, take two Hat .coaducrors O.O{i27·-iltl.llhi·ck. b:y,~'·cn5":in, wl(le, placed s]d~ br' side. dtr .",po lil¢d w~ri1?'lgbom.'.d made of~nepcrx:yrtt<3i-ll. I f: they BiFe spaced' e~o5-ill.·apart, tile ¢hmac,te.i:bit.]Cirnpi:':d.anec ;~ 61) ""

C).ufO

120

(U'lT =

In 0.0527

]]3

p.

t,

For an .8!~r dlelecrric the impedanoe

somewhere between

theii<l.t two"

wouldbeB'l H. The-actual impedance is values, 'since OI13J:[JII'~r!lcdw;l[irlgboard, pan

of the·fie.lJ i~(inalv 'at!d pBJr[.is in epoxy .. Both txf the' pre;ctcHng e:N:ilmp.l.esare common cd~figI]I3rn.o[lS, .and ne:"ilt hex one produceda 'leiy ]ow, imped·<lr.lI:e~t[,msm~ssion Fine. If, however, ~~wp fla1 :Cijudut:to[s' 0 :;l~~in. wide are' plu'ced one On l~)p of ~he ·6~l1cr.and $~Pllrare d by ;;t. thin ((UJQ5" i"Il.) Sh!Dt~of .Myl(3,r,. the dj:!mcH~.r~:Slj.~i.m:p.edance: is .

Such <Ii configuf,[lIti0nm:<lIkC8a good 1ow.;i,m.pedanoc. de power disuibutifJ<il line, .Commerelal bus 'bars of this, ~'ype ,areil.v<lflabk· for use wiflh integrated ci[.cll~ts, onp:r.infte d circuit boards, as sJI.own in Fig ,. 4"J] " The, diJll~L!lit}' of o'~naining ',1 l:vans.missknt Ilf!¢ wi;~h '",uffkierl!t~1' low jmpedianqe 11sually makes .it.neGes~aI'Y to placea-decoupling capacitoraeross the power b~s at' f.i1!e ~dad p])o'ld-tte 0119'W'im.pedance. AUhciugh this is ';l gOJ)drmC11:ic.~, .~ c:apacJror wUlnql .m·aintJ:lin ':1. f.aw ]mrcd~n~ at ~~~ 1'1:9"qp,.tem.~i)es because of its seriesinduetanee ..U' fhe trall~~.u]s;siQH 'line ~s desi.g;[Ied

to

pr()PQdy, hOw6ye:r, ilm<lint~lin~·;1 tow jvnpr~da;nc~ even ·.~t.iig,h fteqa:encid. t For' more in{prma:llor! On QiecoQpii:og d~gi.tal logIC crrcui,t:3 see Chapter 10..
f

Since the powet8upply .and its distrib~ti(m system .tre not mh ide.1~1voRag'l! 'sQum;l",i[ is til ~ood praerice re proviae some d.COOl,1pHng. at each circuit or groupo! eircuits to minimize noise ~oup]]ng through the supply system .. 'This" is especial ~Y'important when d:lIc powe:r supp:l Y8irrd. i~s,di.~tri l;Jution sysrem .u:t! Jilot under the cQntrlOl of'the.designer 6f-th,::powe:r~confo'um11)g, circuit, Res:ighu:~·c<lpad:to.r'and ·im:luctor-cap:adttrr decDup1ing netwOl'ks. can . tic. used W· ~~olate. cilL"Cl:l]!,S 'from .the PQw¢r~'[lpply, 1.0. elim~nate ~urling .het::-ve!l(m"cIJI,Cl,litS,:~P1J ro keep pawe"[,~.slipply noise from e~ten~g. :th,e circuit, N·egl~etfn:g "the dashed c~lpacit.or] Fig;. 4-12. S!:1lDW$ ~¥;(I"~u.ch arrangements, Wheen the R-C fitter of Hg~.4~12A is used, the "'VDltage drop lin t"fie.IeSls;t:or

F'©WS:1'1
SClURICE -

....... """'""-

....... _.1I!.

~II.,.
___Jj_

,'_---"I

-L...

..,r'T ...·

_L

ID

"E'.

d
i=
<[

GJfoCUH

[1;'

to

CIRCUlIT "1

I----+----+~+-+.....:___+'-+
R~$qiN!<~T ,FREQUEf'!ICY

»
o
~, .~0 .::;..

F~--+---+-+--+--+---r-t-H---""'""i~~.Ii<::""+--+--+-+-~j.-I

SOUROE

P{}WER

-.....jji--...,.--"''0''''"''-_L_
___l_

_.L
~C·

..~ -"""I l·...

.I_

0.2'

<Q.3'

.:0.4

OiS

n6

O~81.b..

2;3

8:1;o!

~T~

__l_

-r-.:,

OPI~I'IA,!~G

FRr:mLl~NG'J;' TO Re;SONAN:f FiRElQ'L:J'eNC·'JI

R;ATIQ. Iffr

,r:!F;GUIi

' II

C!iOOUIT

II

l<:i!gllln4~1:l:. ·Citi:W.1 decoup1iIJ£, with (A} ~'fi.~/'~i1~t".C:uplki~a.i1lC,~' al'ld d~:ct!J~lpli1rg rlier~ro.rh

~.B1'iI,n:tf<'r.I;:rfwe-r.<lPQr.l~W1C~

,c~u_"e~a: decrease in PQweNU,(Jrply. volt:igc, This drop ...I!lSLlaUy limits; the .amcunt OR fi!te.n]'lg. 'P\]-$s~ble with this oonfigllta!io'[l. The L,.c fi~t,.(;)r f Fig. 4-12B prQvides .mqre firUeT.i,nFg---e;spec.i<l]~Y high o at freq nendes--f:Q! the same Joss 'in pqw~HuiPp]yy(}'tag~,. 'ThG L- C fu.ile.r, however, h<l's.a reasonance freqaeney, (4-H)
at which thfii, 's~gll8ilImn'sm.ined. 1ihwugfu the filter may he. gfcaler thall lE no ft'lte.r was used. Caremast be: -ecX.eTci~scd see that this resonant .freque:Il'cy is ~o wen bel0"", t~d passbaodof the circuit connected to the filter. The .amoum of ga.in in an L-C filte·r at I:esoinance ·is in'iie·ns;el.yptJ)portional to tbe d<"impirtg.

of Hue inductor. The respenseof an L-.CfiJh:en]eil,r resonance is sfuownin. Fig. 4"'13. In order to: Hmi~theg'li.wat resonance ttl less, than 2dHj~l1c, dampilllg faet.nrmust ·be greater than fL.). Additintla~ If'ii~si:M8!nbe he added ..in series with lhe inductor, if required, to increase £:an the. damp.ing, Theinductor used musJ abo be $:ble Ivpas8 the direct current rfU]uJre(J by the:f;lin;;:~!t whhqll.l!l sal.t1.ra.tin'g. A .second cap8!(:utor !>ud'l_. 3S. those ;shpwl'l dashed in !Fi,l~>4-12,.,c§mbe. adde!\'Ikreac:h 8e,'Ctid.1~ increase filtering to '~oi:sebein~ fed baogk to the powe.r~upply from th e (";UlI,Jtltt This ~urn~ the ';;jUt,e.T mto 'a pl·nc~WOIJ'~. When blJn;sIderolng,noise, a di's;sipia.(iv,efi:lte'[ slKD.as the R-C ~irC:l]its]]0\\'[1, in Fig. 4-11A is preferred to .<1 pr;;<l"ctl ~ f~he,r, sud"l ,':;I;S the L~C ,elrcuir.of Fig . v 4- ] 2.B. 1'J'lIn c; d~sstp.~ltve filwr~l)e uadesirable ~]Qi.sevo.~tag-e,Is (:onveued to 'hea t and eli minated as J noise 50UIGe·. In the reactive filter, ·iw.w~vcv, the noise ¥oUage is just moved :around .. lnstead of appearing across the ~oad~ the noise 'VCl~ tage flow' appears 8I.cr"OS& the '~nductClr, where it ffi<JjY radiated and he 'beeoma j problem in same etherperr ~f th'~ tht:uiL It might therrbe

where R' ls the-resistanoe

1M

n~~1cisary tf) shiddth~imdut:lorlO

ellntinare

the ratHatutm..

AMPUiFIE.R
EVC)1!

DECOUPUNG

f:acti::Jif
(.4-.E2J

s·il1lg~'t.ampHfie:"f ~·H.onlJ¢cted to a powe[sl1.pply, 'oQnsidf{rut:~on .power supply is usual ~yT¢~1lJ.i red, F1gu·re 4-]4 :)'h:ow'S }l s~~wmMi.c.~)fa typical lwn~s{?ge[t8!:n~igiOl'alllpliil1eF. When this circuit is .~Inaiy:z;ed,. It is assamed that the Jl.c:impEld<lnc(t hCt\,,:C'en th¢:' :po.w~,sujJ'pIy ]tad' and ground. is zero. Thls Jshard to 'gUlaffl[ltee (b.ecamk the puw:¢r

~'oft:h~ Imp'eda,i~!ce pf the

if :(lr]ly

.ii.

PARAsinc tM!'ED",NC[!;: Qj:''POWEI!MlUF'PL¥

~~1Ii

F"AR,A,s ITIC 'liN[)l.uCT ANe!E

OF POWiiFt·SUiPPIL:l' l,EAiJ

_.1_ ClVrp Lrf-C:ABLE

~ .G;,r;,;PACliTAN_CE I"
.L
I

II

sup:pl~. ~n~ .~ts,wiring.b1,11siru)ucI£:i"noe and reslsrance) unlessa ..decQIJpling 't;:a~!JCJ!tOf]~ pl<fJ;;r:~# bet ween. t.he "flOWe-I ·.supply and. gf~U nd .~t the 1l!mp]i"fl.f;}[; Ttm; C'IP.~clt~!rshoul~ serse iifS a short d,FCtlut .lhrQI~gl1 tile 'freqlle:flcy range over w~lch the: amph.fiej[ 'is capabill.! ..)f: pl:qduGing gql.!.Llh~s "fieqtleficy [,):[Igec t may be much: wklcF than thal Q[ the .sig[l(][ being amplified, If ~h;$ short

Qitcl!JJ1_tisnOiI previded _
t~e eneun CJn produce

£J.CFOSS

the p.oweI"~Urp~y~c.Minat~

of tb!f;: amplifier,
lead, This,
[0

an -ae \'ol~tag:e g.:afn to· the. power-supply

signal vOlt'1g(: (]iill the power-supply lead Gao t:hen~e f~d b;,lJd· ~mpiifief i.nput thrcugh rcsistor R b1 a:[J!rlpossibly cause osci1IlatlIOi!l!.

the

t)"h{s .'providctl ';)c[eeGiha~k: ~[ollnd the trausistce through the base Tesi:s~;[mcc .RI>' thus anGwrng. the p£)~~ibmW osCjUfrUOD.. U previous .stage;s ol: the same. ,of ~~!ifie:r a.r1e;'i;:6u]]i,ectcd tbe; s'~me,powc]'Hne., to :~he feed~ac;l{_ can 'come tJ:loolill;gb tfue. :prcGC"ding. stages ~mdthe p0l55h~l;'Ini,l1y Qf·.o!i.{;:iH<l!tiod is g.r,e{l,ter. The ~s.d][at.i(Jn is .often a I!imctiqn of the: p.r~sen~e©r·,{lb,$CI]ICe of the Qlitpu~.cable. <since .the cable :<Iffe,~~t!:le:.emitter ,qap'<lcltl'lnre and ,berKe the h1g:h:-fre·qu'.enc:Y g;nn and phase, shift ~brough toe llffi,nsi~ior. . . To d]minate the effect of the p;[lIIasitrc kadindtid:a:I1I!ce, a -gooct h ~gh'fn:qlJiency ground must be: placed at the plOwer terminal ()J the ';flmplIIT¢L

AFI eI;l"litte:r ~D~.I:owe.r,Ieeding a cJ!tmci"tivc' iqtld Such 3$ a transmisski~l line, is J ~$p'6:;~ally s.usl;eplib~c Iltgh-frequenCjl. oscillation able to inmJeq1,l<,lte po::wcrsUiPply decCllJplmg. ~ ,F].~lvre 4-]5sh.ow~ such a clrcui t "}'hc;cqi ~~C:tor irnpe?ianoc;·2. •.• c~m~~st.in"g thc.par;:isltiiC,itiduct:il1)ice of the, pmyetsupplyl:e-;.:ds of

I?

.~creases w.i~h[relqJde~cj',

and. the emitter .impydllij~e

Z~. de~rqwc~ w-ilh


the transistor
II I

fr~quc:rl!cy due ~u thE;; 1c.ll-bl~~apacitance _ At .high frequency c therefore has ;3! .b.r-ge,.vQIta~ .gain to its eolleetor,
7

V".·I l"g"'" ·e,u· nt = ""' _ ... '"" _ ·· '~"'l' ": Z " ... ....
e

_Lc' ~'"T~

~ _L

I.

138

:and a' good high-frequency ground at the .mnpliti.er ~ as s,howu ill Fig., "H (). 'The value of lhi:s eapacitor should be considerably greater than the maxIm urn value . .of the emitter capaci ranee C'j. nlis guarantees th at the hi ghfrequency gain to the collector of the transistor is always less than one. EVen placing a capacitor across [be ampllfier power-supply terminals cannot gU<lranleezeru impedance. Therefore somesignal will al .... aysD¢ fed back to the fnpu tr;::irClllit over the power supp.ly!e~~tL] r1I amp! ifierswhhgai ns Jess durn 60 dB,. thisfeedback, is uSuai Iynot c~ough to cause oscillation. lin ·bighe.r gain amplifiers this fc,~db~ck from "output to. inpu t through t he: power .supply can often cause oscillation. The' feedback can be eliminated with an .R-C filter in the power supply to the firststage, as shown lT1Fig: 4-17. The devoltage dro'p across the resistor is not detrimental slaeethe. first stage oper:ate:s .at a low signal level and. therefore do es Hot require as much de ~~pply voltage. 'A similar effect occurs when operational ~!:mplifjCFS are driving capacitive loads .. This is the result 'of the p1)1,e, produced and the amplifiers' output :i:D:lpedan,cc.For further-discussion, sec Graeme (:l.97Lt PP, 219-212),

'fhii> can be acccmpiished

by connec.ting"

capacitor

between the power lead

HIGH-FIREQUIEiNCY

FIDL TER~NG

MetaJ!Hc ,eDle1''Osu:res are ofterl used as shields 1:0 prevent J:l,llii~'i'"nr highfrequency ,circuits from radiating noise. For theseshields to be effectiva.a]! lead.s entering 01.' leaving the shielded enclosure should be fUtered to prevent them from conducting noise nul of the shield. At audio freqm;.rn;.ks'. normal decoupling, filtc·rs such as tho-se pre\'ions]y described 'for power supplies are s<~tisf::ictGry. However ,3':t high frequencies ,·..,pedal care must be· taken tn 'guarantee the d'fect;iveIle~S .of the filter.Peed-through capacitors" should be used where' die conductor passes through the shield, and ..<1 mica or ceramic eapacitOl'. wi.th short leads, should be connected between the com.iu{,~lorand ground at the; circuit end. This connection, plus threeother ways to filter a J:iOwcv·$Jupply lead W 31. high-IHrCiuency' dreui.t •. are shown in Fig,. 4·18. ·$h.iclding the conductor inside .the enclosure decreases the ,irnount of noise pickJe·d up. by lac conductor. Additional filtering can be obtained. by using <I "C-L-C .pi-filter with two capacitors and an inductor (rf choke), This pi~lillcr can be further improved by enclosing the choke in a separate shield, inside the prim'a,), 5ll'1~dd. to preventit from piddn.g up noise. lin all the filters 'lin: lead lengths 10]] the cap ..cirors and £hidcl: grounds .mnsrbe kepr as .shon ·as r .possible.

