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FILIPINO CULTURE: WORLD VIEW / VALUES AND EXPRESSIONS

Felipe M. de Leon, Jr.

What is Culture?
To culture is to cultivate, as in agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, sericulture, beauty culture, voice culture, etc. Any activity, product or expression attained through the application of human skill is CULTURE, that which is not is NATURE, such as trees, rivers, mountains, birds.

In its broadest sense, culture may be defined as: Way of life, a design for living Shared patterns of behavior and meaning, of expectations and responses Shared system of vital ideas about the world

UNESCO defines culture as:


The whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only the arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs.

Cosmic Matrix of Being

In Philippine culture, there is an underlying belief in the shared identity of human beings.

Individual existence is only apparent and relative. For we all exist within a cosmic matrix of being at the deepest center of which is a creative living principle or energic process (kalooban ng Maylikha).

REALITY FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER

ENERGY FLOW FROM SOUL TO PHYSICAL BODY

THE CORE VALUES


KAPWA Shared Identity/Goodness/Divinity PAKIRAMDAM Shared Inner Perception KAGANDAHANG LOOB Shared Humanity

KAPWA
SHARED IDENTITY (Shared Inner Self, The other person is also yourself, Shared Goodness/ Divinity) the core of Filipino psychology, it is humaneness at the highest level implies unique moral obligation to treat one another as equal fellow human beings

Treat the other person as you treat yourself because the other person is also yourself - Filipino core idea

Basis of the Golden Rule


Kapwa is an awareness of the rootedness of each one of us in the One Divine Essence within. (This makes the concept of kapwa together with the honorific po in polite conversation, quite Asian in character). Hence, it implies the golden rule of all the great religions. Treat your neighbor as you treat yourself (because your

IN LAK'ECH
YUCATEC MAYAN CODE OF HONOR:

"I AM ANOTHER YOURSELF"

If there is no other there is no war In Filipino psychology, there is no concept of the other in the other person. The other(kapwa) is also yourself. This makes Filipinos a highly relational and essentially nonconfrontational people, as monumentally demonstrated in the peaceful EDSA Revolution (If there is no other there is no war Ivana Milojevic).

Unlike pakikisama, pakikipagkapwa has no negative connotation. The more one engages in it, the more the goodness in the persons involved is evoked from within. Thus kapwa is an inner principle of shared goodness/Godness (both words having the same etymology), not just shared identity. Through the revelation of our potential for shared goodness, the process of kapwa affirms and recognizes the ultimate oneness of

An Affirmation of the Ultimate Oneness of Humanity

Principle of Integration
Pakikipagkapwa, in principle, excludes any action that may be detrimental or harmful to other human beings. It is definitely inconsistent with exploitative human transactions. It is the capacity to recognize the good in every human being and integrate oneself within the widest social fabric.

PAKIRAMDAM
SHARED INNER PERCEPTION (Knowing Through Feeling or Tacit Knowing; Participatory Sensitivity) A unique social skill inherent in Filipino personhood The need for openness and basic trust is a precondition for this active process of sensing subtle cues

PAKIKIRAMDAM AND LAMBING:

Soft, Flowing Movements


Pakikiramdam, knowing through feeling or participatory sensitivity makes the Filipino especially compassionate, affective, malambing, gentle, and kind.

Sharing of Moods and Feelings Pakikiramdam is the ability to participate in the inner life process or monitor the flow of feelings in others, especially if deeper feelings are involved. This is the source of the much vaunted Filipino affinity with the underdog, melodrama, and sentimental and compassionate nature.

KAGANDAHANG LOOB
SHARED HUMANITY (Pagkamakatao; A Shared Inner Nobility; A Quiet Sense of Responsibility for Others; A Great Compassion for All Living Beings) Nudges a person towards genuine acts of generosity, kindness and caring

Levels of Filipino Social Interaction AMONG OUTSIDERS:

PAKIKITUNGO (courtesy) PAKIKISALAMUHA (mixing) PAKIKILAHOK (joining) PAKIKIBAGAY (adapting) PAKIKISAMA (getting along
with)

PAKIKISAMA
DEEPEST LEVEL OF INVOLVEMENT WITH ANOTHER PERSON STILL CONSIDERED AN OUTSIDER (IBANG TAO) Characteristic tendencies of this trait are giving in to another persons wish, demands, wants or desires. The motive for this could be politeness or expectation of future concessions or immediate rewards

Levels of Filipino Social Interaction


AMONG INSIDERS:

