Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

17K tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Courbon Method
- Concrete T-beam Bridge Design
- T Beam Design
- Structural Design of RCC Bridge
- Detailed Designs of bridge
- Bridge Substructure Analysis & Design
- IRC 70R
- Johnson Victor
- Bridge.pdf
- Design of Bridge
- Bridge Abutment Pier Design as Per IRC
- Design of Slab Bridge
- Bridge Engineering
- RC pier-f(Box & Girder).xls
- Bridge-Design-N krishna raju.pdf
- Design of Bridges by Krishna Raju PDF Free
- SLRB Design of 7.45m clear span for IRC Class A loading
- DESIGN OF RCC T - GIRDER DECK USING MORICE & LITTLE METHOD
- Design of Super Structure
- Concrete Bridge Practice by v k Raina

Anda di halaman 1dari 59

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1. General

A Bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way

beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline.

The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.

Bridges range in length from a few metre to several kilometre. They are among the

largest structures built by man. The demands on design and on materials are very high. A

bridge must be strong enough to support its own weight as well as the weight of the people

and vehicles that use it. The structure also must resist various natural occurrences, including

earthquakes, strong winds, and changes in temperature. Most bridges have a concrete, steel,

or wood framework and an asphalt or concrete road way on which people and vehicles travel.

The T-beam Bridge is by far the Most commonly adopted type in the span range of 10 to 25

M. The structure is so named because the main longitudinal girders are designed as T-beams

integral with part of the deck slab, which is cast monolithically with the girders. Simply

supported T-beam span of over 30 M are rare as the dead load then becomes too heavy.

1.1 Main Components of a Bridge

The Superstructure consists of the following components:

i. Deck slab

ii. Cantilever slab portion

iii. Footpaths, if provided, kerb and handrails or crash barriers.

iv. Longitudinal girders, considered in design to be of T-section

v. Cross beams or diaphragms, intermediate and end ones.

vi. Wearing coat

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 2

The Substructure consists of the following structures:

i) Abutments at the extreme ends of the bridge.

ii) Piers at intermediate supports in case of multiple span bridges.

iii) Bearings and pedestals for the decking.

iv) Foundations for both abutments and piers may be of the type open, well, pile, etc.

Apart from the above, river training works and the approaches to a bridge also form a part

of a bridge works.

1.2 Types of Bridges

i) Girder Bridge

ii) Truss Bridge

iii) Arch Bridge

iv) Cantilever Bridge

v) Suspension Bridge

vi) Cable-stayed Bridge

vii) Movable Bridge

viii) Slab Bridge

1.2.1Girder Bridges

There are two main types of girder bridges. In one type, called a box girder bridge, each

girder looks like a long box that lies between the piers or abutments. The top surface of the

bridge is the roadway. Box girder bridges are built of steel or concrete. In the other type of

girder bridge, the end view of each girder looks like an I or a T. Two or more girders support

the roadway. This type of bridge is called a plate girder bridge when made of steel, a

reinforced or prestressed concrete girder bridge when made of concrete, and a wood girder

bridge when made of wood.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 3

1.3 Parameters governing choice of Superstructure:

The basic function of a bridge superstructure is to permit uninterrupted smooth passage

of traffic over it and to transmit the loads and to transmit the load and forces to the

substructure safely through the bearings. Although it is difficult to stipulate the aesthetic

requirements, it should, however, be ensured that the type of superstructure adopted is

simple, pleasing to the eye, and blends with the environment. No hard and fast rules can be

laid regarding the economy in cost. The designer should, however, be able to evolve the most

economical type of superstructure based on his judgment and experience given the particular

conditions prevailing at the particular site at the particular time.

The following factors are to be considered while selecting the type of a bridge superstructure.

i. The nature of river or streams

ii. Nature of foundation / founding strata available

iii. The amount and type of traffic

iv. Whether used for navigation purposes

v. Climatic conditions

vi. Hydraulic data

vii. Type of available construction material

viii. Labour available

ix. The available facilities for erections

x. Maintenance provisional

xi. The availability of funds

xii. Time available for construction

xiii. Strategic consideration

xiv. Economic consideration

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 4

xv. Aesthetic consideration

1.4 General guidelines for analysis and Design of a Bridge Structure

Procedure for preparation of General Arrangement Drawing of a Bridge:

I. First of all the required formation level is found out. On knowing this the permissible

structural depth is established. This is done after taking into account the following

two things : ( i ) Minimum vertical clearance required taking into account the

difference between the affluxed high flood level and the soffit of the deck. ( ii )

Thickness of wearing coat required below the formation level.

II. Considering the depth of foundations, the height of deck above the bed level and low

water level, average depth of water during construction season, the type of bridge,

span lengths, type of foundations, cross section of the deck, method of construction

and loading sequence.

III. Trial cross sections of the deck, sizes of various elements of the substructure and

superstructure are decided upon and drawn to arrive at the preliminary general

arrangement of the bridge. Various trials lead to a structural form with optimum

placements of its load masses. Relative proportions and sizes of certain members as

well as their shapes are decided upon and drawn to a certain scale on this drawing.

The type of bearing to be used along with their locations depending the support

system is also established. The main basis of the general arrangement drawing of a

bridge structure is a quick preliminary analysis and design of the member sections.

This is essential for forming the basis of the detailed to be carried later on depending

upon the requirements of the project.

1.5 General Procedure for Design of Superstructure of a Bridge:

i) Analyse and design the transverse-deck-slab and its cantilever portions, unless the

superstructure is purely longitudinally reinforced solid slab with no cantilevering

portions. This is necessitated so as to decide the top flange thickness of the deck

section which is essential to work out the deck section properties for the subsequent

longitudinal design.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 5

ii) Compute the dead load and live load bending moments at each critical section.

iii) In order to determine the maximum and minimum live load effects that a particular

longitudinal can receive, carry out the transverse load distribution for live load placed

in various lanes.

iv) This may be done by Courbon's method, Little and Morice's method, Hendry and

Jaeger methods.

v) Alternatively, use may be made to the Plane-Grid method which involves using one

of the many standard computer programs (.e.g. STAAD program). The Plan Grid

method is basically a finite element method. Though time consuming in writing the

input data, it is nevertheless very useful for the purpose of analysis. For wide and

multi-cell boxes and transverse live load distribution may be studied by the finite

element method but it is time consuming.

vi) Design against bending of critical sections, in reinforced or in prestressed concrete as

the case may be.

vii) Work out dead load and live load shear forces at each critical section in the

longitudinals of the deck and design the sections and reinforcements for effects of

torsion and shear, if required.

