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,

Pressure

!

Buildup

~

'¥'<, ~ (!,~

t

"

and Flow Tests

C. S. Matthews

in Wells

Manager of Exploitation Engineering

Henry

L.

Society

New York

Shell Oil Company

D. G. Russell

StafJExploitation Engineer

Shell Oil Company

""""'~~:::"~~.:.'!

"~'

'.

,c'

".

,""

."

~

1

\

1

,

;

;

Doherty

Memorial

Fund

of

Petroleum

Engineers

1967

of AIME

of AIME

Dallas

"

,,'

.

"""

~--

Contents

1.

Introduction

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

Use~of ~ressureInformation in Petroleum EngIneenng Early History of PressureMeasurements 1 Types of PressureInformation 1 Early History of PressureAnalysis Methods Objectivesof Monograph Organizationof Monograph

2

2

2

1

2.

Mathematical Basis

for

Analysis Methods

Pressure

4

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

BasicAssumptions The Continuity Equation

5

Single-PhaseLiquid Flow Single-PhaseGas Flow Multiphase Flow Solutionsfor Radial Flow of Fluid of Small and ConstantCompressibility 10

8

4;

6

7

Conceptsof Transient,Semi-SteadyState, and Steady-StateFlow Behavior The Principle of Superpositionand Approximationof Variable-Rate PressureHistories

Unit Units-Field Systems

Unit and Darcy

12

14

16

/

~ressure

Buildup

Analysis

3.1 BasicMethod

3.2 Skin Effect, Skin Factor,and Flow Efficiency

3.3 BoundedReservoirs

3.4

3 5

PressureBuildup for Two- or Three- PhaseFlow

.Pressure

Buildup in GasWells

3.6 Effectsof Wellbore Fillup and Pha

Redistribution

se

3.7 Effect of Partial Penetration

18

18

19

21

22

24

27

29

3.8

Superposition

ProductionRate Variation

to

Account

for

30

3.9 Alternative Methodsof Pressure

4/

BuildupAnalysis

Determi!1ation

Reservoir

of

Pressure

Average

30

35

4.1 Usesof AverageReservoirPressureData 35

4.2

4.3

Determining

Drainage

Volumes

of

Wells

~etermining Avera~e Reservoir Pressure

In Bounded (Depletion-Type) Reservoirs

4.4 Water-Drive Reservoirs

35

39

44

5. ~re

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Drawdown

Analysis

PressureDrawdownAnalysis for TransientConditions PressureDrawdownAnalysis for Late TransientConditions PressureDrawdownAnalysis for Semi-SteadyStateConditions Exampleof Application of Pressure DrawdownAnalysisMethods OperationalConsiderationswith PressureDrawdownTests Behaviorin Non-IdealCases

6r

/M:-

ultiple-Rate

Flow Test Analysis

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

GeneralEquations for Analysis of Flowing Well Testswith Variable Rate Two-Rate Flow TestAnalysisMethod

Two-Rate Flow

in Non-IdealCases Eliminationof WellboreEffectswith Two-RateFlow Tests Tran~ien~Analysisof Gas-Well Multi-PoInt Open-FlowPotentialTests

Test Analysis

48

49

50

51

52

53

56

58

58

60

61

62

62

IV '7 /

Y

~

A

I

. na YSIS 0f WenterII I

ference

Tests

7.1 Reasonsfor InterferenceTests 7.2 Equationsfor PressureInterference 7.3 ExampleCalculation,InterferenceTest

67

67

67

68

7.4

Least-SquaresMethods

 

69

7.5

Other Methodsfor Computing

 

Interference

 

70

Pressure

Analysis

in Injection

We/ls

72

8.1

PressureFall-Off Unit-Mobility, Liquid-Filled Analysis in Reservoirs 72

8.2

Pr~ssureFall-O~ Af!alysis

 

Pnor

to

ReservoIr

Fillup

73

8.3

Two-Rate Injection TestAnalysIs

81

8.4

Gas Injection Wells

81

Drillstem

Test

Pressure

Analysis

84

9.1

PressureBehavioron DST's

 

84

9.2

Oper~t~onalConsiderationsin

 

ObtaInIng

Good

DST

Pressure

Data

93 .Use

of PressureBuildup Theory

.

on DST Data

9 .na 4

PressureData A YSISof DST Flow Penod

I

86

86

87

.

 

9.5 Multiple-Rate DST's

 

88

Appendix

A:

Solutions

for

Radial

Flow

9.6 Practical Considerationsin

 

of

Fluids

of

Small

and

Constant

 

DST Interpretation

 

88

Compressibility

 

130

9.7 Wireline Formation Tests

88

ConstantRate,Infinite ReservoirCase

130

 

10,

Effect

of

Reservoir

Heterogeneities

ConstantRate, BoundedCircular ReservoirCase

 

131

t

on

Pressure

Behavior

 

92

ConstantRate,ConstantPressure Outer BoundaryCase

 

133

10.1

PressureBehaviorNear Faults or Other ImpermeableBarriers

92

Appendix

B:

Example

Calculations

for

for

for

for

for

10.2

Effect of Lateral Changesin Hydraulic Diffusivity on PressureBehavior

95

Pressure

Buildup

Analysis

 

134

 

,

,

.Reservoir

 

Above

Bubble

Point

135

 

10.3

Pressure

BehavIor

m

Layered

 

ReservoIrs

97

10 4

P

B h

'

.

