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INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

IRINEO P. QUINTO ECE / REE

THYRISTOR


A FAMILY OF SILICON SWITCHING DEVICES MADE-UP OF FOUR LAYERS OF SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL WITH PNPN STRUCTURE

I=0

I0

OPEN = SWITCH

HIGH R

CLOSED = LOW R SWITCH

IMPORTANT CURRENTS IN THYRISTOR




TRIGGER CURRENT


HOLDING CURRENT


MINIMUM GATE (INPUT) CURRENT REQUIRED TO TURNON THE THYRISTOR MINIMUM (INPUT) VOLTAGE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE THE TRIGGER CURRENT

TRIGGER VOLTAGE


MINIMUM MAINSTREAM CURRENT REQUIRED TO KEEP THE THYRISTOR ON

A
I=0 I0

SILICON CONTROLED RECTIFIER (SCR)


ANODE, A
MAINSTREAM CURRENT

P N GATE, G P N SYMBOL CATHODE, K G


TRANSISOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

VI CHARACTERISTIC
IM
IG 0
PIV / PRV / RBOV

IG = 0

REVERSE BLOCKING REGION

FORWARD BLOCKING REGION FBOV

VAK

TRIGGER VOLTAGE, VT
VT = ITRg + Vgk Rg Ex. Rg = 1k, IT = 20 mA VT IT VT = 20mA(1k) + 0.7 VT = 20.7 V

TO TURN-OFF AN SCR


THE ANODE AND CATHODE IS SHORTED REDUCE IM BELOW THE THRESHOLD CURRENT REVERSE BIASING THE ANODECATHODE TERMINALS

SCR IN AC CIRCUIT
VT

Vs
R1

RL VAK
VT

Vs

R2

VL

VT

SCR IN AC CIRCUITS
VT

FIRING ANGLE CONDUCTION ANGLE + = 180

AVERAGE POWER
VDC = 1 2

Vpsinwt d(wt)
VDC2 RL
CONDUCTION ANGLE THE NUMBER OF ELECTRICAL DEGREES IN AN AC CYCLE THAT ELAPSES DURING WHICH THE THYRISTOR IS TURNED-ON

PDC =

FIRING ANGLE THE NUMBER OF ELECTRICAL DEGREES IN AN AC CYCLE THAT ELAPSES BEFORE THE THYRISTOR TURNS ON

SCR IN DC CIRCUIT
R RL C
TRIGGER CIRCUIT
TURN-ON TURN-OFF

UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT)


BASE 2, B2

B2 B2 RB2 E B1 VE B1 RB1 VBB

EMITTER, E

BASE 1, B1

UJT VI CHARACTERISTIC
VP
NEGATIVE RESISTANCE REGION

VE = VP = nVBB + 0.70

VBB - INTERBASE VOLTAGE


n INTRINSIC STANDOFF RATIO

VV IP IV

n=

RB1 RB2 + RB1

n = 0.6 - TYPICAL

VP PEAK VOLTAGE VV VALLEY VOLTAGE

UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR


Vs R2 VB2 VB1 VE R1 VB1 VB2 VE RE

CE

UJT CONTROLLED SCR CIRCUIT

RE
1

R2 VB2 VB1 VE R1

RE
2

CE

SNUBBER CIRCUIT
USED TO PROTECT THE SCR FROM VOLTAGE SURGES AND TRANSIENTS

DIAC
ANODE 2 + P P N P + ANODE 1 A1 N

A2

TRIAC
VT

Vs
R1

RL VAA
VT

Vs

R2

VL

VT

PROGRAMMABLE UJT (PUT)


ANODE, A R P N P N GATE, G C
K A G

R2 E R1

VA = VP = VG + 0.70 VG = E R1 R1 + R2

CATHODE, K

SILICON CONTROLLED SWITCH (SCS)


ANODE, A P N
GATE, Gk GATE, Ga
TO TURN-ON, A POSITIVE PULSE AT GATE CATHODE OR A NEGATIVE PULSE AT THE GATE ANODE IS APPLIED TO TURN-OFF, A NEGATIVE PULSE AT GATE CATHODE OR A POSITIVE PULSE AT THE GATE ANODE IS APPLIED

P N

CATHODE, K

SHOCKLEY DIODE / FOURLAYER DIODE (FLD)


ANODE, A A P N P N K VO E C Vo R

CATHODE, K

SILICON UNILATERAL SWITCH (SUS)


ANODE, A P N G P N Vz

CATHODE, K

SILICON BILATERAL SWITCH (SBS)

LIGHT ACTIVATED SCR (LASCR)


AN SCR THAT CAN BE TURN-ON BY LIGHT ENERGY OR IT CAN ALSO BE TURN-ON ELECTRICALLY

POWER INVERTER
B 1 3 5

E
2 4 6

VOLTAGE GENERATED
1ST INTERVAL -A +C 2ND INTERVAL +B -A 3RD INTERVAL +B -C 4TH INTERVAL +A +A -B 6TH INTERVAL -B +C -C VAN
E/2 -E/2 E/2 -E/2 E/2 -E/2 E 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH 6TH