13.2

1.34

4 • BALANCING

",1\10 Flt-:TERING.

snsuGG'RAl1'fh'

135

covered intheIitcrarure (Pan!~~, 1965; Schwartz, 1970:;. nd Schwar'tl et al. a ] 966) and are ~.nt repe.a.lt::d here.

SUMMARY
• In ,1 balanced.
m3i.~nt;lI~Il ed,

system IicHh :resi${]ve and reactive

bab:llc,emustbe

'.' The greater


INGREM'EJl AILTE.FNNG !;FFECnVe;N,ESS

the degree be used

of ha~ml'Ce.~¢hc less noise that 'will couple into with "Shfe!ding

the system.
• Balancing can .reductlon .. ,_ The

to.

provide

addltiOl,lJInoisc:'

RFC .... RIIDIO f'RE.OiJEIII3CY .C1.a~.

C !·-ifHiD- Uff<CIiIJGH ,CAPACITOFI' C2-MICA OR. oERAMIC CAl"liCnO'I'!i

~OWCT the characteristic impedance of a de power distribution .circuit, the less the. .oO]S1ecoupHng .' over it. • SInce 'most de power buses. ,d6 not provide a ~ow impedance;. a deccupling capacitor should be used at each load, II From a: noisepoint ofview, a. dissipative fl1ter is preferred N a reactive

FIg.lIr~ 4-18. ~/!l'r1m($high-freq!j~i11CY {eari-fi'i.ieril},g rllethm;j'~, iJff:.r:ti~l!"~3S increases from. wp


f9ward b.o,~om,

finer. • The; bandwidth dift! system SJ1Ci,lIhl be ihnited transmit 'the signal in order to mitrlm,ize. noise, to that re qluircd

to'

SYSTEM BANDWIDTH

IB~BLIIOGR.A.P'HV

One simple, b.ut ;often. overlooked, method mini mizing noise ill a system is to limit the system l'xmdwidtl1 to that required by 'the signal. Use uf a circuit bandwidth greater than that required by the signal :1n~v.~sa(hJ:]ti.omt~ noisefreq ueneies to' enter the cireuit. The S<im,e. prin,cipl eapplies in the case of digital logic· c:i:rcu:its.I-ligb·!;.peed logic Is much more llkely to .generatc and
be susceptible to .• b:i,gh~fFcquency interference than its lower-speed counter-

of

~uth mal], A. .$_ "No]rie

part (8e~ Chapter 11).


MODULA1i~O'N. ANiD COOIN!G The. sus'Ceptibili-ty of a system tninterference ~s'a function not only of the shielding, grounding, ·.a.nd so 'on, bu.talso, of '(he 'coding or mcdalating scheme used f(:lf' the signal. Modulation systems such as amplitude, freque:nt.,),.and phase have inherent noise frnmunity, f'on~:.1i:ilmp1e,. frequency modulation is 'Very insensitive to a:mpHt~de noise disturbances. Digital techniques such a'S pulse ampfitude, pulse width, and pulse repctkiort freq:uerllc.y coding may he used to. increase noise immunity _ The Eloise

1I.dvan.ta.g,csof various,

,ending, and modulat!i:on schemes

are mir;:,guate;jy

"P1iBvcni E!ltilt·~r-F(JUO\.Ve,r O~t::illiBitiol1." Ej.ec~rol:4i.r: Design, June 21., 1976_ Cos,ta. D, p_ "'RFI ·SI~i)prc5:.;on, Part [1,'" Elc'ctrol1wc'hwdcal Desi:r~fL VOr]. n, pf;l.cembcr'. ]~r;:7. Flccl!i, R, :0'- Practico; O~~slgl1lorEflJ.NI'.(m!(1gne.t'i(~ Ccwl[}{m'bj{iry. Hayden Boo}:: Co" New York, 1.97L <Grac.me; r. G" Tobey,. O. E., andiH~ue.1snl~ul, L, p- Opf.nJ{~cma.l .A.mpUJk~sMcGraw-HilI.·New Y9rk, 1'971_ nUZl". S, \V., and McLellan . D. w_ "A Proposed Shmr;lMc! Mci.noc o(M'ca5t111e1nent of L(lnghudin~I B'akmoe cif Telephone Syswmn Compoaeats," N;~tkmaI Teleccrnraanicarions Conference. S~n D [ego, Calif., 1974_ Joyce, M, v., .and Clarke, K. .K. Transi.fY/OJ"Circu.it An:qlysk AddiSDn~WC:5]e:;I'; Readiing, Mass., 196L Ma:IJj~l, "Bet.. W,(I!J1[J L Layout am! Londi!lg Rules. • EDN., Aug:ustt 1973. ~'faul~ L.'<Use EeL for Your High-Sj:leed Designs." EDN, Ju:ly 20, 1973_ Nalle, D .. "'EliWblrlation of Noise 11] Low Level 'Clrcuiis." l'SA Jmml(ll", Vol. 12, A1l!gtlst 1%5.

lJes(gn, September 1962; Ches.snl1)llJ, M:, ,and Sok-al, }J,

COIl'l,ru;!:in Low Level Data

Systems.' ..

El;:ctmmf.(.itaf1ic(lJ

Panter, P, F.
!l)~J_ Schwartz,

J;.fbdldatiQI1 .•

Noise',

(wd

Spectral

A1Ul:(Jlsis'_

McGr<!w-Hil.l, :New )\IJ:irk,

hi, Infor.m-aiioh

Transmission, !l-:Mdulall'oli

and ;'I"O';S<:. 2nd ed,!\tr.:Graw.systems

Hill. New York, lWD.


SC:iIw,la!Z- M". Bensen. •. W. R-, :md Stein. niqu1!.s .._MC'G:raw"Hill, New Yod~., 1966. \Vhik. S.. CVfn.munim#011

and Tech-

D, .R. J ,. EJf!-.t-tromagvifJlit Inl.iJrje.r.enct: ~nd C&mp,(ltib'rtily; Wit. 3 (EMI Ck~t1trQJ MelhoCi,-s and TechniqlIes.;. D.on\Vbittl .C:oI1l~ult~rm_<Germantown, Md., 1;\17]._

S~nre 'actual comfJot~!e!:lts are nUl "idea l, ;, l.hek ell aracteristics devi ate from tIiose of the theoretical ct')mpon ents. * U nderstanding the se deviations is innpf1rl:tilit in deterrni n~tl.g the pro per upplicafion oJ various compenenu .. 'This,chapter i~devoted tothose characteristics of passive electronic compofle~tl) that affect their noise performance :01' their. lise in noise reduction :~c. .. .
'(,:l.n.::un:ry.

PAPACITOFIS
-cfp.acitors are most frequently c,ategorized by the die icdnQ m aterisl from ~hich they are made, Different types of c.i1,jm.dto(s have charactensncs. that

li1~ke them sui tal.":ilefot certaln applications but not for others. An actual ~~,ac:ito, is not a pure cepacirnnce, but it also has both resistance and ~llduct<J:nce:.as shown in the cql.l.valcrlt circuit in .Fig. 5-1. The inductance L . js..due. ito leads <'IS wen as the capacitor stucture, Resistance R J is the panilid leakage and a; functlon of the: volnme.resissivitv of the dielectric-material. R I js' t.1l; effective series resistance of the .capadtm and a function of the ~i~~i'Pal factor of [he capacitor, Ivn Op.e'r,(,Mlng Ireq~~e.h;c)'· is qne of tht~ ~rwj't import'unt t,fm,\:'id.erlltitmJ in ~qosing 'If' eupaeiter type. The JJI.8Ixkrin.iIt:ieffective frequency for a capacitor ~. iu~U'ljly limited by (he inductanee .ef the capacitor . and itsleads, At ~omc 1requellGJ. the capacitor becomes self-resonant \\d.th its inductance. At frequencies above self-rcsonanee, thecapeckor has inductive reactance ,~nJ p,n Impedance increasing with fr1eqtienc:y. Figure 'S-2 sho\1,Is, how the impe(lance of a 0.1 J.'F paper c,~pacit(IF changes with 'frequency. As can be seen, his capacitor is self-resonant .at about 2.5 MHr.. Figure 5-3 shows the approximate usable fi-cqucrqcymnges fOT 'Various. types of capacitors. The high~frcquency -ltnliI Is due to self-resonance :ur an ·i[lcrea.~ in the di£s~patuO't~factor at, high frequencies. The low-frequency
~.

~imit is determined

bY' the~<irgciSt practical

capacitance

value available.

'f'h,(: primary advantage of an electrolytic capacitor is ihe Iarge capacitance vahie that c-an be put in a small ciisc._ The capacitance-to-volume ratio is' hrrg~r fm- an, electrolytic than EOi' any. other capacitor t)'iPr.:_ An aluminum electrolytic capacitor, however, may have as T.i'iiJ!chas_l !h;e;ries resistance .. . ,

137

•. , pASShVE 'COMi"ONEI\iT$,

,t
I
0
W :::l
)-

I
1

w
t-

~F: g,w

~ci

,
I
II
,

'0 Q

...
","'

0'

:z

1
j

OOQ~· 15~W-l1 'Z ....

<Ii:

'Z'O'}

:I:' W,

increas •. to dielectric lesses=-and '\-",iHn dccrCO'Ising. tempera;tur-e, At -40"'(: the series resistance may be: lOLIOO' times the: value a~ 25'f(~,. Du~ to their large size aluminum dcclrolyl:ics also have a Iargeindactencc. The}' are therefore low-freq U!€[ICY -capacttcrs. and should norm a not be used' at frequencies above 25 kHz. They are most often used for low-frequency filtering, bypassi fig, and coupling, For use ar higtter fre quencies, they s·hpul d be bypassed by afow value, loW Induetartcc e apacitor,

Typieal valuesare ing frequency=due

about O.I Dr The series resistanceincreaseswith

0' ua
Ia::'

i~

ny

3:

J:

'Ire'
IlhJ

0:(

~I

()

rI;I

l'

_!I.

:il=

0 _j ,.

[Jl

I ~~.~.~
zroji::U

'mCl;O~

-~Z>

<

01 0, 01

gQrr.t:
Wl--I-O

_'Z~,<:(

-""'OZ

1',1

'0 0,

....

';b

i.l:i

DC

_L

.,

'''It'<:('O~.

~ 10
0

"-1:.

~
.~

C>

oo

'I"-

One disadvantage 'of electrolytic capacitors is the ract th<ll they are polarized, and a de Yo!t~lgr.:,of HI;;;proper pU]<IF.ity must be mainlait1cd.~qpss rhein. For maximum life aluminum electrolytic eapaciturs should be. opdakd i1tno gJe .• iter than 813% of their rated voltage . .operating.at less 'than 80 % off (heir rated vo'll'1I'g,~ cl~),r.::s. provide <Illy <lifd.itionai reliabi lily. A not nonpolarized capacitor can be made. by connecting twoequal value elecuo~ylic~in series, but poled in opposite directions .. The n:::~uHin£; capacitance is one-half that. ef the individual capacitors, and the voltage raring is- equal 1£, that vf one of the individual capacitors .. When d'CClFOtytics are used inac 'Of pulsating de cireuits, thcriprk~ voltage: should not exceed the maximum rated ripple voltage; otherwise excessivcintr;.mal heating occurs. Norman)" die ITI.t:lximll'mripple \'(}Il<~gei~

o-

<>d'
(i)

;if!
:j

UJ
,~

-c

_JI

•I
I

I
~

UJ

z:

,t
I
w a:
;:Cfj ~' Q.

..
...

WI

0
UJ ttL
I.L

.« ~:
! 0

;i::i

~ ~

:~.

I
II II

0:;1

e,

:'E
IlL """
W Q

~~q

i-

.0,
·0. 0

.-1

z~ w ., ::l '" ..:.


0
W
ICC

>-

-s ~
:;,

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

'0;;

.LI.. 'LIU
..J

« I'L
l:ll III

,
I

I t
I

II

:l
_j

-'~

t
I:
I .~

I
~ 'I

,iI:
')0.

i
r;._."

:2

5
~
(:)

I:

.1: :J: Ii-

'I

l-

«
<>15'

r;[;!

,
I

,I \\r-.

--,
GDIEAL CAPAOITOA
..

:::iiii
"CC'

..

.)-

0 w
1

::!

WI

:z

w;

I
u

I
U ,.-

I
II

r:2
N F-

C1J: 'it. to .::1 i:JJ I"-

'" z 'tl
'E

.:;;:;
Q CC
11.

:i:

«~ ;:;:

.~
~ ~

« Q.,

a,

t:: >..J
Ill:

I'-,
,1\

IL

c:::

Il"10
W

LfJI ..JI

t---~ I"@
~
<:(

o
0 LIJ

>--I:

!t-

,
~

,~

.~.

0
...I ~.

IE :x:

a. -e ~ I.n

'0

...

" :: ~ r.z

-,

:"....
~ ~

!: a d

._j

-c

V
:-..

:3
I-

~
I

10

I"~ "
I!'igtl;~ .:'i;~.

I'-

J~lJerJ'of fr(:q,r~,er:r.('y .o.r.r. thi! imp·


Nlpa.drot.

""

fl'a:IlC£, iij ,Ill' O.I IlF{X1pf!r

j~
13.9

' 1'01

...

