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"SECRETS OF A CAM DESIGNER" BY HARVEY CRANE "CAM PROFILE INTENSITY" and "SPAN" WHAT DO THEY MEAN ?

One of the secrets of raising horsepower without sacrificing low speed and mid-range torque is in selecting the right high performance camshaft. That means matching the cam to the speed range in which an engine operates. In spite of the fact that some people believe bigger is better, it is often true that less duration means more usable torque and horsepower. Before cam duration can be matched to an engines operating range, the exact cam lift must be specified at where the duration is computed. If a statement is made "this cam has 260 degrees of duration", without adding "260 degrees at .050", the duration number of 260 degrees is TOTALLY USELESS. That's why knowledgeable engine builders usually select a camshaft based on its duration at .05000" cam lift. In addition to being more accurate than "advertised duration" as an indication of a cam's performance potential, duration at .05000" lift applies almost universally, regardless of camshaft make, model or manufacturer. "Advertised duration" varies depending upon who wrote the advertising. Most original equipment manufacturers (OEM'S) duration specifications for their hydraulic camshafts are specified at something less than the .00400" tappet lift suggested by SAE standard J-604 5.1. Other firms compute duration at .00600" or .00800" of cam lift. With mechanical lifter racing profiles, advertised durations are usually computed at .01800", .02000" or .02200" of lift. As is the case with hydraulic profiles, advertised durations of mechanical and roller tappet cams

can be compared only if the timing cam lift data point baselines are the same. There are a number of reasons that a hydraulic lifter cam may have its duration computed at something other than .00400" cam lift. In some instances, a cam grinder who has used an exacting timing point for many years may be reluctant to change. Another sound reason is that new technology can alter performance relative to duration at .00400" lift. Using a different timing point baseline in the computation of advertised duration may therefore be instrumental in reducing the tendency to over cam an engine. But most commonly, duration is rated at a nonstandard lift point as a means of enhancing specifications as compared to those of a competitive cam. As an example, if one company has a popular racing hydraulic camshaft that has an advertised duration (computed at .00400" cam lift) of 302 degrees, a competitive cam grinder may think that his cam will sell better if it is advertised as having more than 302 degrees of duration. This caters to the "bigger is better" philosophy. Therefore, the competitive cam may be rated at .00200" lift, in which case its duration could be 308 degrees. At the other end of the spectrum, with cams designed for use in mild street engines, or intended to enhance fuel economy, a manufacturer may rate its hydraulic cams at .006" tappet lift. When specifications are listed, this will make the cam appear "shorter" (have less duration) than those of the competition. For mild street applications, less duration is frequently more desirable. So again, by playing the numbers game, a manufacturer can make its line of cams seem more attractive than those produced by other cam grinders. Another point to consider is that with an underrated advertised duration, a cam will appear to be producing surprisingly more horsepower than an "equivalent" profile from a competing manufacturer. In fact, what you have is not a valid comparison because two cams with similar advertised durations will have considerably different ACTUAL valve timing, if their durations are not computed at the same amount of cam lift.

With all the variations in timing point baselines, making cam duration comparisons can be more confusing than trying to figure who's really doing what to whom in a television soap opera! When comparing camshaft specifications, the best way to cut through the confusion is to focus on duration at .050" lift and lobe separation. These two figures will provide a solid indication of a cam's performance characteristics. There are three other specifications that are very important. I call them "HYDRAULIC INTENSITY", "MINOR INTENSITY and "MAJOR INTENSITY". These terms were developed as a means of evaluating a camshaft's BROAD RANGE operational efficiency. HYDRAULIC INTENSITY may be computed by subtracting duration at . 05000" cam lift from duration at .00400" cam lift. A cam with a duration of 280 degrees @.00400" cam lift and a duration of 220 degrees at .05000" cam lift has a HYDRAULIC INTENSITY of 60.00 degrees. MINOR INTENSITY may be computed by subtracting duration at .05000" cam lift from duration at .01000" cam lift. MAJOR INTENSITY may be computed by subtracting duration at .05000" cam lift from duration at .02000" cam lift. In my personal opinion, the smaller the INTENSITY numbers measure, the performance will INCREASE! The ideal cam profile would raise the valves to full lift instantly, hold them open for a specified duration and then close them instantly. The laws of physics make it impossible to achieve instantaneous valve opening and closing, but recent advancements in design technology have made it possible to open and close the valves with more area under the lift curve. By so doing, engine efficiency is improved because the valves spend less time at very low lift. In practical terms, if two cams with similar lobe designs have the same duration at .05000" lift, maximum torque and horsepower will be almost identical. However, the cam with the smaller HYDRAULIC, MINOR or

MAJOR INTENSITY figure will have a smoother idle, better off-idle response, superior low speed drivability and a broader power curve. Viewed from another perspective, a lower HYDRAULIC, MINOR or MAJOR INTENSITY number translates to more low end power, without any loss of top end power. It also means that with a highly modified engine, it may be practical to install a cam with slightly longer duration at .05000" cam lift that might otherwise not be practical. This lower INTENSITY solves many problems of poor idle quality which may effect Computer Controlled engines. Compatibility problems with torque converter stall speeds are also minimized. State-of-the-art lobe designs therefore, deliver "MORE CAM" per dollar because they produce more power over a wider rpm band. Now let me try to explain SPAN. I define SPAN with the following notation: (00.00/00.00) If a profile is SYMMETRICAL the numbers on each side of the / will be the same. Example, a mechanical tappet profile with a MAJOR INTENSITY of 34.00 degrees would have a MAJOR INTENSITY SPAN of (17.00/17.00). If this profile was NON-SYMMETRICAL with the same MAJOR INTENSITY of 34.00 degrees the MAJOR INTENSITY SPAN could be (16.00/18.00), (15.00/19.00) or possibly (14.50/19.50). Almost all HYDRAULIC lifter profiles are NON-SYMMETRICAL and the numbers on each side of the / will be DIFFERENT. Example, a hydraulic lifter profile with a HYDRAULIC INTENSITY of 56.00 degrees could have a HYDRAULIC INTENSITY SPAN of (24.00/32.00). These are the PUBLISHED numbers from the HMV series of profiles (HMV means "Hydraulic Maximum Velocity") from the cam manufacturer on Fentress Boulevard in Daytona Beach, Florida. Remember that the SPAN numbers inside of the two brackets MUST add up to the TOTAL INTENSITY. "HAPPY CAM ANALYSIS TO YOU"

Born August 17, 1931 in Hallandale, Florida. The first son of a highly skilled self employed machinist and fabricator. Employed as a racing engine and chassis builder in 1948. Formed his own Camshaft Manufacturing company in 1953. Elected a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers 1958. Incorporated the company as Crane Engineering Company, Inc. 1963. Issued patent number 3,108,580 on a Roller Tappet design 1963. Published the first ".050 duration" (cam lift) numbers in 1965. (Ref: Crane Engineering Company, Inc. catalog No. 2 spring edition - cost .50 cents) Designed his first "Computer Cam Design" on a Time Share Computer, using a Teletype terminal, thru the phone lines, with the computer located at ComShare Inc. of Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1967. Purchased a numerically controlled grinder with "ten millionths" of an inch of resolution for manufacturing master cams 1968. Conceived of and assisted in the design of the Berco (Italy) camshaft grinder in 1972, and purchased the first production Berco cam grinder machine. Purchased Universal Camshaft Company of Muskegon, Michigan 1974, the only manufacturer of SAE 8620 steel billet roller cams. Elected a Fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers 1988. Formed harvey CRANE, Inc., January 25, 1990. This new company offers Harvey's personal consulting services, along with precision measurement of camshafts on our own design camshaft measurement machine. This new measuring device achieves a very accurate resolution of .0000008 inches (0.02 Microns) along with an angular resolution of 1.67 arc seconds. We also

offer complete cam profile analysis and sell software used in the cam analysis and cam design field. The CRANE CamDesign inc name has been changed to harvey CRANE, Inc. Several registered letters from the lawyers of CTG, Incorporated threatened a lawsuit. CTG, Inc is Crane Technology Group, Inc. and is the owner of Crane Cams. The official change to harvey CRANE, Inc. was made late in 1999. In 2001 the words HARVEY CRANE became a registered trademark! These 2 words may only be used with written permission of harvey CRANE, Inc. Until August 2005, my ex firm has refused to admit that I have not been with Crane Cams since January 25th of 1989! The HISTORY PAGE at the Crane Cams web site FINALLY REPORTS that Harvey Crane left the company in 1989 to pursue other interests. BS, I was FIRED! I now offer my services to their competitors.

