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# 1 EF 5303 (DR SEE KIN HAI) (Analysis of covariance ANCOVA) 1.

ANCOVA allows you to adjust for variables (covariates or pre-test) which correlate with the dependent variable (posttest) before comparing the dependent means therefore reducing the systematic bias. 2. To determine whether the independent variable is indeed having an effect, the influence of covariate (pretest) on the dependent variable is statistically controlled during the analysis. Thus reduces error variance due to individual differences. 3. Only suitable for between or independent groups pre-test posttest designs. Example: Differences in depression prior to the treatment affect the outcome of analysis. Here adjusting scores on dependent variable will get rid of these preexisting differences affecting the analysis. (a) pretest scores (before treatment) are correlated with posttest scores after treatment, (b) pretest scores differ between 3 treatments then these differences can be statistically controlled by covarying them out of the analysis

## Hint: Dependent: complit2 Factors : sex [1 2] Covariates: complit1

5 COURSEWORK 2 In M Ed research study, 15 students of Year 11 (Form 5) are randomly assigned to three groups using different teaching strategies. Experimental Groups Group 1 is given Treatment 1 Group 2 is given Treatment 2 Group 3 is a control group. The 15 students are given a pretest(X) then two weeks later the same test is given as posttest (Y). Group 1 X1 5 8 10 6 9 1. 2. Y1 70 65 40 50 60 Group 2 X2 10 12 14 11 9 Y2 90 70 85 82 75 Group 3 X3 8 9 10 11 12 Y3 30 20 24 25 15

Do the experimental groups differ significantly from the control group in the achievement test? Which method of teaching is the most favourable / effective?