'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
1
1
'
1
1
'
2
2
'
0
0
'
1 1 1 1
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
In = Out
13
Example 10.31: Equilibrium Stage Contact for CO2 AirWater.
A gas mixture at 1.0 atm pressure abs containing air and CO2 is
contacted in a singlestage mixer continuously with pure water at 293
K. The two exit gas and liquid streams reach equilibrium. The inlet gas
flow rate is 100 kg mol/h, with a mole fraction of CO2 of yA2 = 0.20. The
liquid flow rate entering is 300 kg mol water/h. calculate the amounts and
compositions of the two outlet phases. Assume that water does nor
vaporize to the gas phase.
14
Solution
The flow diagram,
(1) The inert water flow is L = L
0
= 300 kg mol/h.
(2) The inert air flow V is obtained from,
V = V(1y
A
).
Hence, the inert air flow is
V = V
2
(1y
A2
)
= 100 (10.20)
= 80 kg mol/h .
1 atm
293 K
L
0
= 300 kg mol/h
x
A0
L
1
x
A1
V
2
= 100 kg mol/h
y
A2
= 0.20
V
1
y
A1
15
(3) Substituting into equation to make a balance on CO
2
(A).
(1)
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
1
1
'
1
1
'
2
2
'
0
0
'
1 1 1 1
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
1
1
1
1
1
80
1
300
20 . 0 1
20 . 0
80
0 1
0
300
A
A
A
A
y
y
x
x
Now . The Resulting equation has two unknowns (X
A1
and Y
A1
) .. So it
is necessary to calculate one of these unknowns to solve the equation
above..!!!
It is possible to calculate the Y
A1
by the use of Henrys law because the
gas and liquid are in equilibriumas mentioned in the question before
16
At 293 K, the Henrys law constant from Appendix A.3 is
H = 0.142 x 10
4
atm/mol frac.
Then
H = H/P = 0.142 x 10
4
/1.0 = 0.142 x 10
4
mol frac. gas/mol frac. Liquid.
Substituting into,
y
A1
= 0.142 x 10
4
x
A1
(2)
A A
X H Y
'
=
H` needed to calculated
Know it possible to use the value of YA1 in equation (1) to calculate the value of XA1
17
Solving equation (1) and (2) simultaneously,
get x
A1
= 1.41 x 10
4
and y
A1
= 0.20. To calculate the total flow
rates leaving,
In this case, since the liquid solution is so dilute, L
0
$ L
1
.
h kgmol
x
L
L
A
/ 300
10 41 . 1 1
300
1
4
1
'
1
=

=
h kgmol
y
V
V
A
/ 100
20 . 0 1
80
1
1
'
1
=
=
18
1
2 n N
L
0
L
1
L
2
L
n1
L
n
L
N1
L
N
V
N+1
V
N
V
n+1
V
n
V
3
V
2
V
1
10.3.C COUNTERCURRENT MULTIPLECONTACT STAGES.
19
Countercurrent multiplecontact stages.
 more concentrated product.
 total number of ideal stages = N.
 B&C may or may be not be somewhat miscible in each other.
 two streams leaving a stage in equilibrium with each other.
Total material balance: L
0
+ V
N+1
= L
N
+ V
1
Component A overall balance: L
0
x
0A
+ V
N+1
y
N+1A
= L
N
x
NA
+ V
1
y
1A
For the first n stages balance : L
0
x
0A
+ V
n+1
y
n+1A
= L
n
x
nA
+ V
1
y
1A
Operating line:
1
0 0 1
1
1
+ +
+
+ =
n
n
n
n
n
V
x L V
x
V
L
y
This is why we write n instead of N
20
An operating line is an important materialbalance equation
because it relates the concentration y
n+1
in the V stream with x
n
in the L stream passing it.
slope
streams L & V are immiscible in each other with only A being
transferred:
1 +
=
n
n
V
L
slope
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
+
1
1
' '
1
1
'
0
0
'
1 1 1 1
A
A
An
An
An
An
A
A
y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
21
Graphical calculation for determining N:
1. Plot y
A
vs x
A
.
2. Draw operating line.
3. Draw equilibrium line (Henrys law).
4. Stepping upward (or downward) until y
N+1
(or y
1
) is
reached.
5. N = number of steps/trays
Dilute system (<10%):
1. slope (flowrates V & L) $ constant operating line = straight
2. L & V = constant, dilute system (<10%) operating line =
straight.
22
Example 10.32: Absorption of Acetone in a Countercurrent Stage Tower.
It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0
mol % acetone in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet
gas flow to the tower is 30.0 kg mol/h and the total inlet pure water
flow to be used to absorb the acetone is 90 kg mol H
2
O/h.
The process is to be operate isothermally at 300 K and a total
pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in
the gasliquid is y
A
= 2.53x
A
.
Determine the number of theoretical stages required for this
separation.
23
Solution
the first step is to have good identification of the data given in the question
Given values are
y
AN+1
= 0.01 (1 mole % of acetone in air entering)
x
A0
= 0 (Pure water )
V
N+1
= 30.0 kg mol/h, (total inlet gas flow to the tower )
L
0
= 90.0 kg mol/h. (total inlet pure water )
making an acetone material balance,
(1) amount of entering acetone = y
AN+1
V
N+1
= 0.01(30.0)
= 0.3 kg mpl/h.
(2) entering air = (1 y
AN+1
)V
N+1
= (10.01)(30.0)
= 29.7 kg mol air/h
24
(3) acetone leaving in V
1
= 0.10(0.30) = 0.030 kg mol/h.
(4) acetone leaving in L
1
= 0.90(0.30) = 0.27 kg mol/h.
from the four steps above, V
1
, y
A1
, L
N
,and x
AN
can be calculated
V
1
= 29.7 + 0.03 = 29.73 kg mol air + acetone/h.
y
A1
= (0.030/29.73) = 0.00101
L
N
= 90.0 + 0.27 = 90.27 kg mol water + acetone /h.
x
AN
= (0.27/90.27) = 0.0030.
Since the flow of liquid varies only slightly from L
0
= 90.0 at the inlet to L
N
= 90.27
at the the outlet and V from 30.0 to 29.73, the slope L
n
/V
n+1
of the operating line is
essentially constant.
This line is plotted, and the equilibrium relation of Henry
y
A
= 2.53x
A
is also plotted.
Starting at point y
A1
,x
A0
the stages are drawn. About 5.2 theoretical
stages are required.
25
0
0
0.001
0.002 0.003 0.004
0.004
0.008
0.012
x
AN
x
A0
y
A1
y
AN+1
Equilibrium line
Operating line
3
2
1
4
5
Mole fraction acetone in water, x
A
Mole fraction acetone in air, y
A
Figure 10.34: Theoretical stages for countercurrent absorption in example 10.32.
26
This technique is used to calculate the number of theoretical
stages analytically without the need for the graphical method
Its also used to make comparison and justifications in the
results of both methods
Kremser equations
This method is used to calculate the number of ideal stages.
This method is valid only when operating & equilibrium lines
are straight.
In case of Absorption system the equation used is :
A
A A mx y
mx y
N
N
log
1 1
1 log
0 1
0 1
'
+
'
=
+
10.3.D Analytical Equations For Countercurrent Stage Contact
27
where,
m = slope of equilibrium line.
A = absorption factor = constant = L/(mV).
L.V = molar flow rates.
when A = 1
Stripping:
0 1
1 1
mx y
y y
N
N
=
+
)
A
A A
m
y
x
m
y
x
N
N
N
N
1
log
1 log
1
1
0
=
+
+
28
When A = 1,
1. Calculate A
1
at L
0
& V
1
.
2. Calculate A
N
at L
N
&V
N+1.
3. Calculate A
ave.
=
4. Calculate N.
m
y
x
x x
N
N
N
N
1
0
+
=
N
A A
1
Procedure (for varying A):
29
Example 10.33: Number of Stages by Analytical Equation.
Repeat Example 10.32 but use the Kremser analytical
equation for countercurrent stage processes.
Solution,
At Stages 1
V
1
= 29.73 kg mol/h,
y
A1
= 0.001001,
L
0
= 90.0, and
x
A0
= 0.
Also, the equilibrium relation is y
A
= 2.53x
A
where m = 2.53.
Then,
20 . 1
73 . 29 53 . 2
0 . 90
1
0
1
=