NEW TECHNIQUES IN CAM PROFILE DESIGN


By Harvey J. Crane, Jr. August 1993 (Revised August 2002)

It has recently occurred to me, that almost all cam design computer programs assume the user of the program is somewhat knowledgeable about the "shape" of cam profiles. I have now concluded that "nothing could be further from the truth"! Most new users of these programs have never spent any time in the careful analysis of "as-designed" or "as-manufactured" cam profiles. Have they ever completed a simple first and second "differences" of one cam degree spacing of an existing popular cam profile? The first difference of lift is called VELOCITY and the second difference of lift is called ACCELERATION. During the past forty years, I have developed an entirely new technique in designing cam profiles. This procedure is different, in that I design the

entire positive acceleration area totally separate from the negative acceleration area. This technique allows the designer to establish the maximum positive acceleration peaks and the MAXIMUM VELOCITY. Maximum JERK values are set and the maximum rate of change of jerk is carefully controlled. What is the rate of change of jerk called? I call this "SNAP". And of course, the rate of change of snap must be "CRACKLE". This leads to what is the rate of change of crackle? It must be "POP". Let us first discuss the SNAP of a simple constant velocity ramp. The rise of acceleration from the end of basecircle thru the ramp acceleration pulse and then back down to zero acceleration results in constant velocity. This rise in acceleration is the most common location for serious cam profile manufacturing problems to occur. I have developed a simple test for this problem. If the JERK difference at this transition point exceeds .00001000 inches per degree cubed (in one half of one degree of cam rotation), then this area of the design should be redesigned if the camshaft manufacturer wants to make the profiles ACCURATELY! If ZERO ACCELERATION is used to DWELL the MAXIMUM VELOCITY, this same test should also be met. It is my experience that an entirely different program should be used to design the NEGATIVE acceleration area. The designer can then spend more time in optimizing the RADIUS OF CURVATURE across the nose of the design. If a cam design program uses the SAME POLYNOMIAL exponents to shape both positive and negative areas of the cam, then the positive acceleration area is ALWAYS COMPROMISED in order to fix the nose radius problems. In the case of roller follower tappets this is especially true, as the design should not have a large reverse curvature in the flank area, if the cam must be made with a normal FULL SIZE DIAMETER grinding wheel. As for a normal flat face, or nomimal 35 to 70 inches of spherical radius tappet design, the designer is always concerned with too much velocity for a given tappet wear surface diameter. So why not fix this maximum velocity

with a separate positive acceleration program before designing the negative acceleration portion of the cam profile.

EXCERPT FROM "COSWORTH THE SEARCH FOR POWER" WRITTEN BY GRAHAM ROBSON, 1990
27 MARCH 1992 (REVISED AUGUST 2002) PAGES 48 THRU 50: 1959: KEITH DUCKWORTH TALKING, "I hadn't designed many cams - I'd designed a special profile for the 1100 Climax which didn't seem to be much different from the standard one. My problem was that I had read the books on cam design and I had believed them. That was fatal. Even so, those people seemed to be fairly knowledgeable about the various types of profile, and acceleration diagrams." The result was that Keith and Ben (Rood) completely revised their views on camshaft design, went for constant acceleration curves (" I reasoned that I didn't know what "jerk" was all about, and so I was fairly sure that the valve gear didn't know it either. I thought that all the arguments about "jerk" were grossly over- rated, and produced a completely new profile." - A2 PROFILE - ! " We made our own master profiles, but Leonard Reese used to make the cams for us. Later we made a simple modification - we added 1/32 in of lift and extended the opening period. That was the A3." Harvey's notes: THE ABOVE STATEMENTS ARE ABOUT THE FORD 105E ENGINES. A FOUR CYLINDER PUSHROD ENGINE, WITH 1.54 TO 1 ROCKER RATIOS. THE NEW PROFILES WERE DESIGNED TO SOLVE "SURGE PERIODS AT 6,000 AND 7,400 RPM".

CRANE ENGINEERING COMPANY FOUNDED JANUARY 1, 1953


THE FOUNDER WAS HARVEY CRANE, JR. ONE EMPLOYEE WAS HIRED IN THE EARLY PART OF 1953 FOR LATHE WORK ON THE RACING REAR AXLE PART OF HIS BUSINESS. A SECOND EMPLOYEE WAS ADDED DURING THE SUMMER TIME TO PORT FORD FLATHEAD ENGINE BLOCKS. A THIRD EMPLOYEE WAS HIRED IN THE FALL FOR GRINDING CAMS. THE FIRST RACING CAMSHAFTS WERE GROUND ON A NEW STORM VULCAN CAMSHAFT GRINDER ORDERED IN EARLY 1953 AND DELIVERED IN AUGUST. HARVEY WAS DRAFTED OUT OF THE NATIONAL GUARD INTO THE ARMY IN SEPTEMBER OF 1953. HE WAS DISCHARGED TWO YEARS LATER IN SEPTEMBER OF 1955. AT FIRST, ALL CAMSHAFTS REGROUND WERE SIMPLE "COPY TYPE" RACING CAMSHAFTS. HARVEY'S FIRST CAM PROFILE ENGINEERING WAS STARTED ON JANUARY 1, 1957 WHEN HE BEGAN TO DRAW "DISPLACEMENT" GRAPHS OF THE LOBE PROFILE. WHEN COMPARING THESE GRAPHS THRU A LIGHT TABLE, IT BECAME APPARENT TO HARVEY THAT THE FIRST SMALL AMOUNT OF LIFT DID NOT REALLY CHANGE THE OVERALL "AREA UNDER THE LIFT CURVE". THIS AREA OF LIFT WAS USUALLY LESS THAN .015 INCHES OF CAM LIFT. THIS WAS LATER DISCOVERED TO BE THE "RAMP" AREA. WHEN THESE DISPLACEMENT GRAPH NUMBERS WERE INCREASED TO FOUR DECIMAL PLACE DATA (.0001") WITH ONE CAM DEGREE SPACING (USING A HOME MADE 24 INCH DIAMETER DEGREE WHEEL), TRUE "DIFFERENCES" NUMBERS COULD BE CALCULATED. THE FIRST DIFFERENCE OF LIFT IS CALLED VELOCITY. NOW THE VELOCITY COULD BE PLOTTED!

HARVEY ATTEMPTED TO SUBTRACT VELOCITY DIFFERENCES TO ARRIVE AT ACCELERATION BUT THESE NUMBERS WERE TO "ROUGH" TO PLOT! A LARGER DIAMETER DEGREE WHEEL WOULD BE REQUIRED! INSTEAD OF MAKING A LARGER DIAMETER DEGREE WHEEL HE USED A NEW BRIDGEPORT ROTARY TABLE TO ROTATE THE CAMSHAFT FOR MEASUREMENT. NOW, EXACTLY ONE CAM DEGREE LIFT DATA WAS MUCH MORE REPEATABLE. NOW, THE ACCELERATION NUMBERS COULD BE PLOTTED WITH MUCH LESS "SCATTER". FINALLY THE FOUR DECIMAL PLACE LIFT DATA COULD BE "REVISED" AND THE NEW DATA COULD BE USED FOR "CUTTING A MODEL LOBE" IN THE SAME NEW BRIDGEPORT MILLING MACHINE. IT WAS NOT UNTIL HE MET RICHARD MOSER AND JESS NOURSE THAT HE COULD AFFORD REAL COMPUTER DESIGNED CAM PROFILES.