N

II

ReservoirBelow Bubble Point

 

136

.ressure

 

e aVlor m

atura y

 
 

Fractured Formations

102

Gas Reservoir

138

 

10.5

PressureBehaviorin Hydraulically

"

"

 

Fractured Wells

103

Appendix

C:

Example

Calculation

.:

10.6

PressureBehavior in Non-Symmetrical

Average

Pressure

 

140

,

DrainageAreas

 

109

Matthews-Brons-HazebroekMethod

140

'1

10.7

Effect of Pressure-Dependent Rock Properties

110

Miller-Dyes-HutchinsonMethod

 

141

10.8

ConcludingComments

 

110

Append1x

D:

Example

Calculations

 

Pressure

Drawdown

Analysis

142

 

II,

Practical

Aspects

 

of

Pressure

 

TransientAnalysis

Semi-SteadyStateAnalysis

(Reservolr. L Iml'

. tT est)

 

142

 

Analysis

11.1

ChoIceofTestsm FlowmgWells

,

114

114

Late TransientAnalysis

144

145

11.2 Choice of Testsin Injection Wells

114

D '.ISCUSSlon

145

11.3 Tests in Pumping

Wells

115

11.4 RequiredClosed-InTimes

 

115

Appendix

E:

Example

Calculations

11.5 Radiusof Investigation

116

Multiple-Rate

Flow

Test

Analysis

147

11.6 Notes on Fractured and Other

Two-Rate Flow Test

   

147

HeterogeneousReservoirs

117

M uI tl-. Point'

0 pen- Fl ow Potentla.

I

T est

148

11.7 Correction

of Pressure to a Datum

117~

11.8

Well Stabilization

 

118

Appendix

F:

Example

Calculations

J

11.9

Other Considerationsin Well Tests

119

Injection Well Analysis

 

150~

~

11,10 MeasuringInstruments

 

119

Pressure.Fall-~~ AnalY,sis,Liquid-Filled Case,

11.11

 

UnIt MobIlity Ratio

150

 

Qualitative Interpretation of Buildup Curves

 

122

PressureFall-Off AnalysisPrior to Reservoir Fillup, Unit Mobility Ratio

152

 

12 C

I

'

124

PressureFall-Off Analysis,Non-Unit Mobility

, onc us Ion

 

Ratio

152

 

12.1 The Stateof the Art

 

124

Two-Rate Injection Test

 

153~

12.2 Current Problemsand Areas

 

"

"

for Further Investigation

 

125

Appendix

G: Charts

and

Correlations~

 

12.3 Value of PressureAnalysisMethods

for

Use in Pressu~e

Buildup

and

 

to the PetroleumIndustry

126

Flow

Test

AnalysIs

155

12.4 .Where Do We Go From Here?

126

BI'bl "lograp hy

 

164

1

Nomenclature

 

128

Subject-Author

Index

168~

 

"

~

Chapter 1

Introduction

,

1.1 Uses of Pressure Information in Petroleum Engineering

and MacDonald gauges.By 1933 there were some 10 different kinds of instruments in use.5

~- Several hundred technical papers have been pub-

One of the first field-wide applications of subsurface

lished over the past 35 years dealing with the import- pressuresoccurred in the East Texas field. Information ant subject of pressure tests in oil and gas wells. This obtained from periodic surveys in key wells was used extensive literature has evolved because the pressure to control allowables, equalizing rate of oil off-take

behavior of a well is both a readily measurableand a

with rate of water influx. Another early application was made in Kansas where liquid levels were measured in

highly useful quantity.

Pressuredata from wells may be

used to estimate how efficiently the well is completed, wells while pumping. These measurementswere used

the need for and successof a well stimulation treat- in prorating wells. This method eliminated installation

ment, the general type of well treatment desirable, the

degree of connectivity to other wells and many other was an early step in analyzing well behavior.

items. Pressure data from wells are used to define local and averagereservoir pressures.These data, when com- bined with hydrocarbon and water production data and with laboratory data on fluid and rock properties, afford the means to estimate the original oil in place and the recovery which may be expected from the reservoir under various modes of exploitation. It is the

purpose of this Monograph to present the subject of measured ~t this time was called a "stati~" .pressure.

These st~tic measurementS;sufficed ~o. Indicate ~he

lished techniques as a basis and adding new informa- pressure m permeable, high-productiVIty reservoIrs. tion and techniques where needed. However, engineers soon recognized that in most for-

.Except for such liquid-level measuremelltsin pum~- mg wells, the usual type of pressure measurementm ea~ly days was a so-called."static': measurement. In this type, a pressure-measunngdeVIcewas lowered to the. bottom. of a well which had been closed for a penod of time, such as 24 to 72 hours. The pressure

of

1.3

special high-capacitypumps to "potential" wells and

Types of Pressure Information

pressure tests of wells as a coherent whole using pub-

mations the static pressure measurementswere very

1.2 Early History of Pressure Measurements much functions of closed-in time. The lower the per-

Instruments for

measuring maximum pressures in

meability, the longer the time required for the pressure

wells were developed and applied in the United States during the early 1920'S.1One early devicewas simply a

marked on a black- pidity with which pressure buildup occurred when a

ened face. Other devices were developed to measure liquid levels in wells, utilizing floats or sonic echos.

Sclater and Stephenson2discussed an application of observation was an important step in developing an

pressure measurements from such early devices in a gas-oil ratio study in 1928. A year later Pierce and Rawlins3reported on a study of a relation betweenbot-

tom-hole pressure and potential production rate. The sure variation with time is recorded after the flow rate

to equalize at the prevailing reservoir pres-

in

a well

sure. Thus, engineers realized very early that the ra-

well was closed in was a reflection of the permeability of the reservoir rock around that well. This qualitative

understanding of well pressure behavior. This under- standing led to the other basic type of measurement, called transient pressuretesting. In this type, the pres-

Bourdon gauge with a stylus which

utility of early bottom-hole pressure instruments was

greatly increased by the development of continuously which is used in modem pressure tests of wells and, recording instruments such as the Amerada,4Humble thus, is the type with which we shall mainly be con-

of the well is changed. It is this type of

measurement

'Referencesgiven at end of chapter.

cemed in this Monograph.

