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# Design of Heat Exchanger Engr. Rey F.

Fiedacan, MEP - ME

## ENGINEERING CALCULATION THERMAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Project Title Part Prepared by Date Doc. No. Revision No. APPLIED LIMITATION: SENSIBLE COOLING or SENSIBLE HEATING ONLY : HEAT EXCHANGER FOR CHILLED WATER

: : : : :

## Horizontal Shell Rey Fiedacan 11.07.2010 HX - 01 -09 1

Key in value in blue color only TUBE SIDE: HOT SIDE Kg/s C SHELL SIDE: COLD SIDE [Fluid medium] WATER

[Fluid medium] WATER [Mass flowrate] 150 [Inlet temperature] 20 [Density] 998.2 [Specific heat] 4181.6 [Thermal conductivity] 0.6 [Dynamic Viscosity] 0

[Mass flowrate] 50 [Inlet temperature] 32 [Density] kg/m3 996.4 [Specific heat] J/Kg-K 4178.7 [Thermal conductivity] 0.61 W/m-K N.s/m2 , kg/m-s [Dynamic Viscosity] 0

## Kg/s C kg/m3 J/Kg-K W/m-K N.s/m2 , kg/m-s

FLOW CONDITION [Type of flow] [Design Fouling Factor] ESSENTIAL VARIABLES [Tube materials] [Velocity of fluid inside Tubes] [Tube Outside Diameter] [Tube Inside Diameter] TUBE ORIENTATION & GEOMETRY [Number of Passes] [Tube Pitch] [Tube layout] [Tube Count Layout]
3 0.03 Square Layout 45 deg. m mm WATER 2 19 16 m/s mm mm W/m-K Counter flow 0 m2- K/W

## FINAL DECIDING VALUES BASED ON CORRELATED INPUTS ABOVE

Step #1: Evaluate the LMTD correction factor given the value of P and R ( Computed ) P = 0.19 R = 3 From this set of conditions, See Table on LMTD correction factor to determine the factor F corresponding to type of flow ( Parallel or counterflow) and number of passes Enter correction Factor, F 0.94 Step #2: Check the value of overall conductance, U against the recommend values 1,869.27 W/m2-K Computed value of U = Based on the correlation of Reynolds
number, flow condition and thermal conductivity, Check this value against permissible range from table of overall conductance U,

Enter value of U if the computed value is within the range Step #3: Check the % surface design of heat exchanger due to fouling effects 61% Computed value of = If the value is too high , Set value for desired surface design then enter

2263.20

30%

Step #4: Evaluate computed length of tube of heat exchanger, Note that standard length is in 20 ft and it is recommended to use it out of the its length 1.89 m Computed Length = Enter, the effective length of tubes should not < computed length 4.00 Step #5: Evaluate the re-calculated shell diameter on the new length of HX, Inside diameter should referred to available shell to be used ( can be pipe or rolled plate) 0.68 m Computed Shell ID = Enter new shell ID,must be available size 0.80 Step #6: Enter the absolute viscosity at wall temperature, Evaluate at reference temperature T = 24.83 oC Reference Temp. Enter absolute viscosity,kg/m - s at reference Temp. 0

FINISH
Check the result in the next sheet, Carefully evaluate and proceed next iteration if needed. The areas for iteration will be size, tube layout, flow conditions, geometry length of tubes ,baffle spacing and tube materials. DEVELOPED IN EXCEL BY: REY FIEDACAN - MECHANICAL ENGINEER ,11.07.2010

ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER TYPE: SHELL & TUBES
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com

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Sketch :

## HEAT EXCHANGER THERMAL CALCULATION BY REY FIEDACAN, MEP - ME

I.HEAT & MASS BALANCE 1.0 Temperature of outlet fluid - Cold fluid ( Predicted from energy and mass balance) msCps(Ts1-Ts2) = ### K mtCpct 2.0 Log mean temperature difference across the heat exchanger (LMTD) Ts2 = tmax - tmin tmax ln tmin P = 0.19 R = 3 F = 0.9400 where: LMTD= ### for parallel flow LMTD= ### for counterflow

