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Module 2 -Biomes (Kind of Ecosystem)

INTRODUCTION
The world is divided into manageable units called the ecosystem. Each contains thousands of types of ecosystem. Biomes derived in many languages. Biomes have several major types, such as forests, grasslands and many more. This chapter will discuss about the biomes and how the rainforests damage has been done.

OBJECTIVES 1. Know the different types of biomes. 2. Write the different environmental variables affecting the biomes. 3. Appreciate the importance of rainforests.

Biomes

Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Biomes are defined by factors such as plant structures, leaf types, plant spacing, and climate. A biome is one of several immense terrestrial environments, a habitat characterize throughout its extent by similar plants, animals, climate and soil types. A biome is one of several immense terrestrial environments, a habitat characterize throughout its extent by similar plants, animals, climate and soil types. An ecosystem has many biotopes and a biome is a major habitat type.

o Ecoregions are grouped into both biomes and ecozones.

Several Major BIOMES


Deserts

Cool deserts Hot deserts Grasslands Forests

Tropical Biomes o Tropical rainforest o Tropical seasonal rainforest

o Tropical savanna o Tropical Thornwood Temperate biomes Taiga Tundra A fundamental classification of biomes is: * Terrestrial biomes * Aquatic biomes Biomes are often known in English by local names: > a temperate grassland or shrubland biome is known commonly as steppe in central Asia. > prairie in North America. > pampas inSouth America. > savanna in Australia. > veld in southern Africa. Climate is a major factor determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes. Among the important climatic factors are: *Latitude: Arctic, boreal, temperate, subtropical, tropical *Humidity: humid, semihumid, semiarid, and arid >seasonal variation: Rainfall may be distributed evenly throughout the year or be marked by seasonal variations. >dry summer, wet winter: Most regions of the earth receive most of their rainfall during the summer months; Mediterranean climate regions receive their rainfall during the winter months. *Elevation: Increasing elevation causes a distribution of habitat types similar to that of increasing latitude.

Environmental Variables Affecting the Biomes:


Sunlight Temperature

Water and dissolved salts Oxygen Metabolic waste Nutrients

Sunlight Sunlight powers the photosynthesis that supplies energy to nearly all life on earth. It is also essential for vision, which may animals rely on for catching food, spotting predators tec.

Temperature Organisms can survive within the specific, limited range of temperature. If the body temperature either rises above or falls below that range, the chemical reactions in the tissues get out of sync with one another, resulting in metabolic chaos.

Water and Dissolved Salts Precise balance of water, dissolved salts and organic molecules in the body fluids of organisms must be maintained to keep the cells alive. Many plants and animals cannot survive in dry conditions, such as deserts because they cannot acquire and store water that is needed by their body cells.

Oxygen The concentration of available oxygen can be an important limiting factor in variety of environment. Bacteria can be aerobic or anaerobic. Too much oxygen for anaerobic organism can be fatal as lack of oxygen in for aerobic.

Metabolic Waste All organisms produce metabolic waste products.

Plants release oxygen by day, give off carbon dioxide by night and discard leaves and stems on seasonal basis Waste products have to enter biogeochemical cycle in which they are broken down and carried away.

Nutrients Distribution of nutrients is important in determining where organisms can grow and where they cannot. The more nutrients available in a given area, the more living things can successfully survive.

RAINFOREST
are forest with high amount of rainfall which cause them to have very different characteristics than the other forest. preserve life-giving species and protect millions of living creatures, and regulate the flow of water on earth. As many as 30 million species of plants and animals live in tropical rainforests. At least two-thirds of the world's plant species, including many exotic and beautiful flowers grow in rainforests. Three major types in the rainforest: Clearwater Whitewater Blackwater

DESTRUCTION OF RAINFOREST

CAUSES OF DESTRUCTION OF RAINFOREST


Poverty drives people into woods for fuel, food and work. Worlds growing demand for wood products(timber) encourages the continued rape rainforest. Poor government policies. Global increase in the demand for forest products for building constructions, furniture, plywood, firewood, weaving materials, gums, resins, oils, charcoals, even chopsticks for Japanese restaurant. Governments opening of the forest frontiers as a way to bolster the economy, and to relocate people in various programs. Ever increasing and growing number of people who live and continue to establish. EFFECTS OF RAINFOREST DESTRUCTION If nothing is done to check global population growth and to control tropical deforestation, there may be only 20,000 sq. miles of rainforest left in the world by the year and nothing by 2100. The practice of slash-and-burn affects the uncut area, and the remaining trees suffer. In steep areas logging does not only destroy the forest, but also erodes bare grounds. Many valuable chemical compounds are sourced from the jungles. Unfortunately, as the forests are cut, many of these potentially live saving tropical plants disappear forever

Forest Management
In forest management the primarily aims to make the greatest number of forest resources available to the greatest number of people. In forest management we practice or study on how to preserve and conserve our forest.

