,
Pressure
!
Buildup
~
'¥'<, ~ (!,~
t
"
and Flow Tests
C. S. Matthews
in Wells
Manager of Exploitation Engineering
Henry
L.
Society
New York
Shell Oil Company
D. G. Russell
StafJExploitation Engineer
Shell Oil Company
""""'~~:::"~~.:.'!
"~'
'.
,c'
".
,""
."
~
1
\
1
,
;
;
Doherty
Memorial
Fund
of
Petroleum
Engineers
1967
of AIME
of AIME
Dallas
_{"}
_{,}_{,}_{'}
.
"""
~
Contents
1.
Introduction
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Use~of ~ressureInformation in Petroleum EngIneenng Early History of PressureMeasurements 1 Types of PressureInformation 1 Early History of PressureAnalysis Methods Objectivesof Monograph Organizationof Monograph
2
2
2
1
2.
Mathematical Basis
for
Analysis Methods
Pressure
4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
BasicAssumptions The Continuity Equation
5
SinglePhaseLiquid Flow SinglePhaseGas Flow Multiphase Flow Solutionsfor Radial Flow of Fluid of Small and ConstantCompressibility 10
8
4;
6
7
Conceptsof Transient,SemiSteadyState, and SteadyStateFlow Behavior The Principle of Superpositionand Approximationof VariableRate PressureHistories
Unit UnitsField Systems
Unit and Darcy
12
14
16
/
~ressure
Buildup
Analysis
3.1 BasicMethod
3.2 Skin Effect, Skin Factor,and Flow Efficiency
3.3 BoundedReservoirs
3.4
3 5
PressureBuildup for Two or Three PhaseFlow
.Pressure
Buildup in GasWells
3.6 Effectsof Wellbore Fillup and Pha
Redistribution
se
3.7 Effect of Partial Penetration
18
18
19
21
22
24
27
29
3.8
Superposition
ProductionRate Variation
to
Account
for
30
3.9 Alternative Methodsof Pressure
4/
BuildupAnalysis
Determi!1ation
Reservoir
of
Pressure
Average
30
35
4.1 Usesof AverageReservoirPressureData 35
4.2
4.3
Determining
Drainage
Volumes
of
Wells
~etermining Avera~e Reservoir Pressure
In Bounded (DepletionType) Reservoirs
4.4 WaterDrive Reservoirs
35
39
44
5. ~re
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Drawdown
Analysis
PressureDrawdownAnalysis for TransientConditions PressureDrawdownAnalysis for Late TransientConditions PressureDrawdownAnalysis for SemiSteadyStateConditions Exampleof Application of Pressure DrawdownAnalysisMethods OperationalConsiderationswith PressureDrawdownTests Behaviorin NonIdealCases
6r
/M:
ultipleRate
Flow Test Analysis
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
GeneralEquations for Analysis of Flowing Well Testswith Variable Rate TwoRate Flow TestAnalysisMethod
TwoRate Flow
in NonIdealCases Eliminationof WellboreEffectswith TwoRateFlow Tests Tran~ien~Analysisof GasWell MultiPoInt OpenFlowPotentialTests
Test Analysis
48
49
50
51
52
53
56
58
58
60
61
62
62
IV '7 /
Y
~
A
I
. na YSIS 0f WenterII I
ference
Tests
7.1 Reasonsfor InterferenceTests 7.2 Equationsfor PressureInterference 7.3 ExampleCalculation,InterferenceTest
67
67
67
68
7.4 
LeastSquaresMethods 
69 

7.5 
Other Methodsfor Computing 

Interference 
70 

Pressure 
Analysis 
in Injection 
We/ls 
72 

8.1 
PressureFallOff UnitMobility, LiquidFilled Analysis in Reservoirs 72 

8.2 
Pr~ssureFallO~ Af!alysis 

Pnor 
to ReservoIr 
Fillup 
73 

8.3 
TwoRate Injection TestAnalysIs 
81 

8.4 
Gas Injection Wells 
81 

Drillstem 
Test Pressure Analysis 
84 

9.1 
PressureBehavioron DST's 
84 

9.2 
Oper~t~onalConsiderationsin 
ObtaInIng
Good
DST
Pressure
Data
_{9}_{3} .Use
of PressureBuildup Theory
_{.}
on DST Data
_{9} .na _{4}
PressureData _{A} YSISof DST Flow Penod
_{I}
86
86
87
.
9.5 MultipleRate DST's 
88 
Appendix 
A: Solutions for Radial 
Flow 

9.6 Practical Considerationsin 
of 
Fluids of Small and 
Constant 

DST Interpretation 
88 
Compressibility 
130 

9.7 Wireline Formation Tests 
88 
ConstantRate,Infinite ReservoirCase 
130 

10, 
Effect 
of 
Reservoir 
Heterogeneities 
ConstantRate, BoundedCircular ReservoirCase 
131 

t 
on 
Pressure 
Behavior 
92 
ConstantRate,ConstantPressure Outer BoundaryCase 
133 

10.1 
PressureBehaviorNear Faults or Other ImpermeableBarriers 
92 
Appendix 
B: Example Calculations 
for for for for for 

10.2 
Effect of Lateral Changesin Hydraulic Diffusivity on PressureBehavior 
95 
Pressure Buildup Analysis 
134 

, 
, 
.Reservoir 
Above Bubble Point 
135 

10.3 
Pressure 
BehavIor 
m Layered 
ReservoIrs 
97 

10 4 
P 
B h 
' 
. N 
II 
ReservoirBelow Bubble Point 
136 

.ressure 
e aVlor m 
atura y 

Fractured Formations 
102 
Gas Reservoir 
138 

10.5 
PressureBehaviorin Hydraulically 
" 
" 

Fractured Wells 
103 
Appendix 
C: Example Calculation 

.: 
10.6 
PressureBehavior in NonSymmetrical 
Average Pressure 
140 

, 
DrainageAreas 
109 
MatthewsBronsHazebroekMethod 
140 

'1 
10.7 
Effect of PressureDependent Rock Properties 
110 
MillerDyesHutchinsonMethod 
141 

