Anda di halaman 1dari 59

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 1



CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1. General
A Bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way
beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline.
The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.
Bridges range in length from a few metre to several kilometre. They are among the
largest structures built by man. The demands on design and on materials are very high. A
bridge must be strong enough to support its own weight as well as the weight of the people
and vehicles that use it. The structure also must resist various natural occurrences, including
earthquakes, strong winds, and changes in temperature. Most bridges have a concrete, steel,
or wood framework and an asphalt or concrete road way on which people and vehicles travel.
The T-beam Bridge is by far the Most commonly adopted type in the span range of 10 to 25
M. The structure is so named because the main longitudinal girders are designed as T-beams
integral with part of the deck slab, which is cast monolithically with the girders. Simply
supported T-beam span of over 30 M are rare as the dead load then becomes too heavy.
1.1 Main Components of a Bridge
The Superstructure consists of the following components:
i. Deck slab
ii. Cantilever slab portion
iii. Footpaths, if provided, kerb and handrails or crash barriers.
iv. Longitudinal girders, considered in design to be of T-section
v. Cross beams or diaphragms, intermediate and end ones.
vi. Wearing coat
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 2

The Substructure consists of the following structures:
i) Abutments at the extreme ends of the bridge.
ii) Piers at intermediate supports in case of multiple span bridges.
iii) Bearings and pedestals for the decking.
iv) Foundations for both abutments and piers may be of the type open, well, pile, etc.
Apart from the above, river training works and the approaches to a bridge also form a part
of a bridge works.
1.2 Types of Bridges
i) Girder Bridge
ii) Truss Bridge
iii) Arch Bridge
iv) Cantilever Bridge
v) Suspension Bridge
vi) Cable-stayed Bridge
vii) Movable Bridge
viii) Slab Bridge
1.2.1Girder Bridges
There are two main types of girder bridges. In one type, called a box girder bridge, each
girder looks like a long box that lies between the piers or abutments. The top surface of the
bridge is the roadway. Box girder bridges are built of steel or concrete. In the other type of
girder bridge, the end view of each girder looks like an I or a T. Two or more girders support
the roadway. This type of bridge is called a plate girder bridge when made of steel, a
reinforced or prestressed concrete girder bridge when made of concrete, and a wood girder
bridge when made of wood.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 3

1.3 Parameters governing choice of Superstructure:
The basic function of a bridge superstructure is to permit uninterrupted smooth passage
of traffic over it and to transmit the loads and to transmit the load and forces to the
substructure safely through the bearings. Although it is difficult to stipulate the aesthetic
requirements, it should, however, be ensured that the type of superstructure adopted is
simple, pleasing to the eye, and blends with the environment. No hard and fast rules can be
laid regarding the economy in cost. The designer should, however, be able to evolve the most
economical type of superstructure based on his judgment and experience given the particular
conditions prevailing at the particular site at the particular time.
The following factors are to be considered while selecting the type of a bridge superstructure.
i. The nature of river or streams
ii. Nature of foundation / founding strata available
iii. The amount and type of traffic
iv. Whether used for navigation purposes
v. Climatic conditions
vi. Hydraulic data
vii. Type of available construction material
viii. Labour available
ix. The available facilities for erections
x. Maintenance provisional
xi. The availability of funds
xii. Time available for construction
xiii. Strategic consideration
xiv. Economic consideration
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 4

xv. Aesthetic consideration
1.4 General guidelines for analysis and Design of a Bridge Structure
Procedure for preparation of General Arrangement Drawing of a Bridge:
I. First of all the required formation level is found out. On knowing this the permissible
structural depth is established. This is done after taking into account the following
two things : ( i ) Minimum vertical clearance required taking into account the
difference between the affluxed high flood level and the soffit of the deck. ( ii )
Thickness of wearing coat required below the formation level.
II. Considering the depth of foundations, the height of deck above the bed level and low
water level, average depth of water during construction season, the type of bridge,
span lengths, type of foundations, cross section of the deck, method of construction
and loading sequence.
III. Trial cross sections of the deck, sizes of various elements of the substructure and
superstructure are decided upon and drawn to arrive at the preliminary general
arrangement of the bridge. Various trials lead to a structural form with optimum
placements of its load masses. Relative proportions and sizes of certain members as
well as their shapes are decided upon and drawn to a certain scale on this drawing.
The type of bearing to be used along with their locations depending the support
system is also established. The main basis of the general arrangement drawing of a
bridge structure is a quick preliminary analysis and design of the member sections.
This is essential for forming the basis of the detailed to be carried later on depending
upon the requirements of the project.
1.5 General Procedure for Design of Superstructure of a Bridge:
i) Analyse and design the transverse-deck-slab and its cantilever portions, unless the
superstructure is purely longitudinally reinforced solid slab with no cantilevering
portions. This is necessitated so as to decide the top flange thickness of the deck
section which is essential to work out the deck section properties for the subsequent
longitudinal design.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 5

ii) Compute the dead load and live load bending moments at each critical section.
iii) In order to determine the maximum and minimum live load effects that a particular
longitudinal can receive, carry out the transverse load distribution for live load placed
in various lanes.
iv) This may be done by Courbon's method, Little and Morice's method, Hendry and
Jaeger methods.
v) Alternatively, use may be made to the Plane-Grid method which involves using one
of the many standard computer programs (.e.g. STAAD program). The Plan Grid
method is basically a finite element method. Though time consuming in writing the
input data, it is nevertheless very useful for the purpose of analysis. For wide and
multi-cell boxes and transverse live load distribution may be studied by the finite
element method but it is time consuming.
vi) Design against bending of critical sections, in reinforced or in prestressed concrete as
the case may be.
vii) Work out dead load and live load shear forces at each critical section in the
longitudinals of the deck and design the sections and reinforcements for effects of
torsion and shear, if required.
1.6 Transverse Distribution of Loads
Analysis based on the elastic theory is recommended to find the distribution in the transverse
direction of the bending Moment in the direction movement in the direction of the span. For
the analysis, the structure May be idealized in one of the following ways:
i. a system of interconnected beams forming a rigid
ii. an orthotropic plate
iii. an assemblage of thin plate elements or thin plate elements and beams
For the computation of the bending Moment due to live load, the distribution of the live
loads between longitudinals has to be determined. When there are only two longitudinal
girders, the reactions on the longitudinals can be found by assuming supports of the deck slab
as unyielding. With three or more longitudinal girders, the load distribution is estimated
using any one of the above rational methods.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 6