Forest Wildlife Habitat

National forest offer excellent wildlife habitat.

Forest as Wilderness, Recreational and Scientific Areas When we say wilderness or wild land it is natural environment on earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity. Wilderness is the most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet- do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines, or other industrial infrastructure. These areas have to be conserved and preserved for recreational and scientific activities.

Forest as Source of Fuel An Alternative source of energy is the biomass of trees, which is renewable wood as fuel. The burning of wood is currently the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass.

Forest as Source of Wood Production Philippine forest and wood industry contributed significantly to our GDP and export earnings.

Reforestation
It is a replanting of a forest that had been reduced to by fire or cutting.

Benefit of Reforestation:

To help ensure quality air and water by natural methods.

To reduce global warming, this causes weather catastrophes such as hurricanes and other disasters, and affects our lives and livelihood.

Reforestation method Natural seeding by surviving trees Seeding by forester Planting of seedling
Developing genetically superior trees by transferring genes which

control desirable traits to a target species.

Importance of Reforestation:

It is a constant source of fuel of for stoves and power plants. The planned and controlled and management of forests is sustainable source of wood. Planted trees reduce significantly noise pollution of road junctions, a large move. The trees prevent or reduce soil erosion and water contamination.

Deforestation- is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands.

Causes of Deforestation
Construction purposes - The cutting down of trees for lumber that is used for building materials, furniture, and paper products.

Urban development - Forests are also cleared in order to accommodate expanding urban areas

Fuel creation - Trees are cut down in developing countries to be used as firewood or turned into charcoal, which are used for cooking and heating purposes. To grow crops - are also cut down in order to clear land for growing crops.

EFFECTS of deforestation
Erosion of soil - When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients, which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. Ultimately, cultivation in this land will also become impossible, resulting in the land becoming useless. Large tracts of land will be rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion.

Loss of diversity - The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about 80-90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of

animals and plants on a massive scale.

Water flooding - One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area.

Climate change - It is well-known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Five Basic Steps to Saving Rainforests TREES is a concept originally devised for an elementary school audience but serves well as set of principles for saving rainforests and, on a broader scale, ecosystems around the world. Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests. Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down. Encourage people to live in a way that doesnt hurt the environment. Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife. Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment.

Evaluation Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. A habitat characterized throughout its extent by similar plants, animals, climate and soil type. a. Environment b. biomes c. forest 2. Distribution of _____ is important in determining where organisms can grow and where they cannot. a. Waste production b. temperature c. nutrients 3. Bacteria can be aerobic or _____. a. Biotic b. anaerobic c. abiotic 4. It powers the photosynthesis that supplies energy to nearly all life on earth. a. Sunlight b. air c. water 5. The concentration of dissolved inorganic salts. a. Contamination b. salinity c. sanitation 6. All are environmental variables affecting the biomes except: a. Temperature b. organic waste c. water 7. It is a large area of flat grassy land where there are no trees. a. Forest b. ecosystem c. steppe 8. All are not environmental science affecting the biomes except: a. Water and dissolved salts b. inorganic waste c. weather forecast

9. Organisms can survive within a specific, limited range of _____. a. Oxygen b. metabolic waste c. temperature 10. Waste products have to enter the _____ in which they are broken down and carried away. a. Food chain b. biogeochemical cycle c. biomes 11. Biomes are commonly known as _____ in Asia. a. Steppe b. prairie c. pampas 12. Biomes are commonly known as _____ North America. a. Steppe b. prairie c. pampas 13. Biomes are commonly known as _____ in South America. a. Steppe b. prairie c. pampas 14. Tropical grasslands are known as _____, in Australia. a. Steppe b. savanna c. pampas 15. Tropical grasslands are known as _____ in Southern Africa. a. Savanna b. pampas c. veld are forest characterized by high amount of rainfall. a. reforestation b. Rainfall c. typhoon 17. Rainforests and protect millions of living creatures and regulate the flow of water on earth. a. preserve energy b. preserve high amount of water c. preserve life giving species 18. The trees absorb in process of growing. a. Nitrogen b. carbon c. carbon dioxide 19. The practice of affects the uncut areas, and the remaining trees suffer. a. slash- and- burn b. industrial logging c. cattle ranching 20. What are the three major types in the rainforest? a. white water, clear water and black water b. red water, white water and black water c. clear water, brown water and white water 21. In areas, logging does not only destroy the forest, but also erodes bare grounds. a. low areas b. steep areas c. high areas 22. How many layering are there in a rainforest? a. two b. three c. four 23. What portion of the world plants species are found in tropical rainforest? a. Third b. one half c. two third 24. What is the world largest tropical rainforest? a. Amazon jungle b. central Africa c. Australia
16.