A HISTORY OF THE INDEPENDENT 0EM, RACING & BILLET CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURERS


-- BY -HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. SEPTEMBER 2005 SOME INFORMATION SUPPLIED BY EX EMPLOYEES OF THESE COMPANIES

MUSKEGON CAMSHAFT COMPANY (THE ORIGINAL NAME WAS MUSKEGON MOTOR SPECIALTIES) MUSKEGON, MICHIGAN FOUNDED IN 1908 THE FOUNDER WAS CHARLES JOHNSON WHO LATER BECAME THE FOUNDER OF SEALED POWER CORPORATION (SPX). THEY WERE THE FIRST MANUFACTURER OF SOLID STEEL CAMSHAFTS. PREVIOUSLY ALL STEEL CAMSHAFTS WERE ASSEMBLED FROM LOBES KEYED TO A SHAFT. MUSKEGON CAMSHAFT WAS THE FIRST COMPANY TO SELL CAMSHAFTS TO OTHER THAN OEM CUSTOMERS. THE AFTERMARKET CAM SALES STARTED WITH REPLACEMENT CUMMINS CAMS AROUND

1958. LATER CAST IRON CAMS WERE SOLD IN THE REPLACEMENT MARKET. CAMSHAFT MACHINE COMPANY JACKSON, MICHIGAN HERM MELLING (AN INVENTOR), WHO WAS BUD MELLING'S FATHER, FOUNDED CAMSHAFT MACHINE COMPANY IN 1942. HIS TWO PARTNERS WERE HAROLD F. ANDREWS (A STOCK BROKER) AND FRANK TITUS. FRANK CAME FROM MUSKEGON MOTOR SPECIALITIES AND WAS IN CHARGE OF MANUFACTURING. UNIVERSAL CAMSHAFT COMPANY MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN UNIVERSAL CAMSHAFT COMPANY WAS FOUNDED IN 1946. THE FOUNDERS CAME FROM MUSKEGON CAMSHAFT CO. THESE EMPLOYEES LEFT DUE TO A LONG LABOR STRIKE AT THE FIRM. THEY LEFT TO SUPPLY CUMMINS ENGINE, WHO WAS A MUSKEGON CUSTOMER. DURING THE LONG STRIKE. UNIVERSAL CAMSHAFT WAS SOLD IN 1974 TO CRANE CAMS, INC. CRANE CAMS WAS FOUNDED IN 1953 BY HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. IN 1974 HE THEN BECAME THE PRESIDENT OF UNIVERSAL CAMSHAFT COMPANY, INC. HARVEY ALSO REMAINED THE PRESIDENT OF CRANE CAMS, INC. OF HALLANDALE, FLORIDA. WEYBURN-BARTEL GRAND HAVEN, MICHIGAN ENGLAND & GERMANY THE ORIGINAL WEYBURN COMPANY WAS ESTABLISHED IN THE UK (ENGLAND). WEYBURN THEN ACQUIRED BARTEL CAMS (GERMANY). THE NEW WEYBURN-BARTEL THEN ACQUIRED CAMSHAFT SPECIALITIES OF GRAND HAVEN, MICHIGAN IN 1975. IN 1990, WEYBURN-BARTEL WAS ACQUIRED BY AN ENGLISH FIRM, T&N PLC. DURING 1998, FEDERAL MOGUL CORPORATION ACQUIRED T&N PLC! THIS WILL MAKE FEDERAL MOGUL THE WORLDS LARGEST CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURER! IN 2003, THE GRAND HAVEN OPERATIONS WERE PURCHASED BY

ASIMCO TECHNOLOGIES OF BEIJING, CHINA! ENGINE POWER COMPONENTS, INC. GRAND HAVEN, MICHIGAN

FOUNDED BY DWAINE QUIGG AND RAY STOWERS IN 1979. BOTH MEN WERE EX EMPLOYEES OF MUSKEGON CAMSHAFT AND WERE THE FOUNDERS OF CAMSHAFT SPECIALTIES. RAY STOWERS FIRST CAMSHAFT EXPERIENCE WAS WITH UNIVERSAL CAMSHAFT COMPANY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF BUCK REDDING, THE CHIEF ENGINEER. THEY SOLD CAMSHAFT SPECIALTIES TO WEYBURN IN 1975. RAY STOWERS DIED ON JULY 2, 1997. DWAINE QUIGG'S SON MARK QUIGG IS NOW THE PRESIDENT.
ALL OF THESE ABOVE FIRMS HAD EMPLOYEES OR FOUNDERS THAT WORKED AT THE ORIGINAL USA CAMSHAFT COMPANY, MUSKEGON MOTOR SPECIALTIES. ALMOST ALL REPLACEMENT CAMSHAFTS SOLD UNDER OTHER NAMES ARE MADE BY THE THE FIRMS LISTED IN THIS HISTORY OF CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURERS. A FEW OTHER FIRMS THAT MAKE CAMSHAFTS MAKE THEM PRIMARILY FOR THE ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT ENGINE MANUFACTURING COMPANIES. ASK ME FOR THE OTHER NAMES OF CAMSHAFT MAKERS IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN "WHO MAKES WHAT FOR WHOM".

ED WINFIELD HIS HISTORY AS A CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURER


compiled by HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. October 1, 1999 Ed Winfield made his first performance camshafts in 1914. These were motorcycle cams with individual lobes pinned to a shaft. His first automotive camshafts were ground in 1919 when he built his first

homemade cam grinder. Ed was 17 years old at that time. Ed told me his mother gave him the money to purchase a used grinding machine that he converted to a cam grinder by adding a rocker table. This homemade cam grinder was used in his mother's garage to regrind Ford Model T camshafts into racing specifications. Ed told me he first made only two masters, a SEMI RACE GRIND and a FULL RACE GRIND! He later made a third master that was more duration and lift than the SEMI but less than the FULL. He then used the FULL RACE master as an intake and the new master as an exhaust. He called this new reground camshaft a THREE QUARTER RACE CAM! Ed said "It was three quarters of the way to a full race cam". According to Dema Elgin, ED began working for Harry Miller at the age of 14 1/2 in the carburation department. Within a few months he was doing other machine work on the famous Miller racing engines. Harry wanted Ed to stay on with him and offered Ed more money. Ed was being paid .60 cents per hour and was offered .70 cents, but ED wasn't fond of Harry because he was like a dictator. Ed quit grinding camshafts in October of 1969 after he finished a batch of Drake Offenhauser camshafts. That's 55 years of grinding cams!

HISTORY OF THE BERCO CAM GRINDER


(Revised April 15, 2006) The Berco cam grinder was conceived by Harvey J. Crane, Jr. in 1972. The President of Peterson Machine Tool, Inc., Shawnee Mission Kansas, Mr. D. R. "Pete" Peterson and Harvey Crane traveled to Copparo Italy with my blueprints and specifications for redesigning the Berco RTM 180/B crankshaft regrinder into a cam grinder. Due to very slow promised delivery on this new machine, I ordered a RTM 180/B crankshaft grinder on August 29, 1972 (Peterson P.O. 12999) with a special grinding wheel spindle height increase of 5.250". This machine was

ordered without the normal headstock, tailstock, workheads and other equipment necessary to regrind crankshafts. It was ordered with a special automatic infeed to size and a automatic hydraulic wheel dresser. Before I could complete a rocker table attachment to convert this machine into a cam grinder, Berco completed the first cam grinder. On July 16, 1975, I issued a purchase order for the first Berco Cam Grinding machine for $22,320 delivered to a USA port of entry. This machine arrived in Miami, Florida on August 28th. The machine was finally delivered to me on September 4th. Many problems were found! My Chief Engineer, Mr. Buck Redding sent me a memo dated September 25, 1975, outlining the problems with the machine (serial number 101-B). These problems were eventually all solved to my satisfaction and more Berco cam grinders were ordered. To my knowledge over 365 RAC-1500 grinders and 330 RAC-2130 (120" center to center capacity) have been manufactured as of February 1994. Who would have dreamed 20 years ago that 695 Berco Cam Grinders would be sold! I have never received 10 cents of royalties.

SAD NEWS FROM Harvey J. Crane, Jr. We are sad to report the death of my good friend Mr. Sam Brown on Thursday the ninth of March, 2006. He was born in June of 1925. Sam and I, along with my wife Maxine, made several trips to Copparo Italy. We were reviewing the progress of Berco's manufacturing of a new cam grinder being built to my specifications. I ordered 10 machines and Sam's firm ordered 10 more. The first RAC-1500 cam grinder was shipped to me in August of 1975. This machine was serial number 101-B. In September 1996, Sam retired from Peterson Machine Tool Company, the exclusive US sales agent for the Berco Cam Grinder.

Sam and his wife Elinor moved to Panama City Beach, Florida at that time. Sam's son Chip was the Sales Manager for Peterson Machine Tool until Peterson was moved to Council Grove, Kansas in January of 2006. Chip informed me of Sam's death. We will truly miss Sam in our lives. Sam was cremated and services were held March 13th. His graveside services were held on Thursday March 16, 2006. Sam was 80 years old.

A LIST OF UNITED STATES PATENTS ABOUT CAM DESIGNS AND LOBE SHAPES LISTED BY DATE AND THEIR CLAIMS
MARCH 14, 1916 PATENT NUMBER 1,175,687 MARC. BIRKIGT, BOIS-COLOMBES, FRANCE ********* THE CLEARANCE RAMP ******* UNDERCUTTING OF THE BASECIRCLE TO ALLOW CHANGES IN THE VALVE LASH FROM COLD TO HOT. JANUARY 29, 1918 PATENT NUMBER 1,254,840 OWEN M. NACKER, DETROIT, MICHIGAN *** THE CONSTANT VELOCITY RAMP *** NOVEMBER 2, 1920 PATENT NUMBER 1,357,413 EUGENE V. MYERS, EAST ORANGE, NJ *** DWELL AT MAXIMUM CAM LIFT *** JANUARY 18, 1921 PATENT NUMBER 1,365,735 EARL H. SHERBONDY, DETROIT, MI. *** THE CLEARANCE RAMP (AGAIN) *** BUT, TANGENT TO THE BASECIRCLE AND CAM LIFT.

