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Tuesday, January 06, 2009

A middle aged man from West Bengal presents with paraesthesia of hands and feet, hyperkeratosis, lines in the nails and rain drop pigmentation in the hands. Question 72
59. A middle aged man from West Bengal presents with paraesthesia of hands and feet, hyperkeratosis, lines in the nails and rain drop pigmentation in the hands. The most likely causative toxin for the above mentioned symptoms is: 1. Lead. 2. Arsenic 3. Thallium. 4. Mercury. Answer 2. Arsenic Reference The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 21st Edition : K.S.Narayana Reddy Page 462 P.C.Dikshit 1st Edition Page 477 Quality Reader Status Repeat QTDF All books give this Discussion Arsenic is termed a metalloid as it has properties of both metals and non-metals. Forms o o o Use o o o o o o o o o Electronics industry, Production of special types of crystal and optical glass, Hardening lead and copper alloys, Manufacture of fireworks, Wood preservative and Pesticide. It is a byproduct of copper smelting. Bone, Hair, and Nails. The half-life is in the range of 1 to 3 days. Trivalent (e.g. arsenic trioxide, arsenious acid, and arsenites) and Pentavalent (e.g. arsenic pentoxide, arsenic acid, and arsenates) derivatives. Inorganic arsenical compounds may generate arsine gas when in contact with acids and reducing metals (e.g. iron and zinc) or with sodium hydroxide and aluminium.

In exposed individuals high concentrations of arsenic are present in

Excretion is predominantly in the o urine as mono- and dimethyl-derivatives.

CLINICAL FEATURES Acute poisoning o o This can follow accidental, suicidal, or deliberate ingestion, Toxicity being largely dependent on the water solubility of the ingested compound. Within 2 h of substantial ingestion of a soluble arsenical compound, severe haemorrhagic gastritis or gastroenteritis may ensue with collapse and death usually within 4 days. A metallic taste, salivation, muscular cramps, facial oedema, difficulty in swallowing, hepatorenal dysfunction, convulsions, and encephalopthy are reported. A peripheral neuropathy (predominantly sensory), striate leukonychia (Mees' lines) and hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmentated skin lesions are common in those surviving a near fatal ingestion. In moderate or severe arsenic poisoning investigations may show anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. ECG abnormalities have been reported and include QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias.

Exposure to arsenic trioxide and trichloride dust causes irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lower respiratory tract. Corrosive skin damage may follow skin contact with arsenical compounds such as arsenious acid and arsenic trichloride. Source Contaminated drinking water or Tonics containing inorganic trivalent arsenical compounds Progressive weakness, Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting, Stomatitis, Colitis, Increased salivation, Epistaxis, Bleeding gums, Conjunctivitis, Weight loss, and Low grade fever. Hyperkeratosis (palms and soles of the feet) Raindrop (skin), Mees (nails). Skin cancer (usually squamous cell epithelioma) A symmetrical peripheral neuropathy is typical. Sensory symptoms predominate but motor involvement is also Central nervous system effects hearing loss, psychological impairment and EEG changes.

Chronic poisoning o

Features

disturbances of liver function Ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum.

Chronic exposure to trivalent and pentavalent forms of arsenic has been linked to excess lung cancer and lung cancer occurring in lead, tin, and copper smelter workers has been attributed to arsenic.

Explanation

1. Lead poisoning presents with a whole lot of features like Aneamia, Colic, Neuropathy, facial pallor, lead line or Burtonian line, lead encephalopathy , optic atrophy etc. 2. Acute Arsenic Resembles Diarrhoea where as Chronic Arsenic resembles fading Measles 3. Thallium poisoning resembles Guillain Barre Syndrome. 4. Minamita disease, hatters shakes and mercurial erethesm are a few of the prominent features of Mercury Poisoning. Comments TREATMENT : Dimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite, BAL) given by deep intramuscular injection (2.5-5 mg/kg four hourly for 2 days followed by 2.5 mg/kg intramuscularly twice daily for 1 to 2 weeks). DMSA (succimer) and DMPS (unithiol) are more effective in reducing the arsenic content of tissues and, unlike dimercaprol they do not cause accumulation of arsenic in the brain DMSA and DMPS may be given orally (in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight daily).