By using any one of the above Methods, the Maximum reactions factors for
intermediate and end longitudinal girders are obtained. The bending Moments and shears are
then computed for these critical values of reaction factors. The above three Methods make
simplifying assumptions relating to the structure and loading. These assumptions introduce
errors but Make these Methods amenable to calculators and graphs. In relative comparison to
this the grillage Method of analysis, pioneered by Lightfoot and Sawko requires lesser
simplifying assumptions.
1.7 About the Project
The Project is an ongoing work across Palar river near Thangalakuppa on road joining
Kangandlahalli-Ramasagara Road and K-V Road in Bangarpet Taluk. The Superstructure for
19.34M effective span is proposed with Reinforced Concrete Deck slab and cast-in-situ three
Reinforced girders which are supported over four cross girders with a total height of the
girders 1.950M at the centre of the span and 1.890M at the end with two end cross girders
supported on the piers. The spacing of R.C. longitudinal girders is 2.5M c/c. The spacing of
the cross girders is 3.742M c/c. The panel size is 2.1M x 3.442M. The deck consists of two
cantilever slabs of 1.750M length from the centre of the end girder. There are two Crash
Barriers at the end of the deck slab. The design of the superstructure is done by the Working
stress method and involves the following procedure:
1. Deck Slab Design
2. Design of Longitudinal Girders and Cross Girders.









ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 7

CHAPTER 2
LOADS
The various loads to which the bridge is subjected to are
i) Dead loads
ii) Live loads
iii) Wind loads
iv) Seismic loads
i) Dead Loads: Unit weight for Dead Loads has been considered by adopting unit
weights as per IRC 6:2000 (Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
Bridges, Section II-Loads and Stress)
ii) Super Imposed Dead load: Wearing coat and Crash Barrier loads are taken as
2KN/M
2
and 7.75KN/M.
iii) Vehicular Live Load: As per IRC:6 deck the superstructure is analysed for the
following vehicles and whichever produces the severest effect has been considered in
the design. Following combinations are adopted.
1) One Lane of Class AA loading or
2) Two Lanes of Class A loading
iv) Durability and Maintenance Requirements:
Concrete Grades and Reinforcement
1. Concrete: For RC Deck Slab(M-30)
2. Reinforcement: HYSD bars(Fe-415) conforming to IS:1786
3. Clear Cover: Minimum clear cover of 40MM to reinforcement has been adopted
4. Drainage Provision: Deck slab is provided with 2.5% camber and drainage
spouts with 5m c/c are adopted.





ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 8

CHAPTER 3
Design of Superstructure
3. Preliminary Design Details
Clear Roadway = 7.5M Concrete Grade = M30
Three T-beams at 2.5M intervals Steel Fe 415
Five Cross beams at 3.742 M intervals
3.1 Deck Slab
The Slab is supported on four sides by beams
Thickness of Slab, H = 225MM
Thickness of Wearing Coat, D = 75MM
Span in the transverse direction = 2.5M
Effective span in the Transverse direction = 2.5 - 0.4 = 2.1M
Span in the Longitudinal direction = 3.742M
Effective span in the longitudinal direction = 3.742 - 0.3 = 3.442M
i) Maximum Bending Moment due to Dead Load
a) Weight of Deck Slab = 0.225 X 24 = 5.4 KN/M
2

b) Weight of Wearing Course = 0.075 X 22 = 1.65 KN/M
2

c) Total Weight = 7.05 KN/M
2
(say 7.1 KN/M
2
)




ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 9

3.2. Analysis of Inner Panels
a) Slab Dead Load Bending Moment
Since the slab is supported on all four sides and is continuous, Pigeauds Curves will be used
to get influence coefficients to compute Moments,
Ratio K, = Short span/Long span
= 2.1/3.44
Therefore, K = 0.61
M
1
= 8.2 X 10
-2
and M
2
= 3.12 x 10
-2

Total Dead Weight = 7.1 x 2.1 x 3.44 = 51.3KN
Dead Load Bending Moment along Short span
M
B
= W (M
1
+ 0.15 X

M
2
) Fig:3 Position of wheel load for max BM
= 51.3 (0.082 + 0.15 X 0.0312)
M
B
= 4.45 KN-M
Dead Load Bending Moment along Long span
M
L
= W (M
2
+ 0.15 X

M
1
)
= 51.3 (0.0312 + 0.15 X 0.082)
M
L
= 2.23 KN-M
b) Dead Load Shear Force
Dead Load Shear Force = WL/2
= (7.1 x 2.1) / 2 = 7.45KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 10

3.3 LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS AA TRACKED VEHICLE
3.3.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle
Size of the panel = 2.5 M x 3.742 M
One Track of the Tracked Vehicle is placed symmetrically on the panel as shown in
the figure after the dispersion through the wearing coat of 75MM thickness the
dispersed dimensions are:
u = b + 2t and v = l + 2t
where, u = short span width of the track contact area
b = width of track wheel contact area
l = length of track wheel contact area
t = thickness of wearing coat

Therefore, u = (0.85 + 2 x 0.075) = 1M
v = (3.6 + 2 x 0.075) = 3.75 M

= 0.4 and

= 1
K =

= 0.67
Referring to Pigeauds Curves for K = 0.67 and interpolating
M
1
= 0.082 and M
2
= 0.030
Therefore, Live Load Bending Moment along Short span
M
B
= W (M
1
+ 0.15 x