JULY 12, 1927 PATENT NUMBER 1,635,304 FOREST S. BASTER, DETROIT, MICHIGAN *NON-SYMMETRICAL DESIGN WITH A SLOW CLOSING SIDE* 008" BASECIRCLE UNDERCUT ON THE OPENING SIDE WITH .016" UNDERCUT ON THE CLOSING SIDE. APRIL 22, 1930 PATENT NUMBER 1,755,817 RAYMOND H. DIBLEY, BATHURST, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA. ** SPECIFIC VALVE TIMING FOR COMBUSTION CONTROL ** AUGUST 11, 1942 PATENT NUMBER 2,292,728 HEINRICH WALTI, WINTERTHUR-WULFINGEN, SWITZERLAND ASSIGNED TO SULZER FRERES, SOCIETE ANONYME, WINTER, SWITZERLAND *ROLLER PROFILES WITH A NARROW BASECIRCLE WIDTH* SEPTEMBER 11, 1951 PATENT NUMBER 2,567,689 JOHN L. H. BISHOP, BIRMINGHAM ENGLAND ASSIGNED TO THE AUSTIN MOTOR COMPANY, LIMITED BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND. ***** FIRST REFERENCE TO MATHMETICS, SINE WAVE ACCELERATIONS ***** BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AREAS. ECCENTRICITY (VELOCITY), INSTANTANEOUS RADIUS AND ACCELERATION DISCUSSED. FIRST REFERENCES TO MICHAEL C. TURKISH'S BOOK, "VALVE GEAR DESIGN", PUBLISHED 1946. FEBRUARY 17, 1953 PATENT NUMBER 2,628,605 JOHN F. JONES, BERKLEY, MI; FRED F. TIMPNER, BIRMINGHAM, MI AND ROBERT C. JUVINALL, CHICAGO, IL. ASIGNED TO CHRYSLER CORPORATION. ***** SINE-COSINE FORMULAS PATENTED ***** HIGH SPEED OVERHEAD VALVE ENGINES WITH SMOOTH AND DURABLE PERFORMANCE. JERK AND JOUNCE (SNAP) MENTIONED. FIRST PATENT THAT USES THE WEIGHT OF THE VALVE TRAIN IN THE EQUATIONS. SPRING RATE, SPRING FACTOR AND ENGINE SPEED USED IN CALCULATIONS. SEPTEMBER 3, 1957 PATENT NUMBER 2,804,863 WOLF-DIETER BENSINGER AND DIETRICH KURZ STUTIGART-UNTERTURKHEIM, GERMANY ASSIGNED TO DAIMLER-BENZ AKTIENGESELLISCHAFT (MERCEDES).

***** POLYNOMIAL CURVE OF HIGH DEGREE ***** USED ONLY FOR THE NEGATIVE ACCELERATION AREA OF THE CAM DESIGN. MAY 15, 1962 PATENT NUMBER 3,034,363 WILHELM VOGEL, STUGART-BAD CANNSTATT, GERMANY ASSIGNED TO ROBERT BOSCH G.M.B.H. ***** CAM DESIGN BY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION ***** USING HERTZIAN COMPRESSION. OCTOBER 1, 1968 PATENT NUMBER 3,403,667 JOHN D. SANTI, WEST ALLIS, WISCONSIN ASSIGNED TO BRIGGS & STRATTON CORP, MILWAUKEE, WI. *** CAM PROFILE DESIGN FOR A COMPRESSION RELIEF *** FOR STARTING SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINES. REQUIRES THE MODIFICATION OF THE INTAKE CLOSING POINT ONLY. SEPTEMBER 21, 1976 PATENT NUMBER 3,981,281 GERHARD DESCHLER; DIETER WITTMANN; REINHOLD TRIER ALL OF NURNBERG, GERMANY ASSIGNED TO MASCHINENFABRIK AUGSBURG-NURNBERG AG, NURNBERG, GERMANY. ***** ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION DEFINED BY A FOURIER SERIES ***** OF THE THIRD ORDER. APRIL 18, 1978 PATENT NUMBER 4,084,568 KAZUNOBU SATO, WAKO, JAPAN; TAKANORI SUZUKI; TADATAKA KOBAYASHI BOTH OF TOKYO, JAPAN ASSIGNED TO HONDA GIKEN KOGYO KABUSHIKI KAISHA, TOKYO, JAPAN. ***** INTAKE CLOSING & "RE-OPENING" RAMP ***** FOR DECOMPRESSION AND IMPROVED STARTING CHARACTERISTICS.

"VALVE TIMING DIAGRAMS" HOW CAN THEY LIE TO YOU?


What is a valve timing diagram? Simply put, the numbers like INTAKE OPENS at 20 degrees BTDC (Before Top Dead Center) and CLOSES at 60 degrees ABDC (After Bottom Dead Center), EXHAUST OPENS at 60

degrees BBDC (Before Bottom Dead Center) and CLOSES at 20 degrees ATDC (After Top Dead Center). This timing may also be written as: 20 - 60 60 - 20 Of course, most of the time these four data points are NEVER ACCOMPANIED WITH THE EXACT CAM LIFT THAT THESE NUMBERS WERE TAKEN AT! Many times the timing diagram fails to specify the total duration of the timing diagram. Let's calculate the total duration of the intake by simply adding together 20 plus 60 and adding the constant 180 which totals 260. The exhaust will calculate as 60+20+180=260. Let's assume these numbers were taken at .050 inches of cam lift. Now the timing may be written as: 20 - 60 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift 60 - 20 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift Now let's play GAMES WITH THIS TIMING DIAGRAM. If we ADVANCE THE CAM 5 crankshaft degrees the SAME timing diagram becomes: 25 - 55 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift 65 - 15 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift Notice that the left side numbers INCREASE by FIVE and the right side numbers DECREASE by FIVE. If we RETARD THE CAM 5 crankshaft degrees from the ORIGINAL timing diagram it becomes: 15 - 65 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift 55 - 25 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift Notice that the left side numbers DECREASE by FIVE and the right side

numbers INCREASE by FIVE. Remember, all three of these timing diagrams are from the SAME CAMSHAFT! Only the ADVANCE AND RETARD of the camshaft IN REFERENCE to the CRANKSHAFT has been changed! Let's play another camshaft "SELLERS" GAME. (Sellers don't make cams, only package other manufacturers camshafts). Using the SAME intake and exhaust lobe specifications, the MAKER of the camshaft CLOSES the LOBE CENTERLINE (SEPARATION) 5 CAM DEGREES and the NEW timing diagram becomes: 25 - 55 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift 55 - 25 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift Notice that each of the "OVERLAP" numbers INCREASE by FIVE crankshaft degrees. Overlap should be called "CROSSOVER AREA" to be correct. The original 20-60-60-20 camshaft had a LOBE CENTERLINE of 110.0 CAMSHAFT DEGREES. This "NEW" camshaft has a LOBE CENTERLINE of 105 camshaft degrees. This CENTERLINE is BUILT INTO THE CAMSHAFT and cannot be changed by the engine builder. But, he may ADVANCE OR RETARD the camshaft in reference to the crankshaft. This WILL NOT CHANGE THE "LOBE CENTERLINE" but will change the MAXIMUM LIFT POINT (sometimes also called CENTERLINE). If we RETARD this new "TIGHT CENTERLINE" Camshaft 5 crankshaft degrees from the ORIGINAL timing diagram it becomes: 20 - 60 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift 50 - 30 = 260.0 @ .050" cam lift Before cam duration can be matched to an engines operating range, the EXACT CAM LIFT must be specified AT WHERE THE DURATION IS

COMPUTED. If a statement is made "this cam has 260 degrees of duration", without adding "260 degrees at .050", the duration number of 260 degrees is TOTALLY USELESS. That's why knowledgeable engine builders usually select a camshaft based on its duration at .05000" cam lift. In addition to being more accurate than "advertised duration" as an indication of a cams performance potential, duration at .05000" lift applies almost universally, regardless of camshaft make, model or manufacturer. When comparing camshaft specifications, the best way to cut through the confusion is to focus on duration at .050" lift and lobe separation. These two figures will provide a solid indication of a cams performance characteristics. "HAPPY CAM ANALYSIS TO YOU"

EX EMPLOYEES & CLOSE ASSOCIATES


The following is a chronological listing of people that I inadvertently assisted in helping them get into COMPETITION WITH ME !

