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LIST OF COMMON LINKING EXPRESSIONS

(c): subordinating linker, followed by a clause


(pr): preposition, followed by a noun phrase
(a): freestanding linker, typically set off by a full-stop and comma

Cause and Effect


since (c) Since it was raining, we stayed home.
as (c) As it was raining, we stayed home.
because (c) Because it was raining, we stayed home.
because of Because of the rain, we stayed home.
due to (pr) Due to the rain, we stayed home
so (c) It was raining, so we stayed home.
Therefore, (a) It was raining. Therefore, we stayed home.
Consequently, (a) It was raining. Consequently, we stayed home.
As a consequence, (a) It was raining. As a consequence, we stayed home.
As a result, (a) It was raining. As a result, we stayed home.
As a result of (pr) As a result of the rain, we stayed home.
now that (c) Now that she's retired, she's much happier.

Contrast / Opposition / Unexpected Result


But (c) It was raining, but we went to the beach.
However, (a) It was raining. However, we went to the beach.
Nonetheless, (a) It was raining. Nonetheless, we went to the beach.
Nevertheless, (a) It was raining. Nevertheless, we went to the beach.
Even so, (a) It was raining. Even so, we went to the beach.
in spite of (pr) In spite of the rain, we went to the beach.
in spite of the fact that (c) In spite of the fact that it was raining, we went to the beach.
despite (pr) Despite the rain, we went to the beach.
though (c) Though it was raining, we went to the beach.
although (c) Although it was raining, we went to the beach.
even though (c) Even though it was raining, we went to the beach.
while (c) While Arabic is a Semitic language, Persian is Indo-European.
whereas (c) Whereas Arabic is a Semitic language, Persian is Indo-European.
On the other hand, (a) Arabic is a Semitic language. On the other hand, Persian is
Indo-European.

Condition
if (c) You may go if you have finished.
unless (c) You may not go unless you have finished.
providing that (c) You may leave, providing that you have finished.
Otherwise, (a) Take an umbrella. Otherwise, you’ll get wet.
In the event that (c) In the event that she calls, tell her I’m sick.

Example
For example, (a) English can be confusing. For example, “weight” sounds like
“wait”.
For instance, (a) English can be confusing. For instance, “weight” sounds like
“wait”.
such as (pr) Romance languages, such as Catalan and Castilian, are derived from
Latin.
like (pr) Romance languages like Catalan and Castilian are derived from
Latin.

Continuing / Similarity / Addition


and (c) It’s crowded and expensive.
… too. It’s crowded. It’s expensive, too.
also It’s crowded. It’s also expensive.
Moreover, (a) It’s crowded. Moreover, it’s expensive.
Furthermore, (a) It’s crowded. Furthermore, it’s expensive.
In addition, (a) It’s crowded. In addition, it’s expensive.
In addition to (pr) In addition to being crowded, it’s expensive.
Besides, (a) It’s crowded. Besides, it’s expensive.
both … and It’s both crowded and expensive.
as well It’s crowded and it’s expensive as well.
as well as It’s crowded as well as expensive.
not only … but also It’s not only crowded but also expensive.
Not only is it crowded, but it is also expensive.