M
2
)
= 350(0.082 + 0.15 x 0.030)
= 30.30 KN-M
Taking Continuity Factor of 0.8 and Impact Factor as 1.25
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 11

M
B
= 1.25 X 0.8 X 30.30
M
B
= 30.30KN-M
Live Load Bending Moment along Long span
M
L
= W (M
2
+ 0.15 X

M
1
)
= 350 (0.030 + 0.15 X 0.082)
= 14.81 KN-M
Taking Continuity Factor of 0.8 and Impact Factor as 1.25
M
L
= 1.25 X 0.8 X 14.81
M
L
= 14.81 KN-M
Design Moments due to Dead Load and IRC Class AA Tracked vehicle (Live Load)
Dead Load, M
B
= 4.45 KN-M
M
L
= 2.23 KN-M
Live Load, M
B
= 30.30KN-M
3.3.2 Live Load Shear Force due to IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle
Shear Force is calculated by effective width method, considering the panel to be fixed on all
the four edges. Hence effective size of panel will be 2.1M x 3.44M. For maximum Shear
Force the load will be so placed that its spread up to slab bottom reaches up to the face of the
rib i.e. the load is kept at

= 0.705M .
Dispersion in the direction of span
V = x + 2 (D+H)
= 0.85 + 2 (0.075 + 0.225)
= 1.45M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 12

Effective width of slab = K x A x [1-

] + b
w


= 1.64
From Table 9 of IRC 21-2000, K for Continuous slab is obtained as K=2.536
Effective width of slab = 2.536 x 0.705 x [1 (0.705/2.1)] + [3.6 + (2 x 0.075)]
= 4.94M
Load per meter width = 350/4.94
= 70.85KN
Shear Force = 70.85 x (2.1 0.705) / 2.1
= 47 KN
Shear Force with Impact = 1.25 x 47 = 58.75KN
4. LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS AA WHEELED VEHICLE
4.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle
Case 1)





Step 1: Find M
1
and M
2

u =
1.05M
v v y = 1.5M

u
B


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 13

Fig 4: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

v
L



B
L



From Pigeauds Curves by interpolation
k=0.61,


k=0.6, M
1
= 12x10
-2
, M
2
= 5.5x10
-2

k=0.61, M
1
= 12x10
-2
, M
2
= 5.6x10
-2

k=0.707, M
1
= 11.8x10
-2
, M
2
= 6.5x10
-2

M
1
= 0.12x10
-2
M
2
= 0.056x10
-2
Nultiply these by uxvy
N x

N x


Step Finu N anu N

0 N
v N

u
B



v
L



B
L


Fiom Pigeauus Cuives by inteipolation
k


k N x

N x


k N x

N x


k N x

N x


N x

N x

Nultiply these by xyx
N x

N x


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 14

Step Finu N anu N
0
0 N
v N

u
B



v
L



B
L


Fiom Pigeauus Cuives by inteipolation
k


k N x

N x


k N x

N x


k N x

N x


N x

N x

Nultiply these by yux
N x

N x



Step Finu N anu N
0 N
v N

u
B



v
L



B
L


Fiom Pigeauus Cuives by inteipolation
k


k=0.6, M
1
= 16.5x10
-2
, M
2
= 5.5x10
-2

k=0.61, M
1
= 16.7x10
-2
, M
2
= 6.0x10
-2

k=0.707, M
1
= 18x10
-2
, M
2
= 6.0x10
-2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 15

M
1
= 16.7x10
-2
M
2
= 6.0x10
-2
Multiply these by x(u1+y) = 0.075(0.3+0.45) =0.057
M
1
= 0.96x10
-2
M
2
= 0.035x10
-2

Design M
1
= 0.048+0.00714-0.0312-0.0096
M
1
= 0.01434 KN-M
Design M
2
= 0.0224+0.0032-0.0207-0.0035
M
1
KNN
NB uue to single loau

N N
KNN
M
L
due to single load

N N
KNN
Applying the effect of continuity and Impact
Final M
B
=22x0.8x1.25=22KN-M and M
L
= 5.26 x 1.25 x 0.8 =5.26KN-M
Case 2)
i) Effect of wheel no 2 of both the axles: When
wheel no 2 of both axles are centrally placed with
respect to y axis. The effect of these loads can be
found as a difference of two centrally placed loads on
area (1.5x0.45) and (0.9x0.45)
Step 1: Find M
1
and M
2



v
L



B
L





Fig 4.1: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle



ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 16

From Pigeauds Curves by interpolation
k=0.61,


k=0.6, M
1
= 12.8x10
-2
, M
2
= 4.4x10
-2

k=0.61, M
1
= 12.9x10
-2
, M
2
= 4.6x10
-2

k=0.707, M
1
= 13.8x10
-2
, M
2
= 5.9x10
-2

M
1
= 13x10
-2
M
2
= 4.6x10
-2

M
B
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=43KN-M
M
L
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=20.5KN-M
For larger load,



v
L



B
L


k=0.61,


k=0.6, M
1
= 16.0x10
-2
, M
2
= 7.0x10
-2

k=0.61, M
1
= 16.2x10
-2
, M
2
= 7.4x10
-2

k=0.707, M
1
= 18.0x10
-2
, M
2
= 10.5x10
-2

M
1
= 16.2x10
-2
M
2
= 7.4x10
-2

M
B
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=32.5KN-M
M
L
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=18.5KN-M
Net Moment M
B1
= 43-32.5=10.5KN-M
M
L1
= 20.5-18.5 = 2KN-M

i) Effect of wheel no.1 of both axles : wheel no1 are not centrally placed on any of the axes
hence their effect will be analysed by treating each load as eccentrically placed.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 17

u1= 0.45M, v1=0.3M, x = 0.375M, y = 0.45M

Step1: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.375) = 1.65
v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5
By Interpolation of values for k, u/B and v/L, we get
M
1
= 9.0x10
-2
and M
2
= 4.6x10
-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 0.62
M
1
= 0.056KN-M and M
2
= 0.03KN-M
Step2: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.375) = 0.75
v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9
By Interpolation of values for k=0.61, u/B=0.36 and v/L=0.26, we get
M
1
= 14.3x10
-2
and M
2
= 9x10
-2