Tips The fact that Arsenic is tasteless and odorless was known even eras ago. It is alleged that the governor of St.Helena slow poisoned the petit corporal while he was in the jail as a prisoner of Britain. But they didnt perhaps know that Arsenic is a BAD homicidal poison as it can be detected even centuries after in Bone and Hair (as was detected from Napoleans mortal remains). Posted by Bruno at 1:12 AM 0

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An example of Polychlorinated hydrocarbon is Endrin Question 71


An example of Polychlorinated hydrocarbon is a. b. c. d. Parathion Malathion Diazinon Endrin

Answer d. Endrin Reference: P.C.Dikshit 1st Edition Page 573 Park 18th Edition Page 589 QTDF Most Books Quality Reader Status Repeat Discussion

Endrin is a cyclodiene insecticide used on cotton, maize, and rice. It also acts as an avicide. As a rodenticide, it is used to control mice and voles. It is a solid, cream to light tan to white, almost odorless substance. It melts and decomposes at 200 C. It is moderately soluble in benzene and acetone, slightly soluble in alcohols, alkanes, and xylene, and almost insoluble in water. Explanation Parathion, Malathion and Diazinon are Organophosphorus Insecticides Comments Endrin is a stereoisomer of dieldrin and is structurally similar to aldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Tips It is also known as Mendrin, and Compound 269. Posted by Bruno at 1:12 AM 0

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Mechanism of labour in abortion stick is due to . Necrosis of uterine endometrium and stimulation of uterine contraction Question 70
Mechanism of labour in abortion stick is due to a. b. c. d. Necrosis of uterine endometrium and stimulation of uterine contraction Oxytocin present in the stick Prostaglandins present in the stick All of the above

Answer a. Necrosis of uterine endometrium and stimulation of uterine contraction Reference P.C.Dikshit 1st Edition Page 355 QTDF Most Books Quality Reader Status Repeat Discussion An abortion stick is a thin wood or bamboo stick, from 12 to 18 cms long. This stick is wrapped around at one end or for the greater portion of its length with cotton wool or a piece of cloth, and soaked with juice of marking nuts , calotropis, jequirity, asafetida, or a paste made of arsenic oxide, arsenic sulphate and red lead. Explanation It is introduced into the vagina or the uterine os by professional abortionists (dhais) and retained there till uterine contractions begin. In some cases the irritant fluid is directly applied to the os or a piece of cloth saturated with irritating juice or paste is introduced into the vagina.

Comments Instead of stick, a twig or irritant plant such as calotrophis, Nerium Odorum or Plumago rosea can be used. Tips To avoid the misuse of induced abortions, most countries have enacted laws whereby only qualified Gynecologists under conditions laid down and done in clinics/hospitals that have been approved can do abortions. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was enacted by the Indian Parliament in 1971 and came into force from 01 April, 1972. The MTP act was again revised in 1975. Posted by Bruno at 1:12 AM 0

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The reagent used to detect presence of Vaginal Cells in on the penis of an accused in a rape case is Lugols Iodine Question 69
The reagent used to detect presence of Vaginal Cells in on the penis of an accused in a rape case is a. b. c. d. Answer a. Lugols Iodine Reference P.C.Dikshit 1st Edition Page 395 Discussion If the accused has had a sexual intercourse with the victim, there could be vaginal cells over his penis. These vaginal cells can not be seen with the naked eye, but can be detected by chemical. These cells turn brown when exposed to the vapors of Lugol's iodine. The skin of the penis is wiped with a filter paper moistened with salt solution and then it is exposed vapors of Lugol's iodine. It the filter paper turns brown, the accused as had sexual intercourse. Explanation 1. Benzedine test: Stain Extract in Test Tube + few drops of 10 % Benzidine in Glacial Acetic Acid + few drops of H2O2 Blue Colour indicates Positive test (Similarly the stain is moistened with Normal Saline and a blotter is pressed over the area + Benzidine Solution + H2O2 Blue Colour indicates Positive test. 2. Phenophthalein test (Kastle mayer test): Diluted Stain Extract + Reduces Alkaline Phenopthaline + few drops of H2O2 Pink Colour indicates Positive test 3. Orthotoluidine test (Kohn and OKelly test): Equal volume of Working Solution (4% Orthotoludine in Ethyl Alcohol + Glacial Acetic Acid + Distilled Water in equal amounts ) and H2O2 are mixed . Then few drops of this mixture is added to the stain extract in a test tube Blue or Green Colour indicates Positive test Comments The paper turns brown in colour due to the high glycogen content of vaginal cells, when present. Tips Lugol's iodine Phenophthalein test. Orthotoluidine test. Benzidine.