2

PRESSURE BUILDUP

AND

FLOW TESTS IN WELLS

in injection wells. We shall

tation of pressure data came with the introduction of

the material-balance method6of calculating original oil both producing wells and injection wells.

in place in a reservoir. To provide meaningful data for We have tried to provide in this Monograph an up- this method, engineersbegan to seekanswersto ques- to-date treatment for the benefit of engineerswho want

tions such as: "How long should I shut in a well to

A stimulus for developing a quantitative interpre-

wells and pressure fall-off

also treat pressureresponseduring multiple-rate tests in

to re-educate themselves on the subject of pressure tests.We have stressedexample applications particular- ly. For those who are more mathematically inclined, we have also presenteda rather complete treatment of the mathematical basis. Most of this treatment has been placed in appendices,however, so that the Mon- ograph's readibility will not be impaired.

get the required pressuresfor

I extrapolate data to a static pressure?". Development

of other analytical methods of analyzing reservoir per-

this method?", and "Can

formance, such as the treatment of water drive by

Moore, Schilthuis and Hurst,7 increased the need for

a method for quantitatively treating pressure data.

1.4

Early History

of Pressure

Analysis

Methods

pletely, The

general plan has been to present,

a preferred

method

for

rather

each type of pressure

com-

The first effort to present an extrapolation theory

to the

parameters of the reservoir was presented in 1937 by Muskat.8 He deduced, mathematically, a method for extrapolating the measured well pressureto a true sta- tic pressure. Muskat stated at the time that his method had only a qualitative application. In a sensethis was true, since this method did not take into account the

and to relate the change in pressure with time

analysis. Alternative methods will usually be discussed and referenced, and in some casespresented also. Be-

causeof

presentcomplete discussionsof all methods of pressure

analysis. The referencesshould provide a guide to the alternative procedures.

S pace limitations

however it is not feasible to

,

,

1.6

Organization of Monograph

important aspectof fluid compressibility. The first com- At this point some comments on the organization

prehensive treatment of pressure behavior in oil wells to include the effects of compressibility was that of

Miller, Dyes and Hutchinson9 in 1950. The following ods. It is not essentialthat a reader masterthis chapter year Hornero presented a somewhat different treat- to be able to understand and apply the methods dis- ment. These two papers still furnish the fundamental cussed in the remainder of the book. However, we

basis for the modem theory and analysis of oilwell pressurebehavior.* Subsequentpapers have brought a

multitude of refinements and a deeper understanding browse through this section to enhance his basic un- of this subject. In this Monograph we will attempt to derstanding of the various pressure analysis methods.

Subsequentsections are devoted to pressure buildup, pressure drawdown, pressure fall-off, interference tests

incorporate these refinements into methods.

of the Monograph are in order. The next chapter pre- sentsthe mathematicalbasis for pressureanalysismeth-

hope that every reader-even those who are not par- ticularly well-versed in advanced mathematics-will

the

earlier basic

We

will

and not

trace

the

hIStOry of

pressure

~nalysis

further. Ref. 1: as well as the many refer~ncesm later chapt~rs of this ~onograph: sh~uld furnIsh adequate matenal for those Interested m thISaspect.

multiple-rate tests. In each case illustrative exam-

data are presented. Discussions

pIes using actual field

are included on drillstem test analysis, reservoir hetero- geneities and on the practical aspects of bottom-hole pressure measurement.The paper ends with a discus-

1.5 Objectives of Monograph sion of problems yet unsolved in pressurebehavior. We

hope that the manner of presentation will make the Monograph both readable and yet practical as a guide for day-to-day use.

In our treatment we shall concern ourselves almost

entirely with the subject of creating and analyzing the transient pressureresponsein a well. By transient pres-

sure response, we mean the pressure response which results from a change in a well's production rate. For

instance, a transient pressure is created by putting a 1. History of PetroleumEngineering,API (1961). closed-in well on production. In a well which has been

producing at a constant flow rate for some period of time and has reached a pseudo steady-statebehavior,

a pressure transient is created by closing in the well or,

References

2. Sclater,K. C. and Stephenson,B. R.: "Measurements of Original Pressure,Temperature,and Gas-Oil Ratio

in Oil Sands",Trans.,AIME

(1928)82, 119-136.

alternatively,

 

by

changing

the

producing

rate.

Among

3. Pierce,

H.

R.

and

Rawlins,

E.

L.:

"The

Study

of

a

the

types

of

transient

pressure

behavior

we

shall

con-

Fundamental

Basis

for

Controlling

and

Gauging

Nat-

sider are pressure buildup and drawdown in

producing

*Some different approacheshave beenused by Russian and French authors. For a review of Russianpressure buildup methods,seeRef. 11. Referencesto someof the

French

methods

will

be made

in

subsequent

chapters

of

this

Monograph.

--~

---~

ural Gas Wells", RI 2929and 2930,USBM (1929).

4. Millikan, C. V. and Sidwell,C. V.: "Bottom-holePres- suresin Oil Wells", Trans.,AIME (1931)92, 194-205.

-

.".

5. Hawthor~:

D

G

Review

struments

, 011

and

Gas J.

of

(April

S b

~

f

sur ace

P

20, 1933)

ressure

I

n

-

16, 40.~iiiL~

'~

Chapter 2

Mathematical

Basis

Analysis

Methods

For Pressure

"'

,

,

-

'

:"',;~1"'\.;

The pressure analysis techniques to be discussedin this Monograph have been derived from solutions of the partial differential equations describing flow of flu- ids through porous media for various boundary condi-

tions. By beginning with the underlying physical prin- minus sign in the above equation denotes that flow oc-

p is the density of the fluid. The

sectional area, it! is the potential, \l it! is the gradIent

of the potential in the direction of flow, ,II.is the viscos- ity of the fluid, k is the permeability of the medium

(a constant) and

ciples and considering the differential equations and curs in the direction of decreasingpotential. Hubbert' the solutions of interest, one can better understand the has studied Darcy's law and its implications quite ex- implications of pressure analysis theories. tensively, and those who are interested in the funda-

2.1

men.talconsiderations concerning this law are referred to hISwork. Hubbert showedthat

Basic Assumptions I d

mat h ematica

.

A

f fl

'd fl

UI

' ow m a porous

escnption 0

medium can be obtained from the following physical principles: (1) the Law of Conservation of Mass; (2) Darcy's law (or other flow law); and (3) Equation(s) of State.