Multiply by xy = 0.17
M
1
= 0.024KN-M and M
2
= 0.02KN-M

Step3: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.375) = 1.65
v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9
By Interpolation of values for k = 0.61, u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.26, we get
M
1
= 14.3x10
-2
and M
2
= 9x10
-2

Multiply by xy = 0.17
M
1
= 0.024KN-M and M
2
= 0.02KN-M

Step4: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.375) = 0.75
v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5
By Interpolation of values for k = 0.61, u/B = 0.36 and v/L = 0.44, we get
M
1
= 12.5x10
-2
and M
2
= 5.5x10
-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.28
M
1
= 0.036KN-M and M
2
= 0.015KN-M

Design M
B
= 0.056+0.024-0.037-0.036
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 18

= 0.008KN-M
M
L
= 0.03+0.02-0.026-0.015
= 0.01KN-M
M
B2
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=5.28KN-M
M
L2
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=6.23KN-M
ii) Effect of wheel no 3 of both axles
u1=0.45, v1= 0.3, x=0.775, y=0.45

Step1: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.45M
v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.44, we get
M
1
= 7.5x10
-2
and M
2
= 4.0x10
-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 0.92
M
1
= 0.07KN-M and M
2
= 0.0377KN-M
Step2: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.55
v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.74 and v/L = 0.26, we get
M
1
= 9.9x10
-2
and M
2
= 7.1x10
-2

Multiply by (xy) = 0.348
M
1
= 0.035KN-M and M
2
= 0.025KN-M
Step3: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.45
v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.26, we get
M
1
= 6.63x10
-2
and M
2
= 5.3x10
-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 0.55
M
1
= 0.0364KN-M and M
2
= 0.63KN-M
Step4: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.55
v = 2(u1+y) = 2(0.45+0.45) = 1.8
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.74 and v/L = 0.53, we get
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 19

M
1
= 9.0x10
-2
and M
2
= 4.5x10
-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.58
M
1
= 0.053KN-M and M
2
= 0.0261KN-M

Design M
B
= 0.07+0.035-0.0364-0.053
= 0.0156KN-M
M
L
= 0.0377+0.025-0.03-0.0.261
= 0.0066KN-M
M
B3
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=15.36KN-M
M
L3
due to single load =

M
1
+0.15 M
2
)
=8.3KN-M
Final bending Moment for case ii
M
B
= M
B1
+ M
B2
+ M
B3
M
L
= M
L1
+ M
L2
+ M
L3

M
B
= 31.14KN-M M
L
= 16.53KN-M

Case 3: Loads placed as per figure:
i) Effect of wheel 2 of axle 1:
u= 0.45, v = 0.3, u/B= 0.45/2.1, v/L=0.3/3.442 =
0.087
for k = 0.61, by interpolation M
1
= 0.2 and M
2
=
0.15
M
B1
= 14KN-M and M
L1
=11.6KN-M
ii) Effect of wheel 1 of axle 1:
For larger load, u/B=0.8, v/L=0.09, k = 0.61
M
B
= 16.33KN-M
M
L
= 16KN-M
For smaller load, u/B=0.36, v/L=0.09, k = 0.61
Fig 4.3: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 20


M
B
= 11.8KN-M
M
L
= 10.81KN-M
Net Moments,
M
B2
= (16.33-11.8) = 2.27KN-M and M
L2
= (16-10.81) = 2.6KN-M
iii) Effect of wheel load 3 of axle 1:
For larger load,
u/B= 2.45/2.1= 1.2; v/L= 0.3/3.442 = 0.09
For k = 0.61, by interpolation M
1
= 0.085 and M
2
= 0.081
M
B
= M
L
= 33.14KN-M
For smaller load,
u/B= 1.55/2.1= 0.74, v/L=0.3/3.442 = 0.09
For k = 0.61 by interpolation M
1
= 0.108 and M
2
= 0.101
M
B
= 26.35KN-M and M
L
= 25.00KN-M
Net Moments,
M
B3
= (33.14-26.35) = 3.4KN-M and M
L3
= (33.14-25.00) = 4.07 KN-M
iv) Effect of wheel 2 of axle 2:
For larger load, u/B=0.45/2.1= 0.22; v/L= 2.71/3.442 = 0.8;
For k=0.61 by interpolation M
1
= 0.13 and M
2
= 0.0331
M
B
= 76.2KN-M and M
L
= 30.00KN-M
For smaller load, u/B = 0.45/2.1=0.22; v/L = 2.09/3.442 = 0.61
For k=0.61 by interpolation M
1
= 0.13 and M
2
= 0.045
M
B
= 60.00KN-M and M
L
= 28.00KN-M
Net Moments,
M
B4
= (76.2-60) = 3.4KN-M and M
L4
= (30-28.00) = 1.0 KN-M
v) Effect of wheel load 1 of axle 2:
u1= 0.45; v1= 0.30; x = 0.37; y = 1.045
Step1: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 1.64
v = 2(u1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 21

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.8, we get
M
1
= 7.0x10
-2
and M
2
= 2.67x10
-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 1.11
M
1
= 0.077KN-M and M
2
= 0.03KN-M
Step2: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 0.74
v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.35 and v/L = 0.61, we get
M
1
= 12.0x10
-2
and M
2
= 4.5x10
-2

