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# Active Filters

An active filters means using amplifiers to improve the filter. An acive second-order RC low-pass filter still has two RC components in series. R vin C
+

R C

vout

2 1 1 H ( j ) = -------------------------- = --------------------------------------------------------- 1 + j 2 B 1 + 2j B ( B )

1 1 G ( ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------2 2 4 1 + ( B ) 1 + 2 ( B ) + ( B )

The amplifier buffer changes the impedance. This filter is sharper than the non-buffered filter.

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Gyrator
Active feedback alters the effective impedance of an element. The gyrator alters the apparent impedance of the load element.
Zload iin iin vin R vin R + vout

The op-amp rules are used to find the effective input impedance. On the non-inverting input:
v in = v out + i in R

## On the inverting input:

Z load Z load v in = ---------------------- v out = ---------------------- ( v in i in R ) Z load + R Z load + R Z load + R 1 1 i in = -- 1 ---------------------- v in = ------------ v in Z load R Z load
in So and the impedance is the negative of the load. Z in = ------ = Z load

i in

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Artificial Inductor
If the load on a gyrator is a capacitor the phase behaves like an inductor.
1jZ in = --------- = ------jC C

This would not have the frequency dependence of an inductor. With two gyrators a capacitor can act as an inductor in phase and frequency.
Zin
2

GYR R R GYR R C

L = R C

2 R ( R + 1 jC ) Z in = R + -------------------------------------- = jR C 1 jC

Inductors are difficult to miniaturize and have intrinsic resistance that may be undesirable. The inductor can be replaced by a gyrator circuit.

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Active Bandpass
A single pole filter uses a parallel RLC circuit as the feedback network.
C L vin R1 R2

vout

## Use a notch filter in a inverting amplifier also makes a bandpass filter.

Twin-T

vin R1

R2

vout

At the notch frequency the Twin-T has infinite impedance, A = -R2/R1. If R1 >> ZTT, for other frequencies A = -RTT/R1 = 0.

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Bootstrapping
Bootstrapping refers to the use of feedback to make a very large input impedance by setting iin = 0 through a coupling capacitor for AC frequencies of interest.
vin R2 C C R1 vin iin vin + vout = vin vin

The circuit is set for an AC input signal with capacitive coupling to the non-inverting input. The feedback circuit will give unity gain of the AC part of the signal. If the AC part of the signal can pass through the coupling capacitor, it can also pass through the capacitor at the inverting input. The signal is the same on both sides of resristor R1. Since the voltage drop across R1 = 0 and no current enters the opamp, iin = 0. The input impedance Zin = vin/iin, and should be very large.

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Sallen-Key Filter
The Sallen-Key filter looks like two RC filters (two pole) and a x1 amplifier (buffer). There is a bootstrap to create a large input impedance. For example, a high-pass Sallen-Key filter uses a resistor as the bootstrap.
R1 vin + vout = vin

C2 vin R2

## The breakpoint frequency is

1 b = ------------------------------R1C1R2 C2

## The roll-off for very low frequencies is 40 dB/decade or 12 dB/octave.

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## Low Pass Sallen-Key

The low-pass Sallen-Key filter swaps the resistors and capacitors.
C1

vin

R1

R2 C2

vout

The circuit behavior is equivalent to a damped driven mechanical oscillator. The driving force is vin. The damping factor is
1 d 0 = --- = ( R 1 + R 2 )C 2 b Q

As a passive network, the oscillator can be overdamped, underdamped or critically damped: overdamped (d02 > 2), underdamped (d02 < 2), critically damped (d02 = 2).

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## Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source

A voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS) replaces the Sallen-Key unity gain buffer with a noninverting amplifier. The high-pass VCVS has two additional resistors to create a gain A.
R1 C1 vin C2 R2 A = 1 + R3/R4 R4 + R3 vout

## The gain is usually expressed as a factor K.

R3 K = A = 1 + ----R4

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VCVS Damping
As with the Sallen-Key, the low-pass VCVS swaps pairs of resistors and capacitors.
C1 R1 vin R2 C2 A = 1 + R3/R4 R4 + R3 vout

With a variable gain for negative feedback and matching R1 = R2 = R, C1 = C2 = C, the gain and
1 damping are independent of the break frequency B = ------- . RC
3 The gain remains A 0 = 1 + ----- .

R4

## 3 The damping is d 0 = 3 A 0 = 2 -----

R4

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Butterworth Low-Pass
The VCVS can be used to make an active filter version of the Butterworth filter.
C R vin R C K = 1 + R3/R4 R4 + R3 vout

The desired damping is d0 = 1.414, so K = 3 d0 = 1.586. The ratio R3 / R4 = 2 d0 = 0.586. For a cutoff frequency at 1 KHz, B = 6.28 x 103 s-1. Resistors are best in range from 1 K to 10 K So typical C = 1/RB; about 0.1 F at 1.5 K. High pass just inverts R and C in the circuit. Higher order filters requires multiple stages, with K-values set for each stage.
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## Bessel and Chebyshev VCVS

The VCVS can also be used to make other special purpose active filters. The Bessel filter needs a normalizing factor fn for the frequency: RC = 1/fnB. The gain for a Bessel filter requires K = 1.268, and the frequency factor is fn= 1.272. The Chebyshev filter has an additional variable that controls the ripple band size. For a ripple band of 0.5 dB: K = 1.842, fn= 1.231. For a ripple band of 2.0 dB: K = 2.114, fn= 0.907. Users of specific values and higher order filters rely on tanles of K and fn values for circuit design.

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## Bandpass VCVS Filter

The VCVS circuit can also be used to create a bandpass filter. Use one-pole for each cutoff frequency.
R1 vin R5 C2 R2 C1 R4 + R3 vout

## The cutoff frequencies are at 1/R1C1 and 1/R2C2.

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