While we find Glycogen with Iodine in this test, there is another test where the plant equivalent of Glycogen (ie Starch) is used to find Iodine. It is done to find out whether the common salt is iodised or not Posted by Bruno at 1:12 AM 0

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Expanded Lungs may sink due to Atelectasis Question 68


Expanded Lungs may sink due to a. b. c. d. Answer a. Atelectatis Reference P.C.Dikshit 1st Edition Page 321 QTDF Most Books Quality Reader Status Repeat Discussion Hydrostatic Test is also called as Raygats Test Explanation Expanded Lungs may sink due to o Diseases o Acute pulmonary Edema Pneumonia Congenital syphilis First noted by Scheyer in 1683 Done to determine whether the child was live born or still born Specific gravity of lung decreases from 1040 - 1050 (more than water) to 940 (less than water) after respiration If lung sinks Unexpanded Lung No Respiration If lungs Float Expanded Lung Child has taken the first breadth Atelectasis Putrefaction Mouth to mouth respiration Alcoholic fixationMeconium aspiration

Atelectasis (non expansion)

o Comments

Air not reaching the alveoli due to feeble respiration Complete absorption of air from lungs by blood if circulation continue after respiration has been stopped or a state of asphyxia More air being expelled from the lungs during expiration due to recoil of lung tissue Obstruction by alveolar duct membrane When birth occurs in toilet bowl or bucket containing water

Drowning

Unexpanded Lungs may float due to o o o Putrefaction Artificial inflation eg : mouth to mouth respiration Alcoholic fixation

Tips This test is not needed when o o o o o o Fetus < 180 days Fetus is a monster Fetus is macerated or mummified Umbilical cord is separated or cicatrized Stomach contains milk Whole of thorax contents float

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contusion of neck muscles is seen along with fracture of Hyoid Bone. Manual Strangulation Question 67
On postmortem examination, contusion of neck muscles is seen along with fracture of Hyoid Bone. The most probable cause of death is a. b. c. d. Answer a. Manual Strangulation Reference: Apurva Nandy 1st Edition Page 329 QTDF Dikshit Manual Strangulation Drowning Burking Smothering

Quality Reader Status New Discussion Strangulation is compression of the neck that leads to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain. Fatal strangling typically occurs in cases of violence, accidents, and as the mechanism of suicide in hangings. Explanation Drowning, Burking, and Smothering do not lead to contusion of neck muscles Comments Strangling involves one or several mechanisms that interfere with the normal flow of oxygen into the brain: Compression of the carotid arteries and jugular veins causing cerebral ischemia. Compression of the laryngopharynx, larynx, or trachea causing asphyxia. Stimulation of the carotid sinus reflex causing brachycardia, hypotension, or both.

