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Bramandita, Andre. 2009. Pengendapan Kromium Heksavalen dengan Serbuk Besi (Skripsi). FMIPA Institut Pertanian Bogor. Chidumayo, Emmanuel. N. 1998. Aquatic Weeds in Zambia. One. Lusaka. Effendi, Hendi. 2003. Telaah Kualitas Air Bagi Pengelola Sumber Daya dan Lingkungan Perairan. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. Harborne, J.B. 1996. Metode Fitokimia. Bandung: ITB Press. Hidayati, Nurul. 2009. Uji Efektifitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Kasar Daun Teh (Camellia sinensis L, v. assamica) Tua Hasil Ekstraksi Menggunakan Pelarut Akuades dan Etanol (Skripsi). Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi UIN Malang. Irawanto, Rony. 2010. Fitoremidiasi Lingkungan dalam Taman Bali, Local Wisdom-Jurnal Ilmiah Online, II(4): 29 35. Kasselmann C. 1995. Aquarienpflanzen. Egen Ulmer GMBH & Co., Stuttgart. 472 pp. (In German). Kusnoputranto H. 1996. Toksikologi Lingkungan Logam Toksik dan B3. Jakarta: UI-Press. Lenny, Sovia. 2006. Senyawa Flavonoid, Fenilpropanoid, dan Alkaloid (Karya Ilmiah). FMIPA USU. McFarland, D. G., L. S. Nelson, M. J. Grodowitz, R. M. Smart, and C. S. Owens. 2004. Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell (Giant Salvinia) in the United States: A Review of Species Ecology and Approaches to Management, Final report Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

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Miller, R.K. 1996. Ground Water Remediation Technology Analysis Center. Technology Overview Report. TO-96-03. Mitchell, D. S. 1969. The ecology of vascular hydrophytes on Lake Kariba, Hydrobiologia, 34:448-464. Najib, Ahmad. 2006. Fitokimia II. (http://nadjeeb.wordpress.com, diakses 11 September 2011, pukul 19:21 WIB). Nelson L. S., D. G. Mc Farland, , M. J. Grodowitz, R. M. Smart, and C. S. Owens. 2004. Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell (Giant Salvinia) in the United States: A Review of Species Ecology and Approaches to Management. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Odjegba, V. J. and I. O. Fasidi. 2004. Accumulation of Trace Elements by Pistia stratiotes: Implications for phytoremediation, Ecotoxicology 13(7):637-646. Permatasari, Atika Ayu. 2009. Fitoremediasi Logam Berat Cd Menggunakan Ki Ambang (Salvinia molesta) pada Media Modifikasi Lumpur Lapindo (Skripsi). FMIPA ITS Surabaya. Peraturan Pemerintah. 2001. PP No 82 tentang Pengolahan Kualitas Air dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air. Robinson, T. 1995. Kandungan Senyawa Organik Tumbuhan Tinggi. Bandung: ITB. Rochani, Nita. 2009. Uji Aktivitas Antijamur Ekstrak Daun Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steen) Terhadap Candida albicans Serta Skrinning Fitokimianya (Skripsi). Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Rosyda, Anis Ika dan Taslim Ersam. 2009. Peningkatan Kualitas Kayu (Instia bijuga) : Kompleksasi Logam Cu(II), Fe(III) Dan Zn(II) Oleh Senyawa Tanin. Prosiding Skripsi Jurusan Kimia Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. Sajuthi, Dondin, Latifah K. Darusman, dan Irmanida Batubara. 2000. Perbandingan Metode Ekstraksi dan Pemisahan Senyawa yang Berpotensi sebagau Fitoesterogen dari Polong Kedelai (Glycina

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max.(L.)) Merr. Dan Polong Hiris (Cajenus cajan), Buletin Kimia, 1: 31-36. Schnoor, J.L. 1997. Phytoremediation. Technology Evaluation Report. TE98-01. Schnoor, J.L and McCutcheon, S.C. 2003. Phytoremediation Transformation and Control of Contaminants. USA: WileyInterscience Inc. Sculthorpe, C. D. 1985. The biology of aquatic vascular plants. Edward Arnold, London. Seymour, Andrew G. 2011. Conservatory Virtual Tour-Aquatic Plants, (http://www.biosci.ohiostate.edu/pcmb/greenhouse/ghconserv_tour _aquaticplants.html, diakses 28 April 2011 pukul 18:20 WIB). Steenis, Van. 2002. Flora untuk Sekolah di Indonesia. Cetakan kedelapan. Jakarta: Pradya Paramita. Subroto, M.A. 1996. Fitoremediasi dalam Prosiding Pelatihan dan Lokakarya: Peranan Bioremediasi Dalam Pengelolaan Lingkungan, Cibinong, 24-25 Juni1996. Sukman, Y., dan Yakup. 1991. Gulma dan Teknik Pengendaliannya. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. Suparjo. 2008. Saponin: Peran dan Pengaruhnya bagi Ternak dan Manusia. (http://jajo66.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/saponin.pdf, diakses 9 September 2011, pukul 18:51 WIB). Taufik, D.A., 2003. Pengaruh Konsentrasi, Waktu Detensi dan Zn Terhadap Penyerapan Krom oleh Kayu Apu (Pistia stratiotes, Linn). Tugas Akhir. Kimia-FMIPA, ITS, Surabaya. Thresia, Rara Santi Yonata. 2011. (http://rarasantiyonathathresia28.blogspot.com/, September 2011, pukul 13:30 WIB). Terpenoid. diakses 8