= = =
mV
L
mV
L
A
30
At Stage N
V
N+1
=30.0,
y
AN+1
= 0.01,
L
N
= 90.27, and
x
AN
= 0.0030.
The geometric average,
Then,
This compares closely with 5.2 stages using graphical method
19 . 1
0 . 30 53 . 2
27 . 90
1
=

= =
+ N
N
N
mV
L
A
195 . 1 19 . 1 20 . 0
1
=  = =
N
A A A
04 . 5
) 195 . 1 log(
195 . 1
1
195 . 1
1
1
) 0 ( 53 . 2 00101 . 0
) 0 ( 53 . 2 01 . 0
log
=
'
+
'
= N
31
10.4 Mass Transfer Between Phases
For absorption, the solute may diffuse through a gas phase
and then diffuse through and be absorbed in an adjacent and
immiscible liquid phase.
The two phases are in direct contact with each other, and the
interfacial area between the phases is usually not well
defined.
A concentration gradient must exist to cause this mass
transfer through the resistances in each phase.
Liquid
m
o
l
e
f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
x
Gas
y i
x
Mass transfer of A
i
y
32
distance from interface
N
A
y
AG
y
Ai
interface
gasphase mixture
of A in gas G
liquidphase solution
of A in liquid L.
x
Ai
x
AL
Where
y
AG
= concentration of A in the bulk gas phase
y
Ai
= concentration of gas A at the interface
x
Ai
=concentration of liquid A at the interface
x
AL
= concentration of A in the bulk liquid phase
33
Filmtransfer Coefficient and Interface Concentration.
Equimolar counterdiffusion.
N
A
= k
y
(y
AG
y
Ai
) = k
x
(x
Ai
x
AL
)
Where
k
y
= Gas phase mass transfer coefficient (kg mol/s.m
2
.mol frac)
k
x
= Liquid phase mass transfer coefficient (kg mol/s.m
2
.mol frac)
Diffusion of A through stagnant or nondiffusing B.
N
A
= k
y
(y
AG
y
Ai
) = k
x
(x
Ai
x
AL
)
where,
iM A
y
y
y
k
k
) 1 (
'
=
iM A
x
x
x
k
k
) 1 (
'
=
34
Ai AL
Ai AG
y
x
x x
y y
k
k
slope
= =
'
'
y
AG
y
Ai
y
*
A
x
AL
x
Ai
x
*
A
M
D
E
P
equilibrium
line
slope = m
slope = m
NOTE
The interface composition (x
Ai and
y
Ai
) can be determined by drawing the line PM
with the slope (k
x
/k
y
) intersecting the equilibrium line
35
iM A y
iM A x
y k
x k
slope
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
'
'
=
y
AG
y
Ai
y
*
A
x
AL
x
Ai
x
*
A
M
D
E
P
equilibrium
line
slope = m
slope = m
Fig.10.42: Concentration driving force and interface concentrations in
inter phase mass transfer (A diffusing through stagnant B).
36
Example 10.41: Interface Composition in Interphase Mass Transfer.
The solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B in a
wettedwall tower with the liquid flowing as a film downward along
the wall. At certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration y
AG
= 0.380 mol fraction and the bulk liquid concentration is x
AL
= 0.1.
The tower is operating at 298 K and 1.013 x 10
5
Pa and the
equilibrium data are as follows:
x
A
y
A
0 0
0.05 0.022
0.1 0.052
0.15 0.087
0.2 0.131
0.25 0.187
0.3 0.265
0.35 0.385
37
The solute A diffuse through stagnant B in the gas phase and
then through a nondiffusing liquid.
Using correlations for dilute solutions in wettedwall towers,
the film masstransfer coefficient for A in the gas phase is
predicted as
k
y
= 1.465 x 103 kg mol A/s.m
2
mol frac. And for the liquid
phase as k
x
= 1.967 x 10
3
kg mol A/s.m
2
mol frac.
Calculate the interface concentrations yAi and xAi and the
flux NA.
Solution
First we plot the data
38
y
A
x
A
0
0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
39
Now we need to find the point P on the graph
So :
Since the correlations are for dilute solutions, (1y
A
)
iM
and (1
x
A
)
iM
are approximately 1.0 and the coefficients are the same as
k
y
and k
x
.
Point P is plotted at y
AG
= 0.380 and x
AL
= 0.1.
For the first trial (1y
A
)
iM
and (1x
A
)
iM
are assumed as 1.0 and
the slope of line PM is, from Eq.(10.49).
A line through point P with a slope of 1.342 is plotted in the
figure intersecting the equilibrium line at M
1
, where
y
Ai
= 0.183 and x
Ai
= 0.247.
342 . 1
0 . 1 / 10 465 . 1
0 . 1 / 10 967 . 1
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
3
3
'
'
=