25. Deforestation releases more than a billion tons of into the air annually contributing immensely to the greenhouse effect. a. carbon b. nitrogen c. oxygen 26 It is a national forest that offer excellent wildlife habitat. a. Forest as wildlife habitat b. Forest as source of fuel c. Forest as wilderness 27.What is the alternative source of energy that comes from the trees? a. Charcoal b. Biodiversity c. Biomass 28. Wood fuel can be used in____________. a. Cooking b. Heating c. All of the above 29. What type of forest management that provides wood production? a. Forest as sour5ce of wood production b. Forest as wilderness c. Forest as source of fuel 30. Wood and wood products provide of how many percentage of energy? a. 1.7% b. 1.5% c. 1.6%

31. All the ff. choices come from the forest except one. Which is not belonging to the group? a. Wood b. Fuel c. Oil 32. How can we help our forest to preserve and conserve it? a. Replant the areas that they harvested b. Stop build up industrial infrastructure in the forest c. All of the above 33. Why we need to preserve and conserve the wilderness? a. For recreational and scientific activities b. For excellent wildlife habitat c. All of the above 34. An area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled. a. Deserts b. Wilderness c. Biomes 35. What is forest management? a. to preserve and conserve our forest b. to manage our forest to make the greatest number of forest resources available to the greatest number of people c. all of the above 36. What is reforestation?

a. Reforestation is the cutting of trees and destroying of forest b. Reforestation is the replanting of a forest that had been reduced by fire or cutting c. Reforestation is the thick forest of tall trees which is found in tropical forest d. None of the above 37. The following are the methods of reforestation except: a. Natural seeding by surviving trees b. Seeding by forester c. Seeds 38. Which of the following is true about Reforestation? a. It is a constant source of fuel for stoves and power plants. b. The planned and controlled management of forests is a sustainable source of wood. c. None of the above 39. The following statements are the importance of Reforestation except: a. It is a constant source of fuel for stoves and power plants. b. The planned and controlled management of forests is a sustainable source of wood. c. This causes weather catastrophes such as hurricanes and other disasters, and affects our lives and livelihood. 40. The following are the benefits of Reforestation except: a. To help ensure quality air and water by natural methods. b. To reduce global warming, this causes weather catastrophes such as hurricanes and other disasters, and affects our lives and livelihood. c. Reforestation destroys the forest at all. 41 It is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands. a. Rainforest b. deforestation c. ecosystem 42. The cutting down of trees for lumber that is used for building materials, furniture, and paper products. a. Construction purposes b. urban development c. to grow crops 43. Forests are also cleared in order to accommodate expanding urban areas. a. Construction purposes b. urban development c. to grow crops 44. Trees are cut down in developing countries to be used as firewood or turned into charcoal, which are used for cooking and heating purposes.

b. urban development c. to grow crops 45. It results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. a. Effect on the water cycle b. Loss of diversity c. Erosion of soil 46. The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented a. Effect on the water cycle b. Loss of diversity c. Erosion of soil 47. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, a. Effect on the water cycle b. Loss of diversity c. water flooding 48. It is well-known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. a. Climate change b. Loss of diversity c. Erosion of soil 49. is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather. a. Climate change b. Loss of diversity c. Erosion of soil 50. refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere a. Climate change b. Loss of diversity c. Global warming

a. Fuel creation

ESSAY: 1. As a student, how would you save the rainforests? 2. If you were given a chance what law are you going to implement to avoid the destruction of rainforests? 3. Is there a positive in deforestation?

Key to correction: 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. B

7. C 8. A 9. C 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. B A B C B

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

C B C C A A B C

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Essay:

C A A A C C A B C C A B B B

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

C C C C B A B A C B C A A C

1. As a student, Im going to start by contributing plants to the specific rainforests. Then make time for taking care of the plants, twice or thrice a week will do. Then avoid littering at all places and time because it can also damage the air which the plants would intake during photosynthesis period. 2. A law about littering and a major punishment for those who are being caught. Because it the law requires terror to those who do not follow especially that this law involves the nature. 3. There is no positive result for me, because we as a human being rainforest are one of our resources of our needs. For

example we cut trees at the right age to built different infrastructure so in return we need to replace the trees that we cut so that in time we will not be punished by the nature.

REFERENCES:

Lecture Notes in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: The Economy of Nature and Ecology of Man By: Sergio J. Lee Myrna L. Anes

www.yahoo.com / www.google.com