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Kumpulan Adverb

Kumpulan Adverb

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Adverb atau kata keterangan (adverbia) adalah kata yang menerangkan kata kerja (verb), kata sifat (adjective), dan kata keterangan lainnya (another adverb). Di samping tiga fungsi utama tersebut, adverbia mempunyai fungsi lain yaitu menerangkan keseluruhan kalimat dan frase preposisi. Adverbia digunakan untuk menjawab pertanyaan seperti ³When?´ ³Where?´ ³How?´ atau ³To what extent?´ When? left yesterday, begin now Where? fell below, move up How? happily sang, danced badly To what extent? partly finished, eat completely Beberapa adverbia yang sering digunakan: afterward, almost, already, also, always, back, even, far, fast, hard, here, how, late, long, low, more, near, never, next, now, often, quick, quite, rather, slow, so, soon, still, then, today, tomorrow, too, very, well, when, where, yesterday. Adverbia juga mempunyai banyak kata berakhiran ±ly yang dibentuk dari adjektiva, misalnya: quick menjadi quickly, careful menjadi carefully, accurate menjadi accurately, dan sebagainya (tetapi bukan berarti kata yang berakhiran ±ly adalah adverbia). Jadi, kita dapat dengan mudah membedakan antara adverbia dengan adjektiva. Contoh kata lainnya yang berakhiran ±ly: softly, suddenly, strongly, honestly, interestingly, etc.

Contoh penggunaan adverbia dalam kalimat: 1. adverbia yang menjelaskan verba: - The boy runs quickly. verb adv. 2. adverbia yang menjelaskan adjektiva: - He looks absolutely fabulous. adv. adj. 3. adverbia yang menjelaskan adverbia lainnya: - She sings so slowly. adv. adv.

Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of degree atau adverbia tingkatan ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan intensitas atau tingkatan suatu tindakan (verb), sifat (adjective), atau kata keterangan lainnya (another adverb).

I don¶t quite know what to do next.It was absolutely pouring with rain. pretty.Laura quite enjoys shopping. . nearly. .The animals suffer terribly. a little.We go on holiday fairly soon. a lot. much. . . (sebelum adverbia) Beberapa adverbs of degree menerangkan verba (diletakkan sebelum verba): . hardly.This dress is absolutely marvellous. She's been working all morning. enough. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini: . slightly. -The walls were not white.It costs a bit more than I wanted to spend.Mark travels a lot. just. awfully. .They will be slightly more expensive but they last a lot longer.Mark is quite tired. . .I hadn¶t trained enough for the game.United played extremely well. scarcely. terribly).My foot is really hurting. . He's been working all day. Adverbia absolutely.I rather like this cake.I'll open the window a little.This dress is absolutely marvellous. too. . (sebelum adjektiva) .Adverbia yang biasa digunakan untuk menyatakan tingkatan ini adalah: almost. fairly. atau sangat capek. Beberapa adverbs of degree yang terletak diakhir kalimat yang menerangkan verba (a bit. (sebelum adjektiva) . . rather.I got paid a little bit of money. Letak adverbs of degree sebelum adjektiva atau adverbia lain: . completely dan totally bisa diletakkan di tengah atau di akhir kalimat: . cukup capek. really.We lost our way completely. absolutely. . (sebelum adverbia) . . quite. (sebelum adjektiva) . . very.I'm afraid I totally disagree.I have nearly finished the words for your songs.We completely lost our way.He was just leaving when the phone rang. . Adverbs of degree di atas menunjukkan tingkatan dari rasa capek atau lelah (tired). Perhatikan contoh berikut: .Laura is a bit tired.I'm afraid I disagree totally. . completely. .Sarah is very tired.Rita looked rather upset. .It¶s too late to do anything about it now. .Both cars are fairly new.We almost didn¶t get there in time. . extremely. but rather a short of dirty grey. . .That performance was pretty impressive. Contoh lainnya lagi: . apakah sedikit capek. bit. little. She's had to work late at the office.