PAKIKIPAGPALAGAYANG-LOOB (rapport) PAKIKISANGKOT (co-involvement) PAKIKIISA (oneness, unity with) Here the goal of Pakikipagkapwa is realized

FILIPINOS ACHIEVE MATURITY THROUGH SOCIAL INTEGRATION ARE EXCEEDINGLY ACTIVE AND CREATIVE IN SOCIAL RELATIONS, ALWAYS EXPLORING NEWER AND RICHER WAYS OF HARMONIZING AND CONNECTING WITH OTHERS Filipinos are masters of interpersonal skills Pakiramdam makes Filipinos adept in non-verbal communication

LISTEN TO THE FEELING TONE


Do not listen to what the Filipino says as much as how he says it. Listen to the feeling tone, read between the lines Filipinos communicate non-verbally most of the time Be sensitive to non-verbal symbols, facial expressions, gestures, or body language to understand what the Filipino is really trying to say

Makuha Ka Sa Tingin
88 WAYS OF LOOKING IN TAGALOG

TINGIN to look DILAT, PANDILATAN stare squarely at MASID, MASDAN observe or look at searchingly MALAS observing look MATYAG close observation LIYAW to spy, watch, observe

ANINAG see thru a transparent or translucent medium ANINAW see thru a haze TANGHOD to look fascinatedly TANGA, TUMANGA to look at something absentmindedly SULILING to glance sideways, affectedly or disdainfully MATA, MATAHIN to look at something with critical eyes, condescendingly

SILAY briefly but seriously TITIG steadfastly and fixedly IRAP with annoyance LISIK sparkling of the eyes as when one is extremely irked or irritated LIING to look out of the corner of ones eyes MUSING with a frown SULI vexedly DAYAP with an evil eye

ILAM to look sideways SULYAP sidewise quickly DUNGSOL look again and again LINGAP cast a glance LINGA look here and there as if searching for something LINGI, LINGIGIG look here and there, worriedly because of some noise LINGOS here and there, unmindfully

BALILILING with a turn of the head LINGON over ones shoulders TUNGO downwards TINGALA upwards SIPAT looking over (a surface) to check levelness, (or a line, row) to check alignment SUMIK looking as if listening BANTAY to look at what is ones own (to keep an eye on)

TANAW looking from a distance TANGHAL looking from a distance contemplating the beauty or grandeur of something NOOD to look at something that brings delight TINGHAD strain ones neck in order to see an object not on the level of ones eyes MULAGAT stare SILIP peep

SIGLAP superficial, accidental glance without much attention SIGLAW glimpse; involuntary passing notice PATUMANGA or DANGA look born of awe or dread LISAW disquieting look because of anger LILAP peculiar flushing of the eyes of drunks TUNGANGA open-mouthed curiosity or indifference

BALING look from one side to another SULINDING, PASULINDING glance obliquely, superciliously MANGANINO, MANALAMIN to look into a mirror SILAW dazzled ALIBAY follow a moving object with ones eyes BANAAG glimpse, have a glimmer of MULAT open eyed At marami pang iba

FILIPINOS AT THEIR BEST - ARE A HIGHLY NURTURING, CARING, SHARING PEOPLE, WITH A STRONG MATERNAL ORIENTATION, AND DEFINITELY NOT LONERS.
Filipinos, because of their genius in interpersonal communication and a

FILIPINOS LOVE TO CONNECT, ESPECIALLY TO PEOPLE


Among the most highly relational in the world, Filipinos are hardly alone. They are happy being together when they eat, sleep, work, travel, pray, create or celebrate. They like to feel connected to the world, God and nature, but most of all to people.

Walang gustong maiwanan sa kodakan

Togetherness is happiness
Filipinos hardly eat alone Invite a person to your party, how many will come? Bantay(watcher) & extra bed Prizes for everybody Do not praise small items Juan Flavier

Pabalot, balato, bonus (forms of sharing) Pasalubong( quasi-sacred ritual: gift from a journey) Cannot keep secrets Relational terms for calling each other Texting and facebook capital of the world No isolated notes (hagod, slides, scooping)

Pitch Relations Reflect People Relations In individualistic cultures where people preserve their private space and separateness from others, musical pitches also tend to be discrete or isolated from each other. In communal cultures where togetherness and connectedness with others is highly valued, musical pitches tend to be bridged by slides or a microtonal continuum.

