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1.

TO INVESTIGATE OF DIFFERENT TYPE OF CELL TO THE FIXED SHAPED OF THE CELL


Problem statement Does plant cell and animal cell have fixed shape? Hypothesis Plant cell has a fixed shape but not animal cell Variables MV : type of cell/plant cell and animal cell RV : fixed shape of cell CV : One drop of methylene blue solution and distilled water Apparatus and materials Glass slide,cover slips,forcep,knife,microscope,toothpick,white tile/cutting board,methylene blue solution,iodine solution,iodine solution,filter paper,distilled water,onion scale leaf,cheek cell Procedure 1. A scale leaf from an onion bulb are obtained 2. By using a forcep .the inner surface of onion scale leaf is peeled off 3. One drop of distilled water was placed in the middle of glass slide 4. With a needle ,the cover slip is dropped slowly at 450 to the glass slide so that no air bubble being trapped 5. A drop of iodine solution was dropped at one side of the cover slip 6. A filter paper was placed at the opposite end of the opposite end of the cover slip to allow the spreading of solution absorbing excess solution 7. The slide is observed under a light microscope using a low power objective lens then high power objective lens 8. The plant structure is then drawn and recorded by using a microscope 9. This experiment is repeated using a cheek cell 10. The mouth is rinsed before starting with experiment 11. By using a toothpick, the inner mouth were scrapped to get some cheek cell 12. Then the cheek cell was placed onto a glass side 13. A drop of methylene blue solution was added 14. Slowly the cover slips was dropped, then the filter paper were placed at one end of the cover slip for irrigation 15. This slide is then observe and the structure was recorded by using a microscope 16. All the results are tabulated in a table Presentation of Data Type of cell Plant cell/onion scale leaf Animal cell/cheek cell Structure of cell seen under microscope Magnification : 10 x 40

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2.TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF SUCROSE SOLUTION WHICH IS ISOTONIC TO THE CELL SAP OF POTATO STRIP Problem statement What is the concentration of the sucrose solution that will maintain the length of potato strip? Hypothesis As the sucrose solution reach certain concentration (isotonic to the cell sap),there is no changes in the length of potato strip Variables MV : the concentration of the sucrose solution RV : change in length of potato strip FV : initial length of potato strip Apparatus & material Cork borer, test tubes,stopwatch,ruler,potatoes,various concentration of sucrose solution,filter paper Procedure: 1. Six test tube are labeled P,Q,R,S,T and U 2. Test tube P is filled with 10ml distilled water, test tube Q is filled with 10ml sucrose solution O.1M,test tube R is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.2M,test tube S is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.3M,test tube T is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.4M and test tubes U is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.5M 3. The cork borer is pushed into the potato and the potato strip is obtained by pushing it out of the cork borer using a glass rod 4. The potato strips are cut to the exact length of 5 cm. 5. One potato cylinder is placed in each labeled test tubes for 30 minutes. 6. After 30minutes,the potato strips are removed from the test tube and gently wiped with filter paper 7. The final length of the potato strips are measured and record using a ruler 8. The final length of the potato strips are recorded in a result table 9. A graph pf the concentration of sucrose solution against the change in the length is plotted Presentation Test tube

P Q R S T U

Concentration of sucrose solution(M) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Initial(cm) 5 5 5 5 5 5

Length Final(cm)

Change in length(cm)

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3.TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF ALBUMEN CONCETRATION ON THE ENZYME PEPSIN REACTION Problem statement What is the effect of different albumen concentration on the rate of enzyme reaction? Hypothesis The higher the albumen concentration,the higher the rate of enzyme reaction Variables MV : the concentration of albumen solution RV : rate of enzyme reaction CV : the volume of albumen solution Apparatus and Materials Albumen solution(1%,2%,3%,4%),1% pepsin solution, pipette/measuring cylinder,HCL,water bath,thermometer,stopwatch Procedure 1. 5ml of 1% albumen solution is poured into a test tube using a pipette.The test tube is labeled P. 2. 1 ml of HCL acid is poured into the same test tube using another pipette 3. 1 ml of 5% pepsin is poured into the same test tube using another pipette.The mixture is shaken well. 4. The test tube is placed in the beaker containing 300 ml of water at 37oC.A thermometer is placed in the beaker to check the temperature. 5. The stopwatch is started 6. The mixture is observed and the time taken for the solution to turn colourless is taken using a stopwatch and recorded in a table. 7. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated twice to get an average result 8. Steps 1 to 7 are repeated,replacing the 1% albumen solution with 2%,3% and 4% albumen solution respectively. 9. All data are recorded in a table and a graph of the rate of enzme reaction against the albumen concentrated is plotted

Presentation of data
Concentration of albumen solution(%) Time taken for the mixture to turn colourless(min)

average

The rate of enzyme reaction (min-1)

1 2 3 4

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4.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PH VALUES ON THE RATE OF PEPSIN ENZYME Problem statement What is the effect of pH values on the rate of of Pepsin Reaction? Hypothesis The lower the pH, the higher the rate of pepsin reaction Variables MV : pH values RV : rate of pepsin reaction CV : concentration of pepsin Apparatus and materials Pepsin solution,albumen suspension,distilled water,Hydrochloric acid,sodium Hydroxide solution,stopwatch,water bath,tripod stand and wire gauze,thermometer,test tube,measuring cylinders/syringe,pH paper,wire gauze,Bunsen burner and tripod stand,test tube rack Procedure 1. 200ml of egg white is mixed with 500ml of distilled water to prepare an albumen suspension 2. The albumen suspension were boiled,stirred and leave to cool 3. Three test tubes were labeled as P,Q and R 4. 5ml of albumen suspension were placed into each test tube using a syringe 5. Then the following solutions were added into each test tubes as follows: Test tube pH Mixture of solution P 2 = acidic 1ml of 0.1M HCL + 1ml of 1% pepsin solution Q 7 = neutral 1ml of distilled water + 1ml of 1%pepsin solution R 9 = alkaline 1ml of 0.1M NaOH + 1ml of 1% pepsin solution 6. pH paper were dip into each test tube and the pH values were recorded 7. All the test tubes were immersed in a water bath with a temperature of 37% for 20minutes. 8. Observe and recorded the time taken for the cloudiness of mixture turns clear by using a stopwatch 9. Results of the experiment were recorded in a table Presentation of data Test tube P Q R pH values 2 7 9 Time taken for the hydrolysis of albumen suspension (minutes)