10.8 
ConcludingComments 
110 
Append1x 
D: Example Calculations 

Pressure Drawdown Analysis 
142 

II, 
Practical 
Aspects 
of 
Pressure 
TransientAnalysis SemiSteadyStateAnalysis (Reservolr. L Iml' . tT est) 
142 

Analysis 11.1 ChoIceofTestsm FlowmgWells , 
114 114 
Late TransientAnalysis 
144 145 

11.2 Choice of Testsin Injection Wells 
114 
_{D} _{'}_{.}_{I}_{S}_{C}_{U}_{S}_{S}_{l}_{o}_{n} 
_{1}_{4}_{5} 

11.3 Tests in Pumping 
Wells 
115 

11.4 RequiredClosedInTimes 
115 
Appendix 
E: Example Calculations 

11.5 Radiusof Investigation 
116 
MultipleRate Flow Test 
Analysis 
147 

11.6 Notes on Fractured and Other 
TwoRate Flow Test 
147 

HeterogeneousReservoirs 
117 
_{M} uI tl. _{P}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{'} 0 pen Fl ow Potentla. I 
T est 
148 

11.7 Correction 
of Pressure to a Datum 
117~ 

11.8 
Well Stabilization 
118 
Appendix 
F: Example Calculations 

J 
11.9 
Other Considerationsin Well Tests 
119 
Injection Well Analysis 
150~ 

~ 
11,10 MeasuringInstruments 
119 
Pressure.Fall~~ AnalY,sis,LiquidFilled Case, 

11.11 
UnIt MobIlity Ratio 
150 

Qualitative Interpretation of Buildup Curves 
122 
PressureFallOff AnalysisPrior to Reservoir Fillup, Unit Mobility Ratio 
152 

12 C 
I 
' 
124 
PressureFallOff Analysis,NonUnit Mobility 

, onc us Ion 
Ratio 
152 

12.1 The Stateof the Art 
124 
TwoRate Injection Test 
153~ 

12.2 Current Problemsand Areas 
" 
" 

for Further Investigation 
125 
Appendix 
G: Charts and Correlations~ 

12.3 Value of PressureAnalysisMethods 
for 
Use in Pressu~e Buildup 
and 

to the PetroleumIndustry 
126 
Flow 
Test AnalysIs 
155 

12.4 .Where Do We Go From Here? 
126 
_{B}_{I}_{'}_{b}_{l} _{"}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{p} _{h}_{y} 
_{1}_{6}_{4} 

1 
Nomenclature 
128 
SubjectAuthor Index 
168~ 

" 