1.6 Transverse Distribution of Loads

Analysis based on the elastic theory is recommended to find the distribution in the transverse

direction of the bending Moment in the direction movement in the direction of the span. For

the analysis, the structure May be idealized in one of the following ways:

i. a system of interconnected beams forming a rigid

ii. an orthotropic plate

iii. an assemblage of thin plate elements or thin plate elements and beams

For the computation of the bending Moment due to live load, the distribution of the live

loads between longitudinals has to be determined. When there are only two longitudinal

girders, the reactions on the longitudinals can be found by assuming supports of the deck slab

as unyielding. With three or more longitudinal girders, the load distribution is estimated

using any one of the above rational methods.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 6

By using any one of the above Methods, the Maximum reactions factors for

intermediate and end longitudinal girders are obtained. The bending Moments and shears are

then computed for these critical values of reaction factors. The above three Methods make

simplifying assumptions relating to the structure and loading. These assumptions introduce

errors but Make these Methods amenable to calculators and graphs. In relative comparison to

this the grillage Method of analysis, pioneered by Lightfoot and Sawko requires lesser

simplifying assumptions.

1.7 About the Project

The Project is an ongoing work across Palar river near Thangalakuppa on road joining

Kangandlahalli-Ramasagara Road and K-V Road in Bangarpet Taluk. The Superstructure for

19.34M effective span is proposed with Reinforced Concrete Deck slab and cast-in-situ three

Reinforced girders which are supported over four cross girders with a total height of the

girders 1.950M at the centre of the span and 1.890M at the end with two end cross girders

supported on the piers. The spacing of R.C. longitudinal girders is 2.5M c/c. The spacing of

the cross girders is 3.742M c/c. The panel size is 2.1M x 3.442M. The deck consists of two

cantilever slabs of 1.750M length from the centre of the end girder. There are two Crash

Barriers at the end of the deck slab. The design of the superstructure is done by the Working

stress method and involves the following procedure:

1. Deck Slab Design

2. Design of Longitudinal Girders and Cross Girders.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 7

CHAPTER 2

LOADS

The various loads to which the bridge is subjected to are

i) Dead loads

ii) Live loads

iii) Wind loads

iv) Seismic loads

i) Dead Loads: Unit weight for Dead Loads has been considered by adopting unit

weights as per IRC 6:2000 (Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road

Bridges, Section II-Loads and Stress)

ii) Super Imposed Dead load: Wearing coat and Crash Barrier loads are taken as

2KN/M

2

and 7.75KN/M.

iii) Vehicular Live Load: As per IRC:6 deck the superstructure is analysed for the

following vehicles and whichever produces the severest effect has been considered in

the design. Following combinations are adopted.

1) One Lane of Class AA loading or

2) Two Lanes of Class A loading

iv) Durability and Maintenance Requirements:

Concrete Grades and Reinforcement

1. Concrete: For RC Deck Slab(M-30)

2. Reinforcement: HYSD bars(Fe-415) conforming to IS:1786

3. Clear Cover: Minimum clear cover of 40MM to reinforcement has been adopted

4. Drainage Provision: Deck slab is provided with 2.5% camber and drainage

spouts with 5m c/c are adopted.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 8

CHAPTER 3

Design of Superstructure

3. Preliminary Design Details

Clear Roadway = 7.5M Concrete Grade = M30

Three T-beams at 2.5M intervals Steel Fe 415

Five Cross beams at 3.742 M intervals

3.1 Deck Slab

The Slab is supported on four sides by beams

Thickness of Slab, H = 225MM

Thickness of Wearing Coat, D = 75MM

Span in the transverse direction = 2.5M

Effective span in the Transverse direction = 2.5 - 0.4 = 2.1M

Span in the Longitudinal direction = 3.742M

Effective span in the longitudinal direction = 3.742 - 0.3 = 3.442M

i) Maximum Bending Moment due to Dead Load

a) Weight of Deck Slab = 0.225 X 24 = 5.4 KN/M

2

b) Weight of Wearing Course = 0.075 X 22 = 1.65 KN/M

2

c) Total Weight = 7.05 KN/M

2

(say 7.1 KN/M

2

)

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 9

3.2. Analysis of Inner Panels

a) Slab Dead Load Bending Moment

Since the slab is supported on all four sides and is continuous, Pigeauds Curves will be used

to get influence coefficients to compute Moments,

Ratio K, = Short span/Long span

= 2.1/3.44

Therefore, K = 0.61

M

1

= 8.2 X 10

-2

and M

2

= 3.12 x 10

-2

Total Dead Weight = 7.1 x 2.1 x 3.44 = 51.3KN

Dead Load Bending Moment along Short span

M

B

= W (M

1

+ 0.15 X

M

2

) Fig:3 Position of wheel load for max BM

= 51.3 (0.082 + 0.15 X 0.0312)

M

B

= 4.45 KN-M

Dead Load Bending Moment along Long span

M

L

= W (M

2

+ 0.15 X

M

1

)

= 51.3 (0.0312 + 0.15 X 0.082)

M

L

= 2.23 KN-M

b) Dead Load Shear Force

Dead Load Shear Force = WL/2

= (7.1 x 2.1) / 2 = 7.45KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 10

3.3 LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS AA TRACKED VEHICLE

3.3.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Size of the panel = 2.5 M x 3.742 M

One Track of the Tracked Vehicle is placed symmetrically on the panel as shown in

the figure after the dispersion through the wearing coat of 75MM thickness the

dispersed dimensions are:

u = b + 2t and v = l + 2t

where, u = short span width of the track contact area

b = width of track wheel contact area

l = length of track wheel contact area

t = thickness of wearing coat

Therefore, u = (0.85 + 2 x 0.075) = 1M

v = (3.6 + 2 x 0.075) = 3.75 M

= 0.4 and

= 1

K =

= 0.67

Referring to Pigeauds Curves for K = 0.67 and interpolating

M

1

= 0.082 and M

2

= 0.030

Therefore, Live Load Bending Moment along Short span

M

B

= W (M

1

+ 0.15 x

M

2

)

= 350(0.082 + 0.15 x 0.030)

= 30.30 KN-M

Taking Continuity Factor of 0.8 and Impact Factor as 1.25

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 11

M

B

= 1.25 X 0.8 X 30.30

M

B

= 30.30KN-M

Live Load Bending Moment along Long span

M

L

= W (M

2

+ 0.15 X

M

1

)

= 350 (0.030 + 0.15 X 0.082)

= 14.81 KN-M

Taking Continuity Factor of 0.8 and Impact Factor as 1.25

M

L

= 1.25 X 0.8 X 14.81

M

L

= 14.81 KN-M

Design Moments due to Dead Load and IRC Class AA Tracked vehicle (Live Load)

Dead Load, M

B

= 4.45 KN-M

M

L

= 2.23 KN-M

Live Load, M

B

= 30.30KN-M

3.3.2 Live Load Shear Force due to IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Shear Force is calculated by effective width method, considering the panel to be fixed on all

the four edges. Hence effective size of panel will be 2.1M x 3.44M. For maximum Shear

Force the load will be so placed that its spread up to slab bottom reaches up to the face of the

rib i.e. the load is kept at

= 0.705M .