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5.THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF SALIVARY AMYLASE Problem statement What are effects of different temperature on the rate of salivary amylase reaction? Hypothesis As the temperature increase,the rate of amylase reaction increases until it reaches the optimum temperature Variables MV : temperature of the medium RV : the rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase CV : volume of saliva Apparatus and Materials Beakers,test tube,thermometer,syringe,droppers,glass rods,white tiles woth grooves,water bath,stopwatch,1% of starch suspension,saliva suspension iodine solution ,ice cubes and distilled water Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Mouth is rinsed with warm water and saliva is collected.Saliva with equal volume of distilled water is diluted 5ml of 1% starch suspension is out into each of the test tubes labeled A1,B1,C1,D1, and E1 respectively using a syringe 2 ml of saliva is added into each of another set of the test tubes labeled A2,B2,C2,D2 and E2 using a second syringe Test tubes A1 and A2,B1 and B2,C1 and C2,D1 and D2,E1 and E2 is immersed respectively into 5 different O o O O o water baths with temperature kept constant at O C,28 C,37 C,45 C and 60 C. The test tubes are left for five minutes Meanwhile, a dry piece white tile with grooves is prepared and a drop of iodine solution is placed into each groove After five minutes of immersion ,the starch suspension in test tube A1 is poured into the saliva in test tube A2.The mixture is stirred using a glass rod. The stopwatch is started immediately. A drop of mixture is removed from test tube A2,using a dropper and is placed in into the iodine solution in the first groove on the tile.The first groove is considered as zero minute The iodine test is repeated every minute for ten minute.The dropper in a beaker of water is rinsed after each sampling.The time taen for the completion of the hydrolysis of starch is recorded (that is when the mixture gives a negative iodine test) using a stopwatch. The test tube with the mixture in their respective water bath is kept throughout the experiment .steps 7 to 10 for test tubes B1,C1,D1 and E1 is repeated. Thermometer is used to ensure that the temperature remain constant throughout the experiment The result is recorded and a graph showing the rate of reaction against temperature is plotted o The activities of amylase reaction Is optimum at 37 C

10. 11. 12. 13.

Presentation of data Test tube Temp Time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed (minutes) (oC)

Rate reaction (min-1)

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6.TO DETERMINE THE ENERGY CONTENT IN THE SAMPLE OF FOOD Problem statement Does the final water temperature reading for cashew nut is higher than peanut and white bread? Hypothesis The final temperature reading/energy value for cashew is higher than peanut and white bread Variables MV : type of food RV : the energy content CV : volume of distilled water Materials and apparatus Cashew nut,peanut,white bread,distilled water,boiling tubes,plasticine,pin,thermometer,bunsen burner and wire gauze,stopwatch,retort stand and clamp Procedure 1. Weigh the white bread and record its weight 2. Fill a boiling tube with 20ml distilled water 3. Clamp the boiling tube to the retort stand 4. Record the initial temperature of the water in the boiling tube 5. Spike the white bread firmly at the end of the pin which is mounted on some plasticine 6. Ignite the white bread by holding it in the flame of a bunsen burner.then,immediately place it beneath the boiling tube to heat the water 7. Stir the water gently with the thermometer 8. Record the initial temperature,that is the highest temperature reached as soon as the peanut has stopped burning using thermometer. 9. Calculate the energy value of the peanut using the formula below [show energy value formula] 10. Tabulate the results in table below 11. Steps 1 to 9 are repeated by using different food sample such as peanut and cashew nut Presentation of data Food sample Initial White bread Peanut Cashew nut Temperature 0C Final Energy value Increase in temperature

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7.TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C CONTENT IN THE SAMPLE OF FRUIT JUICES Problem statement What is the sample of fruit juices that contains a higher concentration of vitamin C? Hypothesis Guava juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to orange Juice and pineapple juice Variables MV : type of fruit juice RV : concentration of vitamin C CV : volume of DCPIP solution Apparatus and materials Boiling tube,a syringe,a syringe with needles ,beaker,gauze cloth and a knife ,DCPIP solution,0.1% ascorbic acid solution .freshly prepared guava juice,pineapple juice and orange juice Procedure 1. Label four boiling tube as A,B,C, and D 2. Place 1ml of DCPIP solution in each boiling tube 3. Fill a syringe with 5ml of ascorbic acid solution 4. Immerse the needle of the syringe in the DCPIP solution drop-by-drop 5. Do not shake the tube vigorously 6. Record the volume of ascorbic acid solution used to turn the DCPIP solution colourless using a syringe 7. Repeat steps 22 to 7 using Lime Juice,pineapple juice and papaya juice 8. Calculate the percentage and concentration of vitamin C in these three types of fruit juice using the formula below [ shows percentage of vitamin C and Concentration of vitamin C formula] Presentation of data Solution Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourize 1ml of DCPIP solution (ml) Percentage of vitamin C In fruit juice (%) Vitamin C concentration in fruit juice (mg/cm)

