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KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur yang setinggi-tingginya kehadirat Allah Yang Maha Pengasih dan
Penyayang, atas limpahan rahmat dan karuniaNya sehingga penyusunan buku ajar
Taksonomi Tumbuhan ini dapat diselesaikan.

Buku ajar ini merupakan hasil

pelaksanaan Hibah Kompetisi Konten Mata Kuliah E-Learning INHERENT-USU 2006.


Buku ajar ini ditujukan bagi mahasiswa biologi FMIPA USU semester empat (4) yang
mengambil mata kuliah Taksonomi Tumbuhan dengan beban kredit 4 sks, berisikan
materi perkuliahan selama satu semester.
Terima kasih yang tulus kami sampaikan kepada Program INHERENT-USU
2006 yang telah membiayai seluruh penyusunan buku ajar ini. Tanpa bantuan dana,
penyusunan buku ajar ini tidak dapat berjalan dengan baik. Terima kasih juga kami
sampaikan kepada semua pihak yang telah banyak membantu baik langsung maupun
tidak langsung. Program Hibah Kompetisi. Konten Mata Kuliah E-Learning ini sangat
terasa manfaatnya karena proses pembelajaran mahasiswa atau transfer of knowledge
dapat berjalan lebih efektif dan efisien. Semoga program ini dapat terus dilanjutkan di
tahun-tahun mendatang.
Kritik dan saran sangat diharapkan demi penyempurnaan buku ajar ini. Semoga
buah karya ini ada juga manfaatnya.

Wassalam,
Medan, 20 Desember 2006

Tim Penyusun

DAFTAR ISI
Halaman
KATA PENGANTAR .......................................................................................... i
DAFTAR ISI ........................................................................................................ ii
BAB I PENDAHULUAN

.................................................................................

1.1. Defenisi dan Ruang Lingkup .......................................................................

1.2. Tujuan ............................................................................................................

1.3. Hubungan dengan Ilmu Botani lain ............................................................

1.4. Tahap Perkembangan ...................................................................................

BAB II DETERMINASI

..................................................................................

2.1. Cara Mendeterminasi Tumbuhan ...............................................................

2.2. Aturan Pembuatan Kunci Determinasi

....................................................

2.3. Menggunakan Kunci Determinasi ................................................................

2.4. Jenis-jenis Junci Determinasi Tumbuhan ..................................................

2.5. Membuat Contoh Kunci Determinasi Sederhana ......................................

BAB III TATA NAMA (NOMENKLATUR)

................................................

3.1. Sejarah Tatanama Tumbuhan ......................................................................

3.2. Nama Umum ..................................................................................................

3.3. Nama Ilmiah ..................................................................................................

3.4. Prinsip dan Peraturan Tatanama Tumbuhan ............................................

10

3.5. Komposisi Nama Ilmiah ...............................................................................

10

3.6. Tingkat KesatuanTaksonomi .......................................................................

11

3.7. Tipe Tatanama Tumbuhan ............................................................................

12

3.8. Satu Takson Satu Nama ................................................................................

13

BAB IV KELAS CHAROPHYCEAE (CHARACEAE) (Ganggang Karang) .... 15


BAB V KELAS PHAEOPHYCEAE (Ganggang Pirang) ............................

17

5.1. Bangsa Phaeosporales ..................................................................................

17

5.2. Bangsa Laminariles ......................................................................................

18

5.3. Bangsa Dictyotales .......................................................................................

19

5.4. Bangsa Fucales ..............................................................................................

20

BAB VI KELAS RHODOPHYCEAE (Ganggang Merah) .........................

22

6.1. Anak kelas BANGIEAEA (PROTOFLORIDEAE) .......................................

22

6.2. Anak kelas FLORIDEAE ...............................................................................

22

BAB VII LICHENES (Lumut Kerak) ...........................................................

25

7.1. Kelas ASCOLICHENES

..............................................................................

7.2. Kelas BASIDIOLICHENES (HYMENOLICHENES) ...............................


BAB VIII DIVISI BRYOPHYTE(Tumbuhan Lumut) ................................
8.1. KELAS HEPATICAE (LUMUT HATI)

26
27

.......................................................

8.1.1. Bangsa Anthocerotales (Lumut Tanduk)

26

..........................................

