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Fabric programming

KEY WORD
G.S.M. Yarn Count. Stitch length. Yarn Diameter. Fabric Width. Machine gauge. Needle gauge. Wales space. Needle pitch.

What is fabric?
Fabric is a manufactured assembly of fibres and yarns that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient cohesion to give the assembly useful mechanical strength. Fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted but the term includes Assemblies produced by felting, lace making, net making, non woven processes and tufting. Our Study basically is on knitted fabric specification and machines which are related to knitted fabric production.

How we analyze fabric?


In the analysis of woven fabric specification we consider ends per inch, picks per inch, yarn count (warp & weft), and fabric width In case of knitted fabric specification GSM, stitch length is mainly considered. Target of this training Our target is to find out the easy process to get decision about yarn count selection, loop length selection, machine Diameter selection & machine gauge selection for required G S M By this process we can get decision about yarn count, loop length, machine gauge, and machine diameter for the single jersey, Rib and interlock fabric.

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com

Fabric programming

Aims of the Training


Find out relation between yarn count and GSM. Find out the logic of selection of stitch length. Selection of machine diameter and machine gauge to get specific width of fabric. Find out the finished fabric width.
TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITION WALES PER INCH: Wales per inch means how many numbers of Wales are present in one inch, it is very important for calculation of knitted fabric GSM and fabric properties. COURSES PER INCH: Courses per inch mean how many numbers of courses are present in one inch. It is also very important for calculation of knitted fabric GSM.

STITCH LENGTH: Stitch length is theoretically a single length of yarn which include one needle loop and half the length of Yarn (half of a sinker loop) between that needle loop and the adjacent needle loops on either side of it. Loop exists in course in course length and it is that which influence fabric dimension and other properties including weight.

MEASUREMENT OF YARN COUNT:


A different way to find out the count of the yarn. At first unravel a considerable no yarn from the fabric. Then measure the total length of the yarn and measured the weight of that no of yarn. From these weights, we find out the count of the yarn. The equation we followed is as follow: Count = n * L * 453.6 Wt *36* 840 Where, n= number of yarn in bundle. L= length of yarn. Wt= weight of yarn.

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com

Fabric programming

MEASUREMENT OF GSM:
GSM = Ks * Tex Stitch length (mm) Stitch length = Ks * Tex GSM Ks = GSM * Stitch length Tex Where, Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type. There are two formulas for calculating the GSM of a knitted fabric. i.e. First formula is GSM = Course per inch * Stitch length * 39.37 * 39.37 * Tex 1000 * 1000 GSM = WPI * CPI * SL(mm) Count (Ne) CPI = Count (Ne)*GSM WPI * SL (mm) x 0.9155 x 0.9155

Some reference for Ks value


Fabric Type Single jersey Single lacoste Double lacoste Polo pique Plain interlock 11 Rib 11 Rib 21 Rib Color Average Average Average Average Average Light Average Average Value of Ks 19.55 22.4 22.75 25 39.3 24.5 26.5 28.3

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com

Fabric programming
Flat back rib 3 Thread fleece Average Average 81 40.92

To find suitable yarn count for Required GSM


Name of the fabrics Single jersey Pique Double lacoste 1 x 1 Rib Lycra 1 x 1 Rib Lycra 2 x 2 Rib Interlock Equations Yarn count = (-) 0.141 GSM + 50.22 Yarn count = - 0.146 GSM + 57.16 Yarn count = - 0.167 GSM + 64.36 Yarn count = - 0.123 GSM + 54.57 Yarn count = - 0.119 GSM + 59.12 Yarn count = - 0.108 GSM + 56.62 Yarn count = - 0.206 GSM + 80.56

To find suitable GSM for yarn count


Name of the fabrics Single jersey Lycra single jersey Pique 1 *1 Rib Lycra 1 * 1 Rib Lycra 2 * 2 Rib Interlock Equations GSM = -6.879yarn count + 350.4 GSM = -4.9716 yarn count + 354.56 GSM = -6.6737 yarn count + 386.44 GSM = -7.9731 yarn count + 437.66 GSM = -8.2839 yarn count + 494.08 GSM = -9.1216 yarn count + 519.05 GSM = -4.778 yarn count + 388.41

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com

Fabric programming

EQUATION FOR DETERMINING FABRIC WIDTH:


Fabric width = No. of wales * Wales space. = No. of needle * Wales space. = Dg * Wales space

D= Cylinder diameter. g = Gauge. Fabric width = No. of needle FOR CALCULATING YARN DIAMETER:

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com

Fabric programming
In case of minimum loop length there is no space left in interloping area. i.e. stretched due to tension the wales space become less than 4d (d is the yarn diameter) When loop length is increased the space into the interloping area are increased as a result wales space becomes wider. It may be up to 5.2d

D=

0.91 ne

D = Tex 26.7

Fabric Type

Yarn count

Stitch length (mm)

Colour

M/c DIA

M/c Gauge

Finished diameter (inch)

Finished GSM

Plain S/j 18s/1 20s/1 24s/1 26s/1 28s/1 30s/1 34s/1 40s/1 Single lacost 18s/1 24s/1 26s/1 30s/1 3.00 2.64 2.60 2.50 Average Average Average Average 30 30 30 30 24 24 24 24 46 40 36 34 245-255 210-215 200-210 180-190 2.94 2.98 2.68 2.66 2.70 2.68 2.40 2.44 White White White White Average Average Average Average 26 30 30 30 26 30 26 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 30 33.5 32 31 25 30 24 20 220-230 200-210 175-185 160-170 150-160 130-140 125-135 100-110

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com

Fabric programming

CONVERSION FOR YARN

M/C Gauge
18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

Ne
14/1 - 24/1 18/1 26/1 20/1 30/1 24/1 34/1 26/1 40/1 30/1 50/1 34/1 60/1 40/1 70/1

Catchy solutions Venkatramani. Gireesan Contact: +919940839662 e-mail: vengatraam@gmail.com