Multiply by xy = 0.39
M
1
= 0.0468KN-M and M
2
= 0.02KN-M
Step3: Find M
1
and M
2
for u = 2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 1.64
v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.61, we get
M
1
= 8.0x10
-2
and M
2
= 3.9x10
-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 0.86
M
1
= 0.069KN-M and M
2
= 0.034KN-M
Step4: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 0.74
v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.35 and v/L = 0.8, we get
M
1
= 10.4x10
-2
and M
2
= 3.3x10
-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.5
M
1
= 0.052KN-M and M
2
= 0.0165KN-M
Design M
1
= 0.077+0.0468-0.069-0.052 = 0.0028
M
2
= 0.03+0.02-0.034-0.0165 = 0
M
B5
= 0.78KN-M and M
L5
= 0.17 KN-M
vi) Effect of wheel load 3 of axle 2:
u1= 0.45; v1=0.3; x=0.77; y=1.045
Step1: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.44
v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.8, we get
M
1
= 5.8x10
-2
and M
2
= 2.3x10
-2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 22

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 1.641
M
1
= 1.0KN-M and M
2
= 0.038KN-M
Step2: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.54
v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.74; and v/L = 0.61, we get
M
1
= 8.5x10
-2
and M
2
= 3.0x10
-2

Multiply by (xy) = 0.81
M
1
= 0.07KN-M and M
2
= 0.0243KN-
Step3: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.44
v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 1; and v/L = 0.61, we get
M
1
= 6.8x10
-2
and M
2
= 3.8x10
-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 1.28
M
1
= 0.09KN-M and M
2
= 0.05KN-M
Step4: Find M
1
and M
2
for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.54
v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69
By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.74; and v/L = 0.78, we get
M
1
= 7.4x10
-2
and M
2
= 3.9x10
-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 1.036
M
1
= 0.0767KN-M and M
2
= 0.041KN-M
M
B6
= 1.48KN-M and M
L6
= 0.22KN-M
Final Moments for Case iii
M
B
= M
B1+
MB
B2
+ M
B3
+ M
B4
+ M
B5
+ M
B6

= 14 + 2.27 + 3.4 + 8.1 + 078 + 1.48
= 30.03 KN-M
M
L
= M
L1+
M
L2
+ M
L3
+ M
L4
+ M
L5
+ M
L6

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 23

= 11.6 + 2.6 + 4.07 + 1 + 0.17 + 0.22
= 19.66KN-M
Final Bending Moments, after applying continuity and Impact factor
M
B
= 1.25 x 0.8 x 30 = 30.03KN-M
M
L
= 1.25 x 0.8 x 19.66 = 19.66 KN-M
4.2 Live Load Shear Force due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

Fig 4.4: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle
Shear Force is computed by effective width Method. The effective size of the panel is taken
as 2.1Mx3.742M. The load is arranged as shown in figure.

Fig 4.4a: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle
Reactions at A and B can be calculated by using the below equations


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 24

KN

KN

Fig 4.4b: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

KN

KN


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 25


Fig 4.4c: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

KN

KN
The values of effective width, reactions and shear force are tabulated below
Load (KN) X(M) e(M)

(KN)

(KN)

(KN)

(KN)
W1=30.52 0.25 0.86 20.29 1.05 23.53 1.22
W2=62.5 0.65 1.319 47.1 15.4 35.71 11.68
W3=62.5 0.45 1.2 53.43 9.1 44.53 7.59
Total 103.77 20.48

e
1
= k x X
1
x{1-(0.25/2.1)} + W W=0.15+(2 x 0.075) = 0.3M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 26

=2.536 x 0.25x {1-(0.25/2.1)} + 0.3 l/L = 3.442/2.1= 1.64
=0.86M hence k=2.536
e
2
= 2.536 x 0.65x{1-(0.65/2.1)} + 0.3
= 1.438M. However since c/c distance between wheels in the longitudinal direction is >
than 1.2M so take the average i.e. 1.2+1.438/2 =1.319M for each wheel.
e
3
= 2.536 x 0.45x {1-0.45/2.1)}+0.3
= 1.2M
Taking into account Impact factor, Design Shear = 1.25 x 103.77
= 130KN
Final Shear Forces due to
Dead Load = 7.45KN
Live Load = 130KN
Total = 137.45KN, say 138KN








ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 27

5. LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS A VEHICLE
5.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class A Loading:
u = 0.65M; v = 0.4M
i) Effect of wheel load 1 of axle 1:
u = 0.65M; v = 0.4M; u/B=0.65/2.1= 0.31;
v/L=0.4/3.442 = 0.12
By interpolation, For k = 0.61; M
1
= 0.175KN-M;
M
2
=0.15KN-M
M
B1
= 11.26KN-M and M
L1
= 10.05KN-M

Fig 5: Position of wheel load for Class Avehicle
ii) Effect of load 1 of axle2:
For the bigger load, u=0.65 and v=2.8; u/B=0.31; v/L=0.82
By interpolation, For k = 0.61; M
1
= 0.105KN-M; M
2
= 0.032KN-M
M
B
= 44KN-M and M
L
= 19.45KN-M
For smaller load, u= 0.65 and v=2; u/B 0.31; v/L = 0.58
By interpolation, For k = 0.61; u/B = 0.31; v/L = 0.58
M
B
= 37.55KN-M and M
L
= 18.73KN-M
Net Moments,
M
B
= ( 44 - 37.55) = 3.225KN-M and M
L
= (19.53-18.73) = 0.4KN-M
5.2 Shear Force for Class A Loading
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 28

Fig 5: Position of wheel load for Shear force for Class A vehicle
Dispersion in the direction of span = 0.5 + 2 x (0.3) = 1.1M
X= 0.55; k=2.536; W=0.25+(2 x 0.075) = 0.4M
e = 2.536 x 0.55 x {1- (0.55/2.1)}
= 1.43M > 1.2M, Hence e = (1.2+1.43)/2 = 1.315M