1966 John Reed / REED CAMS

1968 Joe Lunati / LUNATI CAMS

1972 Mark Heffington / CAM DYNAMICS

1974 Dave Generous / CAM TECHNIQUES

1975 Ronnie Weir / RACE CAMS

1975 John Andrews / ANDREWS PRODUCTS

1976 Tom Woitesek / COMPETITION CAMS

1978 Don Hubbard / CAMSHAFT MACHINE

1980 Harold Brookshire / ULTRADYNE CAMS

1983 Steve Huggins / HUGGINS CAMS

TRIPLE VALVE SPRINGS A HISTORY


I first believed that TRIPLE valve springs were first used during the Second World War in aircraft engines. I was told that valve springs were not very reliable and failed from breakage. This caused a valve to fall into the cylinder of a radial aircraft engine thus causing total engine failure! Therefore 3 springs were used in case one of the 3 springs broke. The load of the other 2 springs had enough tension to keep the valve from falling in the cylinder and causing an engine failure. I now know I was wrong as to the date first used by at least 21 years. Copies of blueprints from Miller Engine & Foundry Works dated October 7, 1924 show OUTER-MIDDLE-INNER VALVE SPRINGS! The prints mention the 122 CID engine. Interestingly only the VALVE OPEN PRESSURE is mentioned. Total loads open were specified as 110 to 135 pounds of pressure. The outer spring was made from .135" O.D. wire with 6 FULL coils and 1.078" I.D. The MIDDLE spring was made from .105" O.D. wire with 6 FULL coils and . 750" I.D.

The INNER spring was made from .072" O.D. wire with 7 FULL coils and . 660" O.D. All three springs were counter wound to each other. These sizes are not an interference fit to each other. My first use of TRIPLE VALVE SPRINGS was in 1974, as listed on page 51 of "The Winners Handbook", resulted in a Trademark being issued later. The new three piece valve spring designs were not patentable! A few years later most other cam manufacturers were offering 3 PIECE SPRINGS. Now everybody sells them.

THE CAM DOCTOR FROM QUADRANT SCIENTIFIC NOW OUT OF BUSINESS WAS: (303) 666-8414 WAS: 555 BURBANK UNIT B BILL "OZ" ANDERSON BROOMFIELD, CO 80020 EZCAM FROM ANDREWS PRODUCTS, INC (847) 759-0190 431 KINGSTON COURT JOHN ANDREWS MOUNY PROSPECT, IL 60056 www.andrews-products.com CAM PRO FROM AUDIE TECHNOLOGY (610) 630-5895 23 NORTH TROPPER ROAD AUDIE THOMAS NORRISTOWN, PA 19403 www.audietech.com ADCOLE CORPORATION (508) 485-9100 669 FOREST STREET

ADDISON COLE MARLBOROUGH, MA 01752 www.adcole.com OLYMPUS AMERICA, INC. (631) 844-5000 TWO CORPORATE CENTER DRIVE MODEL MCT 11-CC MELVILLE, NU 11747-3157 www.olympusamerica.com TRIMOS SA AVENUE LONGEMALLE 5 CH-1020 RENENS SWITZERLAND www.trimos.ch FRED V. FOWLER (U.S.A. SALES) (617) 332-7004 ZEISS (CARL ZEISS, INC) (303) 799-6838 61 INVERNESS DRIVE EAST MODEL PKM 02 (1974) ENGLEWOOD, CO 80112 (OBERKOCHEN, GERMANY) LEITZ, INC. (ERNST LEITZ GMBH WETZLAR, GERMANY) CAM DIGITAL TESTER C/O OPTO-METRIC TOOLS, INC (1970) ROCKLEIGH, NJ 07647 OPTICAL MEASURING TOOLS LIMITED HELSTON, CORNWALL, ENGLAND MODEL CC 107 (1973) BENDIX AUTOMATION & MEASUREMENT DIVISION CORDAX CAM MEASUREMENT DAYTON, OHIO 45401 MACHINE (1973)

THE FOLLOWING DATA WAS COMPILED FROM THE MARCH 2001 ISSUE OF CAR CRAFT MAGAZINE

1955 SMALL BLOCK V8 BORN WITH 265 CUBIC INCHES OF DISPLACEMENT (CID)

1956 OIL FILTER MOUNTING PAD ADDED TO THE BLOCK

1957 283 CID INTRODUCED WITH MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION, SLOT IN REAR CAM JOURNAL ELIMINATED

1958 SIDE MOTOR MOUNT LUGS ADDED TO THE BLOCK

1959 MAIN BEARING ROPE SEAL REPLACED BY TWO PIECE RUBBER SEAL

1961 283 CID HAS 315 HP WITH MECH FUEL INJECTION

1962 327 CID INTRODUCED

1964 327 CID REACHES 375 HP WITH 2.02/1.60 DIAMETER VALVES

1965 LAST YEAR FOR THE ROCHESTER MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION

1966 327 CID, 350 HP ENGINE INTRODUCED WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE HYDRAULIC LIFTER CAMSHAFT (PN 3736151)

1967 LAST YEAR FOR 283 CID 302 & 350 CID INTRODUCED

1968 THE LARGER DIAMETER MAIN & ROD JOURNAL SIZES NOW USED IN ALL SB'S

1969 LAST YEAR FOR THE 302 CID SIZE ENGINE

1970 400 CID INTRODUCED. THE LT1 350 CID HAS 370 HP

1971 COMPRESSION RATIOS DROP TO COMPLY WITH EMISSION LAWS

1972 LAST YEAR FOR MECHANICAL TAPPET CAMSHAFTS & HOLLY CARBS

1974 HEI DISTRIBUTOR INTRODUCED

1976 305 CID INTRODUCED

1979 OIL DIPSTICK MOVES TO PASSENGER SIDE OF ENGINE

1980 LAST YEAR FOR THE 400 CID ENGINE. COMPUTER CONTROLLED ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INTRODUCED

1981 TWIN TBI (CROSSFIRE FUEL INJECTION INTRODUCED)

1985 ELECTRONIC DIRECT-PORT FUEL INJECTION (ELECTRONIC) INTRODUCED

1986 ALUMINUM HEADS RETURN (RPO L98)

1987 FIRST HYDRAULIC ROLLER CAMSHAFT IN THE ENGINE SERIES

---------------- 8 YEARS EARLIER (1979) ---------------------HARVEY CRANE DESIGNS HYDRAULIC ROLLER (RETROFIT) CAMSHAFTS AND BY 1987 WAS MANUFACTURING HIS OWN HYDRAULIC ROLLER LIFTERS --------------------------------------------------------------

1992 GEN II INTRODUCED AND MANY PARTS DO NOT INTERCHANGE

1996 VORTEC TRUCK ENGINES INTRODUCED. LT4 GEN II 330 HP FEATURES FULL ROLLER ROCKER ARMS

1997 SMALL BLOCK PHASEOUT BEGINS AND ALL ALUMINUM LS1 INTRODUCED

1998 LS1 USAGE SPREADS TO THE CAMARO AND FIREBIRD

1999 CAST IRON VERSION OF THE LS1 USED IN TRUCKS

2001 LAST VOTEC 305 & 350 ENGINES USED IN FULL SIZE VANS

SETTING VALVE LASH FOR MECHANICAL TAPPET CAMSHAFTS

What is the BEST method of where to position the crankshaft rotation and piston movement when adjusting the COLD VALVE LASH? Most methods refer to the FIRING ORDER to make the job FASTER. Do not fall for this shortcut unless you are sure of the length on the RAMPS. If the ramps are "LONG" like the Chevrolet V8 small block mechanical tappet camshaft part number 3849346. This part number is sometimes refered to as a "30 30 DUNTOV". The 30 30 refers to the factory's valve lash of .030 inches on both the intake and exhaust. The "TOP DEAD CENTER" method will not work with camshafts that have these types of ramps! The ramp of this camshaft extends to 135 CAM DEGREES on the opening side and 137 cam degrees on the closing side of MAXIMUM CAM LIFT. I suggest the following method for finding the "BASE CIRCLE" of the camshaft lobe so that the valve lash will be accurate.

To set an INTAKE valve, rotate the engine so that the EXHAUST valve of the SAME CYLINDER just: "STARTS TO OPEN". To set an EXHAUST valve, rotate the engine so that the SAME INTAKE valve of the SAME CYLINDER goes thru full lift and then is: "ALMOST CLOSED". This method will require a lot of crankshaft rotation but is the BEST METHOD IN MY FIFTY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE in assembling engines and working with other engine builders.