Dispersion in the direction of span

V = x + 2 (D+H)

= 0.85 + 2 (0.075 + 0.225)

= 1.45M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 12

Effective width of slab = K x A x [1-

] + b

w

= 1.64

From Table 9 of IRC 21-2000, K for Continuous slab is obtained as K=2.536

Effective width of slab = 2.536 x 0.705 x [1 (0.705/2.1)] + [3.6 + (2 x 0.075)]

= 4.94M

Load per meter width = 350/4.94

= 70.85KN

Shear Force = 70.85 x (2.1 0.705) / 2.1

= 47 KN

Shear Force with Impact = 1.25 x 47 = 58.75KN

4. LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS AA WHEELED VEHICLE

4.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

Case 1)

Step 1: Find M

1

and M

2

u =

1.05M

v v y = 1.5M

u

B

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 13

Fig 4: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

v

L

B

L

From Pigeauds Curves by interpolation

k=0.61,

k=0.6, M

1

= 12x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.5x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 12x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.6x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 11.8x10

-2

, M

2

= 6.5x10

-2

M

1

= 0.12x10

-2

M

2

= 0.056x10

-2

Nultiply these by uxvy

N x

N x

Step Finu N anu N

0 N

v N

u

B

v

L

B

L

Fiom Pigeauus Cuives by inteipolation

k

k N x

N x

k N x

N x

k N x

N x

N x

N x

Nultiply these by xyx

N x

N x

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 14

Step Finu N anu N

0

0 N

v N

u

B

v

L

B

L

Fiom Pigeauus Cuives by inteipolation

k

k N x

N x

k N x

N x

k N x

N x

N x

N x

Nultiply these by yux

N x

N x

Step Finu N anu N

0 N

v N

u

B

v

L

B

L

Fiom Pigeauus Cuives by inteipolation

k

k=0.6, M

1

= 16.5x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.5x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 16.7x10

-2

, M

2

= 6.0x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 18x10

-2

, M

2

= 6.0x10

-2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 15

M

1

= 16.7x10

-2

M

2

= 6.0x10

-2

Multiply these by x(u1+y) = 0.075(0.3+0.45) =0.057

M

1

= 0.96x10

-2

M

2

= 0.035x10

-2

Design M

1

= 0.048+0.00714-0.0312-0.0096

M

1

= 0.01434 KN-M

Design M

2

= 0.0224+0.0032-0.0207-0.0035

M

1

KNN

NB uue to single loau

N N

KNN

M

L

due to single load

N N

KNN

Applying the effect of continuity and Impact

Final M

B

=22x0.8x1.25=22KN-M and M

L

= 5.26 x 1.25 x 0.8 =5.26KN-M

Case 2)

i) Effect of wheel no 2 of both the axles: When

wheel no 2 of both axles are centrally placed with

respect to y axis. The effect of these loads can be

found as a difference of two centrally placed loads on

area (1.5x0.45) and (0.9x0.45)

Step 1: Find M

1

and M

2

v

L

B

L

Fig 4.1: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 16

From Pigeauds Curves by interpolation

k=0.61,

k=0.6, M

1

= 12.8x10

-2

, M

2

= 4.4x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 12.9x10

-2

, M

2

= 4.6x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 13.8x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.9x10

-2

M

1

= 13x10

-2

M

2

= 4.6x10

-2

M

B

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=43KN-M

M

L

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=20.5KN-M

For larger load,

v

L

B

L

k=0.61,

k=0.6, M

1

= 16.0x10

-2

, M

2

= 7.0x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 16.2x10

-2

, M

2

= 7.4x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 18.0x10

-2

, M

2

= 10.5x10

-2

M

1

= 16.2x10

-2

M

2

= 7.4x10

-2

M

B

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=32.5KN-M

M

L

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=18.5KN-M

Net Moment M

B1

= 43-32.5=10.5KN-M

M

L1

= 20.5-18.5 = 2KN-M

i) Effect of wheel no.1 of both axles : wheel no1 are not centrally placed on any of the axes

hence their effect will be analysed by treating each load as eccentrically placed.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 17

u1= 0.45M, v1=0.3M, x = 0.375M, y = 0.45M

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.375) = 1.65

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5

By Interpolation of values for k, u/B and v/L, we get

M

1

= 9.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.6x10

-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 0.62

M

1

= 0.056KN-M and M

2

= 0.03KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.375) = 0.75

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k=0.61, u/B=0.36 and v/L=0.26, we get

M

1

= 14.3x10

-2

and M

2

= 9x10

-2

Multiply by xy = 0.17

M

1

= 0.024KN-M and M

2

= 0.02KN-M

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.375) = 1.65

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k = 0.61, u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.26, we get

M

1

= 14.3x10

-2

and M

2

= 9x10

-2

Multiply by xy = 0.17

M

1

= 0.024KN-M and M

2

= 0.02KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.375) = 0.75

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5

By Interpolation of values for k = 0.61, u/B = 0.36 and v/L = 0.44, we get

M

1

= 12.5x10

-2

and M

2

= 5.5x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.28

M

1

= 0.036KN-M and M

2

= 0.015KN-M

Design M

B

= 0.056+0.024-0.037-0.036

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 18

= 0.008KN-M

M

L

= 0.03+0.02-0.026-0.015

= 0.01KN-M

M

B2

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=5.28KN-M

M

L2

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=6.23KN-M

ii) Effect of wheel no 3 of both axles

u1=0.45, v1= 0.3, x=0.775, y=0.45

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.45M

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.44, we get

M

1

= 7.5x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.0x10

-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 0.92

M

1

= 0.07KN-M and M

2

= 0.0377KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.55

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.74 and v/L = 0.26, we get

M

1

= 9.9x10

-2

and M

2

= 7.1x10

-2

Multiply by (xy) = 0.348

M

1

= 0.035KN-M and M

2

= 0.025KN-M

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.45

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.26, we get

M

1

= 6.63x10

-2

and M

2

= 5.3x10

-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 0.55

M

1

= 0.0364KN-M and M

2

= 0.63KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.55

v = 2(u1+y) = 2(0.45+0.45) = 1.8

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.74 and v/L = 0.53, we get

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 19

M

1

= 9.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.5x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.58