Notes are People

Loners More Prone to Heart Disease


People with lots of friends are usually the healthiest in the world Lack of friends and close social ties are the hidden cause of heart disease As social ties increase, mortality rates decrease Married people, members of religious groups and the like often live longer Social isolation breeds depression, which may lead to lower immunity to disease and even suicide

Study after study has shown that feeling connected with people is extremely important for physical and mental health.
Suicide,alcoholism and mental illness rates are much higher among people living alone A massive study confirmed that those with the fewest close friends, relatives and social connections are 2 to 3 x more likely to die earlier than those

People with poor social connections are four times more likely to come down with cold symptoms than people with a lot of friends Couples often die one after another. This is true esp. if they were very close when they were alive and thus became too emotionally dependent on one another. A widowed persons

The toxic effects of loneliness are confirmed by insurance statistics and numerous scientific studies. Loners are 16 x more cancer prone. Having real friends and enjoying life with them can lengthen your life by as much as 9 years. Just being married makes a 5-year difference in your life expectancy. If your spouse is also your best friend that adds 14 yrs. to your life.

Selfless love is absolutely necessary for the survival of newborn babies and for their healthy growth Human immune systems function well only when basic emotional needs such as acceptance and love are met

If Filipinos love to connect to people, then they will enjoy and excel in activities that bring people together. The more an object, activity, event, ritual, tradition, institution, or idea connects us to one another, the more Filipino it is.

A Way of Identifying What is Filipino

Ideas, Objects, Activities that Bring People Together


Those with many functions or purposes they attract different kinds of people and connect them to one another Friendship, Kinship, Family Shared Devotions, Celebrations, Festivities, Rituals Expressive activities especially artistic performance Games and sports Reunions, Wakes, Crises Fulfillment of Daily Needs like eating, shopping, leisure

MULTI-SIGNIFICANCE:
Bringing People Together
An effective Filipino tool for connecting people to each other is to endow an activity, presentation or creation with as many different meanings, functions and qualities as possible.

TRANSPARENCY: Openness and Trust


The Filipino is a highly accessible and accommodating person, basically trusting and open, yet quite sensitive and demanding of respect and recognition of ones dignity.

FILIPINO PROXEMICS OF PRIVACY To be alone a German needs four thick walls which shut off all light and sound from the outside. A Japanese needs only thin paper screens A Filipino does not need a physical structure to spend time alone. All that is needed is for him to stay in a corner and keep quiet. This is proof that even in our precious moments of solitude, we are still willing to share our whole being, should the need arise

MY SPACE IS YOUR SPACE


OPEN HOUSE: In most Western cultures, guests are allowed to move around only within the confines of the living room.

In Filipino culture, guests may roam anywhere inside or outside the house, even in the bedrooms

Bukas ang kalooban, not private

Windows all around ancestral houses Aliwalas, airy spaciousness and openness of interiors Space surrounds space High value placed on being natural, informal, personal

Authentic Contemporary Filipino House

Among the highest-income groups of 13 countries in Asia, Filipinos most prefer to stay and relax at home as a mode of leisure Filipinos most remember their spouses birthday. 95% always remember. 3% remember most of the time. Filipinos call their spouses with the highest frequency (66% are daily callers), followed by Indonesians and Malaysians-FEER

EXPRESSIVENESS: Maximalism
The common Filipino is a maximalist, filling up every available space with forms and things. It springs from an expressive exuberance deeply rooted in emotional sensitivity and the strong urge to connect.

EXPRESSIVENESS: Uslawit
Enhancing Filipino expressiveness is uslawit, ornaments that protrude (usli) and hang (lawit). When the body moves or the wind blows uslawit dances as well. Filipinos everywhere love uslawit.

Dancing Inmates.mp4

Dancing Flight Attendants

Package

Most Romantic in Southeast Asia


A Mobile Lifestyle Survey conducted by Asia Market Intelligence for Siemens in late 2002 among six SEAn countries found that Filipinos send I love you messages the most often:

Filipinos Indonesians Malaysians Singaporeans Thais

58% 41% 36% 31% 30%

Musicality in Communal Cultures


In highly communal, traditional, cooperative, non-consumerist cultures, people tend to be more open and expressive, thus more likely to be relaxed, rhythmic, musical, and, hence, satisfying an important precondition for health. Filipino musicality and expressiveness has its source in our deep attitude of openness, trust, and acceptance of life.