A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. AND HIS DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRM THAT

STILL USES HIS LAST NAME TO PROMOTE THEIR PRODUCTS


START OF THE BUSINESS 1953 CRANE ENGINEERING COMPANY FOUNDED BY HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. AS THE SOLE OWNER. THE BUSINESS IS LOCATED IN 500 SQUARE FEET, RENTED INSIDE HIS FATHERS GENERAL MACHINE SHOP BUILDING. 10 YEARS LATER 1963 CRANE ENGINEERING CO, INC. A CORPORATION IS FORMED AND HARVEY SELLS A 20% OWNERSHIP TO HIS HIGH SCHOOL FRIEND, DAVID SMITH, AND NAMES HIM AS SALES MANAGER. HARVEY CRANE RETAINS 80% OWNERSHIP. 1963 UNITED STATES PATENT NUMBER 3,108,580 IS ISSUED TO HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. (NEVER ASSIGNED TO THE CORPORATION) ON OCTOBER 29, 1963. THIS PATENT COVERS FOUR BASIC CLAIMS ON A MECHANICAL ROLLER TAPPET DESIGN. THIS "SHIELDED ROLLER" TYPE DESIGN IS USED BY O.E.M. MANUFACTURERS FOR THEIR HYDRAULIC ROLLER TAPPETS 17 YEARS LATER, (AFTER THE PATENT EXPIRES). 1965 HARVEY OUTGROWS HIS FATHERS SHOP AS 3,500 SQUARE FEET IS ALL HIS FATHER WILL RENT TO HIM. HE PURCHASES 8 LOTS IN HALLANDALE'S ONLY INDUSTRIAL ZONED AREA AND CONSTRUCTS 15,000 SQUARE FEET. HE MOVES 35 EMPLOYEES INTO THE NEW PLANT IN JANUARY OF 1966. THIS PLANT WILL EVENTUALLY BE ENLARGED TWICE, TO A TOTAL OF 35,000 SQUARE FEET. 1965 FIRST COMPUTER ANALYSIS PERFORMED ON A HARVEY CRANE DESIGNED "DRAWING BOARD" CAM, BY J. H. NOURSE OF YPSILANATI, MICHIGAN. 1967 FIRST CAM PROFILE DESIGNED ON A COMPUTER BY HARVEY CRANE, USING A CAM DESIGN PROGRAM WRITTEN BY J. H.

NOURSE. THIS PROGRAM IS RUN OVER THE PHONE LINES ON A TIMESHARING COMPUTER (COMSHARE, INC.) LOCATED IN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN. 15 YEARS LATER 1968 HARVEY PURCHASED A NUMERICAL CONTROL MOORE JIG GRINDER FOR GRINDING MODEL/MASTER CAMS TO TEN MILLIONTHS LINEAR RESOLUTION AND 2 ARC SECONDS ANGULAR ACCURACY. HIS BANK WOULD NOT FINANCE THE $65,000 COST, AS HIS NET WORTH IS LESS THAN THE MACHINES VALUE! 1968 PURCHASED HIS FIRST NORTON CAM-O-MATIC FULLY AUTOMATIC CAMSHAFT GRINDER. IT REQUIRED MORE THAN 1 YEAR TO BECOME OPERATIONAL. 1969 FIRST "NON-SYMMERTICAL" HYDRAULIC FLAT TAPPET PROFILES DESIGNED ON A TIME SHARING COMPUTER BY HARVEY CRANE. 1970 HARVEY'S "HOMEMADE" CAM PROFILE ANALYSIS CAMSHAFT MEASURING MACHINE IS AUTOMATED. THE MEASURING TIME REQUIRED FOR 1 LOBE IS REDUCED FROM 5 HOURS TO FIVE MINUTES. 1971 FIRST EXTRA HIGH LIFT (.669" VALVE LIFT) ROLLER CAM PROFILE WAS DESIGNED. THIS 288 DEGREES OF DURATION AT .050" CAM LIFT AND .4460" CAM LIFT PROFILE WAS "RIDICULED" BY HIS COMPETITION AS "WOULD-NOT- WORK". IT BECOMES THE STANDARD OF THE DRAG RACING CAM INDUSTRY. 1972 HARVEY INTRODUCES "FIREBALL" CAMS AT SEMA SHOW. ($48 LIST) THE NEAREST COMPETITION IS PRICED AT $55.00 LIST! 20 YEARS LATER 1973 HARVEY DESIGNS A NON SYMMETRICAL "NO-RAMP" EXTRA HIGH LIFT ROLLER PROFILE. THIS "NO-PULSE" OPENING RAMP IS ALSO RIDICULED BY FELLOW CAM DESIGNERS AS "BAD DESIGN" PRACTICE. LATER ALL DESIGNERS ADOPT THE SAME BASIC RAMP.

1974 UPON HARVEYS INSISTENCE, THE CORPORATION PURCHASED UNIVERSAL CAMSHAFT COMPANY, MUSKEGON, MICHIGAN. THIS IS THE ONLY SUPPLIER OF SAE 8620 STEEL BILLET ROLLER CAMSHAFTS TO THE HIGH PERFORMANCE INDUSTRY. 1975 A DATA GENERAL NOVA 2 COMPUTER IS PURCHASED FOR $60,000, AND THEN LOGGED OFF OF ALL TIME SHARING COMPUTERS. 24 YEARS LATER 1977 ON MARCH 4, 1977 HARVEY CRANE CHOOSES TO STEP DOWN AS THE PRESIDENT AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER OF HIS CORPORATION. HE STILL OWNS MORE THAN 70 PERCENT OF ALL THE STOCK. HE DEVOTES HIS FULL TIME TO CAM ANALYSIS AND CAM DESIGN. TWO MONTHS LATER, IN MAY, A NEW LINE OF ROLLER CAMS ARE CONCEIVED BY HARVEY AND THE REVOLUTIONARY "HI-LOW NOPOP" ROLLER CAM PROFILES ARE DESIGNED. A FULL SERIES OF PROFILES ARE TOOLED WITH NEW NC PRODUCED MASTER CAM PLATES. 29 YEARS LATER (2006), THEY ARE STILL USED FOR DRAG RACING CAMSHAFTS. FOUR MONTHS LATER IN JULY, "BLAZER" HYDRAULIC PROFILES ARE CONCEIVED, DESIGNED AND A FULL SERIES ARE TOOLED FOR PRODUCTION. 1978 HARVEY CONCEIVES THE NEW "TR" ROLLER PROFILE SERIES WITH "INVERTED" OPENING SIDE FLANKS. A COMPLETE LINE IS DESIGNED AND TOOLED FOR PRODUCTION. STILL USED FOR CIRCLE TRACK AND ROAD RACING ENGINES. 1979 FIRST HYDRAULIC ROLLER TAPPET CAM PROFILES DESIGNED. NO ONE BELIEVED HYDRAULIC ROLLERS WOULD WORK IN PERFORMANCE ENGINES. 1981 HARVEY CONCEIVES THE FAMOUS "HMV" SERIES (HYDRAULIC MAXIMUM VELOCITY) SERIES. THESE WERE THE FIRST "QUIET" CAMS WITH ONLY 56 DEGREES OF "HYDRAULIC INTENSITY". 1982 A NEW 85,000 SQUARE FOOT PLANT IS CONSTRUCTED IN

DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA TO HOUSE THE MICHIGAN PLANT MACHINERY AND INVENTORY. 92 TRACTOR TRAILER LOADS ARE MOVED FROM MUSKEGON MICHIGAN TO DAYTONA BEACH IN DECEMBER. 10 PEOPLE ARE MOVED (THE OTHER 250 PLUS UNION EMPLOYEES ARE LAYED OFF) TO DAYTONA BEACH. 100 NEW PEOPLE ARE HIRED AND TRAINED TO PRODUCE HIGH VOLUME CAMSHAFTS. 1982 A CONTINUOUS PATH COMPUTER CONTROLLED MOORE JIG GRINDER IS PURCHASED TO REPLACE THE NC (POINT TO POINT) GRINDER. VAN NORMAN/BERCO MASTER CAM PLATES ARE NOW GROUND DIRECTLY, WITHOUT THE USE OF MODEL CAMS. 30 YEARS LATER 1983 HARVEY CONCEIVES THE "IR" ROLLER SERIES OF PROFILES. THESE HAVE INVERTED FLANKS ON BOTH THE OPENING AND CLOSING SIDES. A FULL SERIES IS TOOLED FOR PRODUCTION. THESE PROFILES HAVE 30 DEGREES OF MAJOR INTENSITY. 1986 THE HALLANDALE, FLORIDA PLANT IS CLOSED AND 55 EMPLOYEES ARE MOVED TO DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA. MORE PEOPLE ARE HIRED TO FULLY STAFF THE EXPANDED (TO 145,000 SQUARE FOOT) BUILDING. 1986 HARVEY CRANE TAKES HIS FIRST REAL VACATION, GONE FOR FOUR MONTHS ! 1987 HARVEY PIONEERS THE FIRST USE OF IBM COMPATIBLE "PERSONAL" COMPUTERS FOR THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CAM PROFILES. 36 YEARS LATER 1989 HARVEY CRANE IS FIRED BY COMMITTEE OF 10 "OWNER OPERATORS" ON JANUARY 24, 1989. HE IS THE LARGEST INDIVIDUAL SHAREHOLDER WITH 17% OF THE STOCK. HARVEY HAS BEEN SELLING HIS PERSONAL STOCK TO THE ESOT PLAN. THESE SHARES OF HIS STOCK ARE THEN GIVEN TO THE