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8.TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Problem statement What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis? Hypothesis The higher the light intensity ,the higher the rate of photosynthesis until it reaches limiting value Variables MV : light intensity RV : rate of photosynthesis CV : The temperature Apparatus and materials Hydrilla Sp.,0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution,beaker,thermometer,test tube,stopwatch,60W electric bulb , measuring cylinder , retort stand,paper clip,metre ruler Procedure 1. A 5cm sprig is cut from a hydrilla sp. Plant using a sharp scalpel 2. The plant is placed with the cut end facing upwards 3. A paper clip is used to weight down the other end of the hydrilla sp. Sprig 4. 10ml of 0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution is poured in a boiling tube 5. The boiling tube with plant is placed in a water bath with the temperature maintained at 280C 6. A 60watt bulb is placed at a distance of 50cm from the plant 7. When the rate of bubbles given out is constant ,the number of bubbles released for 5 minutes is recorded using a stopwatch 8. The steps are repeated by placing the apparatus at distance 40cm,30cm,20cm and 10cm from the light source. 9. The results are recorded and the rate of photosynthesis is calculated by using a formula:[rate of photosynthesis formula] Presentation of data Distance of light source (cm) 50 40 30 20 10 Number of bubbles released in 5 minutes Rate of photosynthesis (number of bubble /minute)

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9.TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE ON THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Problem statement What is the effect of concentration of carbon dioxide on the rate of photosynthesis? Hypothesis The higher the concentration of carbon dioxide the higher the rate of photosynthesis Variables MV : concentration of Carbon dioxide RV : rate of photosynthesis CV : temperature Apparatus and materials Hydrilla Sp., sodium hydrogen carbonate solution,beaker,thermometer,test tube,retort sand,stopwatch,lamp , measuring cylinder , retort stand,ruler and paper clip Procedure 1. A 5cm sprig is cut from a hydrilla sp. Plant using a sharp scalpel 2. The plant is placed with the cut end facing upwards 3. A paper clip is used to weight down the other end of the hydrilla sp. Sprig 4. 10ml of 0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution is poured in a boiling tube 5. The boiling tube with plant is placed in a water bath with the temperature maintained at 280C 6. A 60watt bulb is placed at a distance of 50cm from the plant 7. When the rate of bubbles given out is constant ,the number of bubbles released for 5 minutes is recorded using a stopwatch 8. The steps are repeated by using 0.4%,0.6% and 0.8% sodium carbonate solution. 9. The results are recorded and the rate of photosynthesis is calculated by using a formula:[rate of photosynthesis formula] Presentation of data Concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (%) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Number of bubbles released in 5 minutes

Rate of photosynthesis (number of bubble /minute)

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10.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN DEFECIENCIES IN CULTURE SOLUTION ON THE BEIGHT/GROWTH RATE OF SEEDLING Problem statement What is the effect of nitrogen deficiencies in culture solution on the growth rate of seedling Hypothesis The growth rate of seedling is slower in nitrogen deficiencies of culture solution Variables MV : the type of culture medium RV : growth rate of seedling CV : the initial height if seedling Apparatus and material Tomato seedling/maize seedling,potasium hydrogen phosphate,calcium chloride,pottasium chloride,distilled water,cotton wool,black paper,glass jar,glass tubing,L-shaped delievery tube,air pump,rubber bung,ruler Procedure 1. Three glass jars labeled A,B and C are prepared 2. In glass jar A ,distilled water is fulfilled which serves as a control experiment 3. In glass jar B, a complete culture solution is prepared using the composition of the Knops solution as a guide 4. In glass jar C a culture solution deficient in nitrogen is prepared by replacing calcium nitrate with calcium chloride and potassium nitrate is replaced by potassium chloride 5. Each jar is wrapped with black paper to prevent light from penetrating into the culture which will cause the growth of green algae 6. Three maize seedlings of the same height are chosen and put into each jars 7. Keep the roots of seedlings are fully immersed in each solutions.The culture solution is aerated using an air pump to ensure the root of the seedling obtain enough for respiration 8. All set of apparatus are exposed to light so the seedling are able to carry out photosynthesis 9. The culture solution in each jar is replaced every week to ensure that the nutrients which are supposed to be available are not depleted 10. After one month,seedling in jar A Is taken out and the height of seedling is measured and recorded by using a ruler.the growth rate of the seedling is calculated and is recorded in a table using formula: The height of seedling (cm) Time taken (days) 11. Step 10 is repeated with seedling in glass jar B and glass jar C are observed 12. Record the result in table and plot a bar chart showing the growth rate of seedlings(cm/day) against the types of solution Presentation of data
Glass jar A B C Type of solution Distilled water Complete knops solution Nitrogen deficient in culture solution The height of seedling cm initial final The growth rate of seedling(cm/day)

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11.TO INVESTIGATE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST Problem statement What is the effect of temperature on the rate anaerobic respiration in yeast? Hypothesis The increase the temperature,the increase the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast Variables MV : temperature RV : the rate of anaerobic respiration CV : volume/concentration of yeast Apparatus and materials Yeast solution,glucose solution,coloured liquid,paraffin oil,manometer tube,measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube, water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand Procedure 1. Filled the boiling tube with 15 ml yeast suspension. 2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution 3. The boiling is filled with paraffin oil 4. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube,rubber tubing and the manometer 5. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand 6. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a marker pen 7. Then,placed the boiling tube in water bath at 200C 8. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after 10 minutes) 9. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler 10. Repeat the experiment by placing the boiling tube in water baths at 300C,400C and 500C 11. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air-tight 12. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula The change in height of coloured water in the manometer Time taken 13. The results are tabulated in a table Presentation of data Temperature The height of coloured liquid in manometer(cm) 0 (C ) initial final 20 30 40 50