University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. 2000. Aquatic plants in Pen-and-Ink: Supplement. IFAS Publication No. SP243. IFAS Publications, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

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Widyaningrum, Nova Rahma. 2008. Potensi Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Daun Dewandaru (Eugenia uniflora L.) sebagai Agen Pengkhelat Logam Fe dan Penangkap Malonaldehid (Skripsi). Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Wikipedia. 2011. Squalene. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squalene, diakses 24 Juni 2011, pukul 13:47 WIB).

Ada banyak jenis tanaman air yang dapat digunakan dalam proses fitoremediasi seperti kangkung air, teratai, eceng gondok

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mampu mengakumulasi logam berat Hg masing-masing sebesar 54,525 ppm, 120 ppm, dan 42,425 ppm (Palapa, 2009). Zhu dkk. (1999) telah meneliti eceng gondok mampu menyerap dan mentranslokasi logam Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, dan Se dengan kadar logam Cd tertinggi pada akar sebesar 6,103 mg/kg, kadar Cr pada akar sebesar 119 dan 3,951 mg/kg. Beberapa tanaman air lainnya seperti Azolla caroliniana dapat meyerap logam Hg, Cr (III) dan Cr (VI) (Bennicelli dkk., 2004). Alloway, B.J. 1995. Heavy Metals in Soils. Second Edition, Blackie cademic & Professional. An Imprint of Chapman & Hall. Glasgow. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H. 1989. Trace elements in the Soil and Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Palar, H. 1994. Pencemaran dan Toksikologi Logam Berat. PT. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Biber, Patrick D. 2008. Determining Salinitytolerance of giant Salvinia Using chlorophyll fluorescence, Gulf and Caribbean Research, 21. Saeni, M. S. 2002. Kimia Logam Berat. Program Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor. Room, P. M. 1988. Effects of temperature, nutrients and a beetle on branch architecture of the floating weed Salvinia molesta and simulations of biological control, Journal of Ecology, 76:826-848. Bennicelli R., Stepniewska Z., Banach A., Szajnocha K. and Ostrowski J. 2004. The ability of Azolla caroliniana to remove heavy metals (Hg(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI)) from municipal waste water, Chemosphere, 55:141-146 Nurkomarasari, Risa, Ersan Yudhapratama, dan Redi Ahmad Fauzi. 2010. Penentuan Kadar Tembaga dalam Sampel Air Limbah dengan Menggunakan Spektrometer Serapan Atom (AAS), (http://www.scribd.com/doc/49290552/LAPORAN-AAS. Penentuan Kadar Tembaga dalam Sampel Air Limbah dengan Menggunakan Spektrometer Serapan Atom (AAS), diakses tanggal 11 Maret 2011, pukul 08:45 WIB). Zhu, Y. L., Zayed, A. M., Quian, J. H., De Souza, M., & Terry, N. 1999. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: II. Water hyacinth, Journal of Environmental Quality, 28:339344. Julianty, Riza. 2010. Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom (SSA), (http://chicamayonnaise.blogspot.com/2010/03/spektrofotometriserapan-atom-aas.html, diakses tanggal 11 Maret 2011, pukul 08: 52 WIB).