In flow phenomena of any type (fluids, heat, elec- tricity) , one of the most useful statementsis a conserva-

tion principle. This is simply a statement that some The forms of Eq. 2,1 for flow in the x, y and z di-

where z is the height above and Pois the pressure in an arbitrary datum plane.

p

J !!!!-+ gz

po

p'

it!=

physical quantity is conserved,i.e" neither created nor destroyed. In fluid flow in a porous medium, the most tion significant statement quantity is simply conservedis (referring massand to an the arbitrary conserva- re-

rections are

--~

U.-

,11 k

~ ax '

gion)

.p

(amount of mass mput)-(amount

put)

of mass out-

u,,=--k"a'

,II.

"

fJit!

y

+ and (net sinks) amount of mass introduced by sources

= (increase in mass content of the region),

Darcy's law expressesthe fact that the volumetric

rate of flow per unit cross-sectionalarea at any point

gradient in a uniform in potential porous in medium the direction is proportional of flow at to that the

point, The law is valid for laminar flow at low Rey- nolds numbers,l and its mathematical expressionis*

U =

\lit!

,

(2.1)

-~

,II. where u is the volumetric rate of flow per unit cross-

*Seethe Nomenclatureon page128.

--~

u.-

,II.

k

z ~ oz .

Thus, for flow in the x, y and z directions, respec-

tively, Darcy's law can be expressedas

U.= --;

u,,= -~

U.= --;

k.

k

,II.

k.

op

~

0

-:-

(2.2)

fJY

]

 

[ OP +

'

-az-

pg

I

 

I

In these equations, Ui (i=x, y or z) denotesthe volu- metric rate of flow per unit cross-sectionalarea in the

~-

I

MATHEMATICALBASIS FOR PRESSUREANALYSIS METHODS

5

i

t

!

t

I

,

I

.,.

direction i. The symbols

k", ky and k" are the permea-

bilities

of the rock in the indicated directions.

For

radial flow, neglecting gravity, Darcy's law be-

comes

 

k

0

Ur =

-~

--.!!.-.

 

,lI.

or

In the case of flow at high velocities, Darcy's law is

no longer valid. It has been found that a quadratic ve-

locity correction term can be added to modify Darcy's law. In this casethe flow law becomes

--~

k,

,lI.

cp

0"

=

U +

D1u2,

where Dl is a constant that is a function of the pore structure of the porous medium and 0"is the direction of flow. The reader who is interested in so-called non-

Darcy

flow

'T

,

IS

h

referred

h

to

.

the

I

papers

'd

by

'

Houpeurt

hi

Ramey, T e mat ematica consl eratlons In t

ter are

b

d

ase

on

fl

ow

w

h '

IC

h

0

b

eys

D

arcy

'

.

1

saw,

s c

Various

equations

of

state are used in deriving

'8

h

or,

ap-,

the

2.2

In this sectionwe will develop a mathematical state- ment of the continuity principle. By subsequentcombi- nation of the continuity equation with Darcy's law and equationsof state, we can derive a family of differential equations which describesvarious flow situations. We begin by considering a single fluid flowing through a

porous medium of porosity cf>.We choose an arbitrary volume element within the flow region and apply the

continuity statementpresented in the previous section. Since our primary interest in this Monograph is in

ra~ial flow, we ~hall derive the continuity equatio,?ap- phcable for radial flow as well as the more general,

The Continuity Equation

consider the three-di-

mensional case and choose as our arbitrary volume

three-dimensionalcase. We first

the rectangular parallelepiped shown in Fig. 2.1A,

Th

1

t

.

t

f

fl

'

 

e

vo

ume

nc

componen

s

0

ow

In

t 0

th

e

e1 emen

t

In the x, y and z directions are denoted . by u", UIIand

,

,

u",

respectively.

These

are

volumetnc

flow

rates

per

urnt of

into the element in the x-direction

,

.

cross-sectional

area. Thus,

the mass flow rate is

flow equations. An equationof state specifiesthe depen-

dence of fluid density p bn the fluid pressure p and

temperature T,

Thus, depending on the actual fluid(s)

' t

ti'

f

t

t

. 11 b

chosen

t

The

Throughout this Monograph isothermal flow is assumed IS

presen

,

an

appropna

e

equa

on

0

s

a

e

WI

e

.,

mass

flow

rate

pU" ~y ~z ,

,.

In

the

.

x-direction

out

of

the

element

1,

so that the equation of state will depend only on pres-

~y ~z [pu"+ ~ ~pu,,)].

sure, Before presenting the differential equations for flow through porous media, we should point out that a dif-

w~e~e ~(pu,,) is the change in mass,flux that. occ~rs within th~ element. The net flow r~te In the x-direction

ferential equation describes only the physical law or (amount-In less the amount-out) IS

laws which apply to a situation. To obtain a solution

-~y

~z ~ (pu,,) .

to a specific flow problem, one must have not only the differential equation, but also the boundary and initial

Similar expressionscan be written for the y and z di-

.~

conditions that characterize the particular situation of rections, Assuming no mass is generated or lost in the

":~

~

""f"

\

~J"

.~

interest,

-".

y--

/

0

+4(0

"

)

A

t

+4(p

4y

r

p

I.

)/

P.!

element,the amount of net masschange in the element

poy'4(p.y) .

)--

.

y

~

y

P.

//

/./

/

I

/

e

1.//

/

./

B

/././

./././

//;

P.!

+4.

Fig. 2.1 Volume elementfor derivationof continuity equation:(A) in threespacedimensions;and (B)for radialflow.

6

in a time increment dt can be expressedas

PRESSURE

1

,"aT

0

BUILDUP

( rpk

-;-"aT

OP

 

AND

FLOW

TESTS

IN

)

-0-ar--(i/>p)

(2.5)

WELLS

-dt

[d(pU,,)

dY

dZ

+

d(pUI/)

dZ

dx

+

d(pUz)dX

dY]

 

I

I

 

=

i/>pdXdY dZ

 

-i/>pdX

dy dZ I

An

 

t+dt

 

I

2.3

Single-PhaseLiquid Flow

important class of fl?w equations results for

sIngle-phaseflow. The most Important of these, in the

context of this Monograph, is the equation for isother- ~his IS S!~p!ya dIrect application of the cOntin.UItypnn- mal flow of fluids of small and constantcompressibility.