~ 
Chapter 1
Introduction
,
1.1 Uses of Pressure Information in Petroleum Engineering
and MacDonald gauges.By 1933 there were some 10 different kinds of instruments in use.5
~ Several hundred technical papers have been pub
One of the first fieldwide applications of subsurface
lished over the past 35 years dealing with the import pressuresoccurred in the East Texas field. Information ant subject of pressure tests in oil and gas wells. This obtained from periodic surveys in key wells was used extensive literature has evolved because the pressure to control allowables, equalizing rate of oil offtake
behavior of a well is both a readily measurableand a
with rate of water influx. Another early application was made in Kansas where liquid levels were measured in
highly useful quantity.
Pressuredata from wells may be
used to estimate how efficiently the well is completed, wells while pumping. These measurementswere used
the need for and successof a well stimulation treat in prorating wells. This method eliminated installation
ment, the general type of well treatment desirable, the
degree of connectivity to other wells and many other was an early step in analyzing well behavior.
items. Pressure data from wells are used to define local and averagereservoir pressures.These data, when com bined with hydrocarbon and water production data and with laboratory data on fluid and rock properties, afford the means to estimate the original oil in place and the recovery which may be expected from the reservoir under various modes of exploitation. It is the
purpose of this Monograph to present the subject of measured ~t this time was called a "stati~" .pressure.
These st~tic measurementS;sufficed ~o. Indicate ~he
lished techniques as a basis and adding new informa pressure m permeable, highproductiVIty reservoIrs. tion and techniques where needed. However, engineers soon recognized that in most for
.Except for such liquidlevel measuremelltsin pum~ mg wells, the usual type of pressure measurementm ea~ly days was a socalled."static': measurement. In this type, a pressuremeasunngdeVIcewas lowered to the. bottom. of a well which had been closed for a penod of time, such as 24 to 72 hours. The pressure
of
1.3
special highcapacitypumps to "potential" wells and
Types of Pressure Information
pressure tests of wells as a coherent whole using pub
mations the static pressure measurementswere very
1.2 Early History of Pressure Measurements much functions of closedin time. The lower the per
Instruments for
measuring maximum pressures in
meability, the longer the time required for the pressure
wells were developed and applied in the United States during the early 1920'S.1One early devicewas simply a
marked on a black pidity with which pressure buildup occurred when a
ened face. Other devices were developed to measure liquid levels in wells, utilizing floats or sonic echos.
Sclater and Stephenson2discussed an application of observation was an important step in developing an
pressure measurements from such early devices in a gasoil ratio study in 1928. A year later Pierce and Rawlins3reported on a study of a relation betweenbot
tomhole pressure and potential production rate. The sure variation with time is recorded after the flow rate
to equalize at the prevailing reservoir pres
in
a well
sure. Thus, engineers realized very early that the ra
well was closed in was a reflection of the permeability of the reservoir rock around that well. This qualitative
understanding of well pressure behavior. This under standing led to the other basic type of measurement, called transient pressuretesting. In this type, the pres
Bourdon gauge with a stylus which
utility of early bottomhole pressure instruments was
greatly increased by the development of continuously which is used in modem pressure tests of wells and, recording instruments such as the Amerada,4Humble thus, is the type with which we shall mainly be con
of the well is changed. It is this type of
measurement
'Referencesgiven at end of chapter.
cemed in this Monograph.
2
PRESSURE BUILDUP
AND
FLOW TESTS IN WELLS
in injection wells. We shall
tation of pressure data came with the introduction of
the materialbalance method6of calculating original oil both producing wells and injection wells.
in place in a reservoir. To provide meaningful data for We have tried to provide in this Monograph an up this method, engineersbegan to seekanswersto ques todate treatment for the benefit of engineerswho want
tions such as: "How long should I shut in a well to
A stimulus for developing a quantitative interpre
wells and pressure falloff
also treat pressureresponseduring multiplerate tests in
to reeducate themselves on the subject of pressure tests.We have stressedexample applications particular ly. For those who are more mathematically inclined, we have also presenteda rather complete treatment of the mathematical basis. Most of this treatment has been placed in appendices,however, so that the Mon ograph's readibility will not be impaired.
get the required pressuresfor
I extrapolate data to a static pressure?". Development
of other analytical methods of analyzing reservoir per
this method?", and "Can
formance, such as the treatment of water drive by
Moore, Schilthuis and Hurst,7 increased the need for
a method for quantitatively treating pressure data.
1.4
Early History
of Pressure
Analysis
Methods
pletely, The
general plan has been to present,
a preferred
method
for
rather
each type of pressure
com
The first effort to present an extrapolation theory
to the
parameters of the reservoir was presented in 1937 by Muskat.8 He deduced, mathematically, a method for extrapolating the measured well pressureto a true sta tic pressure. Muskat stated at the time that his method had only a qualitative application. In a sensethis was true, since this method did not take into account the
and to relate the change in pressure with time
analysis. Alternative methods will usually be discussed and referenced, and in some casespresented also. Be
causeof
presentcomplete discussionsof all methods of pressure
analysis. The referencesshould provide a guide to the alternative procedures.
^{S} pace limitations
however it is not feasible to
,
,
1.6
Organization of Monograph
important aspectof fluid compressibility. The first com At this point some comments on the organization
prehensive treatment of pressure behavior in oil wells to include the effects of compressibility was that of
Miller, Dyes and Hutchinson9 in 1950. The following ods. It is not essentialthat a reader masterthis chapter year Hornero presented a somewhat different treat to be able to understand and apply the methods dis ment. These two papers still furnish the fundamental cussed in the remainder of the book. However, we
basis for the modem theory and analysis of oilwell pressurebehavior.* Subsequentpapers have brought a
multitude of refinements and a deeper understanding browse through this section to enhance his basic un of this subject. In this Monograph we will attempt to derstanding of the various pressure analysis methods.
Subsequentsections are devoted to pressure buildup, pressure drawdown, pressure falloff, interference tests
incorporate these refinements into methods.
of the Monograph are in order. The next chapter pre sentsthe mathematicalbasis for pressureanalysismeth
hope that every readereven those who are not par ticularly wellversed in advanced mathematicswill
the
earlier basic
We
will
and not
trace
the
hIStOry of
pressure
~nalysis
further. Ref. 1: as well as the many refer~ncesm later chapt~rs of this ~onograph: sh~uld furnIsh adequate matenal for those Interested m thISaspect.
multiplerate tests. In each case illustrative exam
data are presented. Discussions
pIes using actual field
are included on drillstem test analysis, reservoir hetero geneities and on the practical aspects of bottomhole pressure measurement.The paper ends with a discus
1.5 Objectives of Monograph sion of problems yet unsolved in pressurebehavior. We
hope that the manner of presentation will make the Monograph both readable and yet practical as a guide for daytoday use.
In our treatment we shall concern ourselves almost
entirely with the subject of creating and analyzing the transient pressureresponsein a well. By transient pres
sure response, we mean the pressure response which results from a change in a well's production rate. For
instance, a transient pressure is created by putting a 1. History of PetroleumEngineering,API (1961). closedin well on production. In a well which has been
producing at a constant flow rate for some period of time and has reached a pseudo steadystatebehavior,
a pressure transient is created by closing in the well or,
References
2. Sclater,K. C. and Stephenson,B. R.: "Measurements of Original Pressure,Temperature,and GasOil Ratio
in Oil Sands",Trans.,AIME
(1928)82, 119136.
alternatively, 
by changing 
the 
producing 
rate. Among 
3. Pierce, 
H. 
R. 
and 
Rawlins, 
E. 
L.: 
"The 
Study 
of 
a 

the 
types 
of transient pressure 
behavior 
we shall 
con 
Fundamental 
Basis 
for Controlling 
and Gauging 
Nat 
sider are pressure buildup and drawdown in
producing
*Some different approacheshave beenused by Russian and French authors. For a review of Russianpressure buildup methods,seeRef. 11. Referencesto someof the
French
methods
will
be made
in
subsequent
chapters
of
this
Monograph.
~
~
ural Gas Wells", RI 2929and 2930,USBM (1929).
4. Millikan, C. V. and Sidwell,C. V.: "BottomholePres suresin Oil Wells", Trans.,AIME (1931)92, 194205.

.".
5. Hawthor~: 
D 
G 
Review 
struments 
, 011 
and 
Gas J. 
of
(April
S b
~
f
sur ace
P
20, 1933)
ressure
I
n

16, 40.~iiiL~
'~
Chapter 2
Mathematical
Basis
Analysis
Methods
For Pressure
"'
,
,