= 45.54KN

= 11.5KN
Sheai Foice taking intoImpact factoi x

= 51.84KN
5.3 Final Moments:
Live load Moments due all Class of loads
1. Class AA Tracked, M
B
= 30.30KN-M and M
L
=14.81KN-M
2. Class AA Wheeled Vehicle
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 29

a. Case i Moments, M
B
= 22.00KN-M and M
L
= 5.26KN-M
b. Case ii Moments, M
B
= 31.14KN-M and M
L
= 16.53KN-M
c. Case iii Moments, M
B
= 22.00KN-M and M
L
= 19.66KN-M
3. Class A Loading, M
B
= 3.225KN-M and M
L
= 0.4KN-M
Hence take M
B
= 31.14KN-M and M
L
= 19.66KN-M for design. Since the moment due to
IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle is severe adopt it for design. Hence
M
B
, Dead Load = 4.45KN-M
Live Load = 31.14KN-M
Total = 36.00KN-M
5.4 Final Shear Force
Dead Load = 7.45KN
Live Load = 130KN
Total = 138KN







ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 30

CHAPTER 4
DESIGN OF DECK SLAB
Grade of concrete = M30
Grade of Steel = Fe415

N mm

N mm

, Modular ratio, M = 10
4.1 Constants:


4.2 Check for depth (M
B
):
u

NN
u


Provide 225MM overall depth using 40MM
u

NN
Aiea of steel iequiieu
N

ju


NN

along N


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 31

iea of steel iequiieu
N

ju


NN

along N


Hence provide 16MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c


Hence provide 12MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c











ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 32

CHAPTER 5
LONGITUDINAL GIRDER AND CROSS GIRDER DESIGN
5.1 Reaction Factor Bending Moment in Longitudinal Girders by
Courbonss Method
5.1.1 Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Fig 5: Position of Class AA Tracked Vehicle for obtaining reaction factors
Minimum Clearance Distance: 1.2 + 0.85/2 = 1.625M
e P
w


Foi outei giiuei x m foi innei giiuei x
Theiefoie

W anu

W

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 33

5.1.2 Class A Loading

Fig 5.1: Position of Class A Vehicle for obtaining reaction factors
Minimum Clearance Distance: 0.15 + 0.25 = 0.4M


Foi outei giiuei x m foi innei giiuei x
Theiefoie


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 34


Theiefoie


Impact factoi


5.2 Maximum Live load bending Moment for Class A Loading
For reaction factors we considered the moment or shifting of loads in transverse
direction. For finding the maximum B.M., however we have to consider the movement
of the loads along the span. For maximum B.M. at a given section: The maximum B.M.
at any section of a simply supported beam due to a given system of point loads crossing
the beam occurs when the average loading on the portion left is equal to the average
loading to the right of it, when section divides the load in the same ratio as it divides the
span. To get the maximum B.M. at a given section, one of the wheel loads should be
placed at the section. We shall try these rules for both Class A loading as well as Class
AA Tracked loading.
5.2.1 Class A Loading:
5.2.2 Maximum Live Load Bending moment at the mid span i.e. L/2: The below
figure shows the Influence Line Diagram.


Fig 5.2a: ILD for BM at L/2


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 35

Benuing Noment BN incluuing Impact Factoi anu eaction factoi foi
0utei giiuei KN N
Innei giiuei KN N
5.1.2 Maximum Live load bending Moment at 3L/8: The below figure shows the Influence
Line diagram

Fig b ILB foi BN at L
Loau No Loau value 0iuinate Noment
W kN



KNN
W kN



KNN
W kN



KNN
W kN KNN
W kN



KNN
W kN



KNN
Total KNN
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 36



Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN N
Innei giiuei KN N
5.1.3 Maximum Live load bending Moment at L/8: The below figure shows the Influence
Line diagram
Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W1 27kN

m

46KN-M
W2 27KN



64.53KN-M
W3 114KN


501KN-M
W4 114KN



456KN-M
W5 68KN



159KN-M
W6 68KN



82KN-M
W7 68KN



5KN-M
=1314KN-M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 37


Fig 5.2c: ILD for BM at L/8

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN N
Innei giiuei KN N
5.2 Absolute Maximum Bending Moment
Absolute B.M. occurs at under that heavier wheel load which is nearer to the C.G. of the load
system that can possibly be accommodated on the span of 18.71M. The placement should be
Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W3 114KN


234.00KN-M
W4 114KN



217.00KN-M
W5 68KN


138.00KN-M
W6 68KN


67.32 KN-M
W7 68KN


42.00KN-M
W8 68KN



16.40KN-M
TOTAL 715.00KN-M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 38

such that the centre of span is mid-way between the wheel load and the C.G. of the load
system. This position is shown below.
X = 6.42M , C.G of Load = 6.42-(1.1+3.2+1.2) = 0.92M from fourth load
Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W1 27kN

N

48.20KN-M

W2 27KN

N

64.00KN-M
W3 114KN

N


461KN-M
W4 114KN
N

533KN-M
W5 68KN

N

150KN-M
W6 68KN

N

52KN-M


Total
=1308.2KN-
M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 39

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN-M
Innei giiuei KN-M
5.3 CLASS AA-TRACKED VEHICLE
5.3.1 Bending Moment at centre of the span

Fig 5.3a: ILD for BM at L/2




Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN-M
Innei giiuei KN-M
5.3.2 Bending Moment at 3L/8 of the span

Fig 5.2b: ILD for BM at 3L/8
Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W 700KN

N

2954KN-M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 40





Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN-M
Innei giiuei KN-M
5.3.3 Bending Moment at L/4 of the span

Fig 5.2c: ILD for BM at L/4




Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN-M
Innei giiuei KN-M


Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W 700KN

N

2786KN-M
Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W 700KN

N

2866KN-M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 41

5.3.4 Bending Moment at L/8 of the span

Fig 5.2d: ILD for BM at L/8




Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for
0utei giiuei KN-M
Innei giiuei KN-M
5.3 Live Load Shear Force
Shear Force will be Maximum due to Class AA Tracked vehicle. For Maximum shear
force at the ends of the girder, the load will be placed between the support and the first
intermediate girder and shear force will be found by the reaction factors derived below. For
intermediate section, same reaction factors will be used as derived for bending Moment.
5.3.1 Shear at the end of girder
Since the length of the track is 3.6M Maximum shear will occur when the C.G. of load is
1.8M away from support A of the girder. The load will be confined between the end and the
first stiffener. Along width of the bridge, the track will be so placed that it maintains a
maximum clearance of 1.2M. Hence distance of C.G. of load from kerb = 1.2+0.425 =
1.625M
Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment
W 700KN

