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N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS

DATA COLLECTION TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

An ideal data collection procedure should be clear, unbiased, reliable and valid. It must produce evidence to answer research question or test hypothesis. Measurement of variables of interest is done through data collection method. Primary Vs Secondary data collection method Primary Data Collection Method It involves data collected directly from the subjects by the researcher or trained data collector. Data collected are specifically for the purpose of research e.g. Surveys, Interview, Observations Bio-Physiologic Measurement. Advantages Tailored according to research needs The researcher can determine exactly what data will be collected and can identify the specific tools that will be used. Defined and consistent protocol Completeness of data is ensured. Disadvantages Time consuming Rely on patient recall and communication abilities Bias may occur due to various factors. Need to check reliability of raters. Secondary Data Collection Method It involves of use of the data that were collected for various purposes other than current research. Eg., diaries, nurses notes, care plans, Patient medication record, statistical abstracts, census reports neither published or unpublished data Advantages It is easier and quicker. Absence of researchers biases. Economical and time saving Examine the trends over time Participants co-operation may not be necessary & it eliminates the biases related to participant awareness.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Disadvantages Accuracy, completeness and reliability depend upon original individual collecting the data. It may not be ideally suitable for answering current research question. Missed data and inaccuracy are common. Two biases are commonly expected- selective deposit and selective survival. Data collection methods Unstructured 1. Self reports Interview SAQ Semi structured Structured questionnaire

2. Bio-physiologic measurements. 3. Observational method. 4. Psychometric measurements. 5. Other - projective technique, Q - sorts, vignette. Tools for data collection 1. Self report: Questionnaire, attitude scale, semantic differential scale, visual analog scale. 2. Observation : Rating scale, check list, anecdotal record, Process recording video tapes etc., 3. Bio physiological : In-vitro In-vivo Self - Reports It is a method in which information is gathered by questioning people. By questioning, good deal of information can be gathered. Self administered questionnaire (SAQ) (or) paper and pencil test Self - Reports Interview methods. Interview 1. An interview involves verbal communication between the researcher and the subject during which information is provided to the researcher. Interview is a conversation carried art with the definite purpose of obtaining certain information by means of spoken word. 2. It defined as collecting data which individual presentation of oral - verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral - verbal response. 3. Most common method in qualitative and descriptive studies. 4. Interview refers an oral questionnaire. 5. Investigator collect data directly from the participants by having face to face contact, to obtain factual data about opinion, attitude, belief, etc., Types of Interview 1. Unstructured interview (non directive or non standardized) 2. Semi structured interview (or) focused interview 3. Completely structured interview L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Unstructured Interview It is characterized by a flexibility of approach to questioning. It will not follow a system of predetermined questions and standardization techniques of recording information. Interviewer freely asks the questions according to his own wish when required or omit the certain questions. Subjects are encouraged to talk freely and only very few questions asked to direct the trend of the interview. Researcher is having greater freedom to record or omit the responses. It is conversational in nature and conducted in naturalistic setting. It may be also called as Grand Tour technique. Advantages 1. Information obtained in such a casual manner enhances reliability and credibility of date. 2. Explorative and qualitative studies 3. Less prone to interviewer biases. 4. Probs questions can be assuring additional information to clarify. Disadvantages 1. Interviewer requires great deal of knowledge and skill in order to analyse the data. 2. Information cannot be compared. 3. Analysis will be difficult. 4. Data interpretation based on researchers perception and subjective feelings. 5. Time wasting. Semi - Structural Interview (Focused interview) 1. In order to ensure the given topics is covered in interview, used research uses a list of arrays or topics or questions, it is also to guide the interview (conversation) in right direction. 2. A set of questions or topics otherwise called as topic guide 3. Participants are assured to talk freely about the topic mention in topic guide. 4. Researcher will ask questions to different ways to different participants. 5. It includes both closed ended questions and open ended questions. Advantages 1. It avoids unnecessary waste of time, in purpose less discussion. 2. The needed data can be collected as topic guide helps to present omissions and commissions. 3. Most widely used methods. Disadvantages 1. Interviewer should have a skill in probs when additional information required. 2. Data cannot be compared. 3. Analysis will be difficult.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Focused Group Interview In a focused group interview, a group of four or more people is assembled for a discussion. The interviewer (moderator) guides the discussion according to a written set of questions or topics to be covered. Advantages 1. It is efficient researches obtain the view forms of many individual in a short time. 2. It helps for richer and deeper opinion of expression. Disadvantages 1. Some of the people will be having discomfort in expressing their views. 2. Group culture inhibits individual opinion. Structured Interview It involves asking the same questions, in the same order, and in same manner of all respondents in a study. Interviewer uses structured interview schedule. It commonly have fixed type, and closed ended questions. It also known as standardized interview. Interviewers are not permitted to change even specific wording also. It increases the reliability and credibility of data. Merits 1. Data from one interview to the next one are easily comparable. 2. Recording, coding and analysis of data is easy. 3. Avoids irrelevant purposeless conversation. Demerits 1. In-depth information may not be possible. 2. Exploration of data is limited. 3. It may not cover all the possible responses or respondent views. Steps Of Interview (Structured) Or Preparatory Phase 1. Preparation of structured questionnaire (interview schedule) (Interview schedule - data obtained in interview are usually recorded on an instrument referred Interview schedule) 2. Training of the interviewer regarding attitude towards participant, skills in probing, administering items according to order, non verbal communication, body language etc 3. Decide the Setting for interview -Natural and Comfortable Environment 4. Preparation of Interviewer guide. 5. Preparing additional instruments - show card - for too many responses. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Initial Phase