M

1

= 0.053KN-M and M

2

= 0.0261KN-M

Design M

B

= 0.07+0.035-0.0364-0.053

= 0.0156KN-M

M

L

= 0.0377+0.025-0.03-0.0.261

= 0.0066KN-M

M

B3

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=15.36KN-M

M

L3

due to single load =

M

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=8.3KN-M

Final bending Moment for case ii

M

B

= M

B1

+ M

B2

+ M

B3

M

L

= M

L1

+ M

L2

+ M

L3

M

B

= 31.14KN-M M

L

= 16.53KN-M

Case 3: Loads placed as per figure:

i) Effect of wheel 2 of axle 1:

u= 0.45, v = 0.3, u/B= 0.45/2.1, v/L=0.3/3.442 =

0.087

for k = 0.61, by interpolation M

1

= 0.2 and M

2

=

0.15

M

B1

= 14KN-M and M

L1

=11.6KN-M

ii) Effect of wheel 1 of axle 1:

For larger load, u/B=0.8, v/L=0.09, k = 0.61

M

B

= 16.33KN-M

M

L

= 16KN-M

For smaller load, u/B=0.36, v/L=0.09, k = 0.61

Fig 4.3: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 20

M

B

= 11.8KN-M

M

L

= 10.81KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B2

= (16.33-11.8) = 2.27KN-M and M

L2

= (16-10.81) = 2.6KN-M

iii) Effect of wheel load 3 of axle 1:

For larger load,

u/B= 2.45/2.1= 1.2; v/L= 0.3/3.442 = 0.09

For k = 0.61, by interpolation M

1

= 0.085 and M

2

= 0.081

M

B

= M

L

= 33.14KN-M

For smaller load,

u/B= 1.55/2.1= 0.74, v/L=0.3/3.442 = 0.09

For k = 0.61 by interpolation M

1

= 0.108 and M

2

= 0.101

M

B

= 26.35KN-M and M

L

= 25.00KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B3

= (33.14-26.35) = 3.4KN-M and M

L3

= (33.14-25.00) = 4.07 KN-M

iv) Effect of wheel 2 of axle 2:

For larger load, u/B=0.45/2.1= 0.22; v/L= 2.71/3.442 = 0.8;

For k=0.61 by interpolation M

1

= 0.13 and M

2

= 0.0331

M

B

= 76.2KN-M and M

L

= 30.00KN-M

For smaller load, u/B = 0.45/2.1=0.22; v/L = 2.09/3.442 = 0.61

For k=0.61 by interpolation M

1

= 0.13 and M

2

= 0.045

M

B

= 60.00KN-M and M

L

= 28.00KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B4

= (76.2-60) = 3.4KN-M and M

L4

= (30-28.00) = 1.0 KN-M

v) Effect of wheel load 1 of axle 2:

u1= 0.45; v1= 0.30; x = 0.37; y = 1.045

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 1.64

v = 2(u1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 21

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.8, we get

M

1

= 7.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 2.67x10

-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 1.11

M

1

= 0.077KN-M and M

2

= 0.03KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 0.74

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.35 and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 12.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.5x10

-2

Multiply by xy = 0.39

M

1

= 0.0468KN-M and M

2

= 0.02KN-M

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u = 2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 1.64

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 8.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.9x10

-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 0.86

M

1

= 0.069KN-M and M

2

= 0.034KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 0.74

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.35 and v/L = 0.8, we get

M

1

= 10.4x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.3x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.5

M

1

= 0.052KN-M and M

2

= 0.0165KN-M

Design M

1

= 0.077+0.0468-0.069-0.052 = 0.0028

M

2

= 0.03+0.02-0.034-0.0165 = 0

M

B5

= 0.78KN-M and M

L5

= 0.17 KN-M

vi) Effect of wheel load 3 of axle 2:

u1= 0.45; v1=0.3; x=0.77; y=1.045

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.44

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.8, we get

M

1

= 5.8x10

-2

and M

2

= 2.3x10

-2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 22

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 1.641

M

1

= 1.0KN-M and M

2

= 0.038KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.54

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.74; and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 8.5x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.0x10

-2

Multiply by (xy) = 0.81

M

1

= 0.07KN-M and M

2

= 0.0243KN-

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.44

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 1; and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 6.8x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.8x10

-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 1.28

M

1

= 0.09KN-M and M

2

= 0.05KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.54

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.74; and v/L = 0.78, we get

M

1

= 7.4x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.9x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 1.036

M

1

= 0.0767KN-M and M

2

= 0.041KN-M

M

B6

= 1.48KN-M and M

L6

= 0.22KN-M

Final Moments for Case iii

M

B

= M

B1+

MB

B2

+ M

B3

+ M

B4

+ M

B5

+ M

B6

= 14 + 2.27 + 3.4 + 8.1 + 078 + 1.48

= 30.03 KN-M

M

L

= M

L1+

M

L2

+ M

L3

+ M

L4

+ M

L5

+ M

L6

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 23

= 11.6 + 2.6 + 4.07 + 1 + 0.17 + 0.22

= 19.66KN-M

Final Bending Moments, after applying continuity and Impact factor

M

B

= 1.25 x 0.8 x 30 = 30.03KN-M

M

L

= 1.25 x 0.8 x 19.66 = 19.66 KN-M

4.2 Live Load Shear Force due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

Fig 4.4: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

Shear Force is computed by effective width Method. The effective size of the panel is taken

as 2.1Mx3.742M. The load is arranged as shown in figure.