The compressibility of a fluid is defined as the relative

- [~~ + ~~+ !::.!:.!!!!-~] = (i/>p)t+dt-(i/>p) t .change in fluid volume per unit change in pressure, or

cIple. DIVIding the equation by dX dY dZ dt YIelds

dx

dY

dZ

dt

Proceedingto the limit as dx, dY, dZ and dt approach

c=

---

1

V

oV

op

.

zero gives

ax(pU,,) +ay(pUI/) +az- (pUz)=

0

0

0

0

-ar(i/>p)

This may also be written

c =

1

p

ap

~

.

, .,

.,

(2.3)

If

c

is constant then the above relationship can be

integratedto yield

P -po

-eC(p-po)

This equation is the continuity equation (in Cartesian

form)

The continuity equation for radial flow follows from a similar development.If we considerthe elementalvol- ume as shown on Fig. 2.IB, then the following mass

balance can be written: If we introduce the equation of state of Eq. 2.6 into

di

for flow of a fluid in a porous me

urn.

"

(2.6)

,

,

where pois the value of p at somereferencepressurePo. This particular equation of state applies rather well to most liquids.

-dt

{

8(r+dr)

h(pu

I

)

-8rh

[

= cpph8rdr -cpph8r.lr t+dt'

pU

I

.

+d(pU

]

)

}

Eq. 2.4, assumethe viscosity is constant and neglect loop gravity forces, then (since -~ = c~)

(

k,,~

02p

+

k,,~

a2p

p

uX

uX

+ kz""'J"Z2)+ C[k" (axOP)2 + k" ( ayOP) 2

02P

This reducesto

~ [

rdr

pu

-

dr

rd

(

.ot

and SInced(pUr)/dr~

pUr

) ]--~

-A

~

-o(pu )/or

t

'

+

k

z

( 0 ) 2 ]

-F-

oz

+

( 0

ok

ok

-F- --!.- + -F- -.!

ox ox

oY oY

a

+

0

-F--!. az oz

ok

"P

~

~.I.

,,'/'

=cpp.c-+J.I.- "

at

,,(2.7)

)

*

~

~(rpu

)

=

-~

(cpp).

,

,(2.3a)

If c is small, if the permeability is constant and iso- tropic, if the porosity is constant and if it is assumed

 

r

or

ot

that the pressure gradients involved are small so that

Eq,

T

2,3a is the continuity equation for radial flow. '

0

d

enve

diff

'

I

.

f

fl

UI 'd fl

ow

erentia equations or

p~rous mediu~, .we must. next combine Darcy'~ law WIth the continuIty equations. For the three-dimen- sional case, substitution of Eq. 2,2 into Eq. 2.3 yields

In '

a

~

ox

(~ ~)

J.I. ox

+

=~

at

( .!!-!:-~) + ~

J.I.oy

,

.,

,

oz

.,

~

oy

(i/>p)

[~ (~ +pg)]

J.I.

oz

,

.(2,4)

for the combination

of the continuity equation and Darcy's law. The final

differential equation which will result from this equa-

Eq. 2.4 representsa general form

th: gradient squared terms may be

gOIngreducesto

~!!:!--

~=

~~

ax2+ oy2 +

OZ2

k

ot

.,

F

or

yields

ra

d' I

Ia

fl

b"

ow, com Ination 0f

(viscosity constant)

~~

r

=

( r~

or

cpp.c~

T

ot

or

+

k

~ ct

) +~~~+C

~ k

or

'

or

neglected,the fore-

(28)

.

Eqs. 2,6 and 2.5

(~)2

or

*To

establishthis relationshipwe have madeuse of

~on depends on the

fluid and the equation of state of

a

op

o.p

Interest.

-a-i"(.pp)=

.pat

+

Pat

For the radial flow case we obtain in similar man-

op

o.p

ner:

=

.ppCat+ Pat .

-~

~-~-

MATHEMATICAL

BASIS

FOR

PRESSURE

ANALYSIS

METHODS

If we assumeconstant permeability and porosity,

con-

( ap )2.

-IS

(29)

' b'

li

d

t

h

at

stant and small compressl I ty, an

ar negligibly small, the above equation becomes

0

(

1

--r- r or

op ) -o2p --+

1

op -I/>p.c ap

or

ar2

r

or

k

at'

This

equation

is

one

of

the

most

often

used

in

petroleum

 

7

 

h

.1

al/>

 

d

h

b

th

th

'

were

Cf

=

-a'

an

were

0

e

porosl

ty

an

d

I/>

P

permeability are pressure-dependent.In casesin which the gradient squared terms can be neglected,Eq. 2.11

can be reduced to

a2p

a2p

~+az+T2-T(c+Cf)a' x y

a2p-I/>p.

z

op

t

.(2.12)

engineering-the

small and constantcompressibility. It is quite important to not~ that small p~essuregradients, constant rock

equation for radial flow of a fluid of

properties,

and

a

fluid

of

small

and

constant

com-

If Eq. 2.11 is expressedfor

radial flow it becomes

a2

-& +r-!r+

1

a

1

ak

a

2

a

 

(

c +Ta)(

fr)

=

~

(c

+

Cf)-ft.

 

p

pressibility must be assumed to obtain this equation from the original nonlinear equation with which we

began. The reader should keep these assumptions in An important class of single-fluid flow equations is

that describing flow of gas through a porous medium.

the foundation of pressure~~ ~hniques. --Gas flow equations are different than those for liquid

flow in that the equations of state which are used are

those for

and the constant,~, ~~

(2.13)

2,4

Single-Phase Gas Flow

mind since solutions to this particular equation form

Eq. 2.8 and Eq. 2,9 are called diffusivity equations ,

IS called

the hydraulIc dlffu-

liquids. quite

different

in

functional

form

from

si~y~iStOrlCaTiy~-th1sequation first arose in the study of heat conduction. Lord Kelvin called a corresponding

constant in the heat-conduction equation the thermal m

diffusivity. Equations similar to Eq. 2.8 also arise in the study of diffusion and electrical potential distribu- tion. Equations of this general type are known as the

The equation of state for an ideal gas is given by the ideal gas law as

pV

= MRT,

where V is the volume occupied by the mass m of gas

of molecular weight M, R is the gas law

T is the absolute temperature. Since the density, p = ~, in this case is

V

constant and

M p = liT

p ,

~ diffusivity equation.