LMTD =

= 7.1 K

3.0 LMTD Calculation ( Corrected ) where : Tm = F(LMTD) = ### K for Counter flowheat transfer between shell & tubes 4.0 HEAT DUTY OF HEAT EXCHANGER on the temperature difference between hot fluids inlet based and outlet condition. Q =(mscps)(Ts1 -Ts2) =
###

KW

5.0 NUMBER OF TUBES based on the mass flowrate of cold fluid inside the tubes and recommended velocity on the specified number of passes. Nt = 4mtNp/tvtdi2 = II. TUBE SIDE CALCULATION: 1.0 TUBE SIDE HEAT TRANSFER ht = Nutkt di where: Nut Kt di = Nusselt number of fluid inside the tubes = Thermal conductivity of fluid inside the tubes = Inside diameter of tubes ### tubes 374 per pass

2.0 NUSSELT NUMBER ( CORRELATION FROM Petukhov - Kirililov for Turbulent flows ) which predicts results in the range of 104< Ret < 5 x106 and 0.5 < Prt < 200 Nut = (f/2)RetPrt 1.07+12.7(f/2)1/2(Prt2/3 -1)

HEAT

ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER TYPE: SHELL & TUBES
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com

Prandtl number

Prt

6.8 =
###

## the flow is turbulent 0.01

-2 = (1.58lnRet - 3.28) =

= =

ht =

## ( This correlated heat transfer coefficient at tube s condition of flow )

III.SHELL SIDE CALCULATION 1.0 SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER BY KERN CORRELATION which predicts results in the range of 2x103< Res = GsDe/< 1 x106
0.55 1/3 ht = 0.36ks Res Prs De

## where: Nus Ks de Res Prs

= = = = =

Nusselt number of fluid outsidethe tubes Thermal conductivity of fluid outside the tubes Equivalent diameter of shell Reynold number flow outside the tubes Prandtl number of flow outside the tunes
###

2.1 2.2

## Reynolds Number Equivalent Diameter

Res = (ms/As)(De/s) = De

## the flow is turbulent

= f(Square,Triangular layout)
do PT

## De of square pitch in tube layout Flow De = 4(PT -do /4) De

2 2

= ### m2 s
PT do

De of triangular pitch in tube layout Flow De = 4(PT2(3)1/2/4-do2/8) = ### m2 do/2 0 s Use: Square Pitch ; De =0.024234 = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing) = ### m2 0 s = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing) = 2.4 Total flow area of tubes As diNt = ### m2 4 0 s = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing) = 2.5 Estimated Shell Diameter Ds
2 2 t 1/2 = = 0.637(CL/CTP)(do PR N ) 0 s = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)

2.3

Bundle Crossflow

As

DsCB PT

0.996

2.6 2.7

## Tube Pitch Ratio Tube Layout Constant

PR

= PT/do

1.337

= f(Clearance, Baffle spacing) for 90o and 45o CL = 1 for 30o and 60o CL = 0.87 one tube pass CTP = 0.93

ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER TYPE: SHELL & TUBES
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com

## Rey Fiedacan 11.07.2010 HX - 01 -09 1

two tube pass CTP = three tube pass CTP = Use: CL = 1.0 CTP = 0.930
0.55 1/3 ht = 0.36ks Res Prs De

0.9 0.85

###

W/m2-K

## ( This correlated heat transfer coefficient at shell side condition of flow )

IV. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 1.0 Outer surface area - Clean heat transfer coefficient do do 1 do ln(di ) 1 Uc = kt ho + di hi + 2 -1 = ### W/m2-K

1.1

## Surface area of heat exchanger for clean condition ( No fouling Effect ) Ac = m2

Q = 97.11 UcTm Use: Uc = 2263.2 2.0 Outer surface area - Fouled heat transfer coefficient do -1 do 1 do ln(di ) 1 Uf = + Rft = kt ho + di hi + 2