N

1298KN-M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 42


Fig 5.3: Class AA tracked Wheel load position for Live loaf shear force
P

P P
P

P
P

P P
Reactions at end of each Longitudinal Girder due to transfer of these loads at 1.8M from left support
R
A' =
0.374P R
D' =
0.347P
R
B' =
0.535P R
E' =
0.495P.
R
C' =
0.093P R
F' =
0.087P.
The load R
D,
R
E
, R
F
should be transferred to the cross girders as per Courbons Theory
W P P P
W P
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 43

W
2
=

P
These reactions

and

act as point loads on outer girder and inner girders at their 1/5
th

points of total span.


Bence sheai at A R
A' +


B R
B' +

But P KN
Bence Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN
Bence Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN
5.4 Shear Force Intermediate Points: Shear at other points will be found on the basis
of the same reaction coefficients as found for B.M. Thus for Class AA Tracked loading,
reaction coefficient for outer girder = 0.5536W and for inner girder = 0.3333W
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 44

5.4.1 Shear Force at Mid span:

Fig 5.4a: ILD for SF at L/2
Sheai Foice at Niu span



Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN
Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN
5.4.2 Shear Force at 3/8th span:

Fig 5.4b: ILD for SF at 3/8
Sheai Foice at th span



ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 45


Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN
Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN
5.4.3 Shear Force at 1/4th span:

Fig 5.4c: ILD for SF at 1/4
th
span
Sheai Foice at th span



Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN
Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN
5.4 Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force in Girder:
5.5.1 Live Load from Cantilever
i Class AA Loauing The minimum uistance of Class AA loauing fiom the keib is
to be N Since the available cleai length of cantilevei is only N class
AA loauing will not come on the cantilevei poition
ii Class A Loauing
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 46


Fig 5.4: Position of Class A loading for max BM
Bistance of Cu of wheel fiom the euge of Cantilevei suppoit

N
Bispeiseu wiuth of loau N
Loau on Cantilevei


Effective Wiuth of Cantilevei e W
Wheie x uistance of Cu of uispeiseu loau in cantilevei poition
W wiuth of concentiation aiea of loau peipenuiculai to span
B thicKNess of Weaiing Coat

N




Impact Factoi
Bence Benuing Noment uue to Live loau



ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 47

Beau Loau anu Beau loau benuing Noment
Component BLN iunKN Cu fiom euge
of cantileveiN
NomentKNN
Crash Barrier KN
Wearing Coat KN
Slab KN
Total KN KNN

Design Bending Moment = 25 + 33.7 = 58.7KN-M
Design Shear Force = 21.18 + 77 = 98.18KN
Check for depth (M
B
):
u

NN
u


Provide 200MM overall depth using 40MM
u

NN
Aiea of steel iequiieu
N

ju


NN

NN
Hence provide 16MM diameter bars at 100MM c/c

5.5 Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force in Girders

Fig 5.5: Position of loads for Max BM and SF in Girders

Beau loau fiom each Cantilevei slab
Beau loau fiom Slab anu weaiing coat
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 48

KNNN


Total Beau loau fiom ueck
KNNN


Assuming this loau to be equally shaieu by giiueis

KNNN


Let the uepth of iib N
Weight of iib KN
Total 0BL on giiueis KNN
Let uepth of cioss giiueis N
Weight of iib of cioss giiueis KNN
Length iib of cioss giiueis N
Assuming weight of cioss giiuei to be equally shaieu by all the thiee longituuinal
giiueis point loau on each giiuei KN
eaction


KN
Benuing Noment
Bending Moment at Mid Span



KNN
Bending Moment at Quarter Span

KNN
Shear Force
Sheai Foice at suppoit

KN

Sheai Foice at quaitei span
KN
Sheai Foice at
th
span
KN
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 49

Sheai Foice at Niu span
KN

5.6 Design of Outer Girder
1. Total Bending Moment at centre of span = KN N
2. Total Bending Moment at quarter span = KN N
3. Total Shear at support = KN
4. Total Shear at span = KN
5. Total Shear at 3/8 span = KN
6. Total Shear at Mid span = KN

For beams, M30 concrete will be used and the Outer girder will be designed as T-beam
having a depth of rib = 1.725M
Total depth = 1.725 + 0.225 = 1.95M
Let us assume an effective depth = 1.725-0.120 = 1.605M
A


NN


Provide 12 bars of 32MM diameter, having total A

NN

and
Provide 4bars of 25MM diameter, having total A

NN


Arrange these bars in 4 layers with spacing between bars equal to largest diameter bar used
i.e.32MM
Clear cover = 40MM
Height of C.G of bars from bottom of bars = (40+12+32X2)
= 148MM
d= 1725-148=1577MM <1605MM, hence ok
5.7 Check for stresses
1. Depth of Neutral Axis: Flange width will be the least of the following
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 50

a. 12d
s
+ b
r
= 12 x 225 + 400 = 3100MM
b. c/c spacing = 2500MM
c. Span/3 = 18.71/3 = 6236.66MM
Hence Flange width = B=2500MM
2. Let depth of Neutral axis be N lying in web
B d
s




n = 361MM
Ciitical Neutial axis uepth n




NN
Actual Neutral axis falls above the critical neutral axis therefore, the stress in the steel
reaches the Maximum value first hence

NN


Corresponding stress in the concrete at the outer fibre is given by
c

N

n
u n





NNN


Similarly,
c

n
c
c


= 0.38 NNN

NN
Levei aiN a u y NN

KN N
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 51

Area of steel required
Aiea of steel iequiieu



No. of 32MM diameter bars = 10443/305 = 12.9 bais

Check for local bond stress as per IRC code
Assume effective depth = 1950 - 60 = 1890MM
iequiieu