If

! flow of a fluid

we wish to obtain the differential equation for

constant compressibility,

but for the case of pressure-dependentporosity and permeability, we can further refine Eq. 2.7. If we assume constant viscosity, isotropic permeability and neglect gravity, we obtain

of small and

.then

~.

n a2p

a2p

+ 32

x y

+ T2 a2p z

+

C

[(

ap) 2

a

x

+

( op)2

a- y

+

( ap)2

-:e-- Z

for isothermal variations in pressure,

]

ot op -M

RT

ap ot

.

-+

~

~

k

[~ ~ + ~ ax ox

~

ay ay

+ ~

~

oz az

] = ~

k

~

at

, ,

+ !:-.-~.

k

.(2.10)

at

This equation can be simplified somewhat by noting that

From kinetic theory, the viscosity of an ideal gas

depends only upon temperature. Thus,

gas viscosity and constant rock properties, and neg- lecting gravity, Eq, 2,4 becomes

for constant

3-

ax

(

p

~ ax

)

+~

oy

( ~) + 3- (

p

oy

cz

p

~)=~~.

k

oz

at

 

~=

~~

(and

similarly

for

y

and

z),

.,

(2,14)

~\,

ox

cp

ax

x

and

01/>-~

op

at-a-p-~'

If we rearrange Eq. 2.10 it now becomes

( 02P

a2p)

z

+

+

(

1

c+Ta

op

Cf) at

ak ) ([

p

"

a

x

02p

ap] 2

F2-+n+~

x

y

[CP] 2)

+ -a-z

-I/>p.

-T(C

rap] 2

+

a-

y

(2,11)

This equation can be rewritten as

02p2

a::t2 +

c2p2

~+

--aZ2= k~"

02p2

21/>p. ap

(2,15)

In the case of radial flow Eq. 2,15 becomes

02p2

-+ ar2

1

--= r

cp2

or

21/>p.op

--=~- k

ot

I/>p.op2

kp

ot

.(2.16)

Either of the two right-hand forms is often used. This

equation is nonlinear and has been solved mainly by numerical methods.

8

PRESSURE BUILDUP

AND

FLOW TESTS IN WELLS

of gas liberated from a volume of oil to the oil volum~ (all referred to standard conditions) is the gas solubility factor Rs. Similarly, a gas solubility factor for water can be defined and representedby Rsw. the The changesin use of a volume formation which volume occur in factor eachphase to allow upon for

transition from reservoir to standard surface conditions

constant rock properties, then Eq. 2.4 becomes, for of temperature and pressureis a well known procedure.

If

to give

tion factor z is introduced into the equation of state

In the caseof flow of a non-ideal gas, the gas devia-

p =:r

~.

z

we assumelaminar flow,

neglect gravity and assume

isothermal conditions,

These volume factors are defined for each phase as

~(~ ~ )+ ~ (!!.- ~ )+ ~ (~ ~ ) =

ox

ILZox

oy

ILZoY

ow

ILZoW

!.-~ k ot

(~ )

Z

B

0

= oil anddissolvedgasvolume(reservoirconditions), oil volume(standardconditions)

(2.17) gasvolume (reservoirconditions)

Bg = gasvolume(standardconditions)'

In Eq. 2.17 we have used the symbol W for the Z co-

ordinate to avoid confusion with the gas deviation fac- tor z.

-water anddissolvedgasvolume(reservoirconditions)

Bto--.

watervolume(standardconditions)

For radial flow Eq. 2.17 can be expressedas

In addition to thesequantities, the conceptof relative

1

-T

C (

r r

p

-r

/LZ

aP)

-:a-

r

=

cf>

kat

'0

(

P

)

pe~meability

m.ust

be

introduced.

When

th~ee

immiscible

 

z

(2.18)

'flUIds

(e.g.,

011,

gas

and

water)

flow

sImultaneously

 

through

a

porous

medium,

the

permeability

of

the

rock

A version of Eq. 2.18 in which higher-order terms are

neglected can also be

derived. This equation is

to each flowing phase depends on the interfacial ten- sions betweenthe fluids and the contact anglesbetween

~

+

~

~

=

~

~

~

or2

r

or

k

P

at

(~

Z

)

the

rock

and

the

fluids.

It

has

been found

that

for

(2.19)

commonly

encountered

conditions

the

permeability

of

the

rock

to

each

phase

is

independent

of

bulk

fluid

R

1 4 h

s h own

th

a

t

usse

11

et a .ave

use 0

f

E

q.

2 .as 19

a

substitute nction for the more rIgorous Eq. 2.18 can lead to serIous errors permea m gas-well performance predictions for

low-permeability gas reservoIrs.

properties and of flow rate (for laminar flow), and is a

fu

mea 11 es

f

UI saturations only. T e relative per-

.

0

t

.d

h

fl

t

0 eac

e

h

h

th

.

.

.

b.l.ti.

b.

p h aseare

d e fin e d

as

mg

e ratIo 0f the

saturation con-

1lit y t0 a phase at preVaI.1

ditions to the single-phase permeability of the rock.

,

The equations for flow of a single fluid which are

Thus, for oil, gas and water,

 

essentialto this Monograph have now been developed. In reality, of course, the pore space of a reservoir is

krtO=

kiD(So,Sto),

occupied by more than one fluid, and any or all of

k

these fluids may occur at saturation levels such that simultaneous flow will take place. It is essentialto an

kro =

ko (So,SiD)

k

'

understanding of pressure analysis methods that some basic facts about multiphase flow be developed. The brief section which follows is devoted to this.