Fig 4.4a: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

Reactions at A and B can be calculated by using the below equations

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 24

KN

KN

Fig 4.4b: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

KN

KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 25

Fig 4.4c: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

KN

KN

The values of effective width, reactions and shear force are tabulated below

Load (KN) X(M) e(M)

(KN)

(KN)

(KN)

(KN)

W1=30.52 0.25 0.86 20.29 1.05 23.53 1.22

W2=62.5 0.65 1.319 47.1 15.4 35.71 11.68

W3=62.5 0.45 1.2 53.43 9.1 44.53 7.59

Total 103.77 20.48

e

1

= k x X

1

x{1-(0.25/2.1)} + W W=0.15+(2 x 0.075) = 0.3M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 26

=2.536 x 0.25x {1-(0.25/2.1)} + 0.3 l/L = 3.442/2.1= 1.64

=0.86M hence k=2.536

e

2

= 2.536 x 0.65x{1-(0.65/2.1)} + 0.3

= 1.438M. However since c/c distance between wheels in the longitudinal direction is >

than 1.2M so take the average i.e. 1.2+1.438/2 =1.319M for each wheel.

e

3

= 2.536 x 0.45x {1-0.45/2.1)}+0.3

= 1.2M

Taking into account Impact factor, Design Shear = 1.25 x 103.77

= 130KN

Final Shear Forces due to

Dead Load = 7.45KN

Live Load = 130KN

Total = 137.45KN, say 138KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 27

5. LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS A VEHICLE

5.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class A Loading:

u = 0.65M; v = 0.4M

i) Effect of wheel load 1 of axle 1:

u = 0.65M; v = 0.4M; u/B=0.65/2.1= 0.31;

v/L=0.4/3.442 = 0.12

By interpolation, For k = 0.61; M

1

= 0.175KN-M;

M

2

=0.15KN-M

M

B1

= 11.26KN-M and M

L1

= 10.05KN-M

Fig 5: Position of wheel load for Class Avehicle

ii) Effect of load 1 of axle2:

For the bigger load, u=0.65 and v=2.8; u/B=0.31; v/L=0.82

By interpolation, For k = 0.61; M

1

= 0.105KN-M; M

2

= 0.032KN-M

M

B

= 44KN-M and M

L

= 19.45KN-M

For smaller load, u= 0.65 and v=2; u/B 0.31; v/L = 0.58

By interpolation, For k = 0.61; u/B = 0.31; v/L = 0.58

M

B

= 37.55KN-M and M

L

= 18.73KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B

= ( 44 - 37.55) = 3.225KN-M and M

L

= (19.53-18.73) = 0.4KN-M

5.2 Shear Force for Class A Loading

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 28

Fig 5: Position of wheel load for Shear force for Class A vehicle

Dispersion in the direction of span = 0.5 + 2 x (0.3) = 1.1M

X= 0.55; k=2.536; W=0.25+(2 x 0.075) = 0.4M

e = 2.536 x 0.55 x {1- (0.55/2.1)}

= 1.43M > 1.2M, Hence e = (1.2+1.43)/2 = 1.315M

= 45.54KN

= 11.5KN

Sheai Foice taking intoImpact factoi x

= 51.84KN

5.3 Final Moments:

Live load Moments due all Class of loads

1. Class AA Tracked, M

B

= 30.30KN-M and M

L

=14.81KN-M

2. Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 29

a. Case i Moments, M

B

= 22.00KN-M and M

L

= 5.26KN-M

b. Case ii Moments, M

B

= 31.14KN-M and M

L

= 16.53KN-M

c. Case iii Moments, M

B

= 22.00KN-M and M

L

= 19.66KN-M

3. Class A Loading, M

B

= 3.225KN-M and M

L

= 0.4KN-M

Hence take M

B

= 31.14KN-M and M

L

= 19.66KN-M for design. Since the moment due to

IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle is severe adopt it for design. Hence

M

B

, Dead Load = 4.45KN-M

Live Load = 31.14KN-M

Total = 36.00KN-M

5.4 Final Shear Force

Dead Load = 7.45KN

Live Load = 130KN

Total = 138KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 30

CHAPTER 4

DESIGN OF DECK SLAB

Grade of concrete = M30

Grade of Steel = Fe415

N mm

N mm

, Modular ratio, M = 10

4.1 Constants:

4.2 Check for depth (M

B

):

u

NN

u

Provide 225MM overall depth using 40MM

u

NN

Aiea of steel iequiieu

N

ju

NN

along N

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 31

iea of steel iequiieu

N

ju

NN

along N

Hence provide 16MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c

Hence provide 12MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 32

CHAPTER 5

LONGITUDINAL GIRDER AND CROSS GIRDER DESIGN

5.1 Reaction Factor Bending Moment in Longitudinal Girders by

Courbonss Method

5.1.1 Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Fig 5: Position of Class AA Tracked Vehicle for obtaining reaction factors

Minimum Clearance Distance: 1.2 + 0.85/2 = 1.625M

e P

w

Foi outei giiuei x m foi innei giiuei x

Theiefoie

W anu

W

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 33

5.1.2 Class A Loading

Fig 5.1: Position of Class A Vehicle for obtaining reaction factors

Minimum Clearance Distance: 0.15 + 0.25 = 0.4M

Foi outei giiuei x m foi innei giiuei x

Theiefoie

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 34

Theiefoie

Impact factoi

5.2 Maximum Live load bending Moment for Class A Loading

For reaction factors we considered the moment or shifting of loads in transverse

direction. For finding the maximum B.M., however we have to consider the movement

of the loads along the span. For maximum B.M. at a given section: The maximum B.M.

at any section of a simply supported beam due to a given system of point loads crossing

the beam occurs when the average loading on the portion left is equal to the average

loading to the right of it, when section divides the load in the same ratio as it divides the

span. To get the maximum B.M. at a given section, one of the wheel loads should be

placed at the section. We shall try these rules for both Class A loading as well as Class

AA Tracked loading.

5.2.1 Class A Loading:

5.2.2 Maximum Live Load Bending moment at the mid span i.e. L/2: The below

figure shows the Influence Line Diagram.

Fig 5.2a: ILD for BM at L/2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 35

Benuing Noment BN incluuing Impact Factoi anu eaction factoi foi

0utei giiuei KN N

Innei giiuei KN N

5.1.2 Maximum Live load bending Moment at 3L/8: The below figure shows the Influence

Line diagram

Fig b ILB foi BN at L

Loau No Loau value 0iuinate Noment

W kN

KNN

W kN

KNN

W kN

KNN

W kN KNN

W kN

KNN

W kN

KNN

Total KNN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 36

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN N

Innei giiuei KN N

5.1.3 Maximum Live load bending Moment at L/8: The below figure shows the Influence

Line diagram

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W1 27kN

m

46KN-M

W2 27KN

64.53KN-M

W3 114KN

501KN-M

W4 114KN

456KN-M

W5 68KN

159KN-M

W6 68KN

82KN-M

W7 68KN

5KN-M

=1314KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 37

Fig 5.2c: ILD for BM at L/8

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN N

Innei giiuei KN N

5.2 Absolute Maximum Bending Moment

Absolute B.M. occurs at under that heavier wheel load which is nearer to the C.G. of the load

system that can possibly be accommodated on the span of 18.71M. The placement should be

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W3 114KN

234.00KN-M

W4 114KN

217.00KN-M

W5 68KN

138.00KN-M

W6 68KN

67.32 KN-M

W7 68KN

42.00KN-M

W8 68KN

16.40KN-M

TOTAL 715.00KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 38

such that the centre of span is mid-way between the wheel load and the C.G. of the load

system. This position is shown below.