Depending on the particular method of strangling, one or several of these typically occur in combination, but vascular obstruction is usually the main mechanism. Complete obstruction of blood flow to the brain is associated with irreversible neurological damage and death, but during strangulation there is still unimpeded blood flow in the vertebral arteries. Tips Strangulation does not have to be fatal; limited or interrupted strangling is practiced in erotic asphyxia, in the choking game, and is an important technique and in many combat sports and self-defense systems. Posted by Bruno at 1:12 AM 0

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Which of the following is not a death due to suffocation - Throttling Question 66


Which of the following is not a death due to suffocation a. b. c. d. Answer c. Throttling Reference P.C.Dikshit 1st Edition Page 289 QTDF Dikshit Quality Reader Burking Gagging Throttling Choking

Status New Discussion Classification of Asphyxial Death 1. Hanging Neck constricted by endogenous force (weight of body) a. Mode of Hanging i. ii. iii. b. Manner of Hanging i. ii. iii. c. Position of Noose i. ii. d. Position of feet i. ii. 2. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 4. a. Ligature Strangulation Manual Strangulation (Throttling) Mugging Garotting Bansdola Palmar strangulation Strangulation with bend of knee / elbow Foot strangulation Smothering Overlaying Burking Gagging Choking Caf Coronary Traumatic Asphyxia Dry Drowning Complete hanging Partial handing (Partial standing, sitting, reclining or kneeling position) Typical hanging Atypical hanging Suicidal hanging Homicidal hanging Accidental hanging Judicial Sexual (Auto erotic) Lynching (homicidal hanging)

Strangulation Neck constricted by exogenous force

Suffocation Respiration prevented by mechanical means

Drowning Respiratory tract is occupied by some fluid

b. c. d. Explanation Self Explanatory Comments

Wet Drowning Secondary Drowning Immersion Syndrome

Lynching is the illegal execution of an accused person by a mob. The term lynching probably derived from the name Charles Lynch (1736-96), a justice of the peace who administered rough justice in Virginia. Lynching was originally a system of punishment used by whites against African American slaves. However, whites who protested against this were also in danger of being lynched. On 7th November, 1837, Elijah Parish Lovejoy, the editor of the Alton Observer, was killed by a white mob after he had published articles criticizing lynching and advocating the abolition of slavery. Tips

Dry submarine is introducing the head of the detainee in a bag to induce his/her suffocation.

Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Barberios test is used to detect semen 074. Which of following tests is used to detect semen? 1. Phenolphthalein test 2. Reines test 3. Barberios test 4. Paraffin test Answer 3. Barberios test Reference Parikh 6th Edition Page 7.26 Apoorva Nandy 1st Edition Page 128 Reddy 17th Edition Page 328 Quality Reader Status Repeat QTDF All Books Discussion The tests used for Chemical Examination of seminal fluid are Florence test : dark brown crystals due to the formation of chlorine periodide

Barberios test (Barbario) : tests spermine in semen, with picric acid Acid Phosphatase test : Quantitative test Test for Creatine Phosphokinase : Levels of more than 400 units/ml Choline and Spermine Test Gel Electrophoresis test : LDM Isoenzyme Method Acid Phosphatase Isoenzyme Test Ammonium Molybdate Test (Phosphorus) Semen Specific Glycoprotein (P30 ) Test Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the SEMA assay, for a seminal vesicle-specific antigen (SVSA) Explanation 1. Phenolphthalein test (Kastle Meyer test), Benzedine test, Leucomalachite green test, Orthotolidine (Blue or green) test (Kohn and Okelly test) and Luminal test are used to detec blood 2. Reines test ??? - Rinne's test compares the patients ability to hear a tone conducted via air and bone - the mastoid process. 3. Barberios test is to detect semen. 4. Paraffin test (also known as the dermal nitrate test) uses the reagent diphenylamine to detect gun powder Comments Basis of Berberios Test: Detection of Spermine Procedure: A few drops of Berberios reagent when added to spermatic fluid produces crystals of sperm in picrate (needle shaped, rhombic & of yellow colour). For various valid reasons, like non-specificity and lack of reproducibility, the florence and berberios tests have not been accepted universally. Tips Semen consist of the following 1. Spermatozoa (10%) 2. Seminal Plasma (90%) 3. Epithelial Cell (<>
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Scab or Crust of abrasion appears brown Between 2-3 days 073. Scab or Crust of abrasion appears brown:

1. Between 12-24 hours 2. Between 2-3 days 3. Between 4-5 days 4. Between 5-7 days Answer 2. Between 2-3 days Reference Parikh 6th Edition Page 4.3 Apoorva Nandy 1st Edition Page 213 Reddy 17th Edition Page 138 Quality Reader Status Repeat QTDF All Books Discussion From abrasions, the time of assault can be roughly assessed When fresh, an abrasion is red with evidence of oozing of serum and a little blood. There is no scab By 8 to 24 hours, there is a reddish scab formation By 2nd and 3rd day, the scab is reddish brown By 4th and 5th Day, it is dark brown By 6th Day, it is blackish and it starts falling off from the margins. Epithelium grows underneath the scab After 7 Days, Scab dries, shrinks and falls off. By A big scab may take a few more days to fall off Explanation Self Explanatory Comments Except Apoorva Nandy, the other books do not talk about the 4thand 5th Day evolution of scab Tips Difference between antemortem and post mortem abrasion

Trait Site Colour Exudation

Antemortem abrasion Anywhere on the body Bright reddish brown More; scab slightly raised

Post mortem abrasion Usually over bony prominences Yellowish, translucent and parchment like Less; Scab often lies slightly below the level of the skin

Microscopic feature

Intravital reaction and congestion No intravital reaction and no congestion seen comments Links to this post

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Medical qualifications awarded by institutions out side India and recognized by MCI are registered in 072. Medical qualifications awarded by institutions out side Indiaand recognized by MCI are registered in: 1. First schedule of Indian Medical Council Act 1956 2. Second schedule of Indian Medical Council Act 1956 3. Part I of third schedule of Indian Medical Council Act 1956 4. Part II of third schedule of Indian Medical Council Act 1956 Answer 4. Part II of third schedule of Indian Medical Council Act 1956 Reference Parikh 6th Edition Page 1.24 Apoorva Nandy 1st Edition Page 18 Reddy 17th Edition Page 21 Quality Reader Status Repeat QTDF All Books

Discussion The Indian Medical Council maintains three schedules. The first schedule contains the list of different medical degrees offered by different Universities or Institutions inside India, which are recognized by the Council and Government of India The Second Schedule contains the list of medical degrees conferred outside India and are recognized by the Medical Council of India and Government of India The Third Schedule has two parts o Part A of the third schedule contains the list of medical qualifications conferred by Indian Universities or Institutions but not yet included in the First Schedule. o Part B of the third schedule includes the list of standard medical qualifications of foreign countries which are recognized when Indian citizens possess the qualifications Explanation Self Explanatory Comments If an Indian national obtains a foreign qualification which is not included in part II of THrid Schedule, he can apply to the Central government. The candidate is required to provide full information with regard to the course of study, syllabus, and duration of course etc. This is forwarded to IMC which has authority to enter into negotiations with any of the medical councils of the foreign countries and can recognize such foreign qualifications on reciprocal basis. The Central Government, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the part II of the Third Schedule so as to include such qualification there in Tips Dr.B.C.Roy was the first Indian to be the president of MCI in 1939. Hope you all know about B.C.Roy. His birthday July 1st is being observed as Doctors Day
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Spaldings sign occurs after Death of foetus in uterus 071. Spaldings sign occurs after: 1. Birth of live foetus 2. Death of foetus in uterus 3. Rigor mortis of infant 4. Cadaveric spasm Answer 2. Death of foetus in uterus Reference

Parikh 6th Edition Page 2.36, 5.75 Apoorva Nandy 1st Edition Page 422 Reddy 17th Edition Page 341 Quality Reader Status Repeat QTDF All Books Discussion In intrauterine maceration, the skull vault bones may partly overlap each other. This is called as Spaldings sign and is also detectable by X Ray examination before the birth of the dead fetus Explanation Self Explanatory Comments Maceration is a process of aseptic autolysis of a fetus dead in utero. It occurs when the dead fetus remains in the utero for 3 to 4 days surrounded by liquor amnii but with exclusion of air. It does not occur if the dead fetus is born within 24 hours. It is characterized by softening and degeneration of tissues. The process is aseptic because the fetus being enclosed in the membranes is in a sterile condition. Tips Mummification results when death of a fetus occurs from deficient supply of blood or when liquor amnii is scanty and when no air has entered the uterus. In this condition the fetus is dried up and shriveled.
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Finger Print Bureau was first established in Writer's Building at Calcutta in the year 1897 070. Finger Print Bureau was first established in: 1. England 2. China 3. India 4. Singapore Answer