=
iM A y
iM A x
y k
x k
slope
40
For the second trial we use y
Ai
and x
Ai
from the first trial to
calculate the new slope. Substituting into Eqs.(10.46) and
(10.47),
)] 1 /( ) 1 ln[(
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
AG Ai
AG Ai
iM A
y y
y y
y
=
715 . 0
)] 38 . 0 1 /( ) 183 . 0 1 ln[(
) 380 . 0 1 ( ) 183 . 0 1 (
=
=
)] 1 /( ) 1 ln[(
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
Ai AL
Ai AL
iM A
x x
x x
x
=
825 . 0
)] 247 . 0 1 /( ) 1 . 0 1 ln[(
) 247 . 0 1 ( ) 1 . 0 1 (
=
=
41
Substituting into Eq. (10.49) to obtain the new slope,
A line through point P with a slope of 1.163 is plotted and
intersects the equilibrium line at M, where y
Ai
= 0.197 and
x
Ai
= 0.257. Using these new values for the third trial, the
following values are calculated:
163 . 1
715 . 0 / 10 465 . 1
825 . 0 / 10 967 . 1
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
3
3
'
'
=


=
iM A y
iM A x
y k
x k
slope
709 . 0
)] 38 . 0 1 /( ) 197 . 0 1 ln[(
) 380 . 0 1 ( ) 197 . 0 1 (
) 1 ( =
=
iM A
y
820 . 0
)] 257 . 0 1 /( ) 1 . 0 1 ln[(
) 257 . 0 1 ( ) 1 . 0 1 (
) 1 ( =
=
iM A
x
Please notice the values
of x
Ai
and yAi didnt
change much from the
first trial and that means
we are on the right way
of solving the problem
(refining the answer)
42
This slope of 1.160 is essentially the same as the slope of
1.163 for the second trial.
Hence, the final values are y
Ai
= 0.197 and x
Ai
= 0.257 and
are shown as point M. To calculate the flux,
Note that the flux N
A
through each phase is the same as in
other phase, which should be the case at steady state.
160 . 1
709 . 0 / 10 465 . 1
820 . 0 / 10 967 . 1
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
3
3
'
'
=


=
iM A y
iM A x
y k
x k
slope
2 4
3
'
. / 10 78 . 3
) 197 . 0 380 . 0 (
709 . 0
10 967 . 1
) (
) 1 (
m s kgmol
y y
y
k
N
Ai AG
iM A
y
A

=
=
43
Fig.10.44: Location of interface concentrations for example 10.41.
y
AG
y
Ai
y
*
A
x
AL
x
Ai x
*
A
M
D
E
P
M
1
0
0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
44
Overall Masstransfer Coefficients and Driving Force.
For equimolar counterdiffusion and/or diffusion in dilute
solutions,
N
A
= k
y
(y
AG
y
Ai
) = k
x
(x
Ai
x
AL
)
$ K
y
(y
AG
y
*
A
) $ K
x
(x
*
A
x
AL
)
Diffusion of A through stagnant or nondiffusing B.
) (
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
'
'
AL A
M A
x
A AG
M A
y
A
x x
x
K
y y
y
K
N
=