Beberapa adverbs of place menunjukkan pergerakan sekaligus tempat/lokasi. Hati-hati dengan kata towards. indoors. over. Beberapa adverbs of place juga mempunyai fungsi sebagai prepositions. northwards.I was really fond of Ann. uphill. . melainkan sebuah preposition yang selalu diikuti oleh noun atau pronoun.He lived and worked abroad. up.There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm. outwards.I lost my balance and fell backwards. upwards. . round. ..The child went indoors.He walked towards the car.We hardly know each other.They built a house nearby. homewards. off. around. . Adverbs of Time . Adverbs of Place Adverbs of place adalah kata keterangan yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan tempat atau arah dimana suatu kejadian terjadi..The ship turned westwards. down. under. towards bukanlah adverbs of place. around. overseas. inwards. . . behind. back. onwards. on. by. up.Come in. southwards.Chris is going to work overseas.She took the child outside. Contoh adverbs of place setelah verba utama (after the main verb): .She found it extremely difficult to get a job.I'm going home.Portuguese is pronounced completely differently from Spanish. forwards. . along. outdoors. westwards. . downhill. . away from the coast. misalnya: about. meskipun berakhiran ±wards. . across.John looked away. downwards. .The ceremony was being held outdoors. sideways. through.At last he had his very own car. misalnya: ahead. down.She ran towards me. abroad.The road twists uphill.. . Dalam kalimat dapat diletakkan setelah verba utama (main verb) atau setelah objek. . Contoh adverbs of place setelah objek (after the object): . eastwards.I looked everywhere. adverbs of place juga memiliki kata yang berakhiran ±wards yang menunjukkan suatu pergerakan ke arah tertentu. . . in. out. Contoh: . misalnya: backwards. Contoh: ... Selain itu. .

later. Beberapa adverbia how often diletakkan di akhir kalimat untuk memberikan makna yang lebih kuat. . tidak ada penekanan makna tertentu) Adverbia how long umumnya diletakkan di akhir kalimat.Later Mark ate some porridge. Adverbia ini diletakkan sebelum verba utama (main verbs) atau setelah kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verbs) seperti be. yesterday. last year how long: all day.Mark ate some porridge later.She visits France regularly. Contoh: . Bandingkan dua contoh berikut: . contohnya: .Adverbs of time digunakan untuk menunjukkan kapan (when). contoh: .You must always fasten your seat belt. contoh: . (setelah kata kerja bantu must) Adverbia how often lainnya mengungkapkan waktu yang lebih terperinci untuk menggambarkan suatu kejadian dan biasanya diletakkan di akhir kalimat. since last year how often: sometimes. for a while. frequently. seberapa lama (how long) dan seberapa sering (how often) suatu peristiwa terjadi.He never drinks milk. for several years. for two centuries.Mark later ate some porridge. . (penempatan yang umum digunakan. now. since the last war.Mark went to the John¶s house yesterday. misalnya: for three days. (sebelum verba utama) . (penekanan pada waktu diutamakan) . contoh: . adverbia when juga dapat diletakkan di posisi yang lain dalam kalimat untuk memberikan intensitas atau penekanan makna yang berbeda.He visits his mother once a week.I often eat vegetarian food. must. when: today. since 1997. (sebelum verba utama) . Adverbia how often digunakan untuk menyatakan seberapa sering suatu peristiwa dilakukan. Tetapi. never.I¶m going to tidy my room tomorrow. etc. often. . Sedangkan since selalu diikuti oleh ungkapan yang menunjukkan waktu tertentu.He stayed in the John¶s house all day.She regularly visits France. for selalu diikuti oleh ungkapan yang menunjukkan jangka waktu (duration) tertentu. have. . for a week. not long. . yearly Adverbia when biasanya diletakkan di akhir kalimat. (bersifat formal seperti halnya sebuah laporan) .My father lived in Australia for a year. misalnya: since Monday.This magazine is published monthly. may. Perhatikan.