1401

GAPA,CHOH:5

sp cci !led a~ nu H 7. _ lypi~:11J (J f operation as a IiI ter capacitor in 'a full-wave rectifter circuit. Temperature is the primarycause olaging, und ele,c[mly.ti(s should. never be operated outside their recommended temperature rmiflgs_ Solid tantalum electrolytic capacitors have less series resistance and i:! 'higher capacirance-ro-volume. ratio than aluminum elecrmlytjcs. Some solid tantalum capacitors have krw jnductunce. and can be used at higher frequencies than ahrminurn electrolytics .. In general, they arc more stable them ,,11um]li1um with respect to' time, ternperaturevand shock. Unlike .ahimirrum clectrolyties, dlie .,elia:hllity of sol,~d tsnlatum capacitors is hnpnwe.(j by voltage denting .. Paper and mylar ca:p'.ldtors n.wr;: series resistances ,cons[derahly less than that of elcctrolytics but still havc-modcffllcl:i high inductance. Their capacitance-to-volume ratio isless than that of elcc~mil}'li~, and they are uSlIaHy <Iv(liiab]~ in valuesup to .1,few microfarads, They are medium frequency capacitors u'Seftll up loa few mcgahcrtzv Papernnd mylar capacitors are typically UJ5>ed for ftltertng. bypassing, coiJrlirig~ timing. and noise SIJjJpression. Tluhul,f:lT capacilor~ ',~lH:h O'i~~ p,iFJ~r Oil mylar usually have 'a bane! aruund "01JJI:e ead, as shown in Fig, 5-4 _ '['he lead 'COr.1M.u:t.r,;.rJ to' t h~ b tmd e d' e~H:1 i~ eonnceted b:i the' outside foil of the capaciior, The handed end should be connected roo ground, or to a common reference potential whenever P{jS··ible. ln this: way the outside foii of the capacitor- can act. "as a shield to nrinimize ck{~tric Add '~{lllpli'rlg[wm Hie capacltor. Mica and ceramic capaclters have vel}' low series resistance and. in.d·uC"lance. They are high-frequency capacitors 'an~j useful up to about 500 MH;;:provided the leads 'arc kCpl short. These capacitors are normelly used for high-frequency filtering, bypassing; coupling. riming and frequency dlscrimination, They are ilJOITTlOIUy very stable witt respect to time. temperature. and voltage: Hig,b K ceramic ,c,rpncitor,.s however, arc: only medium-freqnencv .capacitors. They sre reiativci:y unstable with respect to time, terrrperarurc, and frcqeeney, Their pri mary advenragc is' 11 higher capacitance-to-vol ume ratio compared to that o:f ~tandHId ceramic capaciturs; Theyare normally used for bypassing, c_ollpling, and Mucking;. One disadvantage is tha]; ~h~y may be damaged hy voltage transients, It is [l1.er:ufon::not recommended that they he used' <I~ bypass capacitors directly across a low-impl;cbnc..'c: power

C"pm::itor Typ~

Normal

Us£;:

{)vef~Vo!t:age Short

Alumine meteetrmytlc

Open
0p'1::1l

Ceramic
Mica

Short

Mylaf Met.'3~liz.edrny~~r
~(,lhd~ant,a~llm

Leakage
Shorl

Shan

Shmt Short Short

Noisy
Stliort

:Poh/stVI"e.ne capacitors have- extremely Ivw SCVlcS rc~iSlancc and have very st1}hle"·capa.citmlce~fn;qIH.:nr,:}' dl<lTactcristics_ The)f are.the closest to .t_lfe. ideal eapacitor of all the types listed. Typical applications: Include filtering.• bypt1:SSing, coupling, tirriing, and noise supression. . Table 5~1 shows the typical fa'ihJ"re modes forv:ariious capacitor types under normal usc .1irld when an over-voltage is .applied: . The effect of lead Icng;th and capacitance value on the self-resonant frequency of a small ceramic capacitor can be seen. from, TabJ~ 5:2._hi~_ck:.~r

dial at high frequencies, the sm<iJk:~t~.tl uc capacitor that \\,1 ~r the jo b ts do preferable because u[ils hlghc.r self-resen am frequency. j t :>hoVid b~ noted [hat at se lf -lOSOHJnce the impedance of ,:.f. ea pacitor is aCluaHj'lowei~ (Fig. 5-2) thun that ~lfanidcaJ capacitor (one without inductance). This (",tel can he an advantage in some situations (S\;C the discussion (In dccoupllng capacitors in Chapter 10). AO(l\'c series, resonance, however, the lead inductance. is detriment,it The self- resonant freq \l.Cncy can he increased by using .1feed- through 6~pll'r::i10f dp;i gncd to tn ount til rough, or on" .a metal ch<l~sis_ Fl\gU:fL': 5-5 shQws such iii capacitor mounted' in a chassis shield, along with its schematic represent tI~ion _ The capacitance is between the ]ead s t\nd the ~~lISC: of tbe' capacitor- Feed-through capacitors have very low inductance ground

0,

Table 5·;2' Self-HeSQrlarll Calp!acilDrs

Freq!;i.enc'ies of CSl'arnJe·

supply.

Sdf-Resonallil Frequency (MUa) Capacit ance Value (pi) 1O.OO(J

Hn.
LCJH~~

~ -I[L

1-

1."~3a;t
3'2 M 200
35'0

wrm
5l1l1

3:?
70
150 2;l:n ::;110

12

100
lFig;un! 5 .... S;f!i'ld tm l.rdn-liar ct;rptii:ftoi imiir::lll'e3 the end llult is roilmJClcd f{)1 the {mt.~tdi!foit. Tlr!:, mel .\"l[fJlIld b~ {,QtJl~ea{'£1 r,u grfllmd_

12U

50

10

142

INtJUCiOR:5

143
100.()

,....---...,...--~-ro-.,~Cl5-·-n-f-C-:-'A-pr'A-G-I~T-Cl":'fI-'
Wfi H '7 IN. LEADS •.

M QUit..lTEID IN CHASSIS

··Im

lOO
[n6GAHEHTZ!

1000

·oonnecHons. Shlt;t [here is no. lead present .. The lead Inductance that, does exist is in series with' the signal ~lIi:iJ iraproves the capacitor's effectiveness, hecausc.jt transforms the fc¢d-dlrough capiuc:ilor i.ntn a li.wi P'!~~ T-fitter. This can be seen in Fig'...S-6,. which shows the equivalent ciecults, inc.lm:lii1~ lead inductance, for both <i standard and it teed-through capacitor, A.lS ~t result Iced-through capacitors have very good high-frequency performance. Figure 5-7 shows the lower ~.i1~.peda[lce. btained by using a feed-throujrh o oapaeitcr liS .cornpa red to ;t standard capacitar, P:aralll'e,ling Cap·aellors No one eapacitor win provide satisfactory performance over tim entire nmgc from low' to high rrc.(,(lUenci'~;Il'l order h) prnvidetiltering everthis range of lrequeneies, .rwo different capacitor types ai'c.ofi'i.':fI] used .in pllT~lncL Fur

FREQUENCY

,,~;ad.m ..

FI~~'

5-7. lmp~dim'Ni

nf 0 ..05 p:.F ('11\J9ari(;m::.~, .\Jww.r.r~ i:l':r~p.n!n>ed pe'fm·!t]{mc~· Df f~;~(I.JhrOlll!;h

elect rnlytic could be used to provide the large capacitance necessary fov low-frequency littc:r1Tlg. paralleledwith <I smaU low -induct<.mcc ;JIIko:.:.~ 'cera rnic eapaci tor io provide ~ low impedance <It h:igh frequencies. rlF When capaeitor ....are paralleled, however, resonance prt1hlcm:. may occur. ;[IS a Tesui t. o r the parallel .'IfIU ~(;:rics resonances pn.klucbd by the capacitors ~ii1dt he Ijldlt!Ictan~ of leads tha t interconnect them (.D<1l1ker, ](85) ..This 'qan result in lav,gc impedance peaksat certain frequencies; these are most 'severe when the paralleled eupaci to rshave w'ldej)' differen;tvah]es,? ,OF when there are long iIlh~r~·t)nnc:c:[iol'lS: etween them. b

ID::amp]e .an

th~

~.

~l

-Lc
~L

I
Sl"ANIPARD FEiED~TI-!ROUGH

Inductors may be c'd.eg'orizcd by the type of care on which they are wound. TI]-~.two most gC(lcral. categories: ,no(: air core (:any nonmagnetic m'Hcri.al~ts into this grolUp ) and magnetic core, Magnetic core inductors CfdD.l fu~tfler he s:uhdivided de pending on whether t~(: core is open M elosed, An Id~a' induetor would h~\i'e only .iIld!.lJL:t8i.l~c.e, anactual inductor also has senes but resistance, In the wire used towind it and distributed capacitance b~*i.!"(::Clt the windings. This is shown in the equivalent circuit ill Fig, . .5~.~. The capacitance -is representedas a lunlp-e.(J shunl capacitor, so thereIs par:illd rf!SQ[lan·ee at. some· freq nene),. . ... . Another im p (wtant char.:sl"1.cr:is:tIc of i.ll1i;1ucto :s is their ~USCep ~ ~ltilhty to, and .generation of, s.tmy magnetic fields, AJr core or ogen m(1.gndit~ core iJldu,~.f01:Sare most likely to cause lme.rlel'P'lCe, since, thei r i1ux extends :3 eonsiderable distance from theinducter as shown InFig ..5-9A. lnduerors

144,

1.45

TWo Im~uctors h:ltelationaHy coupled together, usually on: ,,1 magnetic ecre , fQrm a trausformcr. T1:a;-mfonIH~;1'S, are often used. (0 provide ~'S"oilallOrt hetwC't::n l.WO.circuits. An example li~the isol :,jfi On lT1[fl::;fbrrm~:rl:lsed to break :~ gl:oundluop. as shown ill Fig. 3-23. In these 'Cases the. {)rI~'y dtsirabk rqq::up~i(lgls.[hat wbi~h results fH)m the magnetic fi~h:!., .Ac:m~]. tran sformers,
[II~t . ~eirrg

ideal,

.ha.~,e-carp.ad tsnce.

l1ctW(:'~L1

a. ~(9B. . rrg .. _;;,':' As fn assblsoeptihJlHy lo m:ag;ne..tl!o fields .is eoueerncd Ute magnetic COre .h; more. susceptibie tha.n. the; air cure- Inductor. An Opel) magnetic clO:.n,' inductor is the m os! snsceptib le, .sun c;e,: the: &re-n [c,~V;i reluctance patheoncemraaes the external trlilg:[lctk Held aud ~aIU$C;S more of the .f1\lX to Jhrw tln'ough theceil, A. ~'tose[,l nlJ.gn.etie.r;QI~, isk8s~us£[:.ptible than anepen COle but more' sU8tep~~hh:: then :<!!11 aIr pan ... .FJ..ig olfte[li lle.~e~~$-ar:y s.bitilld in.du'C:td~ to rem fin:t~.lh~ilf nlaguet~~ and t~;l' ele,c:t1;ic"ield.sM·tl:fiin a: Hmited 'Space" Shie'!d s made 0.1 low re,siSlm:lCle material f S:llh~h'.iti..CQp~er or a ['uminumconfirl6 the e1ectdc ~"u"6J l~d high ~.rcq~!'enc;ies dl5,. these shields ~a.lsQ J1revG~t ma"gn~tic flux passage, b~e,;,u]seojf the eddy CU[IT>f;;liJJts: set 1Jrp: withilY' the ,~rril[::~d. t low thcqutJlctcs,. A hrn.'ii!<wer, high. pe."mt~h~l]tymagn.e[i!cmat~Tial·nlU&l he used to·confme the magnetic field."

