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Kumpulan Adverb

Kumpulan Adverb

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04/09/2013

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Adverbs

Adverb atau kata keterangan (adverbia) adalah kata yang menerangkan kata kerja (verb), kata sifat (adjective), dan kata keterangan lainnya (another adverb). Di samping tiga fungsi utama tersebut, adverbia mempunyai fungsi lain yaitu menerangkan keseluruhan kalimat dan frase preposisi. Adverbia digunakan untuk menjawab pertanyaan seperti ³When?´ ³Where?´ ³How?´ atau ³To what extent?´ When? left yesterday, begin now Where? fell below, move up How? happily sang, danced badly To what extent? partly finished, eat completely Beberapa adverbia yang sering digunakan: afterward, almost, already, also, always, back, even, far, fast, hard, here, how, late, long, low, more, near, never, next, now, often, quick, quite, rather, slow, so, soon, still, then, today, tomorrow, too, very, well, when, where, yesterday. Adverbia juga mempunyai banyak kata berakhiran ±ly yang dibentuk dari adjektiva, misalnya: quick menjadi quickly, careful menjadi carefully, accurate menjadi accurately, dan sebagainya (tetapi bukan berarti kata yang berakhiran ±ly adalah adverbia). Jadi, kita dapat dengan mudah membedakan antara adverbia dengan adjektiva. Contoh kata lainnya yang berakhiran ±ly: softly, suddenly, strongly, honestly, interestingly, etc.

Contoh penggunaan adverbia dalam kalimat: 1. adverbia yang menjelaskan verba: - The boy runs quickly. verb adv. 2. adverbia yang menjelaskan adjektiva: - He looks absolutely fabulous. adv. adj. 3. adverbia yang menjelaskan adverbia lainnya: - She sings so slowly. adv. adv.

Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of degree atau adverbia tingkatan ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan intensitas atau tingkatan suatu tindakan (verb), sifat (adjective), atau kata keterangan lainnya (another adverb).

slightly. . Perhatikan contoh berikut ini: . . Adverbs of degree di atas menunjukkan tingkatan dari rasa capek atau lelah (tired). terribly). apakah sedikit capek.We completely lost our way. . . She's been working all morning. really. quite.That performance was pretty impressive. . .This dress is absolutely marvellous.Laura is a bit tired.We go on holiday fairly soon.I rather like this cake.This dress is absolutely marvellous. . cukup capek. absolutely. nearly. extremely. . Adverbia absolutely. He's been working all day. She's had to work late at the office. .Mark travels a lot. very.It was absolutely pouring with rain. . but rather a short of dirty grey.Laura quite enjoys shopping. (sebelum adjektiva) .I don¶t quite know what to do next.Adverbia yang biasa digunakan untuk menyatakan tingkatan ini adalah: almost.I have nearly finished the words for your songs.It costs a bit more than I wanted to spend. . hardly.We almost didn¶t get there in time. . . pretty.Both cars are fairly new. completely dan totally bisa diletakkan di tengah atau di akhir kalimat: .The animals suffer terribly.My foot is really hurting.They will be slightly more expensive but they last a lot longer. a lot. fairly. . . . scarcely.I'm afraid I totally disagree. just. -The walls were not white.It¶s too late to do anything about it now. too.Sarah is very tired. Perhatikan contoh berikut: . a little.United played extremely well. (sebelum adverbia) Beberapa adverbs of degree menerangkan verba (diletakkan sebelum verba): . awfully. (sebelum adjektiva) . bit. rather. (sebelum adverbia) . . Letak adverbs of degree sebelum adjektiva atau adverbia lain: . . (sebelum adjektiva) . .Mark is quite tired. enough. Beberapa adverbs of degree yang terletak diakhir kalimat yang menerangkan verba (a bit.I'll open the window a little. atau sangat capek. .I hadn¶t trained enough for the game.I got paid a little bit of money. .He was just leaving when the phone rang. Contoh lainnya lagi: .I'm afraid I disagree totally. much.We lost our way completely. little.Rita looked rather upset. completely.