Rate of anaerobic in yeast (cm/min)

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12.THE EFFECT OF pH ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION YEAST Problem statement What is the effect of pH on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast? Hypothesis The rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast is optimal in acidic medium Variables MV : pH value RV : rate of anaerobic respiration CV : concentration of yeast solution Apparatus and material pH paper,hydrochloric acid,sodium hydroxide Yeast solution,glucose solution,coloured liquid,paraffin oil,manometer tube,measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube, water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand Procedure 1. Filled the boiling tube with 15 ml yeast suspension. 2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution 3. 4 drop of 0.1mol dm3 Hydrochloric acid is added 4. The content in boiling tube is shaked.determine the pH of the solution using pH paper 5. The boiling tube is filled with paraffin oil. 6. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube,rubber tubing and the manometer 7. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand 8. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a marker pen and a ruler 9. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after 10 minutes) 10. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler 11. Repeat the experiment by placing add 4 drops o.o1 mol dm3 HCL,4 drops of distilled water and 4 drops of 0.1 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide 12. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air-tight 13. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula The change in height of coloured water in the manometer Time taken 14. The results are tabulated in a table Presentation of data pH The height of coloured liquid in manometer (cm)

Rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast (cm/min)

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13.THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST Problem statement what is the effect of concentration of glucose on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast? Hypothesis the higher the concentration of glucose the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast Variables MV : concentration of glucose RV : The rate of anaerobic respiration CV : Concentration of yeast solution Apparatus and materials Yeast solution,glucose solution,vaselin, coloured liquid,paraffin oil,manometer tube,measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube, water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand Procedure 1. Filled the boiling tube with yeast suspension. 2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution 3. Glucose solution is heated to remove dissolved oxygen.the solution is left to cool 4. The boiling is filled with paraffin oil 5. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube,rubber tubing and the manometer 6. Vaseline is used to make sure all the joints is airtight 7. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand 8. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a marker pen 9. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after 10 minutes) 10. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler 11. Repeat the experiment by 10% and 30% glucose solution 12. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula The change in height of coloured water in the manometer Time taken 13. The results are tabulated in a table

Presentation of data Concentration of glucose (%) 5 10 20

The height of coloured liquid in the manometer (cm) initial final

Rate of anaerobic respiration(cm/min)

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14.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF SMOKING TO THE LUNG Problem statement What is the effect of cigarette number to the colour change in cotton wool and the increase in temperature of thermometer? Hypothesis As the number if cigarette increase ,the more brownish the colour of cotton wool and the higher the temperature in thermometer Variables MV : the number of cigarette RV : Change in cotton wool and increased in temperature of thermometer CV : Volume of universal indicator Apparatus and materials U-Tube,glass tube,boiling tube,suction pump,temperature,measuring cylinder,boiling tube ,universal indicator,cotton wool,cigarette Procedure

To suction pump

Universal indicator

1. Diagram with 5 correct labels 2. 50ml of universal indicator is measured using measuring cylinder and poured into the boiling tube 3. The initial temperature of the air in U-Tube is recorded 4. The initial colour of cotton wool/universal indicator is recorded 5. One cigarette is lighted up and suction pump is switched on 6. Record the change of colour in cotton and increase in temperature using a thermometer after cigarette stopped burning (In a table) 7. Repeat steps 6 to 8 by using 2,3, and 4 cigarettes 8. Make sure all the joining are air tight Presentation of data Before experiment Temperature ( C) Colour of cotton wool
0

After experiment

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15.TO DETERMINE THE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS IN INHALED AND EXHALED AIR Problem statement Does inhaled air contain more oxygen and less carbon dioxide than exhaled hair? Hypothesis Inhaled air contains more oxygen and less carbon dioxide than exhaled air Variables MV : type of air sample(inhaled or exhaled air) RV : percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air CV : length of air used Apparatus and materials Potassium hydroxide solution,pottassium pyrogallate solution,water,J-tube,ruler,beaker,boilng tube,basin/water bath,ruber tubings Procedure 1. Turn the screw of the J-Tube until the end 2. Dip the end of the J-Tube in water.Draw into the tube about 5cm of water 3. Remove the J-Tube from the water.Draw into the tube about 10cm of air(inhaled air) 4. Dip the open end of J-Tube into the water again .Draw in a little more water (to seal the air column) 5. Adjust the screw so that air column is sin the middle of the J-Tube 6. Immerse the J-Tube into the water bath for 2 minutes ,to stabilize the temperature of air sample 7. Measure the length of air column using a ruler .Record the measurement as P cm 8. Expel some of the water in the J-tube leaving about 2-3mm from the end of the tube 9. Dip the open end of the J-Tube into the potassium hydroxide and draw in about 2-3cm of the solution(potassium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from the air column) 10. Remove the test tube from the solution and move the air column to and fro several times 11. Repeat step 6 and 7 .Record the length of air column as q cm 12. Expel the potassium hydroxide solution leaving about 2-3 mm from the end of the tube 13. Repeat step 9 using potassium pyrogallate solution (potassium pyrogallate absorbs oxygen from the air column) 14. Repeat steps 6 and 7 .Record the length of the air column as r cm 15. Based on the results ,calculate the percentage of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the sample of inhaled air column using formula 16. Repeat steps 1 -17 using a sample of exhaled air 17. Compare the percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air 18. Compare the percentage of oxygen in inhaled and exhaled air