3. India Reference http://ncrb.nic.in/cfpb.htm Parikh 6th Edition Page 2.15 Apoorva Nandy 1st Edition Page 92 Reddy 17th Edition Page 67 Quality Reader Status New QTDF General Knowledge. A passing mention is given in textbooks. And this fact is NOT mentioned in Western Textbooks (please see below) Discussion The idea that fingerprints as a means of identification was first given by Sir Wiliam Herschelle, Distt. Magistrate of Hooghly District of Bengal province in 1858. Later Dr. Henry Faults gave the idea of tracing a criminal from the latent prints found at the scene of crime and came to the conclusion that no two fingerprints are alike. Based on the idea of Herschelle and Faults, Sir Francis Galton, the renowned English Scientist established scientifically the basic principles of uniqueness and permanency in fingerprints. Explanation It was then that Sir Edward Richard Henry, the IGP, Lower Bengalwith the able assistance of two of his Indian officers viz. Khan Bahadur Azizul Haq and Rai Bahadur Hemchandra Bose developed a system of classification of fingerprints and thereby discarding the anthropometric system of identification. Thereafter the first ever Finger Print Bureau of the world was established at Writer's Building at Calcutta in the year 1897. Comments Key Dates in the History of Fingerprinting The distinctive nature of fingerprints has been known for centuries. The ancient Babylonians used fingerprint impressions to record business transactions and fingerprints were used on Chinese documents more than a thousand years ago. The scientific use of fingerprints to solve crime, however, started little more than a hundred years ago. 1858 Sir William Herschel, a British Administrator in Bengal, makes the first practical application of fingerprints for personal identification when he requires Indians to place their fingerprints as well as their signatures on contracts. 1880 Dr Henry Faulds, a doctor working in Tokyo, looks at the possibility of fingerprint science identifying criminals by the fingerprints left at the crime scene using printer's ink. 1892 Juan Vucetich, a police officer in Argentina, makes the first fingerprint identification from a crime scene, and opens the first fingerprint bureau in the world.

1892 English scientist Sir Francis Galton publishes an accurate and in-depth study of the fingerprint science, including an attempt at a system of fingerprint classification for large collections of fingerprints. 1897 Sir Edward Henry, Inspector General of Police in Bengal and later Commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police, with the assistance of two Bengali Police Officers, devises a simplified fingerprint classification system for police use and introduces it in India. The Henry system is the basis of most fingerprint systems in the English-speaking world. 1901 The Fingerprint Bureau is formed at New Scotland Yard. 1902 In Australia, Sam McCauley begins fingerprinting in NSW prisons and establishes a Fingerprint Bureau at Darlinghurst Gaol. 1903 NSW establishes the first State fingerprint bureau, followed by Victoria (1903), Queensland and South Australia (1904), Tasmania (1912), Western Australia (1928), the Northern Territory (1957) and the ACT (1967). In 1980 the Australian Federal Police incorporate the ACT fingerprint bureau. 1941 The NSW Fingerprint Bureau becomes the Central Fingerprint Bureau of Australia, a jointlyfunded national fingerprint support service. 1957 The chemical Ninhydrin is used for the first time to develop fingerprints left on paper. 1986 The Central Fingerprint Bureau of Australia is replaced by the National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS), a computerised national database based on scanning original ink fingerprints. 2001 Establishment of the new National Automated Fingerprint Identification System. The system commences operations with 2.4 million 'ten print' records, covering 24 million individual fingerprints and 4.8 million palm prints, and 180,000 latent prints from unsolved crime scenes. Tips It is disheartening to note that almost all the western source do not mention the name of the two Bengali Officers, nor do they mention that the first bureau was established in India. Western Bias ??!!
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TNPG 2006 FORENSIC MEDICINE