X = 6.42M , C.G of Load = 6.42-(1.1+3.2+1.2) = 0.92M from fourth load

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W1 27kN

N

48.20KN-M

W2 27KN

N

64.00KN-M

W3 114KN

N

461KN-M

W4 114KN

N

533KN-M

W5 68KN

N

150KN-M

W6 68KN

N

52KN-M

Total

=1308.2KN-

M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 39

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN-M

Innei giiuei KN-M

5.3 CLASS AA-TRACKED VEHICLE

5.3.1 Bending Moment at centre of the span

Fig 5.3a: ILD for BM at L/2

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN-M

Innei giiuei KN-M

5.3.2 Bending Moment at 3L/8 of the span

Fig 5.2b: ILD for BM at 3L/8

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

N

2954KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 40

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN-M

Innei giiuei KN-M

5.3.3 Bending Moment at L/4 of the span

Fig 5.2c: ILD for BM at L/4

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN-M

Innei giiuei KN-M

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

N

2786KN-M

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

N

2866KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 41

5.3.4 Bending Moment at L/8 of the span

Fig 5.2d: ILD for BM at L/8

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei KN-M

Innei giiuei KN-M

5.3 Live Load Shear Force

Shear Force will be Maximum due to Class AA Tracked vehicle. For Maximum shear

force at the ends of the girder, the load will be placed between the support and the first

intermediate girder and shear force will be found by the reaction factors derived below. For

intermediate section, same reaction factors will be used as derived for bending Moment.

5.3.1 Shear at the end of girder

Since the length of the track is 3.6M Maximum shear will occur when the C.G. of load is

1.8M away from support A of the girder. The load will be confined between the end and the

first stiffener. Along width of the bridge, the track will be so placed that it maintains a

maximum clearance of 1.2M. Hence distance of C.G. of load from kerb = 1.2+0.425 =

1.625M

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

N

1298KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 42

Fig 5.3: Class AA tracked Wheel load position for Live loaf shear force

P

P P

P

P

P

P P

Reactions at end of each Longitudinal Girder due to transfer of these loads at 1.8M from left support

R

A' =

0.374P R

D' =

0.347P

R

B' =

0.535P R

E' =

0.495P.

R

C' =

0.093P R

F' =

0.087P.

The load R

D,

R

E

, R

F

should be transferred to the cross girders as per Courbons Theory

W P P P

W P

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 43

W

2

=

P

These reactions

and

act as point loads on outer girder and inner girders at their 1/5

th

points of total span.

Bence sheai at A R

A' +

B R

B' +

But P KN

Bence Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN

Bence Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN

5.4 Shear Force Intermediate Points: Shear at other points will be found on the basis

of the same reaction coefficients as found for B.M. Thus for Class AA Tracked loading,

reaction coefficient for outer girder = 0.5536W and for inner girder = 0.3333W

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 44

5.4.1 Shear Force at Mid span:

Fig 5.4a: ILD for SF at L/2

Sheai Foice at Niu span

Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN

Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN

5.4.2 Shear Force at 3/8th span:

Fig 5.4b: ILD for SF at 3/8

Sheai Foice at th span

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 45

Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN

Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN

5.4.3 Shear Force at 1/4th span:

Fig 5.4c: ILD for SF at 1/4

th

span

Sheai Foice at th span

Sheai Foice at outei giiuei KN

Sheai Foice at innei giiuei KN

5.4 Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force in Girder:

5.5.1 Live Load from Cantilever

i Class AA Loauing The minimum uistance of Class AA loauing fiom the keib is

to be N Since the available cleai length of cantilevei is only N class

AA loauing will not come on the cantilevei poition

ii Class A Loauing

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 46

Fig 5.4: Position of Class A loading for max BM

Bistance of Cu of wheel fiom the euge of Cantilevei suppoit

N

Bispeiseu wiuth of loau N

Loau on Cantilevei

Effective Wiuth of Cantilevei e W

Wheie x uistance of Cu of uispeiseu loau in cantilevei poition

W wiuth of concentiation aiea of loau peipenuiculai to span

B thicKNess of Weaiing Coat

N

Impact Factoi

Bence Benuing Noment uue to Live loau

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 47

Beau Loau anu Beau loau benuing Noment

Component BLN iunKN Cu fiom euge

of cantileveiN

NomentKNN

Crash Barrier KN

Wearing Coat KN

Slab KN

Total KN KNN

Design Bending Moment = 25 + 33.7 = 58.7KN-M

Design Shear Force = 21.18 + 77 = 98.18KN

Check for depth (M

B

):

u

NN

u

Provide 200MM overall depth using 40MM

u

NN

Aiea of steel iequiieu

N

ju

NN

NN

Hence provide 16MM diameter bars at 100MM c/c

5.5 Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force in Girders

Fig 5.5: Position of loads for Max BM and SF in Girders

Beau loau fiom each Cantilevei slab

Beau loau fiom Slab anu weaiing coat

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 48

KNNN

Total Beau loau fiom ueck

KNNN

Assuming this loau to be equally shaieu by giiueis

KNNN

Let the uepth of iib N

Weight of iib KN

Total 0BL on giiueis KNN

Let uepth of cioss giiueis N

Weight of iib of cioss giiueis KNN

Length iib of cioss giiueis N

Assuming weight of cioss giiuei to be equally shaieu by all the thiee longituuinal

giiueis point loau on each giiuei KN

eaction

KN

Benuing Noment

Bending Moment at Mid Span

KNN

Bending Moment at Quarter Span

KNN

Shear Force

Sheai Foice at suppoit

KN

Sheai Foice at quaitei span

KN

Sheai Foice at

th

span

KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 49

Sheai Foice at Niu span

KN

5.6 Design of Outer Girder

1. Total Bending Moment at centre of span = KN N

2. Total Bending Moment at quarter span = KN N

3. Total Shear at support = KN

4. Total Shear at span = KN

5. Total Shear at 3/8 span = KN

6. Total Shear at Mid span = KN

For beams, M30 concrete will be used and the Outer girder will be designed as T-beam

having a depth of rib = 1.725M

Total depth = 1.725 + 0.225 = 1.95M

Let us assume an effective depth = 1.725-0.120 = 1.605M

A

NN

Provide 12 bars of 32MM diameter, having total A

NN

and

Provide 4bars of 25MM diameter, having total A

NN

Arrange these bars in 4 layers with spacing between bars equal to largest diameter bar used

i.e.32MM

Clear cover = 40MM

Height of C.G of bars from bottom of bars = (40+12+32X2)