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Presentation data Data for inhaled air Length of inhaled air column at the beginning experiment Length of inhaled air column after treating with potassium hydroxide solution Length of inhaled air column after treating with potassium pyrogallate solution Length of CO2 column in inhaled air Length of O2 column in inhaled air Percentage of CO2 in inhaled air Percentage of O2 in inhaled air

P Q R (p-q)cm (q-r)cm p-qcm x 100% p cm q-rcm x 100 p cm

Data for exhaled air Length of inhaled air column at the beginning experiment Length of inhaled air column after treating with potassium hydroxide solution Length of inhaled air column after treating with potassium pyrogallate solution Length of CO2 column in inhaled air Length of O2 column in inhaled air Percentage of CO2 in inhaled air Percentage of O2 in inhaled air X Y Z (x-y)cm (y-z)cm (x-y)cm x 100% X cm (y-z)cm x 100% X cm

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15.TO STUDY HOW POPULATION SIZE OF SPECIES MIMOSA PUDICA AND IMPERATA CYLINDRICA CAN BE DETERMINED IN YOUR SCHOOL FIELD Problem statement What is the population size of mimosa pudica and imperata cylindrica in the school field? Hypothesis The population size of species mimosa pudica plant is higher than species imeprata cylindrica in the school field Variables MV : type of plant RV : population size CV : quadrat size Materials and apparatus Plant species Mimosa Pudica and imperata cylindrica ,plastic quadrat,marker pen,A4 paper,graph paper Procedure 1. School field was chosen as the field study 2. Quadrats size 1mx1m was used 3. Two plants species mimosa pudica and imperata cylindrica was identified 4. The quadrats were thrown at random in the school field 5. The area of coverage each plant species were counted 6. If more than half of the squares in the quadrat are covered ,the area of plant species will be counted.the area is not counted if only less than half is covered 7. Steps 5 to 7 was repeated for nine quadrats 8. The area covered by plant species studied in each quadrat were recorded and tabulated in a table 9. The percentage coverage of plant species were calculated by using this formula : percentage of coverage = total are covered plant species In all quadrats X 100 Total number of quadrants x area of quadrat Presentation of data Plant species Number of plant species in the quadrat 3 4 5 6 7 8
Total number of plant 2 species(m ) Percentage coverage area (%)

10

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19.TO INVESTIGATE THE WATER POLUTION LEVEL AND BOD VALUE AT THE STATION A,B, AND C Problem statement Which sources of water sample A,B and C will be more polluted and give the higher BOD value? Hypothesis Water sample C are the most polluted and have the highest BOD value compare to water sample A and B Variable MV : type water samples RV : water pollution level and BOD values CV : volume of water sample Apparatus and materials Reagents bottles with stoppers,syringe,cupboard,stopwatch,label paper, measuring cylinder, beaker, water sources from station A,B and C,methylene blue solution Procedure 1. 200ml water samples from A,B and C sources are collected 2. 3 bottles of reagent are labeled as A,B, and X respectively 3. 100ml of water samples at A were measured by using measuring cylinder are being put into reagent bottle 4. 1ml of methylene blue solution 0.1% solution was added to the base of each water samples using a syringe 5. The bottles are closed quickly and the contents are not to be shaken 6. Steps 1 to 5 were repeated by using water source from station B and C 7. All the bottles are placed in a cupboard and the stopwatch is started 8. The bottle are examined from time to time 9. The time taken for methylene to decolourise is recorded for all the water samples 10. The results are recorded in a table Presentation of data Reagent bottles

Water samples (100ml)

Time taken to decolourise methylene blue (hour)

BOD value and pollution level (unit)

A B C

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16.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE POPULATION GROWTH RATE OF LEMNA MINOR Problem statement What is the effect of light intensity on the growth rate of lemna minor? Hypothesis The higher the light intensity the higher the growth rate of lemna minor at the end of experiment Variables MV : light intensity RV : the growth rate of lemna minor CV : initial number of lemna minor Apparatus and materials Lemna minor,pond water,light bulb(5,40,80 watts),beaker,ruler,measuring cylinder,waterproof paint Procedure 1. Three beakers are prepared and filled with 500ml of water in each beaker 2. The beakers are labeled as A,B and C with waterproof paint 3. 5 lemna minor are put into each baker 4. Each beaker is placed at 30cm from the lamps with different light intensities ,that is 5 watts ,40 watts, and 80 watts respectively 5. All the beakers are placed in area of the same temperature 6. Change the water in each beaker every 3 days 7. After 7 days,the number of lemna minor in each beaker is counted and recorded 8. The growth rate of lemna minor is calculated by using formula: The number of lemna minor Time taken(day) 9. The result are recorded in a table Presentation of data Light intensity (watts) 5 40 80 Number of lemna Beginning 5 5 5 The growth rate of lemna minor

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17.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PH ON THE POPULATION GROWTH OF LEMNA MINOR IN THIS LABORATORY Problem statement Does the changes in pH effects the growth rate of lemna minor? Hypothesis The growth rate of lemna minor is higher in neutral medium Variables MV : the changes in pH RV : the growth rate of lemna minor CV : numberof lemna minor in the beginning of experiment Apparatus and materials Lemna minor,pond water,0.1M hydrochloric acid ,0.1M sodium hyroxide,distilled water,beaker,waterproof paint,measuring cylinder and dropper Procedure 1. Three beakers are prepared and filled with 500ml of pond water in each beaker 2. The beaker are labeled A,B, and C with waterproof paint 3. Bu using measuring cylinder,10ml of 0.1M of hydrochloric acid is measured and poured into beaker A,10ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide solution is measured and poured into beaker B and 10ml of distilled water is measured and poured into beaker C 4. 20 numbers of lemna minor are put into each beaker 5. Each beaker is placed in an area of distributed light and temperature 6. After 5 days,the number of lemna minor is counted in each beaker 7. The growth rate of lemna minor is calculated by using formula 8. The result are recorded in a table Presentation of data Beaker A B C Condition of pH 0.1M of hydrochloric acid(acidic) 0.1M sodium hydroxide(alkaline) distilled water(neutral) Number of lemna minor beginning ending The growth rate of lemna minor(day)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