45
Natural draft wet cooling hyperboloid towers at Didcot Power Station, UK
10.5 Continuous Humidification Processes
46
47
WaterCooling Tower.
Warm water flows countercurrently to an air stream. The warm water enters the
top of a packed tower and cascades down through the packing, leaving at the bottom.
Air enters at the bottom of the tower and flows upward through the descending water
by the natural draft or by the action of a fan.
The water is distributed by troughs and overflows to cascade over slat gratings or
packing that provide large interfacial areas of contact between the water air air in the
form of droplets and film of water.
The tower packing often consists of slats of wood or plastic or of a packed bed.
48
49
Theory and Calculation of WaterCooling Towers.
Figure10.51: Temperature and concentration profile in upper
part of cooling tower.
sensible heat in gas
latent heat in gas
sensible heat
in liquid
liquid water
air
water vapor
interface
H
G
humidity
T
G
temperature
T
i
H
i
T
L
50
VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER & HUMIDITY
Introduction
 calculation involve properties and concentration of
mixtures of water vapor and air.
Humidification
 transfer of water from the liquid phase into a gaseous
mixture of air and water vapor.
Dehumidification
 reverse transfer where the water vapor is transferred
from the vapor state to the liquid state.
51
Humidity & humidity chart
(1) Humidity, H : the kg of water vapor contained in 1 kg of
dry air.
where,
p
A
= partial pressure of water vapor in the air.
Saturated air water vapor in equilibrium with liquid water.
p
A
= p
AS
where,
p
AS
= saturated vapor pressure.
A
A
p P
p
H
=
97 . 28
02 . 18
52
(2) Humid volume, v
H
It can be defined as total volume (m
3
) of 1 kg of dry air plus the
vapor it contains at 1 atm abs pressure and the given gas temp.
v
H
(m
3
/kg dry air) = (2.83 x 10
3
+ 4.56 x 10
3
H) T (K).
(3) Total enthalpy of an airwater mixture, H
Y
 the total enthalpy of 1 kg of air plus its water vapor.
 sensible heat of the airwater vapor mixture plus the
latent heat.
HY (kJ/kg dry air) = (1.005 + 1.88 H) (T C0) + 2501.4H
where,
T
ref
for both components = 0 C
53
(4) Wet bulb temperature TW,
Its the steadystate nonequilibrium temperature reached when a small amount of
water is contacted under adiabatic conditions by a continuous stream of gas.
Steady state temp. attained by a wetbulb thermometer under standardized condition
The temperature and humidity of the gas are not changed.
At T
W
= T
S
, the convective heat transfer and wet bulb lines.
or,
)A H H k M q
W W y B
=
W
y B
W
W
k M h
T T
H H
54
M
B
= molecular weight of Air
k
y
= Mass transfer coefficient
= latent heat of vaporization at Tw
A = surface area
w
) .( . Tw T A h q =
55
Please insert figure 9.32 (Humidity
chart) page 529 (Geankoplis)
56
The operating line
G(H
y
H
y1
) = L
cL
(T
L
T
L1
)
where,
G = dry air flow, kg/s.m
2
.
L = water flow, kg water/s.
c
L
= heat capacity of water, assumed constant at 4187 kJ/kg.K.
T
L
= temperature of water, C or K.
H
y
= enthalpy of airwater vapor mixture, J/kg air.
= c
s
(TT
0
) + H
0
= (1.005 + 1.88H)10
3
(T0) + 2.501x10
6
H
H = humidity of air, kg water/kg dry air.
57
M
P S
R
T
L1
T
i
T
L
T
L2
H
y1
H
y
*
1
H
y
H
yi
H
y
*
H
y2
H
y
*
2
equilibrium line
operating line,
slope = L
cL
/G
slope = h
L
a
k
G
aM
B
P
Liquid temperature C
Enthalpy of air
vapor mixture,
H
y
(J/kg dry gas)
Figure 10.53: Temperature enthalpy diagram and operating line for watercooling.
58
Design of WaterCooling Tower Using Film MassTransfer
Coef.
Please follow the steps mentioned in Page649
To calculate the tower height
where,
z = tower height
P = atm pressure.
M
B
= molecular weight of air
k
G
a = volumetric mass transfer coeff. in gas, kg mol/s.m
3
= =
z H
H
y yi
y
G B
y
y
H H
dH
aP k M
G
z dz
0
2
1
59
Design Using Overall MassTransfer Coefficients.
where,
K
G
a = overall mass transfer coefficient.
If experimental cooling data in an actual run in a cooling
tower with known height z are available, then the value of K
G
a
can be obtained.
= =

z H
H
y y
y
G B
y
y
H H
dH
aP K M
G
z dz
0
2
1
60
Example 10.51: Design of WaterCooling Tower Film Coefficients.
A packed countercurrent watercooling tower using a gas flow rate
of G = 1.356 kg dry air/s. m2 and a water flow rate of L = 1.356
kg water/s. m2 to cool the water from T
L2
= 43.3 C to T
L1
= 29.4
C.
The entering air at 29.4 C has a wet bulb temperature of 23.9 C
. The masstransfer coefficient k
G
a is estimated as 1.207 x 10
7
kg
mol/s.m
3
.Pa and h
L
a / k
G
aM
B
P as 4.187 x 10
4
J/kg.K .
Calculate the height of packed tower z. The tower operates at a
pressure of 1.013 x 10
5
Pa.
61
Solution
Following the step outlined
1. The enthalpies from the saturated airwater vapor mixtures
from Table 10.51 are plotted in Fig. 10.54.
2. The inlet air at T
G1
= 29.4 C has a wet bulb temperature
of 23.9 C .
3. The humidity from the humidity chart is H
1
= 0.0165 kg
H
2
O/kg dry air.
4. Substituting into Eq.(9.38),
H
y1
= c
s
(TT
0
) + H
0
= (1.005 + 1.88H) (TT
0
) + H
0
H
y1
= (1.005 + 1.88 x 0.0165)10
3
(29.40) + 2.501 x 10
6
(0.0165).
= 71.7 x 10
3
J/kg.
The point H
y1
= 71.7 x 10
3
and T
L1
= 29.4 C is plotted.
Then substituting into Eq. (10.52) and solving,
Data
preparation
to be used
in equation
(9.3.8)
62
G(H
y2
H
y1
) = Lc
L
(T
L2
T
L1
)
1.356 (H
y2
71.7 x 10
3
) = 1.356 (4.187 x 10
3
) (43.3 29.4).
H
y2
= 129.9 x 10
3
J/kg dry air.
Now both Hy1 and Hy2 are calculated
Then
(1) The point H
y2
= 129.9 x 10
3
and T
L2
= 43.3 C is plotted, giving
the operating line.
(2) Lines with slope  h
L
a / k
G
aM
B
P = 41.87 x 10
3
J/kg.K are
plotted giving H
yi
and H
y
values, which are tabulated in Table 10.52
along with derived values as shown.
(3) Values of 1/(H
yi
H
y
) are plotted versus H
y
and the area under
the curve from H
y1
= 71.7 x 10
3
to H
y2
= 129.9 x 10
3
is
82 . 1
2
1
=
y
y
H
H
y yi
y
H H
dH
63
Substituting into Eq. (10.513),
m z
H H
dH
aP k M
G
z
y yi
y
G B
98 . 6
) 82 . 1 (
) 10 013 . 1 )( 10 207 . 1 ( 29
356 . 1
5 7
=
 