Thursday , Ma rch 01, 2007

FORENSIC MEDICINE
1) Magnan Symptom is seen with a. Cocaine b. Organophosphorus Poisoning c. Snake Bite d. Hanging Answer (a) Cocaine

Reference: Parikh 6th Edition Page 11.9

2) Post mortem lividity is useful to access a. Time since death b. To know the weapon used c. Position of the body after death d. None of the above Answer : (c ) Position of the body after death Reference: The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by Narayana Reddy Chapter 7 about postmortem changes Principles of Forensic Medicine by Apurba Nandy 1st Edition Page 151 Parikh 6th Edition 3.10 Facts Hypostasis is discolouration of the skin and organs after death due to accumulation of fluid blood in the dependent parts of the body. Post mortem lividity is also called Post mortem hypostasis Livor Mortis Vivices Suggilation Postmortem Staining 3) In case of drowning in Sea water a. Hb increases b. Hb Decreases c. NO change d. Either Answer (a) Hb Increases Reference: Apurva Nandhi 1st Edition Page 336 The blood is thick in case of death due to Drowning in Sea Water (wet drowning Type II B) and is thin due to hemolysis in case of drowning in fresh water (wet drowning Type II A) 4) All are the characteristic features of Superficial burns except a. Damage no deeper than papillary dermis b. Blisters seen c. Loss of Epidermis d. Pinprick is painful Answer (d) Pinprick is painful Reference: Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 270 5) The cephalic index of Indian population is between: a. 70 to 75 b. 75 to 80

c. 80 to 85 d. 85 to 90 Answer 2. 75-80. Reference The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 21stEdition : K.S.Narayana Reddy Page 50 Discussion The Indian skull is Caucasian with few Negroid Characters Cephalic Index = Maximum Breadth of the Skull x 100 Maximum Length of the Skull
Type of Skull Cephalic Index Race

Dolicocephalic 70 - 74.9

Pure Aryans, Negroes Europeans, Chinese

Aborigens, Long Headed

Long headed

Oblong Headed

Mesaticephalic 75 - 79.9

Medium Headed Broad Headed

Medium Headed Round Headed

Long Intermediate Headed

Brachy cephalic 80 - 84.9

Mongoloid, Native Americans, Asiatic Orientals Koreans Japanese Chinese South East Asians

Short Headed / Square headed

Since the Indian skull is Caucasian like (with few Negroid characters), we take the value for Europeans i.e. 75 - 79.9 and in the choices given above 75 - 80. Remember that Caucasians are Europeans. (Have you heard about Caucas Montains and Ural Mountrains of Europe) Have an Idea about the other Indices Brachial index = (Length of Radius / Length of Humerus) x 100 Europeans : 74.5 Negroes : 78.5 Crural index = (Length of Tibia / Length of Femur) x 100 Europeans : 83.3 Negroes : 86.2 Humero Femoral index = (Length of Humerus / Length of Femur) x 100 Europeans : 69 Negroes : 72.4 Inter Membral index = (Length of Humerus + Radius / Length of Femur + Tibia) x 100

Europeans : more than 70 Negroes : less than 70.5 6) Punch drunk syndrome is seen in a. Boxers b. Musicians c. Tailors d. Carpenters Answer (a) Boxers Reference: Narayana Reddy 19th Edition Page 239 7) Viper snake bite resembles poisoning of a. Abrus precatoris b. Sulphuric Acid c. Organophosphorus d. Thallium Answer (a) Abrus precatorius Reference: Narayana Reddy 19th Edition Page 460 8) Lesbianism is also called as a. Tribadism b. Eonism c. Sodomy d. Onanism Answer (a) tribadism Reference: Narayana Reddy 19th Edition Page 344 9) A 25 year old person sustained injury in right eye. He developed right corneal opacity following the injury. Left eye was already having poor vision. Corneoplasty of right eye was done and vision was restored. Medicolegally such injury is labelled as: a. Grievous. b. Simple. c. Dangerous. d. Serious. Answer 1. Grievous. Reference The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 21st Edition : K.S.Narayana Reddy Page 224 Indian Penal Code - Chapter XIV Relevant Sections 319 to 338 - Given in all text books Discussion 319. Hurt Whoever causes bodily pain, disease or infirmity to any person is said to cause hurt.