No of NN bais



Hence atleast 4 bars are to be taken straight
Check for shear
1. NoNinal Sheai stiess at suppoit

KNNN

, hence shear
reinforcement is necessary.
2. Nominal Sheai stiess at suppoit

NNN

, hence shear
reinforcement is not necessary.
3. Nominal Sheai stiess at suppoit

NNN

, hence provide shear


reinforcement.
Approximate distance from support at which shear stress is NNN


= (9.455+7)=8.23M
Let us bend up 2 bars at a time at a spacing of 0.707a i.e. = 0.707x0.9x1605=1021.26MM
Bend 2 bars at a time, spacing = 1020MM
If 5 bars are bent up, effective distance = 5 x 1.020 = 5.1M from support
Shear taken up by 4bent bars of 32MM = 4 x 805 x 200 x Sin(45)
= 455KN
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 52

Net remaining shear at support for which shear reinforcement has to be provided
= 605-450=150KN
Spacing S

NN
Hence provide 10MM diameter at 180MM c/c at support i.e. up to 4.08M. After 4.08M only
2 bars will be effective.
At quarter span, iemaining sheai



Spacing of two legged stirrups, 10MM diameter



Hence provide 2L-10MM diameter bars at 200MM c/c from 4.08M to 5.1M
Beyond 5.1M no bent up bars are available. Therefore, shear at 3/8 span
i.e.,


Therefore spacing of 10MM diameter bars 2L



Therefore provide 2L 10MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c
From 7.02M to 8.02M Provide 2L 10MM diameter at 180MM c/c
For remaining distance provide 22L 10MM diameter at 300MM c/c
Summary:
Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from support upto 4.08M
Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 200MM c/c from 4.08M to 5.1M
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 53

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from 5.1M to 7.02M
Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from 7.02M to 8.02M
Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c for remaining length.
5.8 Design of Inner Girder
Adopt,



Use 12 bars of 32MM diameter


Check for bond stress as per IRC
Shear at support Let effective depth be 1665MM
Sheai



No of NN uiametei bais iequiieu



However take 6 bars straight up to support.
Check for Shear


at suppoit

N NN

(Shear reinforcement needed)


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 54


at centie

N NN

(No shear reinforcement)


at

span

N NN

(However provide shear reinforcement)


Bend bars at 1021.26MM i.e. 1.02M = a
4 bars are effective at every section, hence
KN
Shear taken by 4 bars of KN
Net remaining shear at support for which shear requirement is necessary


Hence provide 10MM-2L bars at 180MM c/c from support up to from
support after 4.08M
At quarter span,


Therefore, provide 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c from 4.08 to 5.1M.
Therefore, shear at 3/8 span=223KN.


Therefore, provide 2L-10MM diameter at 200 c/c up to 7.02.
From 7.02 to 8.02, 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c
For remaining 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c
Support to 4.8M10MM-2L diameter at 180MM c/c
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 55

4.8M to 5.1M10MM-2L diameter at 300MM c/c
5.1M to 7.02M10MM-2L diameter at 200MM c/c
7.02 to 8.02 and remaining10MM-2L diameter at 300MM c/c
5.9Design of cross-girder






Fig 5.9a: Load distribution on each girder Fig 5.9b: DL on Cross girder
i) Dead load
Cross girder are placed at 3.742M c/c
Dimension
Weight of rib
Dead weight from slab and wearing coat


Dead load on each cross girder




Assuming this to be uniformly distributed, dead load per meter run of girder
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 56


Therefore, Total weight = 9.18+8.84 = 18.02 KNN
Assuming cross girders to be rigid, reaction on each longitudinal girder =

KN
i) Live Load: Maximum bending Moment and shear force due to Class AA-
Tracked Loading

Fig 5.9c: LL on the span

KN
Assuming cross girders to be rigid, reaction on each longitudinal girder =

KN
Maximum bending Moment under the wheel load

Fig 5.9d: Max LL Cross girder
N

KN N
Taking Impact factor = 1.1x245 =270KN-M
Dead Load bending Moment from 4.75M of support
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 57




= 26.12KN-M
Total Bending Moment = LL BM +DL BM
KN N
Live Loau Sheai

KN
Section Design:
Total depth = 1500MM, Effective Depth = 1440MM
A


NN


Hence provide 3nos of 25MM Diameter bars, Pioviue A

NN


Sheai Besign
Nominal Sheai


NNN

ok
But

= 0.34


hence provide shear reinforcement.

NN
Pioviue L NN uiametei bais at NN CC both at inteimeuiate anu enus



ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 58

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
The analysis and design of Deck slab and T-Beam of a Bridge has been carried out manually
as per IRC guidelines and the following results have been noted.
1. Live Load due to Class AA Wheeled Vehicle produces the severest effect.
2. Shear Force due to Class AA Wheeled Vehicle is very high.
3. Bending Moment in the Inner girder is lesser than the Outer girder hence lesser
reinforcement in inner girder when compared to outer girder.
4. The design of the deck slab and T- beam has been manually done keeping in view the
above results.














ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 59

REFERENCES
1) Indian Road congress, IRC: 6-2000, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for
Road Bridges Section: II, Loads and Stresses, 4
th
revision.
2) Indian Road congress, IRC: 21-2000, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for
Road Bridges Section: III, cement concrete (plain and reinforced), 3
rd
revision.
3) Dr. D. Johnson Victor, Essentials of Bridge Engineering, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.
4) Dr. N. Krishna Raju, Design of Bridges ,Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
5) Mr. T.R. Jagadeesh and M.A. Jayaram, Design of Bridge Structures, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd.
6) RCC Designs(Reinforced Concrete Structures) by Dr. B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain,
Arun Kumar Jain, Tenth Edition, Laxmi Publications.