'
:"',;~1"'\.;
The pressure analysis techniques to be discussedin this Monograph have been derived from solutions of the partial differential equations describing flow of flu ids through porous media for various boundary condi
tions. By beginning with the underlying physical prin minus sign in the above equation denotes that flow oc
p is the density of the fluid. The
sectional area, it! is the potential, \l it! is the gradIent
of the potential in the direction of flow, ,II.is the viscos ity of the fluid, k is the permeability of the medium
(a constant) and
ciples and considering the differential equations and curs in the direction of decreasingpotential. Hubbert' the solutions of interest, one can better understand the has studied Darcy's law and its implications quite ex implications of pressure analysis theories. tensively, and those who are interested in the funda
2.1
men.talconsiderations concerning this law are referred to hISwork. Hubbert showedthat
Basic Assumptions I d
mat h ematica
.
A
f fl
'd fl
UI
' ow m a porous
escnption 0
medium can be obtained from the following physical principles: (1) the Law of Conservation of Mass; (2) Darcy's law (or other flow law); and (3) Equation(s) of State.
In flow phenomena of any type (fluids, heat, elec tricity) , one of the most useful statementsis a conserva
tion principle. This is simply a statement that some The forms of Eq. 2,1 for flow in the x, y and z di
where z is the height above and Pois the pressure in an arbitrary datum plane.
p
_{J} _{!}_{!}_{!}_{!}_{}_{+} _{g}_{z}
po
p'
it!=
physical quantity is conserved,i.e" neither created nor destroyed. In fluid flow in a porous medium, the most tion significant statement quantity is simply conservedis (referring massand to an the arbitrary conserva re
rections are
~
U.
,11 k
~ ax '
gion)
.p
(amount of mass mput)(amount
put)
of mass out
u,,=k"a'
,II.
"
fJit!
y
+ and (net sinks) amount of mass introduced by sources
= (increase in mass content of the region),
Darcy's law expressesthe fact that the volumetric
rate of flow per unit crosssectionalarea at any point
gradient in a uniform in potential porous in medium the direction is proportional of flow at to that the
point, The law is valid for laminar flow at low Rey nolds numbers,l and its mathematical expressionis*
U =
\lit!
,
(2.1)
~
,II. where u is the volumetric rate of flow per unit cross
*Seethe Nomenclatureon page128.
~
u.
,II.
k
z ~ oz .
Thus, for flow in the x, y and z directions, respec
tively, Darcy's law can be expressedas
U.= ;
u,,= ~
U.= ;
k.
k
,II.
k.
op
~
0
:
(2.2)
fJY 
] 

[ OP + 
' 

az 
pg 
I 

I 
In these equations, Ui (i=x, y or z) denotesthe volu metric rate of flow per unit crosssectionalarea in the
~
I
MATHEMATICALBASIS FOR PRESSUREANALYSIS METHODS
5
i
t
!
t
I
,
I
.,.
direction i. The symbols
k", ky and k" are the permea
bilities 
of the rock in the indicated directions. 
For 
radial flow, neglecting gravity, Darcy's law be 
comes 
k 
0 

Ur = 
~ 
.!!.. 

,lI. 
or 
In the case of flow at high velocities, Darcy's law is
no longer valid. It has been found that a quadratic ve
locity correction term can be added to modify Darcy's law. In this casethe flow law becomes
~
k,
,lI.
cp
0"
=
U +
D1u2,
where Dl is a constant that is a function of the pore structure of the porous medium and 0"is the direction of flow. The reader who is interested in socalled non
Darcy
flow
'T
,
IS
h
referred
h
to
.
the
I
papers
'd
by
'
Houpeurt
hi
Ramey, T e mat ematica consl eratlons In t
ter are
b
d
ase
on
fl
ow
w
h '
IC
h
0
b
eys
D
arcy
'
.
1
saw,
s c
Various
equations
of
state are used in deriving
'8
h
or,
ap,
the
2.2
In this sectionwe will develop a mathematical state ment of the continuity principle. By subsequentcombi nation of the continuity equation with Darcy's law and equationsof state, we can derive a family of differential equations which describesvarious flow situations. We begin by considering a single fluid flowing through a
porous medium of porosity cf>.We choose an arbitrary volume element within the flow region and apply the
continuity statementpresented in the previous section. Since our primary interest in this Monograph is in
ra~ial flow, we ~hall derive the continuity equatio,?ap phcable for radial flow as well as the more general,
The Continuity Equation
consider the threedi
mensional case and choose as our arbitrary volume
threedimensionalcase. We first
the rectangular parallelepiped shown in Fig. 2.1A,
Th 
1 
t 
. 
_{t} 
_{f} 
_{f}_{l} 
_{'} 

e 
vo 
ume 
nc 
componen 
s 
0 
ow 
In 
t 0 
th 
e 
e1 emen 
t 
In the x, y and z directions are denoted . by u", UIIand
,
,
u",
respectively.
These
are
volumetnc
flow
rates
per
urnt of
into the element in the xdirection
,
.
crosssectional
area. Thus,
the mass flow rate is
flow equations. An equationof state specifiesthe depen
dence of fluid density p bn the fluid pressure p and
temperature T,
Thus, depending on the actual fluid(s)
_{'} t
ti'
f
t
t
. 11 b
chosen
_{t}
The
Throughout this Monograph isothermal flow is assumed IS
presen
,
an
appropna
e
equa
on
0
s
a
e
WI
e
.,
mass
flow
rate
pU" ~y ~z ,
,.
In
the
.
xdirection
out
of
the
element
1, 
so that the equation of state will depend only on pres 
~y ~z [pu"+ ~ ~pu,,)]. 

sure, Before presenting the differential equations for flow through porous media, we should point out that a dif 
w~e~e ~(pu,,) is the change in mass,flux that. occ~rs within th~ element. The net flow r~te In the xdirection 

ferential equation describes only the physical law or (amountIn less the amountout) IS 

laws which apply to a situation. To obtain a solution 
~y 
~z ~ (pu,,) . 

to a specific flow problem, one must have not only the differential equation, but also the boundary and initial 
Similar expressionscan be written for the y and z di 

.~ 
conditions that characterize the particular situation of rections, Assuming no mass is generated or lost in the 
":~
~
""f"
\
~J"
.~
interest,
".
y
/
0
+4(0
"
)
A
t
+4(p
4y
r
p
I.
)/
P.!
element,the amount of net masschange in the element
poy'4(p.y) .
)
.
y
~
y
P.
//
/./
/
I
/
e
1.//
/
./
B
/././
./././
//;
P.!
+4.
Fig. 2.1 Volume elementfor derivationof continuity equation:(A) in threespacedimensions;and (B)for radialflow.
6
in a time increment dt can be expressedas
PRESSURE
1
,"aT
0
BUILDUP
( rpk
;"aT
OP
AND 
FLOW 
TESTS 
IN 

) 
0ar(i/>p) 
(2.5) 
WELLS
dt 
[d(pU,,) 
dY 
dZ 
+ 
d(pUI/) 
dZ 
dx 
+ 
d(pUz)dX 
dY] 
I 
I 