2.5

M

u I tip

.

h

ase

FI

ow

where

A completely rigorous formulation of the equations

k

rg

= kg (So,SiD) k

'

S

+

S

+

S

=

1

.

 

0

to

g

for multiphase flow should consider the spatial distri- It is beyond the scopeof this Monograph to present a

bution of each component in the hydrocarbon-water systemas a function of time.5.18The approachwhich we take in this section will be much less rigorous. All hy- drocarbon liquid which is present at atmospheric con- ditions, as obtained by differential vaporization, we

definitive discussionof two- or three-phaserelative per- meability. For the purposes of our derivations, we shall consider simply that theseare physically meaning- ful quantities which can be measuredon a rock sample in the laboratory.

refer to

as oil. The gasphasewe refer to simply as gas, Consider a unit volume of the reservoir. In this

without

regard to its composition, and we considerthe

volume there is a mass of oil given by

solubility of

gas in the oil and water phases. Our de-

rivation will

be for radial flow only.

cf>So

~Pos 0

 

At any instant an element of the reservoir will con-

,

tain certain volumes of oil, gas and water which, when and a mass of water given by reduced to standard conditions, will be modified as a

result of gas solubility in the oil and water and the

cf>SiD

compressibility of eachphase. The ratio of the volume

B;;;

Ptos,

MATHEMATICAL

BASIS

FOR

PR,ESSURE

ANALYSIS

METHODS

9

wherepo.and pw.are oil and waterdensitiesat stand- porousmediumunderconditionsof neglectof gravity ard conditions.In the samereservoirunit there is a forcesandcapillarypressuredifferencesbetweenphases.

massof free gas

They representa simultaneousset of four nonlinear

 

S

equationsdescribingfour unknowns,So,Su,Swand p.

~

PUB

This complexsystemcanbe solvedonly by numerical

 

Bu

means.

and a massof dissolvedgas Martin6 has shownthat in the casewhere higher-

.l.

'I'

R

P

.U' B

0

S

0

+

-loR

'I'.w,.

P

B'

tD

S

tD

order

terms

can

be

neglected

in

the

expansion

of

the

quantitiesin canbe combinedmathematicallyto Eqs. 2.20,2.21 and 2.22, yield theseequations

so that the total massof gasper unit volumeof reser- voir is

.-!.-~

~

+

f/>R. PU'SO +

0

cJ>R-p,. StD

r

or

B

u

PU'

B

B'

tD

( r

~

or

) = !!:!!--+

or2

~~

r

or

=

(-k )

~

"",,(2.24)

p.

e

~

ot'

By use of Darcy's law we can expressthe radial massflux of oil as

where Ct is the total systemcompressibilitygiven by

po uro

-ko

---

and for water

PtDUroo= -~

p.o

B

k

tD

0

opo

po.a r

fJpw ~

pw.ar

'

'

ce

=,

and the

-~

~

Bo op

+

~

Bo

~

op

-~

~

BtD op

+~~

-~~

+ Cf'

(2.25)**

BtD

op

Bu

op

quantity (klp.)t is the sum of the mobilities

For gas,

--u

k

op,

R

.0

k

apo

Pu uru ---;;ij;

PU' ar

-PUB

B:- ~

--a;;-

-PUB~ Bw ~ jJ.w ~ or

'

(kip.) of thefluids;i.e.,

(

k )

-=

p.

e

( k

~

+

,11.0

k

-!-

p.u

+

k

~

)

p.w

.(2.26)

Comparisonof Eqs. 2,24 and 2.9 showsthat under

the mediumcan assumedconditions,multiphaseflow be describedby the diffusivity in a equation porous

If we neglect capillary pressuredifferences* in the systemand neglectgravity, then a continuityequation

for eachphasecanbe writtenas in Eq. 2.3. pretati~npro~e~uresm multiphasecases.This ISdis-

Impo~ant fact proVl~esthe. baSISfor pressu:e.mt~r-

a pressure-dep~ndentdiffus~vitycoefficient This

~th

Th

Oil:

Gas:

e

se

1

Tar

t

0

0

f

[

equa

ti '

r

ko

~ar

ons

f

0

II

ows.

OP ] -0

-at

(

So )

cJ>~.

cussed

m

detail

m

later

chapters

of

the

Monograph.

For the sakeof completeness,the simplifiedforms of the precedingequationsin the caseof two-phase,

(2.20)

gas-oil

flow

are ~resented.

The

become the folloWIng.

Oil:

differential

equations

-.!-.!.-

r

or

[ r

(~+~+~

p.oBo

=-cJ>-++ ( R.So

0

ot

[

Bo

IJ.wBw

jJ.,B,

) ~ ]

or

R.wStD Su

Bw

Bu

)]

Water:

~

r

where

~

or

[ r ~

~

IJ.wBtDor

] = ~ ot

( cJ>~

)

BtD

,

(2 21)

(2.22)

G

.

as.

-.!-.~

r

or

and

~~

r

[ r

or

[ r ~

~

p.oBo or

]=~

ot

( cJ>~

Bo

) ,

(~+~p.oBo ,II.,Bu)~or ]=~ot [ cJ>(~+~Bo

So+

,

,

,

s, = 1

,

,

.,

.(2.27)

,

Bu)]

(2.28)

So+S,+Sw=1

,

,

,

.,

,

(2.23)

Eqs. 2.20 through2.23 constitutethe equationsfor simultaneousflow of oil, gas and water through a

This setof equationshas beenstudiedextensivelyby

Perrine,7Wellersand West et aV4 by meansof nu- mericalsolutionsobtainedon digital computers.L

*Capillary forces are not completelyneglectedbecause effectivepermeabilityterms are affectedby capillarity.