. melainkan sebuah preposition yang selalu diikuti oleh noun atau pronoun.The ship turned westwards.They built a house nearby. . forwards. on.He walked towards the car.She found it extremely difficult to get a job. . downwards. . Dalam kalimat dapat diletakkan setelah verba utama (main verb) atau setelah objek. adverbs of place juga memiliki kata yang berakhiran ±wards yang menunjukkan suatu pergerakan ke arah tertentu.At last he had his very own car. off.The ceremony was being held outdoors.. by. across. over. . around. Adverbs of Time .The child went indoors. Contoh adverbs of place setelah verba utama (after the main verb): . onwards.The road twists uphill. misalnya: ahead. out. downhill. inwards. . down. northwards. down. towards bukanlah adverbs of place. Beberapa adverbs of place juga mempunyai fungsi sebagai prepositions.I lost my balance and fell backwards.Come in. . . Adverbs of Place Adverbs of place adalah kata keterangan yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan tempat atau arah dimana suatu kejadian terjadi. along.We hardly know each other. through.Portuguese is pronounced completely differently from Spanish.John looked away. Hati-hati dengan kata towards. . overseas.I'm going home. homewards. under. in. outdoors. Contoh: . .I looked everywhere. .. misalnya: backwards. outwards.. around. Selain itu. round.I was really fond of Ann.Chris is going to work overseas. up. westwards. Contoh adverbs of place setelah objek (after the object): . away from the coast. back. meskipun berakhiran ±wards.There was scarcely a tree left standing after the storm. Beberapa adverbs of place menunjukkan pergerakan sekaligus tempat/lokasi. up. sideways. upwards.She ran towards me. . . . eastwards. misalnya: about. southwards. Contoh: .. behind. .He lived and worked abroad. . indoors. uphill.She took the child outside. . abroad.

(penekanan pada waktu diutamakan) . often. Adverbia how often digunakan untuk menyatakan seberapa sering suatu peristiwa dilakukan. for a while. tidak ada penekanan makna tertentu) Adverbia how long umumnya diletakkan di akhir kalimat. Tetapi. now. etc.He stayed in the John¶s house all day. Adverbia ini diletakkan sebelum verba utama (main verbs) atau setelah kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verbs) seperti be.Adverbs of time digunakan untuk menunjukkan kapan (when). since last year how often: sometimes. Beberapa adverbia how often diletakkan di akhir kalimat untuk memberikan makna yang lebih kuat.He visits his mother once a week. .She regularly visits France. for selalu diikuti oleh ungkapan yang menunjukkan jangka waktu (duration) tertentu. yesterday. . contoh: .Mark later ate some porridge. adverbia when juga dapat diletakkan di posisi yang lain dalam kalimat untuk memberikan intensitas atau penekanan makna yang berbeda. Perhatikan. never.I often eat vegetarian food. for several years. (setelah kata kerja bantu must) Adverbia how often lainnya mengungkapkan waktu yang lebih terperinci untuk menggambarkan suatu kejadian dan biasanya diletakkan di akhir kalimat. contoh: .She visits France regularly.You must always fasten your seat belt. . have. yearly Adverbia when biasanya diletakkan di akhir kalimat. (sebelum verba utama) . Bandingkan dua contoh berikut: . contoh: . contohnya: . Sedangkan since selalu diikuti oleh ungkapan yang menunjukkan waktu tertentu. since the last war. .I¶m going to tidy my room tomorrow. when: today. seberapa lama (how long) dan seberapa sering (how often) suatu peristiwa terjadi.My father lived in Australia for a year. may. (sebelum verba utama) . since 1997. Contoh: . (penempatan yang umum digunakan.Mark ate some porridge later. not long. for two centuries. misalnya: since Monday. misalnya: for three days. last year how long: all day. later. must.He never drinks milk.Mark went to the John¶s house yesterday.Later Mark ate some porridge. . frequently. for a week.This magazine is published monthly. (bersifat formal seperti halnya sebuah laporan) .