VBN VCN

VAB
E -E

5TH

INTERVAL

VBC
E

VCA
-E

INDUSTRIAL ROBOT


A PROGRAMMABLE MACHINE DESIGNED TO PERFORM A SPECIFIC TASK




BENEFITS
   

ACCURATE ALMOST CONSTANT EFFICIENCY CAN HANDLE HEAVY LOADS CAN BE USED IN ENVIRONMENTS DANGEROUS TO HUMAN

ACTUATORS


ELECTRIC MOTORS


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


DC MOTOR  PREFERRED OVER AC MOTOR WHEN SPEED VARIATION IS REQUIRED AC MOTOR  SMALLER, CHEAPER THAN DC MOTOR OF THE SAME CAPACITY

HYDRAULICS IS THE SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF FLUIDS AND HOW CAN IT BE USED TO TRANSPORT POWER. PNEUMATICS IS THE SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF AIR.

PNEUMATIC SYSTEM


MECHANICAL CONFIGURATION


CARTESIAN


PURE LINEAR MOTIONS WITH ONE ROTATIONAL MOTION WITH TWO ROTATIONAL MOTIONS WITH MORE THAN TWO ROTATIONAL MOTIONS

CYLINDRICAL


SPHERICAL


ARTICULATED OR JOINTED ARM




SOFTWARE CATEGORY


POSITIVE STOP

POINT TO POINT

CONTINUOUS PATH

PROGRAMMING TYPE


MANUAL


MAKES USE OF SWITCHES TO CONTROL THE MOTION OF THE ROBOT MAKES USE OF MANUALLY STORING THE MOVEMENT INTO THE MEMORY USED OF SOFTWARE TO DEFINE THE MOTIONS

WALKTHROUGH


LEADTHROUGH


MECHANICAL CONFIGURATION


CARTESIAN

CYLINDRICAL

MECHANICAL CONFIGURATION


SPHERICAL

ARTICULATED-ARM

MOTOR CONTROL
If Ia Vs Vs

ARMATURE CONTROL

FIELD CONTROL

FULLWAVE CONTROL
1 2

3 4

CYCLOCONVERTER


AC TO AC CONVERTER CIRCUIT

RECTIFIER fa DC

INVERTER fb

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


ADVANTAGES


MOST POWERFUL TYPE OF ACTUATOR HAS VELOCITY CONTROL CAN HANDLE HEAVY LOAD WITHOUT SAG REVERSIBLE MOTION MESSY VERY EXPENSIVE

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRAULIC LIQUID


 

 

DISADVANTAGES
 

HIGH VISCOSITY VERY HIGH BOILING POINT & VERY LOW FREEZING POINT NON-COMBUSTIBLE INCOMPRESSIBLE

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PRINCIPLE

PASCALS LAW
PRESSURE IS EQUALLY TRANSMITTED THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM

F1/A1 = F2/A2 F1S1 = F2S2 P P

AUTOMATIC WELDING SYSTEM




WELDING INTERVALS
  

ANODE

STANDBY INTERVAL SQUEEZE INTERVAL WELD INTERVAL


 

HEAT SUB-INTERVAL COOL SUB-INTERVAL

IGNITOR

 

HOLD INTERVAL RELEASE INTERVAL

CATHODE

IGNITRON

DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERS


POTENTIOMETER / RHEOSTAT


CONVERTS DISPLACEMENT INTO CHANGE IN RESISTANCE CAN INDICATE LINEAR OR ROTATIONAL MOTION

DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERS


LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER (LVDT)




MADE-UP OF TWO SECONDARY WINDINGS CONNECTED IN SERIES OPPOSING AND HAS A MOVABLE CORE

DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERS


LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER (LVDT)




MADE-UP OF TWO SECONDARY WINDINGS CONNECTED IN SERIES OPPOSING AND HAS A MOVABLE CORE
V1 Vin V2 Vo = V1 V2

LVDT
CENTER, Vo Vin

Vo
SMALL DISPLACEMENT LARGE DISPLACEMENT

Vo

PRESSURE TRANDSDUCERS


BELLOWS


BOURDON TUBE


MADE-UP OF FLEXIBLE METAL DIAPHRAGM 0.5 20 psi

MADE-UP HOLLOW METAL TUBE 10 350 psi

INLET

TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCTION


TEMPERATURE OF A BODY OR SUBSTANCE IS:


 

ITS POTENTIAL OF HEAT FLOW A MEASURE OF THE MEAN KINETIC ENERGY OF ITS MOLECULES ITS THERMAL STATE CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO ITS POWER OF COMMUNICATING HEAT TO OTHER BODIES OR SUBSTANCES