--

**The term c, was addedto Martin's equationsto ac-.the count for formation compressibility.

10

PRESSURE BUILDUP

AND

FLOW TESTS IN WELLS

2.6 Solutions for Radial Small and Constant

Thus far

Flow of Fluid of Compressibility

in the presentation of the math:matical

Fluid of small and constant compressibility; Constant fluid viscosity; Smallpressuregradients;and

basis for pressure analysis methods, we have discussed the physical laws which govern fluid flow in a porous

medium and the combination of these laws into dif-

ferential equations which describe the various flow

Negligible graVIty forces. Again, the equation is

02

¥

P

+

1

-3

r

0

P

r

=

.I.

h th

'f'JJ.C

~at

p

.

regimes which may occur. It

2.8 and its form for radial flow, Eq. 2.9, all the equa-

tions which were developed are nonlinear and not Ghe solutions of this equation of interest to us in

easily solved. Eqs. 2.8 and 2.9, however,

and can be solved analyticany for boundary conditions of interest, as we shan seepresently. Not only can they

be solved, but application of these solutions to reservoir mentioned later in this chapter, the basic solutions for conditions has, over the years, demonstrated their constant rate can be combined by the principle of practical value. Because of this utility and simp~icity, superposition to yield solutions for arbitrary rate his- these equations have become the fundamental basIs for tories.

the commonly used pressure analysis techniques. (Three basic casesare of interest: (1) Infinite Reser-

the wen is assumed to be

discussed in this Monograph, three basic solutions of situated in a porous medium of infinite radial extent;

Eq. 2.9 are needed.These are presented in the section (2) Bounded Cylindrical Reservoir-the casein which which fonows. Others may be found in Carslaw and the wen is assumedto be located in the center of a Jaeger9or in the paper by Rowan and Clegg.15 cylindrical reservoir with no flow across the exterior

The assumptions made in the development of Eq. 2.9 are summarized as fonows:

Radial flow into wen opened over entire thickness of formation; Homogeneous and isotropic porous medium; Uniform thickness of the medium; Porosity and permeability constant (independent of pressure);

the developmentof pressureanalysismethods are those for the case of flow into a centrally located wen at a constant volumetric rate of production, q) As win be

W.

ti.

f

Eq

O

e excep on o.

are linear

For the developmentof the pressureanalysistheories

voir -the

case in which

boundary; and (3) Constant PressureOuter Boundary

-the case in which of a cylindrical area

the wen is situated in the center with constant pressure along the

outer boundary. The specific application of

each of

these caseswin become apparent in the later sections of this Monograph.) The geometry and boundary conditions for these three casesare indicated schematically on Fig. 2.2. To

CONSTANT

PRESSURE

BOUNDARY

CASE

P

= p.

AT

r

Ie""

=

r

OUTER

/

INFINITE

P-

RESERVOIR

PiASr-

CASE

co

/'

0

'"

BOUNDED

CIRCULAR

~

or

I

=0

re

RESERVOIR

CASE

 

""

re

~

 

-.J

I

I-r

I

W

I

;

=:j

: I:=-

 

I

 

I

I

Fig. 2.2Schematicdrawingof geometryandboundaryconditionsfor radial flow, constant-ratecases.

MATHEMATICAL

BASIS

FOR

PRESSURE

ANALYSIS

METHODS

11

expressthe condition for constant flow rate at the well- bore (i.e., at r = rw), we may write from Darcy's law

(

r ~

)

.Thus,

q =

~

 

p.

or

r~

Thus, if we require a constant rate at

the well, then we

impose the following condition on the at the well:

pressure gradient

( ~ )

= --.!!!!:-~

(2.29)

The symbol Y is Euler's constant and is equal to 1.78.

or

for

p(

r

,)

p(r,

t)

~

t

4kt

=

>

P.

+

100,

qp.

-In 41Tkh

qp.

= P. -41Tkh

[

( yf/Jp.cr2

4kt'

1n~

kt

)

+

0.80907 ] .

or

r~

21Tkhrw

(For no flow across an exterior boundary, r = re, we

must have zero flow velocity; therefore, the pressure gradient must be zero.)

( OP)

a

r

r.

-Pwf

-0

(2.30)

(2.32)

The expression for pressure at the wellbore (i.e.,

r

=

rw) is

=

P. +

qp.

4:;;kh In

( yf/Jp.crw2

4kt'

)

or

at

(In all caseswe require that at t = 0 (i.e., initially) ~h~.reservoi.r.isuniformly pressured.at a value Pi)~he Pwf = P. -~ ffiitial condition could also be specified as a function of radius from the well; however, for our purposesthe

assumptionof initial uniform pressureis adequate. The solution

The mathematical statement of the boundary con- ditions and development of the mathematical solutions

for each of these cases is presented in Appendix A. assumption of a vanishingly small wellbore radius.

These solutions are, of course, quite well known and

wellbore infinite reservoir case, and is based on the

k

f/Jp.crw

41Tkh [ln~

+ 0.80907] .

(2.33)

we have presented for the infinite an approximation to the actual finite-

reservoir case is

However, when it is evaluated at practical values of

have been incorporated into this Appendix solely for radius and time (including normal wellbore radius the sake of completeness. values), it yields almost identical results with the less- As is usually the case,the exact form of the mathe- tractable finite-wellbore solution. More information on

matical expressions for the solutions of the foregoing this approximation can be found in Appendix A.

problems dependson the approach taken in the analyti- cal treatment. In this regard, several slightly different Bounded Circular Reservoir

solutions of th~ problems in w~ch we are interested

have ap'pearedm the petroleum literature

{

(4rD2 +

tDw) -

Rather than

p(r,

t)

= P. -2;kh qp.

reD2-1 2

attempting accompanying to critique, present all we of have these chosen solutions to utilize and an in reD2In rD (3reD'-4reD' In reD-2reD2-1) 00

eachof the three casesthat solution most convenientto

The reader who is inter-

ested in a variety of these solutions is referred to

Muskat,lO van Everdingen and Hurst,S Homer,l1

CarslawandJaeger.9

the needs of this Monograph.

or

The mathematical solutions for each case are listed

in the section of the text which follows. Infinite Reservoir, Line Source Well

p(r,t)=pi

I

qp.

21Tkh

1

2

E,

.'t'

(

-

.I.

p.Cr

4 kt

where

-E,

.

(-x)

For

x <

-E.

0.01,

(-

x)

=

-y ~

f e-Uudu.

00

z

-In

(

x)

=

In

(

1

)