= i/>pdXdY dZ 
i/>pdX 
dy dZ I 
An 

t+dt 
I 
2.3
SinglePhaseLiquid Flow
important class of fl?w equations results for
sInglephaseflow. The most Important of these, in the
context of this Monograph, is the equation for isother ~his IS S!~p!ya dIrect application of the cOntin.UItypnn mal flow of fluids of small and constantcompressibility.
The compressibility of a fluid is defined as the relative
 [~~ + ~~+ !::.!:.!!!!~] = (i/>p)t+dt(i/>p) t .change in fluid volume per unit change in pressure, or
cIple. DIVIding the equation by dX dY dZ dt YIelds
dx
dY
dZ
dt
Proceedingto the limit as dx, dY, dZ and dt approach
c=

1
V
oV
op
.
zero gives
ax(pU,,) +ay(pUI/) +az (pUz)=
0
0
0
0
ar(i/>p)
This may also be written
c =
1
p
ap
~
.
, .,
.,
(2.3)
If
c
is constant then the above relationship can be
integratedto yield
P po
eC(ppo)
This equation is the continuity equation (in Cartesian
form)
The continuity equation for radial flow follows from a similar development.If we considerthe elementalvol ume as shown on Fig. 2.IB, then the following mass
balance can be written: If we introduce the equation of state of Eq. 2.6 into
di
for flow of a fluid in a porous me
urn.
"
(2.6)
,
,
where pois the value of p at somereferencepressurePo. This particular equation of state applies rather well to most liquids.
dt
{
8(r+dr)
h(pu
I
)
8rh
[
= cpph8rdr cpph8r.lr t+dt'
pU
I
.
+d(pU
]
)
}
Eq. 2.4, assumethe viscosity is constant and neglect loop gravity forces, then (since ~ = c~)
(
k,,~
02p
+
k,,~
a2p
p
uX
uX
+ kz""'J"Z2)+ C[k" (axOP)2 + k" ( ayOP) 2
02P
This reducesto
_{~} [
rdr
pu

dr
rd
(
.ot
and SInced(pUr)/dr~
pUr
) ]~
A
~
o(pu )/or
t
'
+
k
z
( 0 ) 2 ]
F
oz
+
( 0
ok
ok
F !. + F .!
ox ox
oY oY
a
+
0
F!. az oz
ok
"P
~
~.I.
,,'/'
=cpp.c+J.I. "
at
,,(2.7)
)
*
~ 
~(rpu 
) 
= 
~ 
(cpp). 
, 
,(2.3a) 
If c is small, if the permeability is constant and iso tropic, if the porosity is constant and if it is assumed 

r 
or 
ot 
that the pressure gradients involved are small so that 
Eq,
T
2,3a is the continuity equation for radial flow. '
0
d
enve
diff
'
I
.
f
fl
UI 'd fl
ow
erentia equations or
p~rous mediu~, .we must. next combine Darcy'~ law WIth the continuIty equations. For the threedimen sional case, substitution of Eq. 2,2 into Eq. 2.3 yields
In '
a
~
ox
(~ ~)
J.I. ox
+
=~
at
( .!!!:~) + ~
J.I.oy
,
.,
,
oz
.,
~
oy
(i/>p)
[~ (~ +pg)]
J.I.
oz
,
.(2,4)
for the combination
of the continuity equation and Darcy's law. The final
differential equation which will result from this equa
Eq. 2.4 representsa general form
th: gradient squared terms may be
gOIngreducesto 

~!!:! 
~= 
~~ 

ax2+ oy2 + 
OZ2 
k 
ot 
., 
_{F}
or
yields
ra
_{d}_{'} I
Ia
fl
b"
ow, com Ination 0f
(viscosity constant)
~~
r
=
( r~
or
cpp.c~
T
ot
or
+
k
~ ct
) +~~~+C
~ k
or
'
or
neglected,the fore
(28)
.
Eqs. 2,6 and 2.5
(~)2
or
*To
establishthis relationshipwe have madeuse of
~on depends on the 
fluid and the equation of state of 
a 
op 
o.p 

Interest. 
ai"(.pp)= 
.pat 
+ 
Pat 

For the radial flow case we obtain in similar man 
op 
o.p 

ner: 
= 
.ppCat+ Pat . 
~
~~
MATHEMATICAL
BASIS
FOR
PRESSURE
ANALYSIS
METHODS
If we assumeconstant permeability and porosity,
con
( ap )2.
^{}^{I}^{S}
(29)
' b'
li
d
t
h
at
stant and small compressl I ty, an
ar negligibly small, the above equation becomes
0
(
1
r r or
op ) o2p + 
1 
op I/>p.c ap 

or 
ar2 
r 
or 
k 
at' 
This
equation
is
one
of
the
most
often
used
in
petroleum
7 

h 
.1 
al/> 

d 
h 
b 
th 
th 
' 

were 
Cf 
= 
a' 
an 
were 
0 
e 
porosl 
ty 
an 
d 
I/>
P
permeability are pressuredependent.In casesin which the gradient squared terms can be neglected,Eq. 2.11
can be reduced to
a2p
a2p
~+az+T2T(c+Cf)a' x y
a2pI/>p.
z
op
t
.(2.12)
engineeringthe
small and constantcompressibility. It is quite important to not~ that small p~essuregradients, constant rock
equation for radial flow of a fluid of
properties,
and
a
fluid
of
small
and
constant
com
If Eq. 2.11 is expressedfor
radial flow it becomes
a2
& +r!r+
1
a 
1 
ak 
a 
2 
a 