= 148MM

d= 1725-148=1577MM <1605MM, hence ok

5.7 Check for stresses

1. Depth of Neutral Axis: Flange width will be the least of the following

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 50

a. 12d

s

+ b

r

= 12 x 225 + 400 = 3100MM

b. c/c spacing = 2500MM

c. Span/3 = 18.71/3 = 6236.66MM

Hence Flange width = B=2500MM

2. Let depth of Neutral axis be N lying in web

B d

s

n = 361MM

Ciitical Neutial axis uepth n

NN

Actual Neutral axis falls above the critical neutral axis therefore, the stress in the steel

reaches the Maximum value first hence

NN

Corresponding stress in the concrete at the outer fibre is given by

c

N

n

u n

NNN

Similarly,

c

n

c

c

= 0.38 NNN

NN

Levei aiN a u y NN

KN N

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 51

Area of steel required

Aiea of steel iequiieu

No. of 32MM diameter bars = 10443/305 = 12.9 bais

Check for local bond stress as per IRC code

Assume effective depth = 1950 - 60 = 1890MM

iequiieu

No of NN bais

Hence atleast 4 bars are to be taken straight

Check for shear

1. NoNinal Sheai stiess at suppoit

KNNN

, hence shear

reinforcement is necessary.

2. Nominal Sheai stiess at suppoit

NNN

, hence shear

reinforcement is not necessary.

3. Nominal Sheai stiess at suppoit

NNN

reinforcement.

Approximate distance from support at which shear stress is NNN

= (9.455+7)=8.23M

Let us bend up 2 bars at a time at a spacing of 0.707a i.e. = 0.707x0.9x1605=1021.26MM

Bend 2 bars at a time, spacing = 1020MM

If 5 bars are bent up, effective distance = 5 x 1.020 = 5.1M from support

Shear taken up by 4bent bars of 32MM = 4 x 805 x 200 x Sin(45)

= 455KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 52

Net remaining shear at support for which shear reinforcement has to be provided

= 605-450=150KN

Spacing S

NN

Hence provide 10MM diameter at 180MM c/c at support i.e. up to 4.08M. After 4.08M only

2 bars will be effective.

At quarter span, iemaining sheai

Spacing of two legged stirrups, 10MM diameter

Hence provide 2L-10MM diameter bars at 200MM c/c from 4.08M to 5.1M

Beyond 5.1M no bent up bars are available. Therefore, shear at 3/8 span

i.e.,

Therefore spacing of 10MM diameter bars 2L

Therefore provide 2L 10MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c

From 7.02M to 8.02M Provide 2L 10MM diameter at 180MM c/c

For remaining distance provide 22L 10MM diameter at 300MM c/c

Summary:

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from support upto 4.08M

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 200MM c/c from 4.08M to 5.1M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 53

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from 5.1M to 7.02M

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from 7.02M to 8.02M

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c for remaining length.

5.8 Design of Inner Girder

Adopt,

Use 12 bars of 32MM diameter

Check for bond stress as per IRC

Shear at support Let effective depth be 1665MM

Sheai

No of NN uiametei bais iequiieu

However take 6 bars straight up to support.

Check for Shear

at suppoit

N NN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 54

at centie

N NN

at

span

N NN

Bend bars at 1021.26MM i.e. 1.02M = a

4 bars are effective at every section, hence

KN

Shear taken by 4 bars of KN

Net remaining shear at support for which shear requirement is necessary

Hence provide 10MM-2L bars at 180MM c/c from support up to from

support after 4.08M

At quarter span,

Therefore, provide 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c from 4.08 to 5.1M.

Therefore, shear at 3/8 span=223KN.

Therefore, provide 2L-10MM diameter at 200 c/c up to 7.02.

From 7.02 to 8.02, 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c

For remaining 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c

Support to 4.8M10MM-2L diameter at 180MM c/c

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 55

4.8M to 5.1M10MM-2L diameter at 300MM c/c

5.1M to 7.02M10MM-2L diameter at 200MM c/c

7.02 to 8.02 and remaining10MM-2L diameter at 300MM c/c

5.9Design of cross-girder

Fig 5.9a: Load distribution on each girder Fig 5.9b: DL on Cross girder

i) Dead load

Cross girder are placed at 3.742M c/c

Dimension

Weight of rib

Dead weight from slab and wearing coat

Dead load on each cross girder

Assuming this to be uniformly distributed, dead load per meter run of girder

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 56

Therefore, Total weight = 9.18+8.84 = 18.02 KNN

Assuming cross girders to be rigid, reaction on each longitudinal girder =

KN

i) Live Load: Maximum bending Moment and shear force due to Class AA-

Tracked Loading

Fig 5.9c: LL on the span

KN

Assuming cross girders to be rigid, reaction on each longitudinal girder =

KN

Maximum bending Moment under the wheel load

Fig 5.9d: Max LL Cross girder

N

KN N

Taking Impact factor = 1.1x245 =270KN-M

Dead Load bending Moment from 4.75M of support

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 57

= 26.12KN-M

Total Bending Moment = LL BM +DL BM

KN N

Live Loau Sheai

KN

Section Design:

Total depth = 1500MM, Effective Depth = 1440MM

A

NN

Hence provide 3nos of 25MM Diameter bars, Pioviue A

NN

Sheai Besign

Nominal Sheai

NNN

ok

But

= 0.34

hence provide shear reinforcement.

NN

Pioviue L NN uiametei bais at NN CC both at inteimeuiate anu enus

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 58

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

The analysis and design of Deck slab and T-Beam of a Bridge has been carried out manually

as per IRC guidelines and the following results have been noted.

1. Live Load due to Class AA Wheeled Vehicle produces the severest effect.

2. Shear Force due to Class AA Wheeled Vehicle is very high.

3. Bending Moment in the Inner girder is lesser than the Outer girder hence lesser

reinforcement in inner girder when compared to outer girder.

4. The design of the deck slab and T- beam has been manually done keeping in view the

above results.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 59

REFERENCES

1) Indian Road congress, IRC: 6-2000, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for

Road Bridges Section: II, Loads and Stresses, 4

th

revision.

2) Indian Road congress, IRC: 21-2000, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for

Road Bridges Section: III, cement concrete (plain and reinforced), 3

rd

revision.

3) Dr. D. Johnson Victor, Essentials of Bridge Engineering, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.