=
=
82 . 1
2
1
=
y
y
H
H
y yi
y
H H
dH
64
H
yi
H
y
H
yi
H
y
1/(H
yi
H
y
)
94.4 x 10
3
71.7 x 10
3
22.7 x 10
3
4.41 x 10
5
108.4 x 10
3
83.5 x 10
3
24.9 x 10
3
4.02 x 10
5
124.4 x 10
3
94.9 x 10
3
29.5 x 10
3
3.39 x 10
5
141.8 x 10
3
106.5 x 10
3
35.3 x 10
3
2.83 x 10
5
162.1 x 10
3
118.4 x 10
3
43.7 x 10
3
2.29 x 10
5
184.7 x 10
3
129.9 x 10
3
54.8 x 10
3
1.85 x 10
5
Table 10.52: Enthalpy Values for Solution to Example 10.51
(enthalpy in J/kg dry air).
65
ABSORPTION
30 28
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Liquid Temperature (C)
T
L1
T
L2
Enthalpy H
y
[(J/kg)10
3
]
operating line
equilibrium line
Slope =
41.87 x10
3
Figure 10.54: Graphical solution of Example 10.51
66
Minimum Value of Air Flow.
The air flow G is not fixed but must be set for the design of the cooling
tower.
For a minimum value of G, the operating line MN is drawn through the
point H
y1
and T
L1
with a slope that touches the equilibrium line at T
L2
,
point N.
If the equilibrium line is quite curved, line MN could become tangent to
the equilibrium line at a point farther down the equilibrium line than point
N.
For the actual tower, a value of G greater than G
min
must be used. Often, a
value of G equal to 1.3 to 1.5 times G
min
is used.
67
ABSORPTION
T
L1
T
L2
H
y1
H
y2
M
P
N
equilibrium line
operating line,
slope = Lc
L
/G
operating line for G
min
,
slope = Lc
L
/G
min
Figure 10.55: Operatingline construction for minimum gas flow.
68
Design Using Height of a Transfer Unit.
=
 