The urge to connect makes FILIPINO POPULAR CULTURE

A CELEBRATION OF SENTIMENTS
(OR FEELINGS THAT CONNECT)

KULTURA NG PANANAHAN (Devotion to the Home and Family)

Filipino popular culture is the culture of devotion to the family and sanctity of the home, which is its source of strength. Thus, ancestors are revered and the ancestral house has become a symbol of family continuity and stability.

KULTURA NG PANANAHAN (Devotion to the Home and Family)

Within the community, every family strives to establish and assure its social position (mabuting puwesto), stability and respectability; its security, safety, and power through family honor, accomplishments and by developing strong social and political connections.

FILIPINOS LIKE TO EXPERIENCE THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL WHOLENESS OF LIFE FILIPINOS DO NOT LIKE A PARTIAL, FRAGMENTED VIEW OF LIFE; AND RESPOND TO LIFE SYNERGISTICALLY (COOPERATIVE ACTION OF ALL THE SENSES, FACULTIES, OR LEVELS OF BEING) A FILIPINO IS NOT HAPPY JUST KNOWING ANOTHER PERSONS NAME. HE WOULD ALSO INQUIRE ABOUT HIS WORK, HOMETOWN, RELATIVES, MARITAL STATUS, EVEN HIS SALARY.

WE DO NOT LIKE TO BELONG TO ONLY ONE SIDE OF A RELATIONSHIP. OUR KINSHIP


SYSTEM IS BILATERAL. HAVING TWO KIDS IS ENOUGH AS LONG AS THEY ARE A BOY AND A GIRL.

In hosting shows, Filipinos traditionally pair a man and a woman rather than just have one or the other as in Western countries. The West is beginning to catch on but mixed gender hosting is still a novelty in the U.S.

World Ranking of Women in Managerial Positions

The Unity of Opposites


An intuitive logic more profound than the either/or of mechanistic cultures is Filipino polar logic. In polaristic logic, it is axiomatic that if a thing is true or valid, then its opposite must also be true or valid.

POLAR LOGIC:

BRIDGING DIFFERENCES: Curves not Angles


The Filipino prefers mediation to confrontation. Pahiwatig, pakiusap, pakikibagay, biro are only a few of the orchestral wealth of techniques for bridging differences.

Vitalistic, Life Energy-Seeking


Filipinos love biomorphic, nonarchitectonic shapes informal, asymmetrical balance rich tactile values kinaesthetic interaction

KINESTHETIC INTERACTIVENESS: Connecting Through Touch


Filipinos love to feel, literally touching their way through life. Rich textural qualities, biomorphic shapes, tasty foods, lush sounds and social clustering make life exceedingly warm and intimate.

A hundred words for touch


DAMA HIPO, KAPA, SALAT SALAGOY (touch lightly) DAITI, DIIT, DIKIT, LAPAT HAWAK, KAPIT KAPKAP AKAP HIMAS, HAPLOS, LAMYOS, HAGOD LAMAS KAMOT, KALMOT

KANTI, KALABIT, TAPIK, TIPA KISKIS, KUSKOS BUNGGO SAGI, SANGGI, ANTIG (gentle bump), SUNGGO (bump against lightly), SIKO, SIIL (violent pushing or shoving with the elbow) SUNGGAB, SAMBILAT (clutch, grab, snatch violently) SINTAK (sudden pull)

LUKOT, LAMUKOS, KUYUMOS KIMIS, PIGA KUTOS, KADYOT, SUNTOK SABUNOT, SIPA PALO, SAMPAL, BATOK, BUNTAL SIKLOT, LAPIROT, DUTDOT, SUNDOT, KUTKOT, KUROT BUTINGTING, PINGGER BALUTBOT, BULATLAT, KALKAL KALIKOT, KALAWKAW, KALIKAW KILITI AKAY, AKBAY

WAYS OF CARRYING OR HOLDING

DALA, BITBIT SALO, SAPO KIMKIM, KUYUMOS KIPKIP SAKBIBI, HALUKIPKIP SUKBIT BABA, PASAN, SUNONG PANGKO KANDONG, KALONG

Hugging is a key to happiness Leo Buscaglia Hugs make you feel psychologically more secure and together Touching releases endorphins (the happy hormones), which kill pain and increase immunity to disease Positive feelings strengthen the bloods immune system

Hug If You Want To Live

KINESTHETIC INTERACTIVENESS: The Magical, Healing Touch


Traditional rituals are a way of connecting to the divine. Through touch people get healed. A magical transference of vital energy occurs in many levels, physical and metaphysical.