4) Dr. N. Krishna Raju, Design of Bridges ,Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd

5) Mr. T.R. Jagadeesh and M.A. Jayaram, Design of Bridge Structures, Prentice Hall of

India Pvt. Ltd.

6) RCC Designs(Reinforced Concrete Structures) by Dr. B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain,

Arun Kumar Jain, Tenth Edition, Laxmi Publications.

- Courbon MethodDiunggah olehAslam Saifi
- Concrete T-beam Bridge DesignDiunggah olehjclou0211
- T Beam DesignDiunggah olehUma Shankar Yaligar
- Structural Design of RCC BridgeDiunggah olehShambhu Sah
- Detailed Designs of bridgeDiunggah olehDeepak Kr Gupta
- Bridge Substructure Analysis & DesignDiunggah olehamit4573
- IRC 70RDiunggah olehTushar Kanti Dey
- Johnson VictorDiunggah olehklicktime3
- Bridge.pdfDiunggah olehJessie Radaza Tutor
- Design of BridgeDiunggah olehMohd Aftab
- Bridge Abutment Pier Design as Per IRCDiunggah olehjibendra mishra
- Design of Slab BridgeDiunggah olehAshish Karki
- Bridge EngineeringDiunggah olehsatydevsinghnegi
- RC pier-f(Box & Girder).xlsDiunggah olehrobynson banik
- Bridge-Design-N krishna raju.pdfDiunggah olehrey
- Design of Bridges by Krishna Raju PDF FreeDiunggah olehAbhishek Shetty
- SLRB Design of 7.45m clear span for IRC Class A loadingDiunggah olehpaaji
- DESIGN OF RCC T - GIRDER DECK USING MORICE & LITTLE METHODDiunggah olehvasu7900
- Design of Super StructureDiunggah olehHemraj Raj
- Concrete Bridge Practice by v k RainaDiunggah olehmmmghorab
- Bridge DesignDiunggah olehmuthupsg08
- Bridge Engineering Lecture Note.pdfDiunggah olehephrem
- Design of bridgesDiunggah olehapi-19754583
- Grillage Analogy in Bridge Deck AnalysisDiunggah olehPrem
- Limit State.xls.Diunggah olehSubbarao Kakumanu
- Guidelines Bridge DesignDiunggah olehaa19
- Design of Abutment BridgeDiunggah olehPrakash Singh Rawal
- IRC 6-2016Diunggah olehManvendra Nigam

- Allowable Strength DesignDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Important SoilDiunggah olehnamsy ramsy
- Hadoop Final for PublicationDiunggah olehnvnrev
- EIJAER1005.pdfDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Secciones Modelizadas Por FibrasDiunggah olehRamon Gutierrez
- Problem SolutionDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Force system cont...pdfDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Into to MechDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Problems Chapter 1Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Example 1 of Flat &ColumnDiunggah olehnvnrev
- TESTDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Simple Problem on MOI.docxDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Shear Force and Bending Moment Work SheetsDiunggah olehnvnrev
- CHAPTER IDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Engineering-Mechanics by north 2.docDiunggah olehnvnrev
- CHAPTER.7 Engineering Mechanics-I2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Worked Example of Chapter-5 Engineering Mechanics-I 2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Worked example of chapter -4 Engineering mechanics-I 2015.docxDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Worked example of chapter -4 Engineering mechanics-I 2015.docxDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Engineering Mechanics NotesDiunggah olehRagothsingh Ramadoss
- CHAPTER.7 Engineering Mechanics-I2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Chapter 6 Engineering Mechanics I2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Solucion Estatica Meriam 4 Ed.pdfDiunggah olehDiego Guzman
- Engineering Mech-I 2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Worked Example of Chapter -4 Engineering Mechanics-I 2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Worked Example for Engineering Mechanics-IDiunggah olehnvnrev
- Groupwork-II Engineering Mechanics-I 2015Diunggah olehnvnrev
- Engineering Mecha-I Assignment-II 2015Diunggah olehnvnrev

- dpr.xlsxDiunggah olehNazeer Ahamad Khan
- CHAPTER 7 Design of Prestresed Concrete BridgesDiunggah olehLittleRed
- 6151968 Method of Construction of Segmental Concrete BridgeDiunggah olehmarioestructura
- Seismic Isolation Retrofitting Experience in Armenia and New Structural Concept for an Existing 8-Story Reinforced Concrete Hospital Building to be Retrofitted by Base IsolationDiunggah olehSEP-Publisher
- Table Formwork_new.pdfDiunggah olehMuhammad Zuhayr
- St Mary Axe seminar report.pdfDiunggah olehMahaManthra
- Rebar ComputationDiunggah olehkangrui9
- Deflection_Calculation_of_Concrete_Floors_TN292.pdfDiunggah olehSheik Mohamed Liakath
- Chapter 1- Concrete Material & MixtureDiunggah olehNezrin
- C-5 One Way Two Way SlabDiunggah olehBoopathi Yoganathan
- j Brr Col Sc1& 2 r Short Comm_add Compressive Strain Data 21-12-10Diunggah olehmizana
- mantia_1Diunggah olehpmergos
- CSM MethodDiunggah olehraihan
- Part1-7gfaDiunggah olehAngeline Kon
- 1-G446-2101-DW-0440-0007_01.pdfDiunggah olehNiwrati Holkar
- RING WALLDiunggah olehYunanto Widi
- Gravity Dam PresentationDiunggah olehbrhane
- TIMBER DECKSDiunggah olehRay Chong
- Concrete Masonry HomesDiunggah olehspades_94
- Details for Conventional Wood Frame ConstructionDiunggah olehCeyanez
- Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure MSTR31Diunggah olehHarish Ramachandran
- Paper Icsbe Final DraftDiunggah olehnadyanorazila
- Construction LoadsDiunggah olehdebjpaul
- Analysis-and-Design-of-RCC-Box-Culvert.pdfDiunggah olehDen Oghangsomban
- Post Tensioned SlabsDiunggah olehMedo Nasr
- Natural Frequencies of a Tapered Cantilever Beam of Constant Thickness and Linearly Tapered WidthDiunggah olehAleksandar Nikolic
- STAAD, Statik, Dynamik, FEM DESIGN CODES und Erdbebebuntersuchung weltweit und zuverlässigDiunggah olehturbobrik
- Teradowel Au 04-2015Diunggah olehRami Mohina
- Deck Ledger to Rim Joist UsDiunggah olehEle Rubenstein
- Tac 2014 Paper 165Diunggah olehMehdi Bakhshi