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Ogan Gurel, MD

Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Biology 301
Cellular and Molecular Biology
Spring 2002

Lecture # 6: Nucleic Acids


Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Overall outline
 The Central Dogma
 Nucleotide Chemistry
 Nucleic Acid Structure
 Nucleic Acid Function
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

The Central Dogma


 Information Flow in the Cell
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6

Information Flow in the Cell


Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Nucleotide Chemistry
 Synthesis of Polymers
 Breakdown of Polymers
 Phosphoanhydrides & Phosphoesters
 Chemistry of Phospho-derivatives
 The structures of nucleotides and polynucleotides
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Synthesis of Polymers
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6

Breakdown of Polymers
Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD

Phosphoanhydrides & Biology 301


Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Phosphoesters
Phosphoanhydrides are
common in ATP and other
“high-energy compounds.”
Phosphodiesters compose the
backbone of DNA and RNA.
Ogan Gurel, MD

Chemistry of Phospho- Biology 301


Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

derivatives

 Adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) is a
phosphoanhydride
composed of an adenine
base, a ribose sugar and a
triphosphate group.

 Phosphoanhydrides are
“High-energy” compounds.
High-energy is not an
intrinsic property of the
bond per se, but rather a
relative energy between
the phosphoanhydride and
its highly stable hydrolysis
products.
Ogan Gurel, MD

The structures of nucleotides Biology 301


Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

and polynucleotides
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Nucleic Acid Structure


 The Double Helix
 Structure Determination
 DNA Structure
 Chromatin Structure
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6

The Double Helix


Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6

Structure Determination
Roosevelt University
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6

DNA Structure
Roosevelt University

DOUBLE HELIX 
 
{
OO
P
H O O 1.  X­ray fiber diffraction 
H H 2.  Structure of nucleotides 
3.  Chargaff’ s   R u l e s   ( G = C ,   A = T )  
H O H
O CH2 Base Base CH2 O

{
H O O
H P
H O O
H H
H H

{ O
P
O H
H O H
O O CH2 Base Base CH2 O
H O H

{
H
O O H
P
O O

 
4.  Suggested possible mechanism for REPLICATION 
 

  Proteins  usually  have  a  hydrophobic  interior  and  a  hydrophilic  exterior.    Describe  how  this 
paradigm also applies to DNA. 
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Chromatin Structure

 CHROMATIN = DNA + PROTEIN


(histones)
 Chromatin is involved in the
packaging and regulation of
DNA and is organized in a
hierarchical fashion of
successive DNA packing
arrangements.
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6
Roosevelt University

Nucleic Acid Function


 DNA > RNA > Protein
Ogan Gurel, MD
Biology 301
Lecture #6

DNA > RNA > Protein


Roosevelt University