_{(} 
_{c} _{+}_{T}_{a}_{)}_{(} 
_{f}_{r}_{)} 
_{=} 
_{~} 
_{(}_{c} 
_{+} 
_{C}_{f}_{)}_{}_{f}_{t}_{.} 

p 
pressibility must be assumed to obtain this equation from the original nonlinear equation with which we
began. The reader should keep these assumptions in An important class of singlefluid flow equations is
that describing flow of gas through a porous medium.
the foundation of pressure~~ ~hniques. Gas flow equations are different than those for liquid
flow in that the equations of state which are used are
those for
and the constant,~, ~~
(2.13)
2,4
SinglePhase Gas Flow
mind since solutions to this particular equation form
Eq. 2.8 and Eq. 2,9 are called diffusivity equations ,
IS called
the hydraulIc dlffu
liquids. quite
different
in
functional
form
from
si~y~iStOrlCaTiy~th1sequation first arose in the study of heat conduction. Lord Kelvin called a corresponding
constant in the heatconduction equation the thermal m
diffusivity. Equations similar to Eq. 2.8 also arise in the study of diffusion and electrical potential distribu tion. Equations of this general type are known as the
The equation of state for an ideal gas is given by the ideal gas law as
pV
= MRT,
where V is the volume occupied by the mass m of gas
of molecular weight M, R is the gas law
T is the absolute temperature. Since the density, p = ~, in this case is
V
constant and
M p = liT
p ,
~ diffusivity equation.
If
! flow of a fluid
we wish to obtain the differential equation for
constant compressibility,
but for the case of pressuredependentporosity and permeability, we can further refine Eq. 2.7. If we assume constant viscosity, isotropic permeability and neglect gravity, we obtain
of small and
.then
~.
n a2p
a2p
+ 32
x y
+ T2 a2p z
+
C
[(
ap) 2
a
x
+
( op)2
a y
+
( ap)2
:e Z
for isothermal variations in pressure,
]
ot op M
RT
ap ot
.
+
~
~
k
[~ ~ + ~ ax ox
~
ay ay
+ ~
~
oz az
] = ~
k
~
at
, ,
+ !:.~.
k
.(2.10)
at
This equation can be simplified somewhat by noting that
From kinetic theory, the viscosity of an ideal gas
depends only upon temperature. Thus,
gas viscosity and constant rock properties, and neg lecting gravity, Eq, 2,4 becomes
for constant
3
ax
(
p
~ ax
)
+~
oy
( ~) + 3 (
p
oy
cz
p
~)=~~.
k
oz
at
~= 
~~ 
(and 
similarly 
for 
y 
and 
z), 
., 
(2,14) 

~\, 
ox 
cp 
ax 
x
and
01/>~
op
^{a}^{t}^{}^{a}^{}^{p}^{}^{~}^{'}
If we rearrange Eq. 2.10 it now becomes
( 02P
a2p)
z
+
+
(
1
c+Ta
op
Cf) at
ak ) ([
p
"
a
x
02p
ap] 2
F2+n+~
x
y
[CP] 2)
+ az
I/>p.
T(C
rap] 2
+
a
y
(2,11)
This equation can be rewritten as
02p2
a::t2 +
c2p2
~+
aZ2= k~"
02p2
21/>p. ap
(2,15)
In the case of radial flow Eq. 2,15 becomes
02p2
+ ar2
1
= r
cp2
or
21/>p.op
=~ k
ot
I/>p.op2
kp
ot
.(2.16)
Either of the two righthand forms is often used. This
equation is nonlinear and has been solved mainly by numerical methods.
I
8
PRESSURE BUILDUP
AND
FLOW TESTS IN WELLS
of gas liberated from a volume of oil to the oil volum~ (all referred to standard conditions) is the gas solubility factor Rs. Similarly, a gas solubility factor for water can be defined and representedby Rsw. the The changesin use of a volume formation which volume occur in factor eachphase to allow upon for
transition from reservoir to standard surface conditions
constant rock properties, then Eq. 2.4 becomes, for of temperature and pressureis a well known procedure.
If
to give
tion factor z is introduced into the equation of state
In the caseof flow of a nonideal gas, the gas devia
p =:r
~.
z
we assumelaminar flow,
neglect gravity and assume
isothermal conditions,
These volume factors are defined for each phase as
~(~ ~ )+ ~ (!!. ~ )+ ~ (~ ~ ) =
ox
ILZox
oy
ILZoY
ow
ILZoW
!.~ k ot
(~ )
Z
B
0
= oil anddissolvedgasvolume(reservoirconditions), oil volume(standardconditions)
(2.17) gasvolume (reservoirconditions)
Bg = gasvolume(standardconditions)'
In Eq. 2.17 we have used the symbol W for the Z co
ordinate to avoid confusion with the gas deviation fac tor z.
water anddissolvedgasvolume(reservoirconditions)
Bto.
watervolume(standardconditions)
For radial flow Eq. 2.17 can be expressedas
In addition to thesequantities, the conceptof relative
1
T
C (
r r
p
r
/LZ
aP)
:a
r
=
_{c}_{f}_{>}
kat
_{'}_{0}
( 
P 
) 
pe~meability 
m.ust 
be 
introduced. 
When 
th~ee 
immiscible 

z 
(2.18) 
'flUIds 
(e.g., 
011, 
gas 
and 
water) 
flow 
sImultaneously 

through 
a 
porous 
medium, 
the 
permeability 
of 
the 
rock 
A version of Eq. 2.18 in which higherorder terms are
neglected can also be
derived. This equation is
to each flowing phase depends on the interfacial ten sions betweenthe fluids and the contact anglesbetween
~ 
+ 
~ 
~ 
= 
~ 
~ 
~ 

or2 
r 
or 
k 
P 
at 
(~
Z
)
the
rock
and
the
fluids.
It
has
been found
that
for
(2.19) 
commonly 
encountered conditions 
the permeability 
of 

the 
rock 
to 
each 
phase 
is independent 
of 
bulk 
fluid 
R
1 4 h
s h own
th
a
t
usse
11
et a .ave
use 0
f
E
q.
2 .as 19
a
substitute nction for the more rIgorous Eq. 2.18 can lead to serIous errors permea m gaswell performance predictions for
lowpermeability gas reservoIrs.
properties and of flow rate (for laminar flow), and is a
fu
mea 11 es
f
UI saturations only. T e relative per
.
0
t
.d
h
fl
t
0 eac
e
h
h
th
.
.
.
b.l.ti.
b.
p h aseare
d e fin e d
as
mg
e ratIo 0f the
saturation con
1lit y t0 a phase at preVaI.1
ditions to the singlephase permeability of the rock.
,
The equations for flow of a single fluid which are 
Thus, for oil, gas and water, 

essentialto this Monograph have now been developed. In reality, of course, the pore space of a reservoir is 
krtO= 
kiD(So,Sto), 

occupied by more than one fluid, and any or all of 
k 

these fluids may occur at saturation levels such that simultaneous flow will take place. It is essentialto an 
kro = 
ko (So,SiD) k 
' 
understanding of pressure analysis methods that some basic facts about multiphase flow be developed. The brief section which follows is devoted to this.
2.5
M
u I tip
.
h
ase
FI
ow
where
A completely rigorous formulation of the equations
k 
rg 
= kg (So,SiD) k 
' 

S 
+ 
S 
+ 
S 
= 
1 
. 