2
1
2
1
y
y
y
y
H
H
y y
y
OG
H
H
y y
y
G B
H H
dH
H
H H
dH
aP K M
G
z
Where :
G= air flow rate
K
G
a= overall mass transfer coefficient (kg.mole/s.m
3
)
HOG= height of overall gas enthalpy transfer unit (m)
Temperature and Humidity of Air Stream in Tower
G i
y yi
G
y
T T
H H
dT
dH
=
69
(a) Design for concentrated Solutions in packed towers:
Where:
H
G
: is the height of
transfer unit based on the
gas film
N : Number of transfer
Units
70
(b) Design for Dilute Solutions in packed towers:
For dilute systems where the equilibrium and the operating line are straight. The
integral part can be written as:
71
72
73
74
75
10.6 Absorption on plate and Packed Tower
10.6.1 Absorption on plate Tower
N
N1
L
0
, x
0
V
1
, y
1
L
n
, x
n
V
n+1
, y
n+1
1
2
V
N+1
, y
N+1
L
N
, x
N
n
n+1
Fig.10.64: Material balance in an absorption tray tower.
76
The operating line
A plate (tray) absorption tower has the same process flow diagram as the
countercurrent multiplestage process (as shown in the figure)
A balance around the dashedline box gives
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
+
1
1
' '
1
1
'
0
0
'
1 1 1 1 y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
N
N
N
N
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
+
1
1
' '
1
1
'
0
0
'
1 1 1 1 y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
n
n
n
n
Where
x= mole fraction A in the liquid
y= mole fraction A in the gas
L
n
= total moles of liquid/s
V
n+1
= total moles of gas/s
77
Example 10.61:Absorption of SO2 in a Tray Tower.
A tray tower is to be designed to absorb SO
2
from an air
stream by using pure water at 293 K.
the entering gas contains 20 mol % SO
2
and that leaving 2
mol %at the total pressure of 101.3 kPa .
The inert air flow rate is 150 kg air/h.m
2
and the entering
water flow rate is 6000 kg water/h.m
2
. Assuming an overall
tray efficiency of 35 %,
how many theoretical trays and actual trays are needed?
Assume that the tower operate at 293 K.
78
Solution,
(1) calculating the molar flow rates,
V = (150/29) = 5.18 kg mol inert air/h.m
2
L = (6000/18.0) = 333 kg mol inert water/h.m
2
.
(2) Referring to figure 10.6.4
y
N+1
= 0.20 (Entering Gas from the bottom)
y
1
= 0.02, (2% leaving in the gas )
x
0
= 0. (pure liquid )
(3)Substituting into operating line equation and solving for xN.
(4) Substituting into dashedline eq., using V and L as kg mol/h.m2
instead of kg mol/s.m2.
00355 . 0
02 . 0 1
02 . 0
18 . 5
1
333
20 . 0 1
2 . 0
18 . 5
0 1
0
333
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
N
N
N
x
x
x
79
(5)In order to plot the operating line, several intermediate points
will be calculated. Setting yn+1 =0.07 and substituting into the
operating equation,
Hence, x
n
= 0.000855. To calculate another intermediate point, we ser
y
n+1
= 0.13, and x
n
is calculated as 0.00201.
(6)The two end points and the two intermediate points on the
operating line are plotted in Fig.10.65, as are the equilibrium
data from Appendix A.3.
(7) The operating line is somewhat curved. The number of
theoretical trays is determined by stepping off the steps to give
2.4. The actual number of trays is 2.4/0.25 = 9.6 trays.
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
+
02 . 0 1
02 . 0
18 . 5
1
333
1
18 . 5
0 1
0
333
1
1
n
n
n
n
x
x
y
y
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
+
02 . 0 1
02 . 0
18 . 5
1
333
07 . 0 1
07 . 0
18 . 5 0
n
n
x
x
80
ABSORPTION
0
0 0.002
0.004 0.006
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
x
0
y
1
Y
N+1
Mole fraction, x
Mole
fraction,
y
0.008
x
N
1
2
equilibrium
line
operating
line
Fig.10.65: Theoretical number of trays for absorption of SO
2
in example 10.61.
81
10.6.2 Absorption on Packed Tower
Design of Packed Tower for Absorption
dz
L,x V,y
L
1
,x
1
V
1
,y
1
V
2
,y
2
L
2
,x
2
z
82
Overall material balance on component A:
Operating line:
Very dilute system,
with a slope of L/V
minimum liquid flow rate Lmin at x1max.
y V x L y V x L
'
1
'
1
' '
+ = +
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
2
2
'
1
1
'
1
1
'
2
2
'
1 1 1 1 y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
1 1 1 1
'
1
1
'
1
1
' '
83
To Solve for L
min
:
1. Plot y
A
vs x
A
.
2. Draw the equilibrium line.
3. Draw a straight line from (x
2,
y
2
) to intersect the equilibrium
line at (x
1 max
,y
1
) or a straight line tangently to the
equilibrium line to give x
1 max
.
4. Calculate Lmin from,
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
2
2
'
max 1
max 1
'
min
1
1
'
2
2
'
min
1 1 1 1 y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
84
Example 10.6.3
A tray tower is absorbing ethyl alcohol from an inert gas using pure water at
303 K and 101.3 kPa . The inlet gas stream flow rate is 100 kg.mol/h and it
contains 2.2 mol% alcohol .
It is desired to recover 90% of the alcohol . The equilibrium relationship is
y=m.x = 0.68x for this dilute stream.
Using 1.5 times the minimum liquid flow rate, determine the number of trays
needed graphically
85
Solution
the given data are :
y
1
= 0.022
x
2
= 0
V
1
= 100 kg mol/ h
m=0.68
(1) V`=V1(1y
1
) = 100(10.022) = 97.8 kg mol/h
(2) moles of alcohol/h in V1 are 10097.8=2.2
(3) Removing 90%, moles/h in outlet gas V
2
is 0.1(2.2) = 0.22
(4) V
2
=V`+0.22=97.8+0.22=98.02
(5) y
2
= 0.22/98.02= 0.00244
(6) the equilibrium line is plotted in figure (10.6.12) along with x
2
,y
2
and y
1
(7) the operating line for minimum liquid flow rate L
min
is drawn from y
2
,x
2
to point P, touching
the equilibrium line where X
1max
= y
1
/m = 0.022/0.68=0.03235
(8) substituting into operation line equation (10.6.4) and solving for L
min
,
86
h mol kg L
L L
y
y
V
x
x
L
y
y
V
x
x
L
/ . 24 . 59
002244 . 0 1
002244 . 0
8 . 97
03235 . 0 1
03235 . 0
022 . 0 1
022 . 0
8 . 97
0 1
0
1 1 1 1
min
'
min
min
'
2
2 '
1
1 '
1
1 '
2
2 '
=
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
=
1
2
1
1
'
y
y
i
av
iM
y
y y
dy
y
y
aS k
V
z
)
) )
) ) . J y y
y y
y
i
i
iM
=
1 1 ln
1 1
1
89
)
=
1
2
1
1
'
x
x
i
av
iM
x
x x
dx
x
x
aS k
L
z
)
) )
) ) . J
i
i
iM
x x
x x
x
=
1 1 ln
1 1
1
)


=
1
2
1
1
'
y
y
av
M
y
y y
dy
y
y
aS K
V
z
)
) )
) ) . J y y
y y
y
M
=



1 1 ln
1 1
1
90
Where,
k
x
,k
y
= film masstransfer coefficient for gas phase & liquid phase,
respectively.
K
x
,K
y
= overall masstransfer coefficient for gas phase & liquid
phase, respectively.
a = interfacial area per volume of packed section.
S = crosssectional area of tower.
y
i
,x
i
= gas & liquid conc. at the interface, respectively.
y
*
,x
*
= gas & liquid conc. that would be in equilibrium with y,x.
)
=