exciting. some. etc. etc.a busy. lovely. short. sometimes. age. occasionally. Perhatikan contoh lainnya di bawah ini. 5. and good looking student . woolen. colour) . often.a dirty old coat (opinion. blonde. colour) . electric kettle. Contoh: . terrible.an expensive antique silver mirror (opinion. urutannya adalah sebagai berikut: 1. old. beautiful. Age e. Victorian. ancient. kadang-kadang kita membutuhkan lebih dari satu adjektiva. beautiful ring. beautiful. Ketika menggunakan dua adjektiva atau lebih. an. metallic. tiny. interesting. political matters. Determiners e. the. red. and nice ring. small.a horrible. Chinese. plastic. material. passenger car. 3 sebaiknya menggunakan tanda koma.g. expensive. size) .g. 7. maka tanda koma sebaiknya dipakai: the inexpensive. tall.a quiet little restaurant (opinion. exciting city . book cover. green. black.Kata keterangan atau adverbia yang dapat diletakkan pada dua posisi tersebut adalah: frequently. The Order of Adjectives Untuk menerangkan kata benda. French. 8.some nice easy quiz questions (opinion. Canadian.a lovely old red post-box (opinion. great. two. huge. stone. Colour e. delicious. age. steel. Origin e. Tetapi jika ditambahkan konjungsi and atau but. etc. Jika memakai tiga adjektiva dan menggunakan konjungsi. a bread knife. usually. colour.a popular. colour) . colour) . old.g. respected. Qualifier (type or purpose) e. large. 2. wonderful. Swedish. misalnya the inexpensive. size. 6. Material e. etc. pale. ugly building . road transport. British. etc. rocking chair. qualifier) .a wonderful new face ointment (opinion. antique. rectangular. purpose) . generally. new. Opinion e. qualifier) . 2. tanda koma bisa dihilangkan: the inexpensive but beautiful ring. silver. etc. lively. awful. young. . a bath towel. hunting cabin.a small green insect (size. age. quality. American. 3. a.g. 4.a tall white stone building (size. material) .some charming small silver ornaments (opinion. nice. charming. square.g.g. normally. blue. Size (or Shape) e. paper.g.a beautiful wooden picture frame (opinion.awful plastic souvenirs (opinion. age) . etc. regularly. etc.g. round. material) Memakai dua atau tiga adjektiva dalam kategori yang sama atau kategori 1. wooden.

Jenis kata seperti ini dapat dipakai pada bentuk imperative. seperti kata: big. rude. red. Misalnya.Your son is being disruptive in class. foolish. kata brave yang tidak berwujud tetapi dapat dirasakan. impatient. merupakan hal yang kurang efektif dalam menyampaikan pesan. Dan juga tidak umum dipakai pada bentuk continuous. Stative adjectives tidak lazim digunakan pada konstruksi imperative (bentuk perintah). good.an interesting and delicious food Penggunaan lebih dari dua atau tiga adjektiva secara bersamaan. seperti: he is being big/red/small. . cruel. mannerly. Stative and Dynamic Adjectives Sesuai dengan namanya.seharusnya digambarkan detailnya hanya disampaikan dengan singkat. dynamic adjectives adalah adjektiva yang menunjukkan sesuatu yang dapat dirasakan atau dikendalikan. . vain etc. Pesan menjadi kurang jelas karena pengertian yang ±mungkin. seperti: be brave! Beberapa contoh dynamic adjectives: calm. Semua dynamic adjectives dapat digunakan dalam bentuk imperative dan juga sebagai predicative adjective dalam konstruksi continuous: .. stative adjectives adalah adjektiva yang menunjukkan sifat benda yang umumnya tetap. friendly. vacuous. shy. Sebaliknya. seperti: be big. permanen dan berwujud. disruptive. tidy. patient. atau be small. careful. meskipun efisien. suspicious. small. be red.We¶re being very patient with you.

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