Establish report and assure them data will be kept confidential Indicate how long interview will be taken Obtain informed consent and explain their rights and privileges.

Interview phase 1. Ask only one question at a time. Use show card for many responses for closed questions. 2. Repeat question if necessary. 3. Avoid unnecessary description of question. 4. Listen carefully to the subjects answer. 5. Allow the subject sufficient time to answer questions. 6. Do not show any signs / expressions of surprise, shock or approve. 7. Maintain neutral attitude. 8. Use probes when necessary 9. Do not summarize or paraphrase interview. Recording Phase 1. Record responses as they take place. 2. Coding sheet is must preferred for structured questionnaire. 3. If any questions not answered, again repeat the question to the respondent. 4. Verify the schedule for completeness. Closing / Termination Phase After interview has concluded, participants should be asked if they have any questions. Explanations can be given at this time. Advantages 1. Responses can be obtained from a wide range of subjects. 2. Response rate is high in face to face interview. 3. Clarify - subjects can be given clarification regarding ambiguous and confusing questions. 4. It enhances reliable quality data, hence it allows probing in semi structured interview and indepth response can be obtained. 5. It will minimize missing information and response related bias such as yea - Sayers, I dont know. 6. Questions can be asked according to the order specifically mentioned or planned, i.e., order of questions protected. 7. It provides highest control over the samples. Hence, subjects are interviewed face to face. In other method, subject may pass the questionnaire to other individual to answer. 8. It helps to collect supplementary data if required. 9. Greater flexibility in keep the subjects at ease 10. Data are not influenced by others and it minimizing the risk of contamination among respondents. 11. It is a good method for illiterate, poor expression and bad handwriting subjects. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Disadvantages 1. Training programme is needed for interviewers. 2. It is time consuming and expensive. 3. It will not ensure anonymity, in case of sensitive issues, data obtained may be biased, and hence subjects may provide socially acceptable answer. (Social desirability response) 4. High degree of interviewers biases. 5. Rosenthal effect - Interviewer may influence subjects. QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire is a structured instrument consists of series of questions prepared by researcher that a respondent is asked to complete. SAQ also known as survey .The instrument is called a questionnaire (SAQ) when respondents complete the instrument themselves, usually in a paper and pencil format. Questionnaire - measure knowledge, attitude etc. Questionnaire are commonly used data collection tool Methods of Questionnaire Administration: 1. Direct Administration-It is completely different from interview, in which interviewer will read the items & responses, respondent merely to answer orally. But in direct method, researcher will distribute the questionnaire and respondent answer items by writing or checking against correct response. 2. Post or e-mail including all electronic means. (This method is called as Mailed questionnaire) Structure Open ended Vs Closed ended It requires written responses from the subjects and allow respondent to answer in their own words. Easy to construct Difficult to analyze. Commonly used in qualitative research. Time consuming They provide insightful and natural response Flexible and applicable to wide range of participants. Closed ended It requiring only selecting the response from given alternatives (pre-designated, developed by researcher)