TEMPERATURE DETECTORS


THERMISTOR
 

MADE-UP OF PURE METALLIC OXIDES HAS NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT -80 - 150C

RESISTIVE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD)


 

PURE METAL HAS POSITIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT TYPICALLY MADE OF PLATINUM WIRE (-183 TO 630) OR NICKEL OR NICKEL ALLOY WIRE

TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCTION


GERMANIUM THERMOMETER


QUARTZ-CRYSTAL


USED TO MEASURE CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE (BELOW 195C) USED IN SURFACE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE RANGE OF -50 TO 275C


SILICON WAFER
 

CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE CONVERTED INTO CHANGE IN OSCILLATING FREQUENCY (-50 TO 250C) PROVIDES AN OUTPUT PROPORTIONAL TO CONVECTIVE AS WELL AS RADIANT THERMAL ENERGY

CALORIMETER

TEMPERATURE DETECTORS


THERMOCOUPLE


MATERIAL USED CHROMELCONSTANTAN TYPE E IRONCONSTANTAN TYPE J CHROMEL ALUMEL TYPE K PLATINUM RHODIUM TYPE R TUNGSTEN RHENIUM

TEMPERATURE RANGE (C)

MADE-UP OF TWO DIFFERENT METALS FORMING A CLOSEDLOOP USED SEEBECK EFFECT (THERMOELECTRIC EFFECT)

OUTPUT VOLTAGE (mV)

0 1000 0 850 0 1350 0 1700 0 2350

0-90 0 50 0 60 0 20 0 - 40

TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCTION


OPTICAL / RADIATION PYROMETER




NON-CONTACTING TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER WHICH RESPONDS TO RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER (INFRARED: 0.75 1000 um) PRIMARILY USED FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS (UP TO 3500C)

OPTICAL LENS

HOT SUBSTANCE

STRAIN GAUGE


USED TO MEASURE THE AMOUNT OF FORCE CAUSING STRAIN TO A BODY MADE-UP OF RESISTANCE WIRE SUBJECTED TO THE STRESS

SENSING AXIS

F A

= Y

= L/Lo = R/Ro

Y YOUNGS MODULUS OF ELASTICITY STRAIN F FORCE APPLIED A CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA

ACCLEROMETER


USED TO MEASURE ACCELERATION AS WELL AS SHOCK AND VIBRATION BASICALLY USED A SEISMIC MASS AS SENSING ELEMENT

SEISMIC MASS

SEISMIC MASS

GYRO


WIDELY USED ATTITUDE AND ATTITUDE RATE TRANSDUCER CONTAINS A FASTREVOLVING ROTOR TURNING ABOUT THE SPIN AXIS. THIS ESTABLISHES THE INERTIAL REFERENCE AXIS

SPIN AXIS

GIMBAL AXIS

TACHOMETER


USED AS AN ANGULAR SPEED TRANSDUCER

  

DC GENERATOR TYPE AC INDUCTION TYPE AC MAGNETO TYPE PHOTOELECTRIC TYPE

FLOWMETER


USED TO MEASURE THE TIME RATE OF MOTION EITHER AS FLUID VOLUME PER UNIT TIME OR AS FLUID MASS PER UNIT TIME

HALL EFFECT

HUMIDITY TRANSDUCERS


HYGROMETER


PSYCHROMETER


MADE-UP OF A SINGLE SENSING ELEMENT

MADE-UP OF TWO TEMPERATURE SENSING ELEMENTS


DRY BULB

METAL ELECTRODES

CONDUCTING FILM

WET BULB

SPECIAL PURPOSE DEVICES




ZENER DIODE


THYRECTOR


USED AS A DC VOLTAGE REGULATOR 1.8 200 V, TO 50 W RATINGS

USED AS A AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR EQUIVALENT TO BACK-TO-BACK CONNECTION OF ZENER DIODES

SPECIAL PURPOSE DEVICES




SCHOTTKY / HOT CARRIER DIODE




VARACTOR DIODE


COMMONLY USED IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ALSO USED IN RF DETECTION

ALSO CALLED VARICAP OR VOLTAGE CONTROLLED CAPACITANCE USED IN TUNING CIRCUITS

METAL +

N -

C=

Co 1 + 2Vr +

SPECIAL PURPOSE DEVICES




TUNNEL DIODE


LCD


 

ALSO KNOWN AS ESAKI DIODE HAS DOPING 100X TO SEVERAL THOUSAND X AN ORDINARY DIODE RESULTING TO A VERY SMALL DEPLETION REGION uA<Ip<100m A Vp < 600 mV

TAKES ONLY uW OF POWER 0 TO 60C

STEP RECOVERY DIODE




MADE UP OF GRADED DOPING LEVEL

OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES


CLASSIFICATION


 

PHOTOCONDUCTIVE PHOTOVOLTAIC PHOTEMISSIVE

 

PHOTODIODE PHOTORESISTOR PHOTOCELL PHOTOTRANSISTOR