0 
to 
g 
for multiphase flow should consider the spatial distri It is beyond the scopeof this Monograph to present a
bution of each component in the hydrocarbonwater systemas a function of time.5.18The approachwhich we take in this section will be much less rigorous. All hy drocarbon liquid which is present at atmospheric con ditions, as obtained by differential vaporization, we
definitive discussionof two or threephaserelative per meability. For the purposes of our derivations, we shall consider simply that theseare physically meaning ful quantities which can be measuredon a rock sample in the laboratory.
refer to 
as oil. The gasphasewe refer to simply as gas, Consider a unit volume of the reservoir. In this 

without 
regard to its composition, and we considerthe volume there is a mass of oil given by 

solubility of 
gas in the oil and water phases. Our de 

rivation will 
be for radial flow only. 
cf>So ~Pos 0 

At any instant an element of the reservoir will con 
, 
tain certain volumes of oil, gas and water which, when and a mass of water given by reduced to standard conditions, will be modified as a
result of gas solubility in the oil and water and the 
cf>SiD 

compressibility of eachphase. The ratio of the volume 
B;;; 
Ptos, 
MATHEMATICAL
BASIS
FOR
PR,ESSURE
ANALYSIS
METHODS
9
wherepo.and pw.are oil and waterdensitiesat stand porousmediumunderconditionsof neglectof gravity ard conditions.In the samereservoirunit there is a forcesandcapillarypressuredifferencesbetweenphases.
massof free gas 
They representa simultaneousset of four nonlinear 

S 
equationsdescribingfour unknowns,So,Su,Swand p. 

~ 
PUB 
This complexsystemcanbe solvedonly by numerical 

Bu 
means. 
and a massof dissolvedgas Martin6 has shownthat in the casewhere higher
.l.
'I'
R
P
.U' B
0
S
0
+
loR
'I'.w,.
P
B'
tD
S
tD
order
terms
can
be
neglected
in
the
expansion
of
the
quantitiesin canbe combinedmathematicallyto Eqs. 2.20,2.21 and 2.22, yield theseequations
so that the total massof gasper unit volumeof reser voir is
.!.~
~ 
+ 
f/>R. PU'SO + 0 
cJ>Rp,. StD 
r 
or 

B 
u 
PU' 
B 
B' tD 
( r
~
or
) = !!:!!+
or2
~~
r
or
=
(k )
~
"",,(2.24)
p.
e
~
ot'
By use of Darcy's law we can expressthe radial massflux of oil as
where Ct is the total systemcompressibilitygiven by
po uro
ko

and for water
PtDUroo= ~
p.o
B
k
tD
0
opo
po.a r
fJpw ~
pw.ar
'
'
ce
=,
and the
~
~
Bo op
+
~
Bo
~
op
~
~
BtD op
+~~
~~
+ Cf'
(2.25)**
BtD
op
Bu
op
quantity (klp.)t is the sum of the mobilities
For gas,
u 
k 
op, 
R 
.0 
k 
apo 

Pu uru ;;ij; 
PU' ar 
PUB 
B: ~ 
a;; 
PUB~ Bw ~ jJ.w ~ or
'
(kip.) of thefluids;i.e.,
(
k )
=
p.
e
( k
~
+
,11.0
k
!
p.u
+
k
~
)
p.w
.(2.26)
Comparisonof Eqs. 2,24 and 2.9 showsthat under
the mediumcan assumedconditions,multiphaseflow be describedby the diffusivity in a equation porous
If we neglect capillary pressuredifferences* in the systemand neglectgravity, then a continuityequation
for eachphasecanbe writtenas in Eq. 2.3. pretati~npro~e~uresm multiphasecases.This ISdis
Impo~ant fact proVl~esthe. baSISfor pressu:e.mt~r
a pressuredep~ndentdiffus~vitycoefficient This
~th
Th
Oil:
Gas:
e
se
1
Tar
t
0
0
f
[
equa
ti '
r
ko
~ar
ons
f
0
II
ows.
OP ] 0
at
(
So )
cJ>~.
cussed
m
detail
m
later
chapters
of
the
Monograph.
For the sakeof completeness,the simplifiedforms of the precedingequationsin the caseof twophase,
(2.20)
gasoil
flow
are ~resented.
The
become the folloWIng.
Oil:
differential
equations
.!.!.
r
or
_{[} _{r}
(~+~+~
p.oBo
=cJ>++ ( R.So
0
ot
[
Bo
IJ.wBw
jJ.,B,
) ~ ]
or
R.wStD Su
Bw
Bu
)]
Water:
~
r
where
~
or
[ r ~
~
IJ.wBtDor
] = ~ ot
( cJ>~
)
BtD
,
(2 21)
(2.22)
G
.
as.
.!.~
r
or
and
~~
r
[ r
or
[ r ~
~
p.oBo or
]=~
ot
( cJ>~
Bo
) ,
(~+~p.oBo ,II.,Bu)~or ]=~ot [ cJ>(~+~Bo
So+
,
,
,
s, = 1
,
,
.,
.(2.27)
,
Bu)]
(2.28)
So+S,+Sw=1
,
,
,
.,
,
(2.23)
Eqs. 2.20 through2.23 constitutethe equationsfor simultaneousflow of oil, gas and water through a
This setof equationshas beenstudiedextensivelyby
Perrine,7Wellersand West et aV4 by meansof nu mericalsolutionsobtainedon digital computers.L
*Capillary forces are not completelyneglectedbecause effectivepermeabilityterms are affectedby capillarity.