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Difficult to construct Easy to analyse and compare Commonly used in quantitive studies. Time- saving Fixed and artificial Relevant data More objective Types of questions 1. Open ended 2. Closed ended 3. Demographic 4. Contingency questions 5. Filler questions Contingency Questions Items that is relevant for some respondents and not for others. E.g., what about hospital experience? (who never hospitalized can not answer).It is also called as skip questions. e.g., Yes / No, if yes - poor Filler Questions Filler questions are items in which the researcher has no direct interest but are included on a questionnaire to reduce the emphasis on the specific purpose of other questions to make the subjects to answer more honestly. If their focus only on the purpose of the study, they may hesitate to answer or provide more approved answer. Specific Types Of Closed Type Questions (Selection type items) 1. Multiple Choice Questions It is a type of question offer two or more responses alternatives. It commonly contains 3 to 7 alternatives.A multiple choice item consists of two parts. A first is stem, which can be a question or incomplete statement, the second part consists of several options (distractors and correct response) from which to select a correct answer. (Distractors also known as decays or foils) Forms and Types of MCQ 1. The correct answer form Three or more responses are given but only one of them is correct. 2. The best answer form There one or more responses are correct but one of them is the best answer. The subjects are requested to select best one. 3. The multiple response form Here two or more responses are correct and the subject is request to identify the all correct responses. 4. The negative form
The stem has a negative approach. In response one may be correct response.

good

very good

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Principles and Rules of Constructing MCQ 1. The response items should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Mutually exclusive means the responses should be different from one another (overlap should not be there). Collective exhaustive - it should cover all possible answers or options. 2. There should be underlying rationale for ordering alternatives. 3. Questions (stem) should be worded clearly. 4. It should be according to the researchers understanding ability. 5. Try to state the questions affirmative rather than negative, especially avoid double negatives. State the stem positive raher than negative manner, if it is written in negative manner, underline or bold the negative words. 6. Avoid long sentences or phrases or technical terms 7. Avoid double-barreled questions that contain two distinct ideas or concepts. Eg., The mentally ill are incapable to look after themselves and they should be kept in prison. 8. Questions on complex or specialized issues can be worded in such a way that a respondent will be comfortable and provide natural responses. E.g., Have you heard about various contraceptive practices? 9. Avoid leading questions that suggest a particular kind of answer. E.g., Do you agree that nurses are very important for health care? 10. Use impersonal wording of question is sometimes useful minimizing embarrassment and encouraging honesty. E.g., I am personally dissatisfied with nursing care instead The nursing care is very poor. 11. Avoid using all the above, none of the above as an opinion. Participants may guess the answer with partial knowledge. 12. Do not keep the items that every one will answer or agree or every one will not answer. 13. All items and responses should be arranged in logical sequence(alphabetic or numerical order), general to specific, and least sensitive to more sensitive, 14. Researcher must ensure answer to one question will not influence other question. 15. Include enough information in the stem to answer question. 16. Keep all options grammatically consistent with the stem to avoid clues to the correct option. 17. Keep all the options the same length or have two short responses and two long responses. 18. Make all options reasonable and homogenous. 19. It is need not necessary that all items should have same number of options. 20. Use Best answer form MCQ when majority of the experts agree.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS

2.Cafeteria Question It is a special type of MCQ that asks the respondents to select best response that most closely corresponds to their view. Usually it will be having all positive statements. 3.Dichotonomus Questions It requires respondents to make choice between two response alternatives such as yes / no, male / female. 4.Rank order questions: It requires respondents to rank the items along the continuum from most important to least important by assigning rank to the items. Example Nursing students value different things during their study period. The following tool contains list of ideas or often cited by many individuals when they are asked to name things they value most. Please arrange the statements from most important to least important to you by assigning 1,2,3, beside the statement. Recreational activities Academic activities Money Friendship Advantages of Questionnaire: 1. Questionnaires are applicable to wider and large number of samples. 2. Anonymity will be maintained. 3. No field staff required to supervise the data collection procedure. 4. It is free from interviewer related biases. 5. Best method for collecting information regarding sensitive and controversial issues 6. The participants will response the items naturally and exhibits candor behaviour. Disadvantages of Questionnaire: 1. This method is not applicable to all individuals especially illiterates, visually challenged, etc., 2. It has poor sample control. It may be filled by some person other than the respondent. 3. Response rate is low, Follow up reminder required to achieve higher response rate. 4. Respondent may not follow the order of questions. 5. High chances for missing information. 6. Probing and clarification of items are not possible. 7. Risk of contamination among the respondents is quiet high when mailed questionnaire is not adopted. 8. Response related biases are quiet high. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong. () () () ()