20.TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SOLID POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR OF DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT Problem statement Which place will produce the largest number of fine particle in the air? Hypothesis The number of solid particles in school car park is higher than air sample in air conditional room,classroom and school canteen Variables MV : location where glass slide is placed RV : number of solid particles CV : time exposure Apparatus and materials Glass slide,cellophone tape,light miscroscope,petri dish,ruler,places of study,fine particles Procedure 1. 4 slides are prepared and labeled them A,B,C and D 2. 5cm of cellophane tape is sticked on each slide with the sticky surface facing outward 3. The slide A is placed at school park 4. Leave the slide undisturbed for a week 5. After one week,collect a slide view under light microscope under low power 6. Repeat experiment for slide B at conditioned room,slide C at classroom and slide D at school canteen 7. The number of solid pollutions is recorded Presentation of data Glass slide A B C D Place where slide is located Air conditioned room Classroom School canteen School car park Number of fine particles as seen under microscope (unit)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

21.TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF TOTAL SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME(TSA/V) RATIO TOWARDS THE RATE OF DIFFUSION OF SUBTANCES BY USING POTATO Problem statement How does the TSA/V ration effect the rate of diffusion of the substance? Hypothesis As the TSA/V ratio increases the rate of diffusion of the substances increases Variables MV : TSA/V RV : rate of diffusion CV : concentration of coloured water Apparatus and materials Coloured water,potato,filter paper,knife,blade,white tiles,forceps,stopwatch,grided transparency sheet,beaker Procedure 1. Potato is cut into cubes which is 1cm3,8cm3,27cm3, and 64cm3 2. Each potato cubes is placed in a beaker containing coloured water for 20minutes 3. After 20minutes the potato cubes are cut into two halves 4. The outer surface of the potato cubes are dried using filter paper 5. The transparency sheet is placed on the top of cut surface 6. The area that is stained red is drawn and shaded on the gridded transparency 7. Coloured area in each potato cubes is measured by using gridded transparency 8. The percentage of coloured area in each potato cube is calculated and recorded 9. Calculated and recorded the rate of diffusion using a formula Percentage of coloured area % Time taken(Min) Presentation of data Size of cubes(cm3) 1 8 27 64

Percentage of coloured area (%)

Rate of diffusion of potato cube (%/min)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

22.TO DETERMINE WETHER THE NUMBER OF LEAVES EFFECTING THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS Problem statement Does number of leaves effect the rate of transpiration? Hypothesis The higher the number of leaves,the higher the rate of photosynthesis Variables MV : number of leaves RV : rate of transpiration CV : air movement Apparatus and materials Plant shoot with leaves,water,photometer(or capillary tube,ruler,ruber tube),stopwatch,light bulb,beaker Procedure 1. A leafy shoot is chosen from a plant.the shoot is cut and is immersed immediately into a basin of water 2. The shoot is cut 1cm from the bottom of the stem under water.the leaves are removed from the shoot and 8 leaves is left behind 3. The cut end of the stem is inserted carefully into the rubber tubing of the photometer under water 4. The apparatus is then set up as shown in diagram .the end of the tube is immersed in a beaker of water 5. The leaves and the apparatus are wiped dry with a cloth 6. Vaseline is used to ensure no water leakage and the apparatus is air tight 7. An air bubble is introduced in the tube 8. The photometer then placed in an enclosed room with no air movement 9. The shoot Is allowed a few minutes to reach a steady state before any readings is taken 10. The stopwatch is activated and the time taken for air bubble travel10cm distance is recorded 11. The experiment is repeated to obtain two more reading 12. Steps 1 to 11 are repeated by using difference shoot with difference number of leaves 6,4,2 and 0. 13. The time taken for air bubble to travel for each shoot is recorded in the following table using stopwatch 14. Calculate the rate of transpiration by using formula Presentation of data Number of leaves 0 2 4 6 8 Time taken (min) Rate of transpiration(cm/min)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

23.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement Is the light increasing the rate of of transpiration of a plant? Hypothesis The higher the light intensity,the higher the rate of transpiration Variables MV : distance light sources RV : rate of of transpiration CV : temperature Apparatus and materials Photometer,stopwatch,knife,beaker,fluorescent lamp,meter ruler, balsam plant,vaseline,water,tissue Procedure 1. A suitable balsam plant is selected and is cut using a sharp knife.the cut end is immediately immersed in a beaker filled with distilled water 2. The cut plant is then fixed onto a photometer and the joint between the plant and the photometer are sealed using a Vaseline to make the airtight 3. The laboratory curtains and doors are pulled and closed so that outside lightning will not effect the outcome of experiment 4. A 40W fluorescent lamp is set 30cm away from the edge of the photometer with a meter ruler placed to measure the distance 5. The air bubble in photometer is set to 0cm.the lamp is switched on and the stopwatch is started when the air bubble cross X mark. 6. The movement of air bubble is observed and the stopwatch is stopped when the bubble reaches Y mark that is 10cm 7. Record the time taken into a table using stopwatch 8. Step 4 to 7 are repeated ,with the distance of the lamp are put at 40cm,50cm,60cm away from the photometer. 9. Calculate the rate of transpiration by using a formula 10. All the findings are recorded In a table Presentation of data Distance of lamp from the edge of photometer (cm) 0 40 50 60 Time taken for the air bubble to travel from X to Y (s) Rate of transpiration (cm/second)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