###

W/m2-K

2.1

Surface area of heat exchanger for clean condition ( with fouling Effect ) Af = Q UfTm Af Ac = 156.25 m2

2.2

## Check for % surface design Os = Use: = 61% Os = ###

2.3

Surface design area of heat exchanger at### more allowance for fouling effect certain A' = 126.24 m2 Effective length of tube for area in heat transfer A' L = N d = 1.89 m t o Use: L = ### m

2.4

2.5

## New Shell Diameter

Ds'

= f(Clearance, Baffle spacing) = 0.637(CL/CTP)1/2(A'PR2do/L)1/2 = 0.68 m corrected shell diameter at the given length however, the actual diameter shall be the nearest available size either seamless pipe or fabricated as rolled plate Use: Ds' = ### m

V. PRESSURE DROP This is used to determined the pumping power required to handle the fluid in tubes and shell 1.0 TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP

ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER TYPE: SHELL & TUBES
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com

1.1 1.2

## Tube side friction factor Tube side friction factor

ft

-2 = (1.5ln(Ret) - 3.28) =

###

Pt =

ftLNp c2 + 4Np c di 2

= 58.68 Kpa , head required to pump the fluid into the tubes = 8.5 psi

2.0 SHELL PRESSURE DROPThe shell-side fluid experiences a pressure drop as it passes through the exchange over the tubes, and around the baffles. f G2 (N +1)D's Ps = s s b 2sDes 2.1 Shell side friction factor fs = exp(0.576 -0.19ln(Res)) = 0.300

2.2

As

## = ### m2 , based on corrected shell , clearance of tubes and baffle spacing. +

2.3

Wall temperature

Tw

2 2 = ### K , average temperature between cold and hot fluid across the tube length therefore: the absolute viscosity and wall temperature of oC 24.8 = 0 kg/m - s

2.4

Correction Factor

s =

s w L B Ms As

0.14

= 0.989

2.5

Number of Baffles

Nb =

-1

2.6

Number of Baffles

Gs =

### kg/m2-s

therefore:

Ps = = =

fsG2s(Nb+1)D's 2sDes 6.4 0.9 Kpa , head required to pump the fluid into the shell psi

ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER TYPE: SHELL & TUBES
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com

## Summary of THERMAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER

TUBE SIDE : HOT SIDE o 20 1 Inlet temperature C 150 2 Mass flowrate kg/s 998.2 kg/m3 3 Density 0.6 4 Thermal Conductivity W/m - K 0 5 Dynamic viscocity N.s/m2 4181.6 J/kg - K 6 Specific Heat 6.8 7 Prandtl number 2 8 Velocity of fluid inside the tubes m/s 0 9 Total fouling factor m2 - K/W SHELL SIDE: COLD SIDE o 32 1 Inlet temperature C o 25 2 Outlet temperature C o 28.5 3 Average temperature C 50 4 Mass flowrate kg/s 996.4 kg/m3 5 Density 0.61 6 Thermal Conductivity W/m - K 0 7 Dynamic viscocity N.s/m2 4178.7 J/kg - K 9 Specific Heat 5.64 10 Prandtl number CONSTRUCTIONAL DATA OF THE PROPOSED SHELL AND TUBE HX 0.800 m 1 Shell diameter 1121.07 2 Number of tubes 4.000 m 3 Length of tubes(Allowancefor tubesheet not included) 0.019 m 4 Tube outside diameter 0.016 m 5 Tube inside diameter 0.500 m 6 Baffle spacing ( baffle cut at 25%) 0.025 7 Tube pitch 3.000 8 Number of passes 42.300 W/m - K 9 Thermal Conductivity of tubes 8526.66 W/m2 - K 10 Tube side heat transfer coefficient 2800.32 W/m2 - K 11 Shell side heat transfer coefficient 1869.27 W/m2 - K 12 Clean overall heat transfer coefficient 1406.54 W/m2 - K 13 Fouled overall heat transfer coefficient 58.68 Kpa 14 Tube side pressure drop 6.40 15 Shell side pressure drop Kpa

ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER TYPE: SHELL & TUBES
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com