**The term c, was addedto Martin's equationsto ac.the count for formation compressibility.
10
PRESSURE BUILDUP
AND
FLOW TESTS IN WELLS
2.6 Solutions for Radial Small and Constant
Thus far
Flow of Fluid of Compressibility
in the presentation of the math:matical
Fluid of small and constant compressibility; Constant fluid viscosity; Smallpressuregradients;and
basis for pressure analysis methods, we have discussed the physical laws which govern fluid flow in a porous
medium and the combination of these laws into dif
ferential equations which describe the various flow
Negligible graVIty forces. Again, the equation is
02
¥
P
+
1
3
r
0
P
r
=
.I.
h th
'f'JJ.C
~at
p
.
regimes which may occur. It
2.8 and its form for radial flow, Eq. 2.9, all the equa
tions which were developed are nonlinear and not Ghe solutions of this equation of interest to us in
easily solved. Eqs. 2.8 and 2.9, however,
and can be solved analyticany for boundary conditions of interest, as we shan seepresently. Not only can they
be solved, but application of these solutions to reservoir mentioned later in this chapter, the basic solutions for conditions has, over the years, demonstrated their constant rate can be combined by the principle of practical value. Because of this utility and simp~icity, superposition to yield solutions for arbitrary rate his these equations have become the fundamental basIs for tories.
the commonly used pressure analysis techniques. (Three basic casesare of interest: (1) Infinite Reser
the wen is assumed to be
discussed in this Monograph, three basic solutions of situated in a porous medium of infinite radial extent;
Eq. 2.9 are needed.These are presented in the section (2) Bounded Cylindrical Reservoirthe casein which which fonows. Others may be found in Carslaw and the wen is assumedto be located in the center of a Jaeger9or in the paper by Rowan and Clegg.15 cylindrical reservoir with no flow across the exterior
The assumptions made in the development of Eq. 2.9 are summarized as fonows:
Radial flow into wen opened over entire thickness of formation; Homogeneous and isotropic porous medium; Uniform thickness of the medium; Porosity and permeability constant (independent of pressure);
the developmentof pressureanalysismethods are those for the case of flow into a centrally located wen at a constant volumetric rate of production, q) As win be
W.
ti.
f
Eq
O
e excep on o.
are linear
For the developmentof the pressureanalysistheories
voir the
case in which
boundary; and (3) Constant PressureOuter Boundary
the case in which of a cylindrical area
the wen is situated in the center with constant pressure along the
outer boundary. The specific application of
each of
these caseswin become apparent in the later sections of this Monograph.) The geometry and boundary conditions for these three casesare indicated schematically on Fig. 2.2. To
CONSTANT
PRESSURE
BOUNDARY
CASE
P
= p.
AT
r
Ie""
=
r
OUTER
/
INFINITE
P
RESERVOIR
PiASr
CASE
co
/'
0
'"
BOUNDED
CIRCULAR
~
or
I
=0
re
RESERVOIR
CASE
"" 
re 
~ 

.J 
I 
Ir I 
W 

I 
; 
=:j 
: I:= 
I 

I 

I 
Fig. 2.2Schematicdrawingof geometryandboundaryconditionsfor radial flow, constantratecases.
MATHEMATICAL
BASIS
FOR
PRESSURE
ANALYSIS
METHODS
11
expressthe condition for constant flow rate at the well bore (i.e., at r = rw), we may write from Darcy's law
(
r ~
)
.Thus,
q = 
~ 

p. 
or 
r~ 
Thus, if we require a constant rate at 
the well, then we 

impose the following condition on the at the well: 
pressure gradient 

( ~ ) 
= .!!!!:~ 
(2.29) 
The symbol Y is Euler's constant and is equal to 1.78.
_{o}_{r}
for
p(
r
,)
p(r,
t)
~
t
4kt
=
>
P.
+
100,
qp.
In 41Tkh
qp.
= P. 41Tkh
[
( yf/Jp.cr2
4kt'
1n~
kt
)
+
0.80907 ] .
or
r~
21Tkhrw
(For no flow across an exterior boundary, r = re, we
must have zero flow velocity; therefore, the pressure gradient must be zero.)
( OP)
a
r
r.
Pwf
0
(2.30)
(2.32)
The expression for pressure at the wellbore (i.e.,
r
=
rw) is
=
P. +
qp.
4:;;kh In
( yf/Jp.crw2
4kt'
)
or
at
(In all caseswe require that at t = 0 (i.e., initially) ~h~.reservoi.r.isuniformly pressured.at a value Pi)~he Pwf = P. ~ ffiitial condition could also be specified as a function of radius from the well; however, for our purposesthe
assumptionof initial uniform pressureis adequate. The solution
The mathematical statement of the boundary con ditions and development of the mathematical solutions
for each of these cases is presented in Appendix A. assumption of a vanishingly small wellbore radius.
These solutions are, of course, quite well known and
wellbore infinite reservoir case, and is based on the
k
f/Jp.crw
41Tkh [ln~
+ 0.80907] .
(2.33)
we have presented for the infinite an approximation to the actual finite
reservoir case is
However, when it is evaluated at practical values of
have been incorporated into this Appendix solely for radius and time (including normal wellbore radius the sake of completeness. values), it yields almost identical results with the less As is usually the case,the exact form of the mathe tractable finitewellbore solution. More information on
matical expressions for the solutions of the foregoing this approximation can be found in Appendix A.
problems dependson the approach taken in the analyti cal treatment. In this regard, several slightly different Bounded Circular Reservoir
solutions of th~ problems in w~ch we are interested
have ap'pearedm the petroleum literature
{
(4rD2 +
tDw) 
Rather than
p(r,
t)
= P. 2;kh qp.
reD21 2
attempting accompanying to critique, present all we of have these chosen solutions to utilize and an in reD2In rD (3reD'4reD' In reD2reD21) 00
eachof the three casesthat solution most convenientto
The reader who is inter
ested in a variety of these solutions is referred to
Muskat,lO van Everdingen and Hurst,S Homer,l1
CarslawandJaeger.9
the needs of this Monograph.
or
The mathematical solutions for each case are listed
in the section of the text which follows. Infinite Reservoir, Line Source Well
p(r,t)=pi
I
qp.
21Tkh
1
2
E,
.'t'
(

.I.
p.Cr
4 kt
where
E,
.
(x)
For
x <
E.
0.01,
(
x)
=
y ~
f eUudu.
00
z
In
(
x)
=
In
(
1
)
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