"{[lund .on a closed .magrll:;Ii(; core" have II] uch reduced external magnqic: field s, since :fIi¢:Hly ;aU the flux remains Inslde the rnsgnetic C0li"(~'~~[[S 'sh ownin

~~~nd]ng.s, as tl'hown i·n F]'g.~)qn~ this lillo.w$ :rioi$C:.tl(mp!iJJg through the ri1.lTI$f(lrrn_c, .. . . ., Th:i's coupling tan be. [\<1 n l~1C,dhy p1rovidi:rrg ,~n.e1~lct]\(rstmk, or Faraday', imi ghl:dd ~,agrounded conductor between [he: two l.'!.'lnd!ir1~). ~~ ~j;H)wn in Fig, :5~11.Ifp:rope-rly deSJ!.gI.l~ !hii;;Wi.e~.ddoes not. affect the. magnetle .cQ>upli i~g, d. b.llt.i! ,diminat<'1:g ~h[$. (,:apacifiw~ coupling provided till;: shield is grounded. The :~hie~d must he gmlJJuded. at point B in Fig. 5-l·~. rf it.js £,rm.1E1.ded to porn! A" the slsieldis at a poteL1lbl ofV-;::,-and srll! couples no:isetl:m)!Ug~] th e ',c~i:mdwv C1 to' the' hJ<.n:L Therefore the. transfonner shculd be Iocated [lear U:~ kHld~I1(~rdcth) shnpli fy ~ht {:jOn]1!cc.tlOTl bctw<,;~n ~h[,:.s hidd.:1[J.d point 11,
E'lec;i!Tas.ttltic: stliel.d.~ng mny al:5.o .beQbtaine;d. :w~(l'rtwo unslrielded trans-

ti1c:' pn mar~ .and secoudary

Idmnc:i:"s, as shownin ]Fig, 5·-12, The. primaI)' circu iilaf T~ must be grounded, ,Jm::fe1l'a,ihIJ;Wi:[.ha t:;e,n£.cr lap.'fhc:set1Dndary o\f T;,iflt h~~ ~~.cJ?!lt.crlap, ml~)'
~&b be·grclJl]!ldred·t©.l~!Glld

one ,end

9f

I~J

near gl::O~,ildf!(}te'ntiaL A~ indicared

{nf'i'g., 5~12. if the t[("~m;sfbnne'fS (hJnot ha ve center taps, Que of t~\le r::tonduc[o,shelwtYttl the. l,:ltts,fotmt:;r.$ ca;rt be; £.mnndDJ_ 'rhi~ G(,mJlgun-lljUf] b le'Ss dketive'. tl~<l.na t1'<'ll;~fQ~mer with a ~~oper~y desi.gfi~d electrostatic sibi.dd, Theecnfigura ti9.n of Fig. s-li'is, nc;}we:ve;r,useful in the labora tory W determine wbether an eJeCEl'D.statk8J.lly fililili::~dcd U,8!tl.sformcll can efftttivdy iJe,c:ntnISe, thenoiss co<upling ina circuit.

B V<NO~5E ~ .~_l __ 'lJC. ._ ~ ZL ·~z'G ">.

,
jfis:ul'e .,~;9, Ma?:"fJ~Nc j~dd,s I,,",1rl (Al.clh core (md Ill) (.-!r~Md ·maglIdk,t 'o~e iruit~U'(~I~~·.

.F.1gllr,e

a!!<2 5~~(}P1d",J'"y i~'b!,;iif!iS,

.5.~m. All

netu~1/, u'(l;iiIsfon!le~ .It.!1;SI capnl.'\i{~v(~ qs' weIJ fI{.·:mllgnp.I.f~ "Cm:fr~Hrr:g bercl"a~1pr.if'rurr)!

tl

_-Sl-!~ELO y;/
(;2

I"'"~-----"""'~,. I r-........ --~----i." I


.\,1';3.

~t7A
I
I I

t----~----.JI
"tl:lbl:e.~ ~mpedall1ee of S: l-M,O, .HNC;s:rboil R!.esis~or M~~lned!atvariliQlls !Fi"eq!.!eniciii~s

f'i!!l~Ir.e.:l-.H, a~tlplfi!'lg,

(;m[md~Jr·f!~~CirD,jlar.fL'

#rf~id

b~.~1'i'~fl~rt·Wfq:'(Jm.2uliii.in,di~Jg; bF~·~tk.'If, :mpl,(;i~i1'~' Ihe..

F'req~e!)t}'

.M~g~tll1d~

~k:H.l)
1
\I
Ii()

P"base AqgJe
{dcgr¢e~) -3

(k.-n) lOl)(J

Ij}OO
92:0
,860

2i()0

HJO

50

99Q
750

-~r

-H
-16 -23 -28 -32 -34

3DG
4UU. 500

mt:l

oill' 560

a
FlES~STO RlS

Tile s nUlnqap~(;itauH"(:4aJl beim,prnrl.f:lJ1 t w hen high \f,fiue resistorsare used. Forexample, consider 11 22-Mfl resister with Ji:5 pf of slnintcapacitance .. At 145 kHz the capacitive reactance will be ]U(Je of the resistance .. If 'this re.s;istot 1.5 used i3Jhovc this fl!cqU!cncy ther;:ar,:iClw:I1Cl:~ ma.y ;:dJff-cctthe
j

i"ro three basic classes: (I) wite:WCitlnd, (2) film type, and. (3) comp~lsihon'i The' cx.a~t eqlil:ivalcnr.Circuft lora r.efli~t(.Jr d,trpends. on the typr;.. 'of resisterand t.he ma:l]uf'lc~udng: processes Th c:~ifciljt of Fig:. 5-13T huw'ever',l:<; satisfactoryin most 'C~$C~. In <l.. wrjt:~,~lC!OnipQsiU(j~~ resistor , ~h~ shunteapaciranee isin the QM~]" O.1·-Jt5 pF, Theinductance a{ is prim.<l.r~.~.¥fid incluctan~e, except in the- .case. ':(jf wir~wotmd k re:sist(;rrs i whe re the resistorbody is, the J ;l[gest .EOtlltob.ntoL Fi 1m r.es]swl:s.,. d~c to their spir·<j..lor mfl8!nrle:ring-1 ine ,'constructi"qU, have mcreindaetsnee than en rbon

Fixed rl'::.;.~i5t(J.rs~anbcgr-ouped

'!- MfL

T.~hk' 5·J Sin cwsmeasuredimpedanee, .ma,gnltude andphase ',m'gl~1 for·s J~wdthonfc:~islor at y,trionf).'frcqucn~i.¢$" Thi~ nominal rC$i$(~t!iti. v[du'e.·is
N ore. that at 3(,1)kH.z~he .impedanee

tln:uit

performance"

!ph8J~c'i]]gle s~ig~.li.ficai"l L

has beeQm~

ha.s drolpp.ed 10 500k,n. an:d the - 34°, Cilpadtivt! if~a-~-tance h~s. thu~be~m:e
f

N,OISE

U:T4iRESISTORS

resistors,

E,~ept

othr:.v types, U-teinduc~ance, al'l.dys~s.T"he··lnducfanc.e.JYf 3J

fort wlrewQI1rr]d resistors, or very low value resistors of caenormaliy be neglected durIng eir(l~lil
tc$.j::;~or

dO'II:~., owever, ..make h

h susccptible to

pickup from ,e'i(~~m;.d.luagrJctic fields. in)!duct:anc.e (If the external lead MIt b(.: arpI1Gxima~e:~l by Ilsingthe datam Table' .s~4. .

_A ~.~rc~hh);rli<, n.~g;Jrdless 'of their cQnsln~ctian, ge[l!er:1lte OJ, noise volt·age. Th.is vg)ltage: resu]ts from thermal, noise and other n oise sources suehss srlot.am.d COnt<4.ct noise: Thermat noise .C;<lTI ewer be avo]ded, 'butthe ether .sources n can be rn."i11imizeid or eliminated. Tbe·w>ta.t HO]:"C vo1tagt thereforeisequalto 01" gfc;,~tf:r~hMn the thermal noise voltage. This isexpLJihed further in Chapter it . o.r the three b asic resister ~Xpes, ~vir~Wimlldresistors /arethe qui¢tC~l"

The l1o,ise in ,,81 good qualky wlrewound resistor sh6uld be [1;01' grt:Jkr olnH n thar dueto thermal noise. At the other r;,x me, ~s the compc~sjHon vesislor, rre whkh has-the most noise. In8!ddItlon to thermal noise , I3CimpCi:~ition mt,i~tQr6. also InH,{G COn taCl Iloi~e, ~iEKe t11ey are nl3!de of .Ell;r;)1j"n dIV~..J.tI.ilJ p~lni()ld I molded tegethe r, WhC:1]nO' eurrent ws iElt;Oiliposi 6oi!U ,rcs:is~nn.h the lit hs~ apPD.}a:ei'lcs: that of ..thermal noise. Wh{;l:n .eurrent (luv<'s,o;tddltional. n{}ise 13 ge'n.eratedprqpott]oua.itQ ~ht; (;LLti!'CllL Figure 5-14 shows the [lQise generated b-y' ,l W~kn oo,mp\)~~tlou reshror 'at, tWQ: current levels. tV kyw fr~q~encies the I~ol~,'t., predominamly '·(':omad T:lQisil0~, whi.r,:h has an iUvL"[se is [requeuey ~h<l~,acler:ij5tic. he f.n::qui:rlcy at whith[herl~'.IlsC Ic,,,..r;!li.,off, T Ol V~LrU~, eq(JaJ to,' the: thermal ~l{)ise. 'v,at,tes; widely between differem rypl':' v(!:sistor~ and is. also deperrdent.on cUIT,enFlevel, The noise produced by film-type rc:),istor.~,is,n.n.ldt less thp:n lIqt pwduccd by (IOmp'05i~ipin n;,.s;i:5tors, bl11 is more tban that produced by wirewound resi srors, Th eadcHrio nal noise-is ag;arn contact noise tmt' becau se [hi;:> material is more h.Climogelileuml. rile ;.~mrmnt of noi'~ciSt~rr[1~jclCTahryk!),s than for composition [(,.~$bJor~. Ant'1~he'l' importarrt factor af:lfecU[lg' the noise in a resistor Js its' pcwer t.ati:ng~ n: two resistors Q'f I~'t;"~aml[i'Y·l~~UC H:rld ~ypl: both dissipatt equal p('l',»cr, rhc resistor with the higher pawe:c .rC!tlh.g normally hasthe ~9\;,'cr noise. Ca'nipJbell and, Chipman C[949fpl'es;~f1tdahl :showing,rpp~H.ximmei.}' ~l

fu~cto!r.of'3 between thb rms noi~e voltage of :;Ie J ~W (~OmpocSltron resistor versus a2":W oompm;,itfon resister ope.r,lting under the same conditions. This difference is du~ -lotheiaG~;of K InEq - 8-1 ~ (Chaprer '8). ,<I v,ariable that

no

fdepemls on the g~orn C-tFj' oJ [he resistors, Va,riJbH::resistors gen ctaTC all the inherent noises of fixe d resistors, tim' in ~~ddi~i(Jfl gene.r1l!te notse from wiper ccntaet. Thi's; additional Huisch .dirl,.~c.[1y "PflJpOtfiollJ1 lo eurreutfhrough the resistor <'md the vaJu£:.e ~ its resisran ct.
reduce th'c :[t()'!se, the current >~b~:ndd b.ot!loe mrrrimt(.cJ,

to'

~hfOl,lgh th~

rcs:iM,of

and the

l'ES($WHCe

itself

at

CONDUCTORS
AlthQugh
cond!uct'QfS (J,FCI1fJ~ normally

considered 'iS
0

dlarJc:te,ristk8~h;'il
arlee of clcctnmic

a~('lvery Important
ci rcuits, Inductance

d,mpQilents, ~h,e,y'do:haY(;;.' t,.OLh~ noise' and tr.a:[Is;i¢nl pl;rft1tlHneof the mo~:t


~rnpGJ:rl;8::nit

of

'~hrse
d;

d),avaCk ,.sties, Even 'at lDiWfF(';,q uencies a condu ctor rna 'j have more 1mJ([s,:"
t:~ve reactarrcethan resisranee. The ~xtcm.i~[~ndl1ct-:]J]ce of a '1>trJJLgb:~,. round conductor

{}Tdiameter

WhPS'l:::cC:Hter ~,A~Dc;a,ted diiSt.~lnc~ h ,i~bO'!i'e gm und n a L


=-,

plane: 1~
(5-1)
I(;qtl,a

tL '

27f

III -;:-.
d

(4sh)

HIm.,

\., '\

,I
~
,
8MA,
I

I
I

I
i~

II
I
I

I
I

i
II
I

This

4w

«SYgll~11eS ~h~! II >- ] _ d. The .perin~abjli (y 0 Wfree space (J+) is L 5, >::.1 -? HIm _ Eq liation 5,'1 t h:c.dprc can he rewritten (J

I to

~
I , I

L =:2 X'

i(l7

In_( ~)

Hhill.

(5-2.)

iI

1\

'\
\

I -,
'

""

'\

~~A'-

-,

I
-':0"'10 u)

, ,

-a-

'\
__

,,,-

,._-F,

"~--',

¥1hI1Et=lr.:!11', L 10-

<'JG I~E
"

!..E[VEL

~t
~

N
s

"I '
I

-,

.... K._
10,00.00

since', d].ey do not inchrd::: :Lhe;Cffec'iIs o1f dlemag;Tltfi.c fi~,l.d w!'r:hin lh~cC)F1du:ctor 'l,t{'ld r_ The [01.11 l~lduEt:am,)e·ms ,u;tu<dly thesum 'of the in tenT,!I plus c;d.t::llnaJ .i nductan .. es, c Theintcmu i intluctai¥Qe of il, st [afgb( ';'YlreOh::UF'~ld~r C;rlJS5 se cti0n carrying a ,1wij(mTl ~onr.-Ji'eqr:te.~acy urrent h; ] _27 X 10-] p;Hii[l .• jn(jcpl[~ridL:nt of wire c size. Tbeinh;;T,Tl<.ilincluctance is [Iegligubk cumpamU to the ex.{3~:_H1al fndut:Ltheesterna ~inducrance, for ve.~y [:10S'1:' (;"J)Jl:dUC.lO'f spacings. The internal ~1l,dUtcta;tlCe is whL:rlc bJgher-[requency currents 1I'I"Q {:wrn!~idered' since" ~JUI;.~ to 's'l:\:,inelleCl, the currenr is con~i[;::!1tmtcd near the snrface of thl:: conductor. The external inductance rhere:fon~: 13 iflorm;:dJy the only inductance, ~)r anec except

The j1rece(jlng eq uai i~ml repeesent

::.

lOq,

.~ "" .s

fiu1:her'r-educed

FIREOU Er,lGY mj:I!J!~~ .!)"14" f:Jj~a

(~IILhHE:Fi:T 21 iw.i.~~; ()![at,ic for ~ 10-1.:£1 ctmlpO\\'(t1im 11.-.~ttr()Y_ ~

offre.fjlietll'y

li~d

('rlm:~lll on

'~~gnifk@.nGe _

160

5·"

fi'/\$SNE COMPONENTS

Table 5-J,lj~£s values of external indil'tanoe and resistance for v:niiou·s gaugt: condactors. The table ~h{JWS that moving the conductor closer to the ground plane dc-I..'TC .its inductence: t h<i assum es the grou nd plan e: is the a ses s return circuit. Raising jhc conductor higher above the ground plant; Increase's the inductance, Beyond « height of ~I fewiuohes. howevc r. the ind uctance approaches Us free-spa.ce val ae, .and incre <lsi ig the sp aei r has very liale effect on the inductance, This i~: because alruost all the flux produced by current illl the conductor isalready containedwithin the: loop, Table 5-4 aho indicates that 'the lA[get .tiJc conductor, HIe' Iowcr is the inductance .. The ind.I,.IJ!;:tance and the conductor diameter are toga.riitbmi'{'::61Hv related. For this reasou ,low values of inductance are.neteasily obtained b~" increasing tb.c conductor dtamder.The sp.lu:ing betweenconductors afjfet;t'~ the' external inductance, whereas the .eross sectionaffects only [h·e internal inductance, The internalmductance CM be reduced by using .a HOlt. rcctancgu~ar C')mhl·d,orinswf:!.d of a round one. A hollow mund tube also Ita)

'1W

-;=:.

~·so§ - ~i5:
'J

2:
G

ee r'~

~988g8:o
ocieicd~ci

..z:;,

-;T

(C. _.

I1g

s: .'5

-c