EMPLOYEES AS AN ANNUAL BONUS. HE PLANS ON STARTING A NEW CAM MANUFACTURING COMPANY, BUT IS WARNED HE HAS A ONE YEAR "NON-COMPETE" CONTRACT. 1990 HARVEY CRANE FORMS A NEW CORPORATION. CRANE CAMDESIGN INCORPORATED IS BORN ON JANUARY 25, 1990. HIS CUSTOMERS WILL BE THE COMPETITORS OF THE COMPANY THAT STILL USES HARVEY'S LAST NAME TO PROMOTE THEIR CAMSHAFTS AND OTHER PRODUCTS. 1999 THE OFFICERS OF CRANE TECHNOLOGY GROUP, INC. (CTG) (THE NEW NAME OF HIS ORIGINAL CORPORATION) SENDS A REGISTERED LETTER TO HARVEY CRANE'S LAWYER THREATENING TO SUE IF THE NAME OF CRANE CAMDESIGN, INCORPORATED IS NOT CHANGED! THEREFORE HARVEY IS FORCED TO CHANGE THE LEGAL CORPORATIONS NAME TO harvey CRANE, Incorporated. OF COURSE, HE COULD "FIGHT IT", BUT THE LEGAL COSTS WOULD BE FAR HIGHER.

CRANE ENGINEERING - THE START


FOUNDED JANUARY 1, 1953

THE FOUNDER WAS HARVEY CRANE, JR. THE FIRST EMPLOYEE WAS BILL POHLE. BILL WAS HIRED IN EARLY 1953 FOR LATHE WORK ON THE RACING REAR AXLE PART OF HIS BUSINESS. A SECOND EMPLOYEE WAS ADDED DURING THE SUMMER TIME TO PORT FORD FLATHEAD ENGINE BLOCKS. A THIRD EMPLOYEE WAS HIRED IN THE FALL FOR GRINDING CAMS. THE FIRST RACING CAMSHAFTS WERE GROUND ON A NEW STORM VULCAN CAMSHAFT GRINDER ORDERED IN EARLY 1953 AND DELIVERED IN AUGUST. HARVEY WAS DRAFTED OUT OF THE NATIONAL GUARD INTO THE ARMY IN SEPTEMBER OF 1953. HE WAS DISCHARGED TWO YEARS

LATER IN SEPTEMBER OF 1955. AT FIRST, ALL CAMSHAFTS REGROUND WERE SIMPLE "COPY TYPE" RACING CAMSHAFTS. HARVEY'S FIRST CAM PROFILE ENGINEERING WAS STARTED ON JANUARY 1, 1957 WHEN HE BEGAN TO DRAW "DISPLACEMENT" GRAPHS OF THE LOBE PROFILE. WHEN COMPARING THESE GRAPHS THRU A LIGHT TABLE, IT BECAME APPARENT TO HARVEY THAT THE FIRST SMALL AMOUNT OF LIFT DID NOT REALLY CHANGE THE OVERALL "AREA UNDER THE LIFT CURVE". THIS AREA OF LIFT WAS USUALLY LESS THAN .015 INCHES OF CAM LIFT. THIS WAS LATER DISCOVERED TO BE THE "RAMP" AREA. WHEN THESE DISPLACEMENT GRAPH NUMBERS WERE INCREASED TO FOUR DECIMAL PLACE DATA (.0001") WITH ONE CAM DEGREE SPACING (USING A HOME MADE 24 INCH DIAMETER DEGREE WHEEL), TRUE "DIFFERENCES" NUMBERS COULD BE CALCULATED. THE FIRST DIFFERENCE OF LIFT IS CALLED VELOCITY. NOW THE VELOCITY COULD BE PLOTTED! HARVEY ATTEMPTED TO SUBTRACT VELOCITY DIFFERENCES TO ARRIVE AT ACCELERATION BUT THESE NUMBERS WERE TO "ROUGH" TO PLOT! A LARGER DIAMETER DEGREE WHEEL WOULD BE REQUIRED! INSTEAD OF MAKING A LARGER DIAMETER DEGREE WHEEL HE USED A NEW BRIDGEPORT ROTARY TABLE TO ROTATE THE CAMSHAFT FOR MEASUREMENT. NOW, EXACTLY ONE CAM DEGREE LIFT DATA WAS MUCH MORE REPEATABLE. NOW, THE ACCELERATION NUMBERS COULD BE PLOTTED WITH MUCH LESS "SCATTER". FINALLY THE FOUR DECIMAL PLACE LIFT DATA COULD BE "REVISED" AND THE NEW DATA COULD BE USED FOR "CUTTING A MODEL LOBE" IN THE SAME NEW BRIDGEPORT MILLING MACHINE. THIS REVISION WAS ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE USE OF A NEW PURCHASE OF THE FIRST "ELECTRONIC" COMPUTER, A FRIDEN 4 INCH

SCREEN FOUR FUNCTION CALCULATOR. SO MUCH FOR PROGRESS!

CAM SCHOOL BOOK INDEX


AS OF FEBRUARY 20, 2006

PAGE# SUBJECT 1..BACKGROUND TO THIS CLASS 2..SUBJECTS TO BE COVERED 3..DETAILS OF SUBJECT NUMBERS 1 THRU 4 4..DETAILS OF SUBJECT NUMBERS 5 THRU 11 5..NEW TECHNIQUES IN CAM PROFILE DESIGN 6..EXCERPT FROM "COSWORTH THE SEARCH FOR POWER" (PUBLISHED 1990) 7..HARVEY CRANE'S BIOGRAPHY 8..CRANE ENGINEERING COMPANY, A HISTORY FROM 1953 THRU 1965 9..CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF HJC'S DEVELOPMENT OF HIS COMPANY 10..CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF HJC'S DEVELOPMENT OF HIS COMPANY 11..CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF HJC'S DEVELOPMENT OF HIS COMPANY 12..A HISTORY OF INDEPENDENT CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURERS 13..A HISTORY OF INDEPENDENT CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURERS 14..A HISTORY OF INDEPENDENT CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURERS 15..A HISTORY OF INDENPENDENT CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURERS 16..ED WINFIELD, HIS HISTORY AS A CAMSHAFT MANUFACTURER BY HJC 17..ED WINFIELD, AS TOLD BY DEMA ELGIN 18..THE BERCO CAM GRINDER AND ITS ORIGIN 19..harvey CRANE, Incorporated's CamCheck MACHINE NUMBER 1 20..PATENTS ABOUT CAM DESIGNS AND LOBE SHAPES 1916 THRU 1951 21..PATENTS ABOUT CAM DESIGNS AND LOBE SHAPES 1953 THRU 1978

22..BOOKS ABOUT CAMSHAFTS (GOOD ONES ONLY) 23..TAPPET SIZE AND MAXIMUM VELOCITY (0.748" THRU 0.999" DIAMETER) 24..TAPPET SIZE AND MAXIMUM VELOCITY (1.102" THRU 1.378" DIAMETER) 25..TAPPET SIZE AND MAXIMUM VELOCITY (1.415" THRU 1.808" DIAMETER) 26..THE CAM DOCTOR (1998 PRICING AND OPTIONS LISTING) 27..VALVE SPRING MANUFACTURERS AND RESELLERS 28..FILE EXTENSION NAMES (AS RECOMMENDED BY HARVEY CRANE) 29..CAM PROFILE INTENSITY AND SPAN 30..CAM PROFILE INTENSITY AND SPAN 31..CAM PROFILE INTENSITY AND SPAN 32..CAM PROFILE MEASURING MACHINES AND RESELLERS 33..THE CAM DOCTOR MEASURING PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 34..VALVE TIMING DIAGRAMS, HOW THEY CAN LIE TO YOU 35..VALVE TIMING DIAGRAMS, CONTINUED 36..TRIPLE VALVE SPRINGS, A HISTORY AND TRADEMARKS 37..HARVEY'S EX EMPLOYEES AND THEIR NEW FIRMS OR EMPLOYERS 38..RAMP SECRETS (PAGE ONE) 39..RAMP SECRETS (PAGE TWO) 40..RAMP SECRETS (PAGE THREE) 41..RAMP SECRETS (INTENSITY DATA) 42/55..GRAPHS OF THE ABOVE RAMP TYPES (13 PAGES TOTAL)