1
2
1
1
'
x
x
av
M
x
x x
dx
x
x
aS K
L
z
)
) )
) ) . J



=
x x
x x
x
M
1 1 ln
1 1
1
91
Solving Procedure:
There are six major steps in the calculations:
1. On xy plot, draw operating line & equilibrium line.
2. By trialanderror, determine y
i
,x
i
or y
*
,x
*
using
Between the top & bottom of the tower.
Point 1: 1
st
trial:
Let (1y)
iM
$ (1y
1
) &
(1x)
iM
$ (1x
1
)
Plot this slope on xy plot & get y
i1
, x
i1
.
iM y
iM x
y a k
x a k
PM Slope
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
) (
'
'
=
iM y
iM x
y
x
y a k
x a k
y a k
x a k
Slope
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
'
'
1
'
1
'
=
92
2nd trial:
Calculate (1y)
iM
& (1x)
iM
Get new slope using,
Get new values of y
i1
, x
i1
3rd trial:
Calculate new slope using values from of y
i1
, x
i1
2
nd
trial
Get y
i1
, x
i1
Stop when slope
n1
= slope
(n+1)1
Do the same for point 2 and any points between the two.
iM y
iM x
y a k
x a k
Slope
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
'
'
=
93
3. Plot y vs 1/(yy
i
), x vs 1/(x
i
x), 1/(yy
*
) or 1/(x
*
 x).
4. Calculate area under the curve.
5. Calculate the term in the brackets at point 1 & 2. (Get the average.)
6. Calculate z from the appropriate equation.
To calculate the overall mass transfer coefficients:
K
y
a:
Get K
y
a
ave
= (K
y
a
1
+ K
y
a
2
)/2
Use
at point 1 & point 2.
iM x iM y M y
x a k
m
y a k y a K ) 1 /( ) 1 /(
1
) 1 /(
1
'
'
' '

94
K
X
a:
Get K
X
a
ave
= (K
X
a
1
+ K
X
a
2
)/2
Use,
at point 1 & point 2.
iM x iM y M x
x a k y a k m x a K ) 1 /(
1
) 1 /(
1
) 1 /(
1
' ' ' ' '

95
If solution = dilute (straight operating line) & a straight equilibrium line
Height of tower z :
1.
where,
=
=
)
) (
ln
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
'
2 1
i
i
i i
M i
M i y
y y
y y
y y y y
y y
y y az k y y
S
V
96
2.
3.
=
=
)
) (
ln
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
'
2 1
x x
x x
x x x x
x x
x x az k x x
S
L
i
i
i i
M i
M i x
=
=


 


)
) (
ln
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
'
2 1
y y
y y
y y y y
y y
y y az K y y
S
V
M
M y
97
4.
Use V
ave
= (V
1
+ V
2
)/2
and L
ave
= (L
1
+ L
2
)/2
in the above equations.
=
=


 


)
) (
ln
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
'
2 1
x x
x x
x x x x
x x
x x az K x x
S
L
M
M x
98
These equations may be used in different ways .the general steps are shown
in the following figure:
99
(1) Calculate V
av
V
av
=(V
1
+V
2
)/2
(2) the interface composition y
i1
and x
i1
at point y
1
,x
1
in the tower must be
determined by plotting line P
1
M
1
, whose slope is calculated by (please see P672
for more details)
) 1 /( .
) 1 /( .
.
.
) 1 /( .
) 1 /( .
1
`
1
`
`
`
y a k
x a k
slope
a k
a k
y a k
x a k
slope
y
x
y
x
iM y
iM x
$
=
=
(3) If the overall coefficient K`
y
a is being used , y*
1
and y*
2
are determined as shown
in the past figure . If K`
y
a is used x
1
*and x
2
*are obtained
(4) Calculate the log mean driving force (yy
i
)
M
from equation (10.6.27) if k`
y
a is
used . For K`
y
a, (yy*)
M
is calculated by equation (10.6.28)
(5) Calculate the column height z by substituting into the appropriate equation
100
Example 10.62: Absorption of Acetone in a Packed Tower.
Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower
having a cross sectional area of 0.186 m
2
at 293 K and 101.32 (1
atm).
The inlet air contains 2.6 mol % acetone and outlet 0.5%. The
gas flow is 13.65 kg mol inert air/h. The pure water inlet flow is
45.36 kg mol water/h. Film coefficients for the given flows in the
tower are k
y
a = 3.78 x 10
2
kg mol/s.m
3
.mol frac. And k
x
a =
6.16 x10
2
kg mol/s.m
3
.mol frac. Equilibrium data are given in
Appendix A.3.
(a) Calculate the tower height using k
y
a.
(b) Repeat using k
x
a.
(c) Calculate K
y
a, and the tower height.
101
Solution
From Appendix A.3 for acetonewater and xA = 0.0333
mol frac.
p
A
= 30/760 = 0.0395 atm or
y
A
= 0.0395 mol frac.
Hence, the equilibrium line is
y
A
= mx
A
or 0.0395 = m(0.0333).
Then, y=1.186x. This equilibrium line is plotted in Fg. 10.610.
The given data are L = 45.36 kg mol/h, V=13.65 kg mol/h, y
1
=
0.026, y
2
= 0.005, and x
2
= 0.
Substituting into Eq.10.63 for an overall material balance
using flow rates as kg mol/h instead of kg mol/s.
x
1
= 0.00648
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
'
+
'
005 . 0 1
005 . 0
65 . 13
1
36 . 45
026 . 0 1
026 . 0
65 . 13
0 1
0
36 . 45
1
1
x
x
102
The points y
1
, x
1
and y
2
, x
2
are plotted in Fig. 10.610
and a straight line is drawn for the operating line. Using
Eq.(10.631) the approximate slope at y
1
, x
1
is,
Plotting this line through y
1
,x
1
, the line intersects the
equilibrium line at y
i1
= 0.0154 and x
i1
= 0.0130. Also, y
*
1
=
0.0077. Using Eq. (10.630) to calculate a more accurate slope,
the preliminary values of y
i1
and x
i1
will be used in the trial
anderror solution. Substituting into Eq. (10.46),
60 . 1
) 026 . 0 1 /( 10 78 . 3
) 00648 . 0 1 /( 10 16 . 6
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
2
2
1
'
1
'
=