28
28

8.1.2. Bangsa Marchantiales ..........................................................................

29

8.1.3. Bangsa jungermaniales ........................................................................

29

8.2. KELAS MUSCI (LUMUT DAUN)

................................................................

30

8.2.1. Bangsa Andreaeales ..............................................................................

31

8.2.2. Bangsa Sphagnales ( Lumut Gambut )

................................................

31

.......................................................................................

33

8.2.3. Bangsa Bryales

BAB IX PTERIDOPHYTA (Tumbuhan Paku)

.............................................

36

BAB X KELAS PSILOPHYTINAE (Paku Purba) .........................................

41

10.1. Bangsa Psilophytales (Paku Telanjang) ......................................................

41

10.2. Bangsa Psilotales ............................................................................................

42

BAB XI KELAS LYCOPODINAE ( Paku Rambat atau Paku Kawat ) .......


11.1. Bangsa Lycopodiales

44

......................................................................................

44

11.2. Bangsa Selaginellales (Paku Rane, Paku Lumut) ........................................

47

11.3. Bangsa Lepidodendrales

48

11.4. Bangsa Isoetales

................................................................................

..............................................................................................

BAB XII KELAS EQUISETINAE (Paku Ekor Kuda)

49

.................................... 50

12.1. Bangsa Equisetales ...........................................................................................

50

12.2. Bangsa Sphenophyllales ..................................................................................

53

12.3. Bangsa Protoarticulatales ........

53

BAB XIII KELAS FILICINAE (Paku Sejati) ................................................ 55


13.1. Leptosporangiate (Filices) .......

55

13.2. Anak Kelas Hydropterides (Paku Air) ......

62

BAB XIV PRIMOFILICES ......... 66


BAB XV FITOGRAFI

.............................................................................................

67

15.1. Kormus dan Bagian-bagiannya .......................................................................

67

15.2. Akar (radix)

67

......................................................................................................

15.3. Batang (caulis)

.................................................................................................

72

15.4. Daun (folium) .....................................................................................................

76

15.5. Bagian-bagian lain pada tumbuhan, metamorfosis akar, batang, dan daun ... 96
15.6. Alat Perkembangbiakan (Organum Reproductivum) ....................................

99

15.6.1. Bunga (flos) ............................................................................................

99

15.6.2. Bagian-bagian Bunga ............................................................................

104

15.7. Buah (Fructus)

................................................................................................

109

15.8. Biji (Semen) .......................................................................................................

112

15.9. Lembaga (Embryo) ..........................................................................................

114

BAB XVI DESKRIPSI

116

...........................................................................................

16.1. Defenisi dan Kepentingan

.............................................................................

116

16.2. Bentuk dan Isi Deskripsi

...............................................................................

116

BAB XVII PENCIRIAN ........................................................................................

117

17.1. Defenisi .............................................................................................................

117

17.2. Macam Sifat Taksonomi ..................................................................................

117

BAB XVIII SUMBER BUKTI TAKSONOMI .................................................. 118


18.1. Peranan Sumber Bukti Taksonomi ................................................................

118

18.2. Beberapa Sumber Bukti Taksonomi ..............................................................

118

BAB XIX KLASIFIKASI

121

......................................................................................

19.1. Defenisi dan Tujuan .........................................................................................

121

19.2. Sejarah dan Macam-macam Klasifikasi .........................................................

121

BAB XX TEKNIK PEMBUATAN HERBARIUM ............................................. 125


20.1. Defenisi dan Fungsi Herbarium
20.2. Cara Mengkoleksi Tumbuhan
BAB XXI SPERMATOPHYTA

.....................................................................

125

.........................................................................

125

.............................................................................

128

21.1. Subdivisi Gymnospermae ................................................................................

128

21.2. Subdivisi Angiospermae ...............

129

1) Bangsa Rhoeadales (Brassicales)

..

129

..

133

3) Bangsa Malvales atau Columniferae .

136

4) Bangsa Cucurbitales ..................................................................................

139

5) Bangsa Rosidae

...........................................................................................

140

6) Bangsa Ranales (Ranunculales) ..................................................................

151

7) Bangsa Liliiflorae (Liliales) .........................................................................

158

8) Bangsa Zingiberales .....................................................................................

164

2) Bangsa Guttiferales atau Clusiales