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS ATTITUDE SCALES Our emphasis from the beginning of the text has been on the objective measurement of research variables. Sometimes we are most interested in studying subjective variables: attitudes, feelings, personal opinions, or word usage. How can we measure subjective variables objectively? The answer is an instrument called a scale.Attitude denotes the inner feeling or belief of a person towards a particular phenomenon. Methods of assessing attitude: 1. Direct Method: It is the best way to assess the attitude of the individual. It involves assessing the behaviour in natural setting and real life situation. This method is commonly applied in qualitative research. 2. Indirect Method: It is the method commonly adopted in research to assess attitude. It involves asking the individual directly how he feels about a subject through the use of questionnaire or interview. In this method, he is also asked to indicate his agreement or disagreement with a series of statements about a controversial subject. General components of Attitude Scales: 1. A stem, which is a statement relating to attitudes or an attitudinal object to be rated by the respondent. 2. A series of scale steps. 3. Anchors that define the scale steps.

There are different types of anchors that can be employed: numbers, percentages, degrees of agreement/disagreement, adjectives (e.g., worthless/valuable), actual behavior, and products (e.g., samples of nursing care plans to be rated 1 to 6). Usually numerical anchors are preferred. Types of attitude scales: A scale is an instrument which measures subjective variables. Each of these important scale types provides the means to gather subjective data objectively. 1. Differential scale-Thurstone scale. 2. Summated scales-Likert scale. 3.Cumulative scales-Guttmans scale. 4. Factor scales-Semantic Differential Scale and Multi Dimensional Scales.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Thurstone Scale Selection of items is made by a panel of judges who evaluate the items of relevancy and unambiguous in implication. Researcher collects a large number of statements usually twenty or more. The statements will be evaluated by panel of judges, each of whom asked to arrange the statements in 11 piles from most favourable to least favourable. The items which bring out a marked disagreement between the judges in assigning a position are discarded. Median value calculated, and any one statement is computed as median by all judges. All the items arranged in random order, and respondents are to state whether they agree or disagree to the item. The respondent is to give his reaction to each statement by endorsing or rejecting it. Median value of the statements that he endorses establishes the score. This scale is considered as most appropriate and reliable when used for measuring single attitude.

Limitation Values assigned to the various statements by the judges may reflect their own attitude.

Summated scales (Likert type of scales) A Likert scale consists of several declarative items that express a view point on a topic. Respondents are asked to indicate the degree to which they agree or disagree with the opinior expressed by the statement. The likert scale usually contains five degrees (but at times 3 - 7 may also be used). Likert scales are developed using item analysis approach. A particular item is evaluated on the basis of how well it discriminates between those whose total score is high and whose score is low.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Steps of construction of Likert scale 1. Collects a large number of statements about the topic based on representative of opinion held by a substantial number of people and referring adequate literature. 2. The statements express definite favourableness or unfavourableness to a particular point of view is retained. Neutral statements and the statements that everyone will agree or disagree will be discarded. 3. Determine the number of degrees (responses). The Likert scale usually contains five degrees (but at times 3 - 7 may also be used). i.e SA-A-NEUTRAL -DA-SDA {I recommend that you use four or six levels of response. Many Likert scales have 5 levels, with a no opinion center. This neutral middle option allows subjects an easy way to avoid considering the statement.) 4. Trial test should be administered to a number of subjects (small group of people) to refine statement selected. 5. Select equal number of favourable and unfavourable statements are selected and arranged in random order. 6. Good Likert scale contains 5-20 items. Administration of Likert scale: 1. Proper instruction should be given to the respondent. Respondent are asked to indicate the degree to which they agree or disagree with the opinions expressed. INSTRUCTIONS: Individuals may have difference of opinion in regard to sex education to adolescents