320. Grievous hurt The following kinds of hurt only are designated as "grievous":First- Emasculation. Secondly- Permanent privation of the sight of either eye. Thirdly- Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear, Fourthly- Privation of any member or joint. Fifthly- Destruction or permanent impairing of the powers of any member or joint. Sixthly- Permanent disfiguration of the head or face. Seventhly- Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth. Eighthly- Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the sufferer to be during the space of twenty days in severe bodily pain, or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits. Explanation There is a lot of discussion as to the nature of the Injury. Few say that since the loss is not PERMANENT it is simple Injury. That may sound logical, but when we see the clause eight, which says that any hurt which causes the sufferer unable to follow his ordinary pursuit for 20 days is Grievous. It is rational to assume that a person who had injury in Right Eye and had undergone Corneoplasty would not have used his eyes for at least 20 days. So the injury becomes grievous. Comments There is another interesting explanation to this question. Cornea is a part of face (Isnt it?) and Corneoplasty implies that there is Permanent disfigurement of face which means that the injury undoubtedly is grievous Tips Please visit www.targetpg.com and look at the Forensic Medicine Discussion Forum. There is a detailed explanation and various view points are explained. For a list of IPCs, you can seewww.mcqsonline.com www.targetpg.in - Study Materials Forensic Medicine and www.nellaimedicos.com - Downloads Section 10) Green stick fracture occurs in a. Young age b. Skull c. Old Age d. None of the above Answer (a) Young Age Reference: Kalavas Textbook of Orthopaedics, 1st Edition Page 40 Types of Fractures in Children would include Greenstick Fractures o Incomplete fracture seen exclusively in children. One cortex is broken and other is intact Buckle Fracture - Torus Fracture o Common in Metaphyseal region and is due to compressive force. The cortex is buckled Plastic Bowling o Bone deforms, but does not break and there is micro fracture on the concave side. This is seen in Paired Bones Epiphyseal Injuries

FORENSIC MEDICINE
2) In India Magistatre inquest is done in all of the following cases except a. Police firing b. Dowry death c. Custodial death d. Murder Answer : d) Murder Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 6 3) Police inquest is done a. By the collector b. To find the cause of death c. To hang the person who committed murder d. None of the above Answer : b) to find the cause of death Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 5 4) IPC is a. Procedure for investigation b. Code for punishment c. Both d. None Answer : b) Code for punishment Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 5 5) Rigor mortis first seen in a. Heart b. Eyelids c. Foot d. Diahpragm Answer : a) Heart Reference: The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 17th Edition Narayana Reddy Page 123 Principles of Forensic Medicine 1st Edition Apurva Nandy 157 6) Tachy noire a. Postmortem caloricity b. Change in eye after death c. Postmortem lividity d. None of the above Answer : b) Change in eye after death

Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 117 7) Spaldings sign is evident in a. 2 days b. 5 days c. 7 days d. 14 days Answer : d) 14 days Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 342 8) Medical etiquette a. Deals with the conventional laws of the courtesy observed between member of the medical profession b. deals with legal responsibilities of the physician c. deals with the study and application of the efeects of violence or unnatural disease in its various forms d. deals with the moral principles which should guide members of the medical profession in their dealings Answer : d) Deals with the conventional laws of the courtesy observed between member of the medical profession Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 1 9) Abreaction a. is a test is for detecting injury due to Electric shock b. is a test is for detecting injury due to Lighting c. is a test is for detecting injury due to Laser beam d. is reviving and bringing into consiousness, forgotten and other traumatic experiences or repressed emotiuons from unconscious levelby catharsis Answer : d) is reviving and bringing into consiousness, forgotten and other traumatic experiences or repressed emotiuons from unconscious levelby catharsis Reference: Narayana Reddy 17th Edition Page 365 10) Drug that inhibits Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a. Disulfiram b. Phenytoin c. Valproate d. Erythromycin Answer : a) Disulfiram Reference: Tripathi 5th Edition Page 353