24.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF AIR MOVEMENT ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement What are the effect of the different speed of air movement on the rate of transpiration? Hypothesis As the speed of the air movement increases,the rate of transpiration increases. Variables MV : speed of air movement RV : Rate of transpiration CV : the temperature Apparatus and materials Capillary tube,retort stand,50ml beaker,basin,scalpel,rubber tubing,tissue paper,vaseline,marker pen and stopwatch,ruler,fan,water and plant shoot Procedure 1. The leafy shoot is immersed In the water and cut using a sharp scalpel 2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water.the apparatus is filled with water.the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing 3. Steps 1-2 is carried out under water to mae sure no air bubbles are trapped in the apparatus 4. A finger is placed over the open the end of the capillary tube.the apparatus is removed from the basin 5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under water in the beaker before ermoving the finger from the tube 6. The water is dried from the surface of the leaves of the shoot using a tissue paper.some vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make the apparatus airtight 7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir .the rubber tubing is squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube .the capillary tube is placed in water 8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand.a marker pen is used to mark two points, X and Y at a distance of 5 cm apart 9. The photometer is placed under the table fan with speed 1 .record the time taken (in minutes) for the air bubble to move from point X to point Y using stopwatch 10. Repeat the experiment twice 11. To reset the photometer,squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into the beaker of water 12. The above step is repeated to get three readings with the same shoot in under water a an with speed 2 and respectively 13. The average rate of the rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table using formula Prresentation of data Speed of fan Time taken for the air bubble to move from point X to Y (minutes) First reading Second reading Third reading average Speed 1 Speed 2 Speed 3

Rate of transpiration (cm/min)

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25.TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement Does the temperature affect the rate of transpiration of a plant? Hypothesis The higher the temperature,the higher the rate of transpiration of a plant Variables MV : temperature RV : the rate of transpiration CV : air movement Apparatus and materials Photometer,stopwatch,cutter,beaker,meter ruler,a basin of water,marker,a leafy shoot,water,vaseline,dry cloth,thermometer,transparent frame Procedure 1. The leafy shoot is immersed in the water and cut using a sharp scalpel 2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water.the apparatus is filled with water.the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubbing tubing. 3. Steps 1 and 2 is carried out under water to make sure no air bubbles are trapped in the apparatus 4. A finger is placed over the open end of the capillary tube.the apparatus is removed from the basin 5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under water in the beaker before removing the finger from the tube 6. The water is dried from the surfaces of the leaves of the shoot using tissue paper.Some vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make it airtight 7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir.the rubber tubing is squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube.the capillary tube is placed in water 8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand.a marker pen is used to mark two points ,X and Yat a distance 5cm apart 9. The non transparent frame is used to cover the leafy shoot and of the photometer is placed in the shady place at 300C.the temperature inside the frame is recorded using stopwatch 10. Record the time taken (in minutes)for the air bubble to move from X to Y using stopwatch 11. To reset the photometer,squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into the beaker of water 12. The above step is repeated to get the three readings with the same shoot with the transparent frame to cover the leaf shoot and photometer is placed under the sun at 330C.the temperature inside the frame is recorded using stopwatch 13. The rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table by using formula Presentation of data temperature Time taken for the air bubble to move from X to Y (minute) 1 2 3 average Shady place 300C Under the sun 330C

Rate of transpiration(cms-1)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

26.TO INESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF AIR HUMIDITY ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION Problem statement Does humidity of air effect the rate of temperature? Hypothesis When the air humidity surrounding the plant is high,the rate of transpiration is low Variable MV : humidity of air RV : rate of transpiration CV : temperature Apparatus and materials Photometer,stopwatch,cutter,beaker,meter ruler,a basin of water,marker,a leafy shoot,water,vaseline,dry cloth,anhydrous calcium chloride,transparent bag Procedure 1. The leafy shoot is immersed in the water and cut using a sharp scalpel 2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water.the apparatus is filled with water.the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing 3. Steps 1-2 is carried out under water to make sure no air bubble are trapped in the apparatus 4. A finger is placed over the open end of the capillary tube.the apparatus is removedfrom the basin 5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under in the beaker before removing the finger from the tube 6. The water is dried from the surface of the leaves of the shoot using tissue paper.some vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make sure the apparatus airtight 7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir .the rubber tubing is squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube .the capillary tube is placed under water 8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand .a marker pen is used to mark two points ,X and Y at a distance 5 cm apart 9. The transparent bag filled with presence of anhydrous calcium chloride is used to cover the leafy shoot 10. Record the time taken (in minutes) for the air bubble to move from pint X to Y using a stopwatch 11. Repeat the experiment twice 12. To reset the photometer,squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into the beaker of water 13. The above step is repeated to get three readings with the same shoot with the transparent bag with absence of anhydrous calcium chloride 14. The rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table using formula Presentation of data
Condition inside tranparent bag contain anhydrous calcium chloride Without anhydrous calcium chloride Humidity of air Time taken for the air bubble to move from X to Y The rate of transpiration (cm.min)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