FILIPINOS ARE HIGHLY PARTICIPATORY


FILIPINOS DEMAND COLLECTIVE, EQUAL PARTICIPATION IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS, DECISIONMAKING AND SELF-DETERMINATION. No one must have a monopoly of the decision-making process

Everybody must have an active role, no matter how small (salimpusa)

Participation in the creative process is primary


In Filipino society, everybody is a participant/performer. Nobody is a mere spectator. There is no separation of performer and audience; or creator and spectator. Thus, Filipinos prefer consensus as a mode of reaching decisions or settling conflicts.

The Participatory Filipino:


Pantay-pantay, walang lamangan
Pagbibigayan, sharing, interdependence;

equitable distribution of resources micro interweaving of colors, visual elements interlocking/ interconnected wide spaces (non-compartmentalized) salitan, interlocking rhythms in music

Verbs expressing mutual, reciprocal action and equal possession of similar qualities
magsi- magsilabas, magsigising, magsitayo magsipag- magsipaghanda, magsipagkalat magka- magkaisa, magkasundo magka- magkasama, magkapatid, magkatulad, magkakulay magkasing- magkasingganda, magkasimpangit

ka - karamay, katuwang, katulong, katabi, kaklase, kalahi, kauri, kalaro, kasapi kasing - kasintigas, kasinlapit, kasintanda, kasindali, kasing-asim, kasinggaling mag-an- magsagutan, magsabunutan, magtakbuhan,magtawanan magka-an magkalinawan, magkainisan, magkarinigan, magkasintahan magsing- magsing-irog

maki- makisangkot, makialam, makiisa,makibahagi, makibaka, makisama, makigawa, makibili, makihalo, makitulog makipag- makipag-away, makipagkamay, makipag-usap makipag - an makipag-agawan, makipagsagutan makipagka - an makipagkaibigan,

ka - an kasunduan, kaibigan, kasintahan pakiki- pakikiramay, pakikiramdam, pakikiisa, pakikiapid pakikipag- pakikipagtalo, pakikipagsayaw, pakikipag-usap pakikipag - an pakikipagtulungan, pakikipagtawanan, pakikipag-ugnayan,

pakikipagka - an pakikipagkasunduan, pakikipagkaibigan paki- pakialam, pakisuyo, pakibasa paki an pakibagayan, pakisamahan, pakilapitan, pakibihisan ta- kain ta

PROVIDING CHOICES
Development as the Proliferation of Options

The deepest social aspirations of the Filipino are freedom, justice, and dignity. Monopoly, dictatorship and the curtailment of choices are anathema.

ARROGANCE IS A NO-NO
The Filipino concept of kapwa (shared identity/goodness) and non-duality of life make people absolutely equal in principle and nobody has a right to regard himself as above or more important than others

Humility is highly-prized, at least outwardly The privilege of one must be the privilege of all. Equal application of the law is a must

MAGNANIMOUS MANNY
-- Filipino boxing sensation Manny Pacquiao plays down his world title
victory over Briton Rick Hatton.

"Im just lucky I hit first. A right hook."

http://news.ph.msn.com/article.aspx?cp-documentid=3293257&page=2

May 10, 2009

PROVIDING CHOICES:
Variability of Form, Medium and Technique A greater range of materials, forms, techniques, ideas and possibilities for engaging in productive or creative work allows for wider and democratic social

Westerners are time people


The traditional concept of marking the beginning, middle and end of a finite segment of time is a much ingrained habit of thought that manifests itself even in the way food is served in the West. The structure is chronological: with a beginning (appetizer, soup), a crescendo towards a climax (salad, fish, chicken, and/or meat), and a steady progression towards an anticipated end. When the English serve tea, or American coffee, they know dinner is over.

Filipinos are space people


The structure of Filipino meals is entirely different, for everything is served all at once, and we are free to choose the combination of foods that we would like to eat at any given moment. It is thus a sense of space rather than a sense of time that is created.
the concept of time implied by the structure or layout of Filipino is open-

CREATIVE IMPROVISATION
Extemporaneous or on-the-spot creativity comes very naturally to the Filipino who has the finest artistic yet improvisatory traditions such as the duplo, balagtasan, balitaw, tultul, kulintang, kuntao and okir. Creative spontaneity is highly valued.

We are highly relational Social interconnectedness leads to longevity Expressiveness, especially through music and dance, releases harmful emotions Everyday creativity promotes wellbeing Touching as a way of life increases immunity to disease Deep belief in God makes Filipinos optimistic and provides meaning to life

Filipino Healing Culture

WAKAS

Salamat Po!