=
y a k
x a k
slope
y
x
103
ABSORPTION
Using Eq.(10.47),
979 . 0
)] 020 . 0 1 /( ) 0154 . 0 1 ln[(
) 026 . 0 1 ( ) 00648 . 0 1 (
=
=
)] 1 /( ) 1 ln[(
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
1 1
1 1
y y
y y
y
i
i
iM
=
)] 1 /( ) 1 ln[(
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
1 1
1 1
i
i
iM
x x
x x
x
=
993 . 0
)] 0130 . 0 1 /( ) 00648 . 0 1 ln[(
) 0130 . 0 1 ( ) 00648 . 0 1 (
=
=
104
ABSORPTION
substituting into Eq. (10.630),
Hence, the approximate slope and interface values are accurate
enough. For the slope at point y
2
, x
2
.
The slope changes little in the tower. Plotting this line, y
i2
= 0.0020,
x
i2
= 0.0018, and y
*
2
= 0. Substituting into Eq. (10.624).
61 . 1
929 . 0 / 10 78 . 3
993 . 0 / 10 16 . 6
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
2
2
1
'
1
'
=


=
iM y
iM x
y a k
x a k
slope
62 . 1
) 005 . 0 1 /( 10 78 . 3
) 0 1 /( 10 16 . 6
) 1 /(
) 1 /(
2
2
2
'
2
'
=


=
y a k
x a k
slope
y
x
105
ABSORPTION
To calculate the total molar flow rates in kg mol/s,
)] /( ) ln[(
) ( ) (
) (
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
i i
i i
M i
y y y y
y y y y
y y
=
00602 . 0
)] 0020 . 0 005 . 0 /( ) 0154 . 0 026 . 0 ln[(
) 0020 . 0 005 . 0 ( ) 0154 . 0 026 . 0 (
=
=
s kgmol
y
V
V / 10 893 . 3
026 . 0 1
3600 / 65 . 13
1
3
1
'
1
 =
=
s kgmol
y
V
V / 10 811 . 3
005 . 0 1
3600 / 65 . 13
1
3
2
'
2
 =
=
s kgmol
V V
V
av
/ 10 852 . 3
2
10 811 . 3 10 893 . 3
2
3
3 3
2 1
 =
 + 
=
+
=
106
ABSORPTION
For part (a), substituting into Eq.(10.626) and solving.
s kgmol L L L L
av
/ 10 260 . 1
3600
36 . 45
2
2 1
'
 = = $ $ $
M i y
av
y y az k y y
S
V
) ( ) (
'
2 1
=
m z
z
911 . 1
) 00602 . 0 ( ) 10 78 . 3 ( ) 005 . 0 026 . 0 (
186 . 0
10 852 . 3
2
3
=
 =

107
ABSORPTION
For part (b), using an equation similar to Eq.(10.624),
substituting into Eq. (10.627) and solving,
This checks part (a) quite closely.
)] /( ) ln[(
) ( ) (
) (
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
x x x x
x x x x
x x
i i
i i
M i
=
00368 . 0
)] 0 0018 . 0 /( ) 00648 . 0 013 . 0 ln[(
) 0 0018 . 0 ( ) 00648 . 0 013 . 0 (
=
=
m z
z
936 . 1
) 00368 . 0 ( ) 10 16 . 6 ( ) 005 . 0 026 . 0 (
186 . 0
10 260 . 1
2
2
=
 =

108
ABSORPTION
For part (c), substituting into Eq. (10.125) for point y
1
,x
1
.
The overall masstransfer coefficient K
y
a at point y
1
,x
1
is
calculated by substituting into Eq. (10.424).
)] 1 /( ) 1 ln[(
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
1 1
1 1
y y
y y
y
M
=



983 . 0
)] 026 . 0 1 /( ) 0077 . 0 1 ln[(
) 026 . 0 1 ( ) 0077 . 0 1 (
=
=
iM x iM y M y
x a k
m
y a k y a K ) 1 /( ) 1 /(
1
) 1 /(
1
'
'
' '

109
ABSORPTION
Substituting into Eq. (10.625),
iM x iM y M y
x a k
m
y a k y a K ) 1 /( ) 1 /(
1
) 1 /(
1
'
'
' '

. . . / 10 183 . 2
993 . 0 / 10 16 . 6
186 . 1
979 . 0 / 10 78 . 3
1
983 . 0 /
1
3 2 '
2 2 '
molfrac m s kgmol a K
a K
y
y
 =

+

=
)] /( ) ln[(
) ( ) (
) (
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
 
 

=
y y y y
y y y y
y y
M
01025 . 0
)] 0 005 . 0 /( ) 0077 . 0 026 . 0 ln[(
) 0 005 . 0 ( ) 0077 . 0 026 . 0 (
=
=
110
ABSORPTION
Finally substituting into Eq. (10.628),
M y
y y az K y y
S
V
) ( ) (
'
2 1

=
m z
z
944 . 1
) 01025 . 0 ( ) 10 183 . 2 ( ) 005 . 0 026 . 0 (
186 . 0
10 852 . 3
2
3
=
 =

111
ABSORPTION
0
0
0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008
0.010 0.012
0.014
0.004
0.008
0.012
0.016
0.020
0.024
0.028
x
2
x
i2 x
1
x
i1
y
*
2
y
i2
y
2
y
*
1
y
i1
y
1
slope = 1.62
equilibrium line
operating line
Fig. 10.610: Location if interface composition for example 10.62.