FORD MODEL A & MODEL B


AVERAGE OF SEVERAL LOBES (ACTUALLY MEASURED IN HARVEY CRANE'S $100,000 MEASURING MACHINE #1) AND THE PROFILEA.EXE ANALYSIS OF FLATHEAD (AND SOME OHV/FLATHEAD) REGROUND CAMSHAFTS. PLUS ALL DESIGN DATA FOR REGRINDS AND BILLET CAMS LISTED IN ORDER OF .0500" DURATION

DURATION AT DESCRIPTION NEW STOCK MODEL A CAM .0100 .0200 .0500

CAM LIFT .3003566" .2800000"

OWNER OF THE CAMSHAFT B. SCHWALM

266.60 224.37 197.16

H. CRANE FORD-A268.68 225.08 198.00 M H. CRANE 208F302S

246.00 225.00 208.00 .3020000" B. SCHWALM B. RENTZ SMITH & J. D. ELGIN J & M MACH. B. RENTZ

NEW M3B6250 (IN 279.40 233.20 208.05 .3242320" & EX) NEW B CAM IN. (COPPER P.) S&J TOURING (ASH/STIPE) 281.37 232.15 209.06 .3324757" 276.97 234.13 209.26 .3035324" .3014259" .3039965" .3391167" .3200000"

WINFIELD 62-13 . 255.88 233.84 210.20 302" J&M 3256 (CAMS N.E.) NEW B CAM EX. (COPPER P.) H. CRANE 17-57 277.32 235.84 210.21 277.56 249.03 215.61

H. CRANE 218F320S 256.00 235.00 218.00

254.00 237.40 220.00 .3360000"

(BILLETS) D. ELGIN (BILLETS) (OHV USE)

WINFIELD 64-15 . 297.90 248.68 220.24 .3240748" 323" H. CRANE 20-60 H. CRANE 228F3267 H. CRANE 228F338S 260.00 243.36 226.00 .3460000" 274.00 254.72 228.00 .3266700" 266.00 245.00 228.00 .3380000" .3251781" .3448906"

WINFIELD 65-12 . 266.71 247.42 230.60 326" WINFIELD 67-14 . 294.59 252.69 231.48

D. ELGIN D. ELGIN

345" ISKY 1017 (MAX #2?) AMERICAN CAM #1R ASH/STIPE #165 272.17 253.86 233.29 .3671181" M. PORTER C.H. YAPP D. ELGIN (BILLETS) (OHV USE)

281.04 254.77 234.34 .3540577" 286.02 258.37 235.12 .3616976"

WINFIELD 65-14 . 272.35 253.52 235.96 .3404329" 341" H. CRANE 25-65 H. CRANE 238F3385 H. CRANE 238F356S H. CRANE 238F370S ISKY 1021 ISKY 400 ISKY 1007 270.00 253.40 236.00 .3650000" 284.00 264.72 238.00 .3384700" 276.00 255.00 238.00 .3560000" 272.00 257.72 238.00 .3700000" 265.95 254.40 238.18 286.57 262.03 238.49 274.67 256.65 239.78 .3887048" .3708719" .3741630" .3719819" .3613542"

(BILLETS) M. PORTER

WINFIELD 67-14 . 287.98 258.89 239.89 372" POTVIN FR ISKY 1007-LD H. CRANE 244F388S H. CRANE 248F400S H. CRANE 266F438D 302.83 269.81 239.97

D. ELGIN M. PORTER

304.59 265.19 242.49 .3879026" 278.00 263.72 244.00 .3880000" 282.00 267.72 248.00 .4000000" 304.00 285.88 266.00 .4380000" (BILLETS) (BILLETS) * 1.685" *

(1.685" = 1/8" OVERSIZE JOURNALS ONLY USE)

RECOMMENDATION FOR: D&S CAM CORP (386) 426-0670 EDGEWATER, FLORIDA harvey CRANE, Inc. DESIGNED (AND LANDIS 3L CNC PRODUCED) MASTERS AND PROFILES FOR REGRINDING GOOD USED STOCK FORD MODEL A & B FLATHEAD CAMSHAFTS
TIMING .010" .050" COLD GROSS PROFILE # APPLICATION/USE DATA DUR. DUR. LASH LIFT

3/4 ROAD GRIND FOR USE WITH A STOCK ENGINE OR VERY FEW ENGINE 208F302S MODIFICATIONS. IDLE IS AS GOOD AS THE STOCK CAM. LOTS OF TORQUE!

16-50 60-06

246 208 246 208

.010" .302" .012" .302"

FULL RACE ROAD GRIND. REQUIRES MORE COMPRESSION RATIO THAN STOCK AND AT 21-55 218F320S LEAST A LARGER MODEL 65-11 B CARB. IDLE SPEED IS INCREASED AT LEAST 250 RPM MORE THAN A STOCK CAM. 228F338S SUPER FULL RACE GRIND. 26-60 REQUIRES EVEN MORE 70-17 COMPRESSION RATIO AND MORE THAN A B CARB. IDLE SPEED IS INCREASED ANOTHER

256 218 256 218

.010" .320" .012" .320"

266 228 266 328

.010" .338" .012" .338"

200 RPM OVER THE 218 PROFILE. COMPETITION GRIND! FOR USE WITH SPEEDSTERS AND OTHER LIGHT WEIGHT CARS. REQUIRES THE 31-65 238F356S MAXIMUM IN COMPRESSION RATIOS 75-21 AND MULTIPLE CARBS. POOR LOW SPEED TORQUE BUT MAXIMUM TOP END HORSEPOWER.

276 238 276 238

.010" .356" .012" .356"

THE TIMING DATA LISTED ABOVE IS BASED UPON 112.0 LOBE CENTERLINES WHICH RESULTS WHEN GRINDING MOST STOCK MODEL A CAMSHAFTS. SOME CAMSHAFTS WILL BE GROUND AT 113 OR 114 DEGREES OF LOBE CENTERLINE AND THE CORRECT TIMING DATA WILL BE FURNISHED WITH THE REGROUND CAMSHAFT. DEPENDING ON THE CAMSHAFT YOU SEND FOR REGRINDING, CENTERLINES CAN NOT BE CHANGED MORE THAN 1/2 A CAM DEGREE BEFORE THE LOBE BECOMES TOO SMALL FOR A LONG LIFE OF LOW NOSE WEAR. THESE PROFILES HAVE "ULTRA HIGH" PEAK POSITIVE ACCELERATIONS FOR A VERY SHORT SEAT DURATION TIMING AND USE "CONSTANT VELOCITY" RAMPS. THESE RAMPS WILL GIVE QUIET VALVE ACTION AND A LONGER VALVE LIFE.

RECOMMENDED CAM REFERENCE BOOKS & PAPERS 1. "CAMS, ELEMENTARY AND ADVANCED" F. D. FURMAN FIRST EDITION 1921 PUBLISHED BY WILEY & SONS. 2. "VALVE GEAR DESIGN" MICHAEL C. TURKISH FIRST EDITION 1946 PUBLISHED BY EATON MANUFACTURING CO. WILCOSRICH DIVISION, DETROIT, MI. PRINTED AT WAVERLY PRESS, BALTIMORE.

3. "NEW METHODS OF VALVE TRAIN DESIGN" W. M. DUDLEY JANUARY 2, 1948 SAE TRANSACTIONS 4. "POLYDYNE CAM DESIGN" D. A. STODDART JANUARY 1953 MACHINE DESIGN #25 FEBURARY 1953 & MARCH 1953 5. "CAMS" H. A. ROTHBART 1956 PUBLISHED BY WILEY & SONS. 6. "CAM DESIGN HANDBOOK" 2003 HAROLD A. ROTHBART, 23825 ANZA AVENUE #127, TORRANCE, CA, 90505, USA PUBLISHED BY McGRAW HILL 7. "SECRETS OF A CAM DESIGNER" HARVEY J. CRANE, JR. AVAILABLE ONLY AS A RESULT OF ATTENDING HARVEY'S CAM SCHOOL