27.TO DETERMINE THE URINE VOLUME RELEASED BY A STUDENT WHO DRINKS DIFFERENT VOLUME OF MINERAL WATER Problem statement What is the effect of water intake of urine output? Hypothesis If more water is taken,more urine will be released Variables MV : volume of water RV : volume of urine released CV : same student Apparatus and materials Beakers,cup/mug,measuring cylinder,stopwatch,drinking water,a student Procedure 1. A student (sample A) is chosen and instructed to empty his bladders before the start of the the experiment 2. 200ml of water is measured and put into the mug 3. A student(sample A ) is given 200ml of mineral drinking water drink 4. A stopwatch is started immediately after consuming the water 5. During the experiment,he is kept within 1-2 hours 6. He is instructed not to eat or perform any vigorous physical activities 7. After half an hour,he is asked to empty his bladder 8. The collected urine is kept in a large beaker 9. At the interval of half an hour,until two hours,a student empty his bladder 10. After two hours ,the total collected urine is measured using measuring cylinder 11. Repeat step 2-9 for different amount of drinking water(400ml,600ml,800ml,1000ml) 12. Step 7 is conducted for four consecutive days in a fixed time and place 13. Dispose the measured urine properly 14. Measure and record the data collected into a table Presentation of data Volume of water intake(ml) 400 600

Volume of urine is produced(ml)

200

800

1000

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

28.TO INVESTIGATE THE TRAIT OF COLOUR OF FLOWER OBEY MENDELS FIRST LAW Problem statement Is colour of marble influence the total of button pair in beaker? Hypothesis When the red button is cross breeding with white button,the ratio of fillial is 3 red button and 1 white button if first filial do self-breeding Variables MV : colour of button RV : the number of pair button CV : 50 red buttons ad 50 white buttons Apparatus and materials Plastic bag/can/box/pouch,red buttons,white buttons,beaker,student X Procedure 1. Two black pouches ,A and B each containing a mixture of 50 red buttons and 50 white buttons 2. Pouch A and B were shaken to mix the buttons randomly 3. (without see)one button was drawn at random from each pouch by student X 4. Both of buttons are combined to produce daughter in second filial generation 5. Steps 1 to 4 are repeated when all buttons are completing combined 6. The number of colour combination of buttons from each pouches are recorded in table show 7. The genotype and phenotype of all the colour combination are recorded in the table show Presentation of data Colour of combination Both are red colours Both are white colours One red colour and one white colour Number of button colour genotype phenotype

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

29.TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AVERAGE HEIGHT/GROWTH RATE OF MAIZE PLANTS AND TIME AFTER PLANTING Problem statement What is the relationship between the average height of maize plants and time after planting? Hypothesis The longer the time after planting,the more the average height of maize plant until they reach maturity Variables MV : the time after planting RV : the average height of maize plants CV : number of seedlings types Apparatus and materials Maize seeds,nursery tile,garden soil,tap water,fertilizer,measuring tape,meter ruler Procedure 1. Prepare a site for nursery with garden soil 2. Plant 20 maize seeds in the soil with even spacing between each seed 3. Water the seeds daily throughout the period of experiment 4. After 10 days,measure the height of maize plants using the meter ruler or measuring tape 5. Repeat steps 4 over 90/120 days 6. Record all the results obtained In a table 7. Plot a graph of the average height of maize plants against time after planting Presentation of data Time(days) after planting 10 20 30 40 50 The height of maize plants /cm Average heights of maize plants (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

30.TO DETERMINE THE TYPES OF VARIATION TO THE NUMBEROF STUDENTS Problem statement Do all the students have the same type of fingerprints and height? Hypothesis Each student in group belongs to one fingerprint and height Variables MV : types of variation RV : number of students CV : same class Apparatus and materials Student,graph paper,A4 paper,tissue paper,fingerprint pad,hand lens,marker,meter ruler Procedure 1. Ten names of students in the same group were written down in a table 2. My height is measured by using a ruler and recorded in a table 3. The experiment is repeated by investigating the type of fingerprint 4. By using fingerprint pad,I placed my thumbprint were observed and indentify 5. By using hand lens , the type of my thumbprint were observed and identify 6. Steps 2 to 5 were repeated to other students in the same group 7. The measurement of height and fingerprint are repeated twice to get the average 8. Two graphs on the number of students against the types of variation were plotted Presentation of data students name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Type of fingerprint whorl curves Height (m) composite loops

Ema-Mel0dy spm11

31.TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF CAMOUFLAGE ON PREY AND PREDATOR RELATIONSHIP Problem statement What is the effect of colour camouflage on organism? Hypothesis When the colour between cloth and the buttons are more distinct ,the number of contrasting button chosen is greater Variables MV : the colour of cloth RV : the number of coloured button chosen CV : the size of cloth used Apparatus and materials Student,a piece of white cloth(50cmx50cm),a piece of black cloth (50cm50cm),a piece of multicoloured patterned cloth(30cmX30cm),20 red buttons,20 black butons,20 white buttons,20 yellow buttons,20 green buttons, a white tile Procedure 1. Student Y scattered various coloured button randomly on a piece of white cloth measuring 50cmX50cm.the buttons used are: 20 red buttons 20 black buttons 20 white buttons 20 yellow buttons 20 green buttons 2. Student X did not observe what student Y did 3. Within 1-2 seconds ,student X then quickly took a button from the white tile and placed it on a white tile 4. Step 3 was repeated 9 times 5. Use the same student that has been chosen 6. Count and record the number of coloured buttons according to colour in the table 7. Steps 1-4 were repeated using a black cloth followed by a multicoloured patterned cloth Presentation of data Colour of cloth White Black Multicoloured floral Number of buttons according to colour white red yellow
otal number of buttons were taken

black

green

Ema-Mel0dy spm11