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Hendayana, Sumar. 1994. Kimia Analitik Instrumen. Semarang: IKIP Semarang Press. Whiteman, J. B., and Room, P. M. 1991. Temperatures lethal to Salvinia molesta Mitchell, Aquatic Botany, 40:27-35. Widowati, W., dkk. 2008. Efek Toksik Logam. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi. Skoog. D. A., Donald M. West, F. James Holler, Stanley R. Crouch, 2000. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry .Hardcover: 992 pages, Publisher: Brooks Cole. Priyanto, B. & Prayitno, J. 2006. Fitoremediasi Sebagai Sebuah Teknologi Pemulihan Pencemaran, Khususnya Logam berat, (Online). (http://ltl.bppt.tripod.com/sublab/lflora1.htm, diakses 15 Mei 2011). Mitchell, D. S., Petr, T., and Viner, A. B. 1980. The water fern Salvinia molesta in the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea, Environmental Conservation, 7:115-122. Johnson, D. S. 1967. On the chemistry of freshwaters in southern Malaysia and Singapore, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 63:477-496. Gaudet, J. J. 1973. Growth of a floating aquatic weed, Salvinia, under standard conditions, Hydrobiologia, 41:77-106. Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., and Herberger, J. P. (1977). The worlds worst weeds: Distribution and biology. The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. Coates, D. 1982. Salvinia possible biological effects on fish in Papua New Guinea?, Aquatics, 4(3): 2. Hattingh, E. R. 1961. Problem of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. and associated aquatic weeds on Kariba Lake, Weed Research, 1:303-306. Thomas, P. A., and Room, P. M. 1986a. Taxonomy and control of Salvinia molesta, Nature, 320:581-584. Thomas, P. A., and Room, P. M. 1986b. Successful control of the floating weed Salvinia molesta in Papua New Guinea: A useful biological invasion neutralizes a disastrous one, Environmental Conservation, 13:242-248. Chilton, E., Jacono, C. C., Grodowitz, M., and Dugas, C. 2002. Salvinia molesta: Status report and action plan, Unpublished report by the Giant Salvinia Interagency Task Force. Oliver, J. D. 1993. A review of the biology of giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell), Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 31:227231. Barrett, S. C. H. 1989. Waterweed invasions, Scientific American, 260: 90-97.

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KADMIUM Ubay, Bey. 2009. Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (AAS), (http://adityabeyubay359.blogspot.com/2009/06/spektrofoto meter-serapan-atom-aas.html, diakses tanggal 11 Maret 2011 pukul 10:12 WIB). Achmad, Rukaesih. 2004. Kimia Lingkungan. Yokyakarta: Andi. Palar, H.. 1994. Pencemaran dan Toksikologi Logam Berat. PT. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Charlena. 2004. Pencemaran Logam Berat Timbal (Pb) Dan Cadmium (Cd) Pada Sayur-Sayuran. Bogor: ITB BAHAYA KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT DALAM SAYURAN DAN ALTERNATIF PENCEGAHAN CEMARANNYA Widaningrum, Miskiyah dan Suismono. Buletin Teknologi Pascapanen Pertanian Vol. 3 2007 (16-27). Widowati, W., dkk. (2008). Efek Toksik Logam. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi. Hal. 109-110, 119-120, 125-126. Palar, H. (2008). Pencemaran dan Toksikologi Logam Berat. Jakarta: Penerbit Rineka Cipta. Hal. 34, 80-84. Cary and Wertz. (1984). Growth of Salvinia molesta as affected by water temperature and nutrition. III. Nitrogen-phosphorus interactions and effect of pH, Aquatic Botany 19, 171-182. Chappell, J. 1997. Phytoremediation of TCE Usig Populus. Status Report Prepared for The U.S. EPA Technology Inovation Office Under a National Network of Environmental Management Studies Fellowship, June August 1997. Silverstein, R.M. 1991. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compound. John wiley & Sons, Inc. McGrath, S.P., Z.G. Shen, dan Zhao, F.J. 1997. Heavy metal uptake and chemical changes in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens and Thlaspi ochroleucum grown in contaminated soils, Plant Soil, 188:153-159. Krmer, U. J.D. Cotter-Howells, J.M. Charnock, A.J.M. Baker, Smith, J.A.C. 1996. Free histidine as a metal chelator in plants that accumulate nickel, Nature, 379:635-638. Cary, P. R., and Weerts, P. G. J. 1983a. Growth of Salvinia molesta as affected by water temperature and nutrition. I. Effects of nitrogen level and nitrogen compounds, Aquatic Botany, 16:163-172.

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__________. 1983b. Growth of Salvinia molesta as affected by water temperature and nutrition. II. Effects of phosphorus level, Aquatic Botany, 17:61-70. Mkandawire, M., & Dudel, E. G. 2005. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany, Science of the Total Environment, 336:8189. Tian, J. L., Zhu, H. T., Yang, Y. A., & He, Y. K. 2004. Organic mercury tolerance, absorption and transformation in Spartina plants, Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao (Journal of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology), 30:577582. Day, R.A. dan A.L. Underwood. 2002. Analisis Kimia Kuantitatif Edisi ke 6. Jakarta: Erlangga. Kelompok Flavon Flavonol atau 3hydroxyflavon Struktur Luteulin, Contoh Apigenin,

Tangeritin Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin, Pachypodol, Rhamnazin, Fisetin Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictol, Homoeriodictyol Dihidrokaempferol, Taxifolin Dihidroquercetin), (atau

Flavanon

Flavanonol atau 3Hydroxyflavanon atau 2,3dihydroflavanonol