an expensive antique silver mirror (opinion. Colour e. black. large.a popular. 2.g. Contoh: . beautiful ring. etc. Jika memakai tiga adjektiva dan menggunakan konjungsi. metallic. . maka tanda koma sebaiknya dipakai: the inexpensive. an. generally. age.a lovely old red post-box (opinion. pale. exciting city . lively. great. delicious. 3 sebaiknya menggunakan tanda koma. beautiful. The Order of Adjectives Untuk menerangkan kata benda. plastic. often. size) . lovely. usually. 2.a horrible. Origin e.g. etc. a. Opinion e. antique. awful.g. blonde. misalnya the inexpensive. silver. expensive. steel. American. tanda koma bisa dihilangkan: the inexpensive but beautiful ring. Size (or Shape) e. old. political matters. British. old. Chinese. woolen. Canadian. square.a wonderful new face ointment (opinion. hunting cabin. 3. terrible. interesting.a beautiful wooden picture frame (opinion. quality. colour) . and nice ring. rectangular. book cover. qualifier) . tiny.some charming small silver ornaments (opinion. paper. French.a busy. some. stone. red. kadang-kadang kita membutuhkan lebih dari satu adjektiva. green. colour. urutannya adalah sebagai berikut: 1. Age e. round. colour) . size.g. colour) . Ketika menggunakan dua adjektiva atau lebih. short. qualifier) . material. regularly. two. etc. age. Perhatikan contoh lainnya di bawah ini. normally.g. 5. etc. Victorian. a bread knife.a dirty old coat (opinion. 7.a small green insect (size. respected.a tall white stone building (size. colour) . 6.a quiet little restaurant (opinion.awful plastic souvenirs (opinion. road transport. blue.Kata keterangan atau adverbia yang dapat diletakkan pada dua posisi tersebut adalah: frequently. Material e. material) Memakai dua atau tiga adjektiva dalam kategori yang sama atau kategori 1. ugly building . beautiful. age. Qualifier (type or purpose) e. charming.g. young. material) . ancient. a bath towel. and good looking student .some nice easy quiz questions (opinion. tall.g. new. Tetapi jika ditambahkan konjungsi and atau but. 4. huge. 8. exciting. etc. purpose) . the. passenger car. age) . wonderful. etc. Swedish. occasionally.g. wooden. small. electric kettle. etc. etc. nice. rocking chair. Determiners e. sometimes.

seperti: he is being big/red/small. seperti: be big. stative adjectives adalah adjektiva yang menunjukkan sifat benda yang umumnya tetap. cruel. small.seharusnya digambarkan detailnya hanya disampaikan dengan singkat. atau be small. suspicious. foolish. . vacuous. good.Your son is being disruptive in class.an interesting and delicious food Penggunaan lebih dari dua atau tiga adjektiva secara bersamaan. Stative adjectives tidak lazim digunakan pada konstruksi imperative (bentuk perintah). merupakan hal yang kurang efektif dalam menyampaikan pesan. Stative and Dynamic Adjectives Sesuai dengan namanya. permanen dan berwujud. vain etc. patient. seperti kata: big. dynamic adjectives adalah adjektiva yang menunjukkan sesuatu yang dapat dirasakan atau dikendalikan. Sebaliknya. disruptive. tidy. red. careful. mannerly.. meskipun efisien. Misalnya. impatient. shy. Semua dynamic adjectives dapat digunakan dalam bentuk imperative dan juga sebagai predicative adjective dalam konstruksi continuous: . Dan juga tidak umum dipakai pada bentuk continuous. Jenis kata seperti ini dapat dipakai pada bentuk imperative. be red. friendly. rude. . kata brave yang tidak berwujud tetapi dapat dirasakan. Pesan menjadi kurang jelas karena pengertian yang ±mungkin.We¶re being very patient with you. seperti: be brave! Beberapa contoh dynamic adjectives: calm.

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