less inductance- I.hail the samesize solid cond uctor, For two parallel conductors carrying uniform ern-rent 1II. opposite direetions, [he self-inductance, neglecting fluxin the wires .them sci ves , is.
./,=O'(J1hl

. (2D) -:J.
:Sp;~c.i.ijg and. d b. the conduetor
f."""; !=!
¢1-

In Eq. 5-4. D is the center lb. center diameter.

t!"l

Resistance isH second vely irn porumt ch aracicrist ic of a condnctor. Selection of conductor size is .generally determined by the- maximum allowable voltage, drop In the conductor. The vo!1agc drop is a function of the conductor resistance mi::dthe maximum current Table 5·.:! lists the. value of de resistance for vari ous size conductors . .At higiler fri; .. quencies, resistance .of it conductor increases, due to jl,kil1 effect. Skin effect describes a condition where, due to the' magnetic fields produced by eurreut II) the conductor, there is 11 concentration of ~W'''CJit neat the .conducter surface. A:5 the frequency Increases, the current is concentrated eloser jo the surface, This effectively decreases the cms.~ sectiontrrreugh which the currentflews Hod thcrcfure increases the effective' resistan CC' .. FDr solid . round copper conductors the 'ac and de resistances are' appmxirnatelj related hy the ful~owI:ng" c;o,;;pressi.ml (ITT 19fi8): (5-5) -where d is the eonductor diameter 'in inches and _fls the frequency in benz. FOil:dV'j':gl:eat:er than ten, Eq. $-5 is ltc!':!mltewi(:hin a few percent. For dV'j' Iess than ten, the actual ,Ie resistance is gre[)Ler than that given by Eq, 5-5. lf the.conductor material 'is other than copper, the. lirst term Fq, ;)'-5 muxt

...-i.-r..,j,~':i,oCd

"'=T !!'T"';.

IrA

Xi

i!'""""J l£"i

0~ c·

-.

~,

or

lS1

152
be mulriplied by the factor

fEA:FII.TE B5AD-S

T"lt'I'ICAL !H I\IIE:'.SilONS DlAM~T!iR- .or.~'TO 0.3" l ~NGnll-O, 1H 1'0 4).5""

. --

CON.DUC1'(l~.

~,

1·_·

whe"c fA·, is fhc relative pt;:rmeahi.bty of the cund-ucto:[ matehal and P,


relative rcsistivltv
1(1

i::',lhe'

the. material

compared

to copper.
,H;

Due to skineffect

a ABc
19l!m~5-15:. 1"1) Fer-rUe bl'lIi1 un corufucmr; :.~;P'v.l.!~.w::l:remJIlil: .~ylufmt_ . (.11.) high-fttquency.eqllillfllf;'nl ril·(."lli:r;· ,and" (C)

ho~.lu'!;'{tube at" h~gh frequency

has thl: same

resistance

J~.'l

a ~nlid

conductor, The arc resistance of a conductor can be {kc'f:[!sed by changing" the snHpe of the .cross" section, A rectangular conductor bas inncTcntly lower ac resistance than <) 'rOLIn.a conductor because of .itsgf~~aler surface: per unit cross-sect loual area. Since a rectangular eonductnr has less 'ac resistance Hnd lessinductance th an H IOlIVl d conductor with the s~rme cross-secriona l area, j t is, J;l h~tt e r high-fn.:quency CO.ilQUch)r. Flat ~ln!r;' or b.t:~.idan':· therefore c-qmmonly Us{"d a~ around conductors even in relatively Iow-Irequeney ·tl"r~.u~lS.. Equation 5-5 can also be used 10 dete.rminc: the nppruxirnaje ac resistance for anyshune conductor by letting .d
p'(~-r~ meter = --~~----

liys1en:;'\'iis Loss in the: ferrite material. Figure 5-1.5C shows the sCflcmilllic
~SY1.nI~l)i used for ferrite b'l:ads_Mo!\t bead manufacrurers ·"¢Vn1pb'.i":iemts spc.cifyfn.g_[he m<tgnitutfe'of the impedance by ~e magi1illJd~ bf tile impedance is given h~r cltS.t.:l.clcrize their versus frequency

(5-7)

'of cross. section

(5-6)

1 aductance

.whcre R is the equivalent resistance of the bead and LtS the equivalent , Figui'C ~)-1"6shows data on two fCltTile beads, Bead number 1 is prim<lnly resistive in the frequency range of 10 to' lOti h;lHz.whI;Tca. bead -numher 2 ]S primarily ~nduccti'i,le in- this. frequency nmg![:',.

FERRITE BEADS,
is ;~ ~~tleric. term far a class of nonennductive 'ceramk~ consisting or comh]nat,an~~ of oxides of Iron, cobalt, nickel. zinc magnesium, ami some rare earths. The varlet}' of Ierritcs available is large because each manufneturer tHO}; developed th',~t" m~'n oxide composition, No' two rnanufacturers use precisely the ::;'<Imccombinarion; therefore [JluJt]pk .sourcing of Ierrites is diffienlt. Ferrites have (me major adv,int,ige .over ferromagnetic materials: hi.gil"el.edric<11 I(;;'-istivilY which results; in loW eddy-current losses up into the gigahertz frequency n:mg~. in ferromagnetie materials ..eddy-current losses increase withthr;; square' of the frequency, Because of this, 'in ml'!,ny hi.gh-fn;:.qllenl·Y applications, i:'l:rrites[lJe the material o:f choice. Ferrite
I
I
I

;00

I
Ii3EAtl2L

/'
V

.....r
I

II
I ,

V
~
.

/'
I

/e.EAO-;

Ferrite beads provide an inexpensive wa~' of addir<G lligl1-fi'cquenc}' loss in "JJ circuit w.i.thoul introducing powe, loss, at de no low frequencies .. The beads are small and can be itlSlalled simply hy sllipping them over a compoucnr lead ~lr tOllductor. 111ie beads arc most effective in prq('\l~ding alte-rH1Hli-rm of
unwanted signals anrJvc "I Iv.IHz, When properly used, Ihcse beads' (:IIr1 pn.)\'ide high~frequency de(,;ourlir~g, parasitic suprrcs~ion .. and shielding .. Figure 5- iSA shows .a. small c:yhndrical ferrite beadmstaltcd on' aconouctor, and Fig'. ::I-ISB shows the high-frequency equi'v:ilLcrll c-L"rcni-t-a'n inductor in series Wilh :.t resistor, The values of both the resistor and the inductor are: dependent on fn.::~~LIenH:!j'. The resistunec-is due ~o the high-Irequency

./"

,
I

....._ V l
'I

..L

~,

I
I

//

/
10
FREm..llENGl IM

I
E~AH'EJiTzl

2i!O]

.•

",[_.,

.fi."r\l'.r,r,e

fl.Ii[l1C .5-16. DlU(I[OJ'


ber.'<t.

If

prif1'i~lti'Y

re.jt.s~"il~f.. (head 1 J ftTrll't~ b'lrad mid pJ'}nliirily

jl.iJ/w::tille· (/}~(Ui 2

154
Ferrite beads are especially effective when used. Ito damp out highfreJqi:icm':)"',oficmm:ionsgenerated by switching rransienrs Of parasitic resonances within <I dr.cuil_ They are aisQ' uselutin preventi ng trigh-frequency iIIpise from. being conducted om 'of O'I into a circuit. The amen u ation provid .. by a bead dcr~c:!1ds on ih e load and the sm:u:ce' ed impedance of the circuit containing the bead, To be. effective, the bead must add a significarrt amount of impedance 10 the eircuit at the frequency of interest. FOT applications where the loadJmpedance .i. hi:gh, the 'effectiveness of the head can be increased by l,t)'iKering the loadImpedance by the addition of a 19.w inductance bypass capacitor; .

155

lOG~G 6,ATE

LOGRC

VLL=
VlV
wm .. !OUfil"
18EA'O WI.TIH !lEAD

CO'ATE;

..~ f:U:I'r ,f!i.gll~1! ~-] .8• R'·eSls,n~~.-~ "Ui!:'bead u~t'd'v•.. dflmp· Ot1t ri'~gtl1g {)fl' .rt;JIl~ Itfll! .bd~~',~~fI l.r~gic~j"jti!S. . " - ." .rd., ,. . . .,. .

Sfnce the impedence ota single bead is ]lmil~pjtoabout l00 U; beads are most effective in Iow-impedance circuits such as. 'power supplies, class C
pow:e:r .atnplifiers, resonant circuits, and SCRsv.'i~c'hli'igdrcuit8. If
.:1

bead does not provlde sufficient attenuation, multiple turnstcanbe on a singh~.bead, or mult.upie b(:;~,t;ls1::,<1.[[ he usc.d.

.Slingl'! placed

·'99.tput ~~g,nal on a high h armou ic frequ r;:.~cy diue. ;19._the p [lF~.~i.ticresonacr 'd-r~i.iit of capacitor C and Inductor L In tins. case the. mduc.:an~e (If ~h:e_be.ad
is used to force the harmonic t!urrent to fiow throlUgh the' "U"i~ r~~ilSrq~a.nd, be-dissipated as heat. At the desired Clper.~tjng_frequ:nC'y '~h,eimpedance of tbe head is low and ~mvid.es. a shunt areuud the Fe:Sl ~t(j~. _ . ..' .. Figure 5~2'Oshows two ferrite beads mounted on a pnnt_e?mclllt b~"Td, . The circuit is pan of the horizonral output for a color television set, and the 'beads .are used to surtCss·~arasitic o5¢illa60n~.. • .._. ." ., Yet another application tor ferrite beads .]S shown ill Fig .. J-2~, ~tgu:e

Figures 5-17 th.mu:gh S-20 show some typical ap pli cations of ferrite heads, In Fig, 5~17 the inductiee eharacrerlsde of ~'{;;'beads is-used to' form HF! L -.(~ filter to keep s~gnats from the.high-frequency oseillator out of the load. A bead with resistive char:a.ctetisti cs could also ha ve been u~ed to form ~j high-frequency R~C filterwithout redl..l,cing the de voltage to the Ioad. 1(1 Fig, .5-18 a resistive beadis U!~edto damp. om ther:inging: generated by a Ipng inrereormection between two fasr IOW'cgates, . Figure 5-19 shews a Class C power ampli fier whiCh has 1I:ilIlJ1 nwaatcd

S:-2'.1.A .shows a de: se:rv~)motor


I-ligh-frequency

connected

a:

(HOlm

(.'Outrol .cireuit.

INDllGTlVf
.-._-._" ,~ .... -. .1'. FERF.lffE· BEAIDS

.cornmutation noise from the motor i.5 hc:ing eonducred Ol~l oil'the motor shield 011 the motor Ieadscand then l'ad]lHed~Tom the. lead s 10 ,jnteTfcr.(.~with other 10w-l(:v\l circuits. B~C"Vl~Cof acceleration rcqull'eme!lb , ...'l' ~:. .•.. ~.,.' d· T~e sohrtion on the motor .. 'n~:SJ~tan0ecannot be inserten In tnemoter ~ears. ··u ~. . ... in this C'(1Slewas to add two, fcrite beadsand two feed~tit!(lugh capacnors ~\.5

POWER: 8UP'PL 'j'

LCtAO

-~1
I

HI'I]:HFREQUENCY
·QSC'ILLATOR

'lIN).
l...-C:- _mf(!T to. k,t'.f!p!
JJi.gll f:r'equeil~ies llW"«,Vfn:JlJl ~11~'

p·ARII.SiTIC C -T-CAPACITANCE.

_1_

_J

I.

forut_

iFl~u:E"e5.-l7 .. Ferrite. tJ·":m! U$f.:d to form

fIn

*Mi.Jl'tIplc tums· increase tile p.iI'~a:,o;i~~c capacitanee make. the: bc:(;,dl.e:ss,. efii::cl.i,'C:.

IICrG~ ~i:I.c be:ad,

"no. at

b:igh-freq-U!~I"K)' may

Figure

5.19.

Ferrin:

IWJd ..a.rld f".s~!i:rr·

U.H!,J

to a.a·tt.!p ol!l'l pai"milic' vsdllar.r()11

if I Class (. -p;nw.er

"'~tr21t .I:wgt!_

~lJMMARY

.B;igLrre 5".,~Q, B:eaiJ~ ins.ml/eil'.rll ~'CdCfl rVmr


,t:i~I~.t,.

to

Sllpp.r~M ().(:l)'",~si(.i,(: '()!it.;ill{li~fji!:\·n hf)rl~rmtal I

Oilfptfr.

MOTl9H G'O'~,rTRdL
GIi'liCUI1

DC
S;';tl.\!(l

~OHj[~

RN~IATED

Fl!;u~~ .s~.2~.Feriite· f:1iIJiJ,~ mi/J l~ai-.tiil'(jlJg/l ,Ci;lplidrors flS·r,r/· to


.
SHIEL~

..

~
rea;;ffi.f.;

~~
n~oJor commWarr.on n'bise'

NQISE

OTHE·R
LQW

i.'o.trp[lllfil

w p'Ol~P-' kmk

LEVh.
·CiR:CfJI15

'SbO~VlJirt Fig .. S<HH·, A photograph of thc rnotor with f~rtute' b€':a~1~<tind rced-~hl'oU'gh capachors h also shown in Fig, 5-22. ·W:heu using ferrite beads in circuitswith de current, :CJl:r~ must be tak~n to gu~i:rant(:;;t::' that th~ cuerenr dor;:j; not cause Klth:ltatlon or· t~c[enit~ Since. ft:eIT~le beads rae inductive, they 'shQulfd not be used i.ndbcrimihi '~Clme lQc;:,~t~ons[he:y do more hatm than ._goc)ci; they can. ,thxffl~e:lves p[oduU: unw:ank;d re:S(Gl'l.tnc'!O~. in '21 eircait when misappli ed. 'However, when:;app1:iet:l p.r:o·pe·,ly theyt:fiu~e j ve,ry slmple, ,et)b;tive.,~nd in~);:pcnsive means torednce no]~c am:],pa[~8iI~:c oseillatioa,
m[.•~.n:a L t

CQNI:RiOL C!8GLJIi

M0'l'OFI

:'t,mn}Fi.

SEflVCY

DC

[lately.

may'

OTHER

GJAC;uH:5.
.B
·Figlll1!1~

LE'\IEL

V)W

SUlMMIARY .E[e1ctwlyti;cs
.. Ane<lpw;ik1il'S,

dt'CjjU1~ .{B)

.Fll. (A.): Hj*'l7J~~'qm:i2r:.\1,-',mtl!lml~<rltl'm lWi$e oj" #W\fOr ii in r,erftrin.:r' ~'ilh .lrJ 14'-18V8i beads ~!~·~:d WtJiw1c~fmi l:<i 11!1·lh fe~d-d~N)tlgh i:aP"(fCjJ,,~f5 lO e!imjfJm~ fme.rf~r.f!I~f'.~:"

ale low-frltqueney {;araeito.,~" become [;,(lrF-resQntmt ,lit SQm~ frequency


.

whi-ch 'iimhs

~hiCil! bigh-:freq~cm:y use. ·

,iii, II'

Mica arid 'eeramlc material

are good

hi-gh-fmr;jue:ncy

capadto.r.:~_ "

Air core .induClOrl'ig~r1en~te. more noise jj,e.ids than do clo,sedrna"m::!tic


core inductors. to interfering
h)

I. An elect m~~t~til: shielded transformer is used mduce coupling between the windings. I. A U types have the s arne amount of tl~e rrna I noise: I. Variahle resistors in low-level circuits. should be placed so flows throu gh th ern, I. Even at l.ow freq ucncics a normally has'
TCSj~t~~lr

• ~agm;tic core j~dut;tor.s are more susceptible fields rhan the au coreJnductors.

magnetic: capaci t]ve

SHI,E,ILD1NG

tb~i1nude inductive and Induct-

cQuH.hl(;tU["

abort

re actance

than resistauce,

I. Ferrite hrZilC;h. can Wi!11011Jt i1HfO(hlclng


BIB LI 0 G AAiPHY

• A ilaLn::IGl;.iJtigulav ccnduetcr will have Jess ac resistance a11C~, than a roun d. cross section. he '"used teacd high- freq ue ncy a de 1015S.
_l~l\~S:

lu a

CI[CU

it

A shield ]S ametallic part.itionpktl'lCd between n"/I.~ fl:ginns otspace, .it is used to eontrotthc propagation of electric ~Jnd magnetic fields from one Clf the regia ns to (he other: Shields m J)I be us,cd. to co ntain eleetromagneric fi.,~lds. if the shield surounds the noise SOU1'£e .1S lihoWTI in .fig. 6-1. Thi!:i GQnfirgurat.lm.~ pnwides protection far all' snscepeiblc equipment loeated (~I,i~fiidethe shit::ld_ A shield may also be used to. keep electromagnetic J(I)diatitMlI-tmt nf a region .. as shown in Fig ..ti~2_ This provides protection only ,fot lht: specific equipment contained wlthin the shield, From an overall $Y.ste,fi'l5 point Of view, .8,hiddfllg the noise sonrcc is more c:frident than ~hiic.lding the. receptor. However, there are cases where the source mU15t he ;aJ~IQw~d to radiate {i .e_ broadcast " s1i:at:~(Jn~} and the 'shiel ding otindi Vidual

Campbell ~ R_ H., Jr -, and CI~ ifm~a.il ~R. A,'" oise Irom. C'u.'ITI'mt,;Ca.rry i ITg Resisters, 2U-SOO'KC_'" Prol:e!!:J.iJigs of the UUS, vol, n August 1949, pp, 93&:-942:_
Costa,

Decem her 1%1.


1',

D.

P. "Rr;']

Supp~\eSSLOI\, Part

U .' ,. El.rcfrolner:ha!'1fc:al

De:s~f{n, vol.

11.

recepto rs 111<1 y be n ecessary H. is 0 r lun!e value to rna ke .a shield, no; ttl arter bow\;vt! I designed, Olm:l' then allow electromagneric energy to enter (orf;':)[]l) the enclosure by an 'alternative path such as cable penetrations. Cahks will pick up noise on one ·side: of lhc shield and conduct it to the otaer side. where 'it wif he:
;rt:;..ndlat:ed_, In order to maintaiu the. integrny of tt'bc shield enclosore, nolse voltages should he filtered from-all cables [hal penetrate the shield, This ;.~pp] i,~s ~flo pO,weJ ell blcs as well.as si gQ"ll~cables. Cab lc shields tha t pc nctrate I @!' shielded end ~~S III ust be b OIiiled [0 rhRt en closure in ordc r 10 prevent urc Tlo.ise ~~ollplirag' across the boundary,

Co~'(JclL~ R_ H:'_ "Don't

Jtme

1~'6(J,.

l:::xperLme:[lt with Ferrite Beads.'

Ele,(1.rvnic Design. vel. rr, .

Danker, W85.

B_

<~YmposilII1l

«New Methods to Decrease Radiation frnm Printed Circuit Boards." Ild, OIl Elcctrotnagnetic ['...0 tn rati hhl ity, Zarich, Switzerland, M arch ;;-7, .
M, Hi:eJ, and Variable
(Alf_mciwl:J,

Dumhl:r,
Henney,

G, _W: A., and Nordenbe~~,H, [\''lc(,nnv-H,l.l. New York, 1960.

NEAR FIIIELDS AND FAR FI;E.l,OS .

N;;;\\' York

K, .. and Wa]~h. C_ £le~:lH;ml;' ('oi11,p'oil.rms H(tndbook_

1957'_

VoL. 1_ M~{.lraw-HiIL

rer;:

'f,ffetn:~c:e. Dam ii)t {fa";;Uo' IlbS, p, 6-11:

1~r.lkiI1;~'r.,·.

5th ed, Howard

W- Saws, New "fmK"

R,osle'k, p, .M. "Avold December .6., 1974_

\"Iidtlg-Trldt.l(t~"mot: .rrob~e:I.m_" f:lf!dn: .. ic Dl:!sign; v6L ":;0: n _:. ,

Ski~l~l]g, H. H, Eieart«. 't'rW)Smi.5.sion Lines. McGr-a.w -I:-mt. New York. 1951.

Whalen, J ,.J" 'and Paludi, C "Computer-Aided Analy"ls fir Elel:tJunic CirGlli.s-tl1e N~~c~ l() Jnchrde P.am'$Wk !SJements." imem.srionaU ()u.maf oJ Ek-clrm,~i.cJl, vot, 4._\!., [10._, November PJ'77..

'The characteristics of a field art: determined by the source, the media snrrounsting the ~ouL-ce"lmd the di'St.mncc he tween the ~·rn.lroean? 'thcrClinu nf observation, AI a point close to the source; the field' propnrties are deteunine d primarily by the ~·n urce ell ~l"rat;:tI::Fist Far from t he sou rcc, the ics, properticx of the' tldd depend mainly on the medium through which lh~l!1eld ]:5 propagating. Therefore th~~space surronndlng a souree of radiation can ,)12 broken into two -regiolils_. as shown in Fig. 6-3, 'Close to the source is the IiC<Lr. Of induction. fleld. At :l distance greater than the wavelength ("A) divided hy 2rr (a.pprox"imatdy oIlK~-si~lh' a wavdt:ngt~i,)i~ of the. far. 01 radi utio n . fie kl. oj" tn: region a wunJ A l2rr is the lr:) Els,ition region he tween lh I! near ami fa; Adds, The ratio the electric Ilc1d (£) to the magnetic lield (If 1 is the wave

or

159

6 " SiHIEI..DiNGi

SI-lIIELO'

1NOE:XT ERNAL FIIELD

Figu~"" ,~-L S:hi,dd @plku~Im1' Iv.1Il~e. ,jJ e.quipmelll owside lh·~·.\·hid,d.

1&,OJ\~

.~(mrCt'

fs

Gmmrinf.1u, PJ'~~l'fltill~

i"~retfeIWJf'l}

wi!~1

..__ - - -TRJi.NSIT'IDN Rt!G1ClI>i

impedance. "Ell the far fie~&d this T:nio· E! H equals, the: characteristic impedance of the medium (e.g., E fH = Zn = 377:n: for air crr free space) .. In lhc near field the ratio js determined by theecharacteristics of the source and the di~hU1lce fro;tn' the source to where the field is observed" If the source has high cerrent and low \'0 Irage 0( E! H « 3T1.), the near Ikld is ·fJ~edominantly magnetic, Conversely, if ~heL SOUFCe. has 1.Q.v ~UtlJellt aJtd high voltage '(£1 H >'377), the uear .field :iN pn~dl')m.;l1amtly .electric. . For J rod 'O[ straight wire anrenna, the S91Hce imr~d.ai'icc 6$ high. The

sOtlRe!;;

..2. -rr

F:igl.l!£"C 6.3.;

Fidd dJa/"llL'.r!:r d-eP'l!fl.dC'>n tIm o

.di$I"II/JC-(!

from

ilu: source, 11!e.· transition

fwm

rhe

IIP-flf"

.{O_fUf field oci-IJT~

lit n i2,".

wave impedance near the amenna-pwdr)miiMl1Jly

an electric .field-is abo

~:K

lK

SHIELl:)

SOURCE

NOISE.

iNTE.RNAl
'F~ELD

NO

L.._

TRA.N.S'.T.·.I'.QN __ REGION

.J i

MAG"'JEHC FI'El..!l 'PHE[)OMINANli . ce 1 (r3, E 0::11r2

---.-.----.-.N£AR
'.~ L:

i'1r.:UI.--.-----~--.., ..

F,""Fl FIt:Lq_.-.-

[Lq5

~----'O-1-~---~----;:of:·:--~-~, o;::--~--------s'5.!J c
'.• ' DIS,IANGEfAOM sb1J~'l;CE ~OHMA~IZE;Cii to h

l~-,c
M1li::l. wfJ·r,rhf.r ~m
~!jl;'

fi"i~l!Il1"e, 6~2. Shi)~IiJ i1ppHclil1l',m ~"l<::r,e J:fJ,ri.'rjeretlce ,:t(:qy.ror· Lr.o PJ"('~'efUniiis.~ il"Jji [I'rafi"ol'j,

Is N'elllem~d" .by pf£l'C;il1,f[ 1r" ~'I:r[dd (ltormd

(1

fil'i:ll.rel~.4.

WMt~ imp~~dIlIlO;:f.:'Jqn'ildj JTi·f!&neric.

'OJ":!Illt~

di<ilcmc·e [rom Jbt

somu

Jreid

i~

etearsc. or

,j

S'H.lIELDlNG;

163

increased. the electric field loses somoof its intensity ·as lt generates a complementary magnetic field. In the near field .the elecrrle field attenuates <It a rate of (1lri,wher,efls the magnetic field attenuates El~ a I21te of (il d.T1h IlS the wave impedance . from .t straight wire amen na decreases with :dis;tance and asymptotic all~j,approaches thejmpedance . of free SP;icr: in the far field ,as shown in Fig_ '6-4_ FOI' a predominantly magnetic field=such as produced by Oil,. loop 111gh As distanceis .. .. tenna-cthe m w~v,e' impedance near theantenna is low. As the distance from Increases. the magner! c 11 eld a ttenua tes :at a rate of { 11 r) j,. and the electric field .attcnuates at a rate of (liryl. Th[1 wave impedance therefore increases with distance ·,md approaches. that of free space at a. distance of A f]; rr, hi the. farfie ld both th e 'c lectric .and magnetic fields, attenuate a taraie oil' ] /L In the i1J~a:rfield the e)l,eC'~r~c nd magrl~lic nclds, must he cons.ide:n::d a aeparately, since the r,t~Jo of the, two is nOi:COn~tfllnt In the tar field, hnwo::veT, they combine to form a phine wave Itmving an impedance of 3~'1U. Therefore. whe [I plane waves a Fe discussed, they H]1e assumed to be in the far field. When i'ndividuflrl.electdc and magaetic.ftclds are- discussed they arc assumed to' be i~~ Tl (;:·11'[ field, the

'F . f ree; :.p.acez' equals 3'77 (' .•. In the ca."c. of cUr/ducto. rs (IT ~2'_"!·w~). the ... sn ~or ~n ,.,,, . :H Jl_ . .... .. e", ..' shield _ charactensttc _. -. dan ., IS ca'1'11-1 the .,1'" ·t- im oedartce. Z r and 'be:l;;omc~ trnpe "Ince. Z.=,J~.
.1

Ij{!)P.
(II

;~

~. tiiJfi·· " ;;;: .. '-. ,1+1)


,

2u(T

. IZll·= \-rWf..t ....

(6-4b)

the

~Q~Dfee

For ·copper at1 kHl, 'equals 1..I.6x w-~ !~L~l.:l.bst.Lt~tiIlg nuenerical -t.'alues lor 'the constan ts of Eq. 6-4b .gi vcs the t.oU~wm--gl!esu.I'~~:
{6-5a)

Iz ..1

for a!urninum,

12.-1 = 4.71
For steel,

x Hl

7'vj -

(6-5b)

IZJI = 3-68 x lO-'~'l/f .


CHARACTEIRISTIIC AND WAVIE
IMPEDAjl'\lCES

(6~5.c)
(If VariO~I$

Tabla

6-,1

Re~Ejti;vB Conductivity

and Poermellbility Relative conductivity

Ro:;:lativc. pc:rmt:ahiHty
~l.,.

D ieleetric .cons rant, (\:m~l!cfj , vity For any electromagnetic

Permca bi Illy ,

11{4 ... X 10 ) H f m for free space) . ~(8.85 .x AU l ~F! I.U for frc-c space) ,. (!{.5,82 x ]ij~mhos/m for copper) _
wave, the wave impedance
7..= H. ,

Material Silver C{)pper~al'lr:lI~alcd Gold Chromium

u,.

lA'l.i
0,7

i.oo
fJ.M4 0_61
UA 0,32

1 1
1
I

is dc:lined as

..

(6-1 )

AI~rtlinum (s"it:t) Alu.m:ir.l~ml (rcrnpered)

2.i[lG
Beryllium

1 1 1 1 1
Hll)

The characteristic impedance df a medium is: defined (Hayt, 1974) by the


follow,ing expression:

Brass,
Cadmiut'H

0_28 1126

0.23
0,,20 0.18

Nickel
Bron z:c

1
1

III thecase of a plane wavein the far fi.eld, Z" is also equal 'to the wave impedance Z,o. For insulators fa-·-_q(fJ{=) the characteristic impedancc'il:i
inde penden
t

TIn

P'l-a~~ num
Stet:! (S.AE 1045) Lead
MOIlt;l

(UB 0.15
(Ut1

1000 :!SJlOO

1.1.08
0,(]4

M frequency

and becomes,

(t kHz) Ml:lm,eHll (l kHz) Stainless steel (430)


Conctic

c.ns
'0.03

1 1

0.:02

lD,nOO

soo

1:64
'SI-IIELDIt-iGi ElFIFECT!VeN~SS 1165

For any conductor, ingeneraj,

jz,l

=.

3,68:< W

TV

rtr

:Y Vf.r

:s:h,ielding,pf{)dllce.d by various ·sl.l.ielding. ~hicldirlg effectiveness (6-5d) (l..t,) and

e;ff.ccts to he' aucled to' (:)bt~.ii1 the (S)i~ defined for electric .fieldS'" ,is dB.,

total

B S = 20 log· .r;0
L.l

(6-6)

Rltrrc~e.n~<1ti:ve Va.II!l~5. t~f the ['dative permeability cOndl.l!CtlWLy f&r) are listed i.Ii Table 6-L

thc:, Telath.:"t
S= 20 l.o.g
. .'

SH IElLmlNG

iEiFFIIECTIVENESS.

. llg, EI

dB "

(6-7)

TI~c follow.iug sections discuss shidding 0"f[c:ctivel1ess in both the ncar <lnd far fkld::;, 'Shielding dfCcLi~'cnes:s can he determined bv analvzins l.Irrc pIoblen~ In either of two ways. n.ne method is to"'I.JSC .drcui:i theo;'y, m::d th~ ·:e.eond·lSo h) use field theory" In the circuit theory appm~i~.h the- uolse l1:ei.ds 1.~dUJL.'t: currents ]11: the sbir;:ldlS; and these ru:ncrltl) in. tum gellCntte <lCiditinn<ii fi~ld~ that tcn~l t(l.~am:e]the di'i'gill~~rfidd:s .cclila.il1 regions, An ex,,~mple or in this IS shown in Fl.g_6.~, For most rufilhi:5 chapter, however. we aJ(Jpt the more fundam ental hdd the(Jrya:pprdac h _

In {he preceding equations, Eo(l'i(!} is the incident field ~lfr:n~th. and E~ ~HJ)
,is the field strength of the transmitted wave as it emerges from the sh)dd, . In the design of a shielded enclosure, t~E;re are hvn prime considerations: (1) the shielding ·effe(;.tivene~, of t~e ~~~eld'm.'itcrla], i~~I[" ~?d{2)~ the shield.ing effectiveness dlut"e to discontinuities. and holes m th.e ~Jndd, Th, .... .se t~ro hems are considered separatelyin thi:s chapter. . First, t:he shielding effcL'1dvene&~'of a s(rlkl. shield with 0.0 seasns Dr holes· is ,(let(:~nined, andthen the effect ofdiseontlnuifies and holes is:consldered, is the 's:l:Jidd:ihg effectiveness -of the apertures that u,-",uaUy etermines the d soverall $,h~eldiing effectiveness >of a sll:i.el~1,not the lntriasie s,hie.hJi"ng effectiveness PiE the sl.lie]d material. . Shielding effectiveness varies with frequ(;:,nC:J'~ ge.omctry of shield. position 'within the'~:h::ield where the field is measured, typ:i; qf' field being attenuated, ':direction ofinc'lidencc, and po~::tr]:m.ti(n't·, 'Ibis section will consider the shielding provided by a 'plane sheet of .,'Cd,~~ud]ng material. T~iS_ Si~~lpl~ .ge·o.mctry serves 10 -int.roduce· general s.!:il.eldmg 'C()i~!cepfi5,and ~h'!w;:,_· w~m:h rnaterial properties determine shielding effectiveness, but docs not include those .effr.;c.ts:'due tIC) the' g¢olue.try of thesh ield, The resuhs of the plane sheet celculatioas ate useful for estimaung the: relative $,I\:ieidillg' ability of v~rinlJl5 nratcrlals, T~C1 types of loss are. encnentcred by an electromagnetic: W<~VI;; srrsking.a metallic surface. The .wav,eispa:n:.i<lU;' reflected fl'\0111 the surface, and tire t',3IE.'Is,miUeJ. nonreflected) ( portion is attenn ated as h passes through the

wm

rt

Sb~tdd:iltg can bespecified ill 'lr;rms of .the'reduction in Inagnetit.:. and/or '~<lu~ed try the~hictL It is convenient to express this sh~.eldmg t::fkctweuess rn i.HiJit':; of decibels (dB ).~ Use of dB tb~fI permits the
d~ClFI:t,; field st:ength

medium. This latter effect, called ebsorption or penetration loss,i~ the same
""--INDUCi:JD CURRIENt .. IN CONDUCTOR'

INCIDENT" MAGHHIC FI"'ILD .

....

,.'

.'

~'

in either tbe near or' the fal.' field and. tor 'electric orm,a;gnetic' fields. ~eftectior1l loss, however, is dependent on the typ·e. of held. and the wa v.e impedance. .. " The tntalshielding effe:ctive.oe·s.s of a material IS equal to the sum 0'. tile absorption loss (AJ plus the retk'ctionloss (R) pl~s a cl(mec~i~m~a"c:tW (B) tcaccount [or tnultiple reflections in thin shields. Total ::;h1ddm¥ effec-

tiveness thereJRrc can be written as


'6~5. ,C~~~UCriP1g ml'ne·rif!'1 carl Pr~J'j-dlf:' magtJi!J~C _shie/dirrf{. Tlw. fI1C.id~1"II 'mJ~m',~ic fMd 'l~d~ICli.'; ~ll rreru: m. Ih<J 'C{J,:ui[,[c.r.j']r prod~(~mf, , iff! .u(1{J~:\·mgMM c(jn~-d the iudlip.lLf /fMii In .r.r~~, region enclo.\·.,.;,d h}' the shit~J'(r ~~~r~

'.0

S~A+R+B
All the terms in Bq, 'i)-B must be expressed

d.B.

(6-8)

,f,ictnr'"B can be negl.cclea if the absorption

in dB. The m ul t.ipJerefliectkm loss Ais greater than 9 dB ..From

it pmcti ca I poiIn of view, B ell waves.

also be nc~le;clid for electric fiel ds' a'nrl plane


Ctlppe.r (in.) A~~tntl"ll:lm.

-(in.) 0..421)
0.333

Steel {ill.)

'Ml!metal

(ill_)

ABSORPTION lOSS
When an ele{;"~rom~q:~lne~ic -~;,'avei:l<I'SS¢S thrpug)~a m(:di~lm its ampritude ohmic loisst~$ andheatIilg

60UZ

0335

Ill{ll'iz· 1 kH.z
tOkHz 100ikHz

0,260
IW82

decre:a.::;c.s,eXpolletiti,:dly (Hayt, 1974las,~bo:wrl in. Fig, 6-6_. This decay occurs.


because CUrrcntE. Indnecd in the me.d.iilffi preduce lof the material. Therefore We can write

~1~26:

0.0080.003,
OJ1{198

WMHz lUOMHz (6-9)


(D'-W) ]O(mMH~

~ MH.z

1),·lUS rU1G3 0':.011 (1,003

OJl34 OJJ26 0_008


0 .. ([1' 0 '[J',!J(MJ8 0:,OOU3

n.014

l,l.no~

e.ou

and

Q_000!26 OJ;)OOOS

OJXH .0.00:1.1
(1,0001.

OJlOOl 0.0U008
0.000J4

to

/:;1 (HI) is the wave intensity at a distance' t within the medfra, .15 shown in Fig" 6·6. The distance required for the wave ttl be auenuared to 11e or 37% of its ori:girm] value Is dd'ined as the .skin dqJth~ which is equal
where

1(()(I

1(1

I I

'--zb= \/-. ..
WfUJ

m ."

(6-1h)

!m

·.1 .1
I

,
I

!NCI!;;N;;;NT I""IE'LO

~TA.§NGIH.
~Ol

r------~-~FROM EDSE.
--~, t t!lS,TANCE

::Z.

a
til
o
Z
-I

-..l

R:E;MAi'NflNG : FIELD STREit. GTIi, 1--""" E 1

'6Q

0'

PERMEA.BILI'TY CON.EllJ.CTI Vi tv

t<
ill"

~ 0: ~ .~o OJ «
2

1-.

I
I

----~--Ml;:muM--~---'''v_-

_L

It"
I

,V

,/

L.

,V'

V
,

lL
-

/1

I
I

!!J

oLL
{)L-.'

.L
1),2

(1.1

OAl 4_01 6..0

UJ
10

1_0

2_-0

8_01

RATIO till' iHICKNESS. I

I "JrO'SKIN DEPTH, b
[/j~'·

fig"U.~· 6-7, A/iI·urprii.u.!


-

J'(}.'I;.~

i;: rm..lPQ-rrli)Nal ~o rlre ·r!)i("we.~\".\~U'hJ' l'm.'l.np!y pm!}0r.'~{tJU11 w


fIlII

PIST A"lt:!:;. f HOM EOGJE,~' ~ially,

ski» t[~'plil v/,lhl' me,llllnJ_


WCWt".L

TJri:j' p'lo.r

be rii~<!d/(If' t'11i"{:tJ;.i'l'lir:!df..

mar;,m"lle jll'l(H',

~.I·"

f~lm!l'

ifig:nt,~ ~pt."

E(ec:lramil:J;1,erfc

~Wj ~ v

p'l1.;;,~i'~g tlmnl./th ,an ~~);ror{)i;'ilJ·.m~di.tlm· is tmemuu~d

;~xi~ltJJe.t[-

S_lI5Iem} arc used,

~Skln dep,t!! GJ.k:uJ~tedb!l' Eq,' 6·Ua .Is, iii merers when the

(:Ilil~!;'lms

li~[cd Oil p, 162 (MKS

167

6 - SHISa;.prUG;

.. ·~()'get

h [I

idea .,pf~"ypi.(;r.d~ki11 !3l,cptl:l~for

real materrnts,~,q.

6~].~11",cmt!bc
]··.'t·

one skilm-depUI (hide is appwxmt(1td~r :9 dB. [lc!uhilin:g the thtckness

of the

:r'.r:.vtsed, I',' ,l'

b(i;~:i.nU:~.'.riJgc. :n.. m.eric.al values u L' ' sxm .'"e phi 1s Hl~m::he.s' gives
s.··.u.

fur '.' wand

a: "J~d". cri:an.<rili]··g 'u'[] e ' .,

s''" H. '.'0 ..,. . ul e .


.><.

(6-11b)

sbidd doubles the Joss In dB. Fig;u.re 6-7 ]S. a plot of.ahsQ.rpt.km [Of.1~ i:1.'i dB ve10US_ th~rtlti~J tio. Thls .. eurveis <lppHc:a~b~e plane waves, ·~Iccllic fields, ormagnetic fieldSl. 'to Subs~itut~ng '6-Hh il[l(o Eq, G-i2b g~yesthe foB.O'I.l;'.Utrg, Eq, .cxP'rr;_'-sslon lor ll~e ab~QrpfiQnloss, .

Some representative skin dl:pt~~ fOf,c.oppe.r,. alunnnurn, m.umelaJ are liMed. in T,ahle 6~2. . Thcabscrption loss tm-oug,h a shield can now be \'Iritn~i'!as

steel, wld

3.34t\n;;;i,

dB_

(-6-IIa}

r.n l~i:s:iequat~ol~,.r ffseq u<lil to the thickness (If the ~~Idcl in inehes, Eq lljtio.IT ~.J3 ·shows ttwt the abS(li(pliQ!!'! [Q<$s i-fdB lis p.OportioHa! 10 n'Hn"q tlar~ ro~;}! U of the product of floe penneahi'Hty times t.lle. conch.lJCtlvity ,Of tl~e .shield U'[(.l tcriaL Table 6-1 lists the rel.a1i:ivecondllc'tivil)i' .mC]permeability (1:[ VH rious ilihldd. mater Ia~ , .s . A:b,sorpt:~on less versus frequency 'i~p'ioHed in Fig, 6~~Ho[ two thlcknei;ses: ~f ~opp.ertt.t1~l steel, As can he 5ecn.a thin .((J .min .] 'sn~:e~ c:oppel' .of n(ovides' ~o;ii:lnufi'CflTlt abS;tl1tNlm~~(.ISS:(tin dB )r ·,at 1 MHz. .blilt vithlaH "~iIJ' no lo~~ ;l t li" ...-. . . 1:' .. ., . , Imq ueneles be]ow 1m'll Hz, Hgure. 6-8. de<lr.ly s'~11()'W£. doe advantage. ,of sr~d @;v:ercppper in pwvidillg ahsorptioaloss, Even when steel is 1l1.sed". however. <I, thicksheet must be 'ur;,erd t(l (1[(),;,-1o,[;:. apPff;)d abre ,~b~orplion loss bduw ·1Q9D Hz_
e;

COPPER

Q.-.12:5"IN,·. THlC ~

Ther~flecfiGn lossu{ the interface between two'm~Ji,1 is i'o;:bted U) the dmct~nce in 'f;;h.3ra~tt:riMicimp(jdan!()i::.." 'bel ween themedia .as S hO:Wi] in Fig. 6-9. TIle' in~en!sityoJ the transnsirted wave from a mediu m wi,th im pedance '21 to amedium w"lit i:I impedance Z2 fHi~yt~ 1974) is
(i.n.~·O,'IN,THI C K
COPf'IER

and

the trassmittedweve,
I

ij"~(H,),!~ the imensh.j' df lhe incident wavp, and Ej"(l-l,) is MH;~' 'imr;;n~~ty01

p:.~1

1[1

~~==~I~=~_"'"*:;=:=:::::~~--...L::-10:2. 1~.. 3iOS


HI ECIUENGY [hi EHTZ ~

J
.-

When a. wave pa8S!1:":~, rough a shield ,it encounters two bC"Junda ~'b ries .. as ~iI;J(~wnin rig . ,t);: 10, The second "boundary l:s between a medi LLm with impedance Z~ and ·.3im~J]um with impedance 2 r- the transmitted w,~v<... 'E,I' (H~,) ·through this bcandary is g~ve;n.by < _

pb~j,C!!ptU)11 loo'S th~n roPP'.f!'cf.Oj" Ihrc' ,\',UfYI't' 'li1ickn("slt.·

Fi:::;u.re~"8.A.b~orp1inli Joss'iHt;m::1$p&

~v.!IJ,i f"!l!"{r~u::!j,c:y

tltUll,'i~h shrd'd fMt,hr~,\'s:


,.

Mfrtr offus more

12g
4;;"]

£1-."

Z' .-t. :'~1

£"

170
,t.,.1 ~D!IJ M 'I'M

AE!FLE:CttON!.03.S

171

EDIUM 2

and
(6-19)

'C

,-,=', ·....1+ ... 2 ","1' ..

2Z. 2-

~()

.li1j~llrt.

IMIPIEOANGIEZ 2

6·9~.An iru.:1d,·('ut .w,~ve. ts f#jtl,!.i.!Uy r({i~~W!1ifr'Oi'i1; uru! pa.rti.zl'ly tMlISti:i.irrerl 1'f1i'O'Ugfl. au ~'J1ierf(l(;i~ b.~JiL'e~JJ: (It'Q nii'Ji~j. T!~e transmitted MliJe is 13,.and th» r..jiet·fL'd

:!".:JY·f.

is: fr'

N ole that even though the electric and liij.agnc[k fields me reflected differ tnUy at each boundarv, the net effect across both boundariesis the same for POl'; fields. U the :shi:~.ldis metalli~ and the sluTouml:ing ~'rea an lnsulator, . {hen 21 ~ Z2' Under these. coudirions the I.arges:~ rf~J'Iec,lion (smallest transmitted wave) occurs 'wl1en the wave enters. the shle ld (first boundary) [or the ease of electric fields, and when the wave leaves shield (sc-colld boen':clary) for the case ofl]1l<lgnetj,~ fields. SinoCe the primary u4"e.clir1H. 'OCCUf,S at
r

~he

and . H,» 22.,.


7,' •

Ih~·fir.~t surface iill the Cas,eo fel,i;Jctric fields ,even very thin ;nfUeriats pro» ide geoid reft.ection loss, In the case of magnetic .t1.eIQs.howe\ ter ,lim!;; primary
reflection
·z· '2 . L.!

occurs 3J the

TiJ

(0-17)

r;eij!~cliom:. W]thi.n the shield: r&di!1Ce theshielding Z;_, Eqs. 6-18 and 6·19 reduce to

secend surf;lcc,. and as will be shewn hiler, muhip:le


effectiveness, Whell Zl~'

If the shiek~ is thick" 'l;:';Qmpar,e(j! to (he skill depth, the tot;)1 tnlfl$mllt,c,d wave intensityis fouii d by substitu ti fig Eq s. 6·1 i IIInd 6·'t5 'j n to Eqs, 6-1>6and 6-17 , respectivety. This. neglects the absorption.lo",s,whi~h has been accounted for previousfy, Therefore; for thick 1lhie.'~ds.the total transmitted wave is

a.no
(6-21)' Substituting
, I..;I

E, = {Z r + Z~)2. E;" •
the wave impedance
1iI~

:'

4Zr£2

Z.,. for 2' •• and the ~hiidc! impedance

Z,

21 the reflectionJoss,

1]r~,gkC:Jjng. multiple reflecaons, foreither

the E or

1M PEl:DANCiE El IELECTRIC ~~.E_o~.~_ FIEI-P .. Er1--"-

~2 ,nl1~ Z1H2 E,g.

._-= E r~

N field can be. wri tten

Hr,-4-·--

._.

dB.

(6-22)

ril'=;O--z

'.

z~· .' .~' . H, +"'2

:2", = lmpedance o:f wave pno:tlO entering the shi eld [Eq, 6.1)., 2;~= impedance ofthe shield (Eq, 6·.5d).
These re.nc:'cti.onIQss equetions .ai'¢f;or a plane. wa ve. approaching the interface at normal iJflcidentc_ If the wave ,1,lPP(O~c~l!est other than nor mal a incidence; the rc~c'Ctionloss increases with the angle cf'mcidence .. The 'H~~'uhsalso apply W other th,a:n plane waves, sinc~~ any arbitrary fi~ld Ci<LH be constructed from the superposition Qf p,~an,e:waves. Theresults also ,,,pplyw aeurved interlace, provided the radius of curvature is much-greater fhau the skin depth.

SHIELD

"Jf 1:1iI.:;· .silieh::l·ls 1l00t I:fiLCk •. (uulliple tdl;eclio.ils OC'!;m' belw!:=CFil the tW(l. boundaries siJ'ic~ the 'ubso,rpti,oi'l !nss 'in 'the shlc ld i~ sms II.. (S~~ tile sectioll "MUltiple Reflections: ill llli.li Shields").

17'2: RJefliecUon

'6

- ShUEILDINQ.

173

Loss

to

PUane Waves

] n the ca~e', of a plane wave (far field)', the wave impedance Z,,_eq uals the charactenshc,::rmped,a.nce of f:',cc5patQe Zw (377 (1)- TI1erd'oFe Eg." 6-2~ bocom~ , R=201og 94.25 -.-

!Z~i

dB.

(6~2Ja)

There_f

OJ~'f

the Iower the .i>J:1rieh.l ii'D'.lpeci"ance;he greater- b. the refie ction loss, t
Bq 6-5dDOF

Subsriruring'

12,.1 and

l'earnangil.lg

E(~. 6-2~,a zives


,

(6-nb)
Fi gure

ahnninum ..and iSt~d. Cnmp~tifig this w1th Fig, (;-8 shows that although
has mere absorption Refledlo.nlo'ss .100ssthan ' copper, it has less reflection loss,

.6- n

is

,J

plot of the reflection

~OS~

for Ihrtlt.m'HeriaI8:

carpe r _
~lcel

hl ·tJheNear fiel!ct

In the near field rherario of the electric fg,e-Id dnr;:. magnetic field is no to longer determined by the. characteristic impedance of (he medium. Instead the. ratio of th.e· electric field to the magnetic field depends more on the characteristlcs :qf the' ~ourc>e (aatennu]. H' the source h,,;s high vcltnge. and lQw, cl]:~n::~t, .tlle wave Hnped~nc:e is ·g;f,r;::a~erthan 377 n,.and the fieldwi.H 'be a high-impedance, Or ·clectric,t'ieId. "If the source has lew vI~Jt~~geand hieh current the wave: impedance will he lessthan 377 fl,. ~Tld the Ilctdwill b~'!l low-impedance, or magnetic, field, '. Since [he lfcflectioU loss (Eq. 6-22) isBi function of the ratio between wave imped ance all J the shi;d d impedance , the r,e.flecti,onlos1S varieswith
'ISO
Ill'
<;j

wave impedance. A. hig;lrr-impedance (electric) field fhcrefcrc has higher reflection loss than .a plane wave. Sirnilerly, a Iow-iropedal1ec(m.1!)gn~tIc) ·field 'bas .lower Te:t1e¢ttio~ toss than a plane W<JiV.e. This is .sh ~~Wr1J ~I1Fig, 6-12 "for ,I cuprer s,hie~d separated frem the. source by. disl<i!nces or 1 and 3() TIl, Also -shown fnl' comparison is rhe plane W.~vc reflection I.ClSS_ For any specified distance between source and ::;,hi.cltl,the threecurves (electric. field" magnetic field, and plane wave) of Fig. ,6.12 merge at the "I[ei~j_ l.uin.cy that makes the separation between source and shield equal to. ).1.2 IT. wh:~fli the spacing is 30 m, the electric andmagnctie field curves COUle' together at a .!req uency I, 6 MHz, The curves shown 'in FiR- .fi-12. arc for point sources producing only an electric field or only a magneticfield ,.Most practical sources, however, are' a .com bina lion of both electric and magnetic fields. Thereflection loss for a 1i[:fictlical source therefore lies somewhere between the electric l).~~cllines and jhe magnetic field lines shown in the figure. Figure 6-12 "shows .that the reflection loss of an electric .field decreases ,.,Iith frC'<l'.u::ncyuntil the separation distance becemes ,\ /2"" Beyond that, the reflection loss is the' same as. for :a plane Wj:!\!'I;. Thereflection loss of a !:magnetic field increases vi.'illiLfrequency, again IlInti~. ~h·~ ,,,epa:ral~Uin dis·tfu~.'ce· ,heeoi'lrtcs A !2-:r;. Then the loss begins to decrease at the same (ale as' that or a plane wave.

.~~r---~------------------------~~--------------~
r =0151
ANGE FROM SOIJRCiE

T.O Stil ELI!:l ~MIETEFiS;f

the the

~
{/l (.()

_200

Q ....:..i Z Q

1511

~Z5'
1(JO.

i=

0';' (,I)'

ti.ii

ALUMINUM

&l
,..J
LL

0
..J

::l;il@O

2J

:2:

75 '50
.25
(Q
,

r' !l,,) w
u; !:t:

'W

0.01
.FFI_EQUIENCY

1{1(J

1()OO

;0,000

IJ 'l'kHz

1.0 KH~

I(lO ktlz FI'l~a~!';NCY

1.0 MH,z

10' MH,~

IJ<IILO.HIEFHZ.) ,I)litgur.: ·6,12. Re,jie..ol.-rl,Qlj Joss ,~IlJ.iyp~: of W'Gve_,

fig:l!l'Jtc ,6",1.1., R~fi(.·i:lfml, loss for 'p!U!:f'~ wa~e$ i~ gr~,(l'lim a~ ~o~" _rr~qtle1-1d~~ tlml JOt' b#:t:J
.C.Q,11dUCli~fIY m(]l,~/r{(fL

iii

if

copper .sh.idd l~tit\:.\' )~;,rJtIn'{I#(~I!'C}'',;tlitmm'e

lr9NJ

the

~Oll~n~ •

6 • Si-IIIELD9NG

1175

Elec1lrl,c Fi:e,ld IReflecUon Loss, The wave impedance due to a poi.n~ source of electric: field 'can .be '~PJi1m;"l[l1l3tt:::d by the foHowing equation when

p'eTmeabililY. The rcflectionIoss intO' Eg. 6-22, giving _ R", or substituting

can be determined .... 2..rjp;,r

by substituting Eq, 6-27

r «: 112r.:
I

= 20 log 4Iz.~ dB ,

(6-28)

IZ·J=·2~' -7:'ltfr
r: is the distanoe f FOl;f.I the SQl1W~ dielectric constant. The reflection Iosscan 6~24 into Eq. 6-22', giving
where

(6-24) the free ::;pace' value of J,L lim =20 log. where r hi in meters, '6-2:9a gives
t.

to

the, SihkW in meters and € is: tlh,e b~ .determined b:~;I~[IbRtitlli:ti!1'g Eg ..

1.97 x 1O-Fyr

IZ,.l

.dB ':

R'~=20~qg8' .r!Z.I·
"1rj€rl,·

dB

( 0-25)

Substitutin-g

Eq, ti-5d for

Iz~jand

rearranging

Eq,

"I R II =~.I .. g' 4,.5 X ]0'1 2q JrlZ;o1

I. dB,

R . = 14.6 + hllog('
'"

fr!(Yr),
Mr

dB-,

where r is ,in .Ilreil,r.:.:ns.Sub'stitlLting Sq. 6~5d for


Eq. 6-2fla becomes

Iz.J and

rearrangingterms,

In Fig. 6~12·the lines labeled "deCH"IC field'" are plots of Eq. 6-26 rOT a t:()ppe:rs:hie1d with r equal. to 1 and 30 m. The equation and the plot represent the reflection loss at a specified distanee 'fW111 a l~oim source ~rodudn'g {)n~y an electric i'lcJ;d. An actual. electric field source, however, h,~s, some small magn etie . field eompon em in a:d!rlitOn to the electric field, n i therefore 'h~~ a reflection loss somewhere between the electric field lineand dk plane wave line of Fig. 6- n. Since, in gcneralvwe dCll10t KIlIOW where between these- two lines the actual SOJ,w:e may fall.! the plane. wave calcubtions, (Eq, 6-23) are'normallyused.In determining tJ~e rdlectio,B loss [(]irM electric field. The aetual refleetlon 101$8 is then cq~ml to' at .gre.ater th~n' t'imt ealculatedin Eq, 6-23.

with r iLl meters. In Fig. 6-1~ the curves labeled "m agnetic' field" are plots of Eq. ti~19for a :,oo~'per s;l\icld w'ith r equal 10' t and 30. rn. Eq!,!,atiorrl ,6.~29and the plot 11~Pig. .6-12 represent the rc-flc:i.tion 1.0.8$. at the specified d.istance; from a point '~oorcep'wducing only .a magnerie frcld. Most real magnetic field sources have <I. sm~ II ,d ectric fie:id componen tjn addition l<;l the magnetic f .. .and eld, yt-herefiectiouloss lies somewhere between the magnetic field. Hne 'and the plan~ wa ve line of Fig. 6-12. Since. we do not.generally know where between these two lines" the. ~tctU1al source may fall, Eq, 6-29 should be lased i10 determine the reflection loss 1'or <l magnetic field. The actual tcl1tttkm ~~l~~ win then be equal to Dr greater than thM t calculated in Eq. '~~29. "Wl~ere the distance to: the source H; not known, the ncar field magnetlc reflection loss can usually be, assumed to.be zero at 10\\' Irequencies,

GenelCaW Equafi,onfor N-e'glectincg multiple

ReflecUon lo,.s:S
equ:lli.O!1

rre:flectioTI~ a-generalized

for refleetion

loss can

be written as
R

" C- + 10 log.(''0",)( rr'~·.,. . '. ...p.., .. 1 .)


=:

(6-30)

The wa ...... jmpedanee due~o3! e point approximatedby the f~lnowing equation,

source of magnetic Ij\~ld' can be assuming r < ;,h~r.:

".H·", IJC'g"lhic value is ,O@l:'a:iilid·iii.lhie ·solld.i-cm rpo R. LJ!.~C R = [)ins,tc~d !lnd. neglect rhe multiple Jieflec!:lmlfaclm.n. If a solution toe R is,;pooitllle and near zeru, Eq, f):2·n!>.slighlly in error, Tile errer (JoOCurS. because II:J~ !fj~!;;1J m:p,iOIll 2', ~, b~, made dllri!6i[l the, d~ru'lliJJlil)1i1 of the equation. is nOHatjsne:d; in this ease .. The '~ITm':!i 3.S·dB 'VI'helll Jol equals zero. and! .i~.decrea~es as. Fi ~~:t~ i l.argr.r. Fr,o.m .~ practical po'lllt of v~e:iI.:, bo-we~l", I[l1i~ermr be n;,egllcetcd,

~8.n

177
Table ~3 Consmrnts i.o IBe Used in ~q .. 'i:j-3iCI

Type. of fietd Ele,ctric fit:ld Plane wave

r
31Z
168

II

Magnetic field

14.15

1 -1

(Ii

-2

For magnetic fields most ·of the [ncident wave passes into the shield at Hie fi:r~l boundary, as shown ill Bq. 6-15 when 27.\' 21, The magnitude 'Of the <,,;, transmitted WHV!;' is acmalty double. that of the incident 'wave. With a maguetle field of such large magnitude within the shield, the effect of multiple reflections Inside the shield. must beconsldered ..
The correction factor For the multiple shield of. thickness t andskin deptl'! 3is reflection of magnetic fields .in
,J,

where ~!~cConslMts, C. III .and m ure listedIn Ta.h~~ 6·,3Jor rJ~ne' wave~, electric fields, andmagnetic fie!ds, Equation 6~30 is equivalent to F_,.q. .. 3b for plane w,;lve.s, Eq: 6-2fih for 62 electric fields, tmd Eq, 6-29b. for magndit;: fields ... Equation fi-3fi slim,,·!; thal the reflection 1015$ is a function of the shleldmatcriars conductivity divided
by its permeability.

. K= 20]og(l'1

~<~rf5) dn,·.. D.

-r

',1*

Figi..Ltc6· 1:4 is·'.1!. lot of file correetiorr factor IJ as a function of t/o .. Note. p tbat the correction facwr is a negative number', indic,iting that less shielding (rban predicted by Eq. 6-JO} is ohtained from a thin shield due to reflection.

Multlipile Re1Iec1rio,t"Is: Tiliin Sh~elds '~n 1.£the shield is l~.li~1,. the reflected w.ue from the SC(;On d bou ndarv is re-reflected off the. first' boundary, and then it returns to the second boundary 10 he reflected 'lg,~in, assaown In Fig. 6~!.3. This can be neglected in the' case of a thick shield, sim:'''C' he -, bsorpticn loss is high. By the rime t a the -wa ve reaches .the second boun dary fQ, the: .second time; it is, Ofill:;g'j igibie ampliru de, since by then it has. passed til i"ough lh C thickness pi the sh idd three times, For ele:Ctr'ic fi:clds most of the incident wave is refiecred lit the first boundary, and only a $m,idi pecentage enters the shield, This can be seen from Bq. 6~14<IUcl the fact that 22 ~ Zt. Therefore uUdtipLc! reflections within the' shield can be neglected fnr eJeelric fields.

~:n,
-4(1

'.

I
l I

I'

-18
-16
<Ii

~\ \,
~

I
I

.-

¥
0='

.....
-14
i!--. -HI

F u
u,

<t: -·12 2:
D

F
rMf'IEDANCIE H I:J Z
I

1\ \
~

..-

iMPEDANCE

.L2;

UMP'E DANe E Z

I:LJ 'II

u 0;: D 0

11[1

-8 --6

I"
I

I-

-,

lirl""---

r-,

-:
I I

.....
~

-4
-.2

I
I 'n.l
HATIO

'"'r-,
I '~
I

r---. ""'I
I O.S {i.7

1-1

I 0.2 .oj

,
0..4

I
0..5

I
ns

'I

-.

i--i';:
Ul

. 0[1

o-g·

OF s~I!HIJ ·liHICK~·m,s TO SKIN

EliEiP.TH, DIS

fl~mre 6·13. lI1ulliipil! Tepee/iun.l· each. u:jlectifJl'l ..

(lCCW'

it! ,t!'

thin snj(>i,i'·;. pair o] liu: w(i've it lr.al.lsmrrr,p,d liu'OI1:tJr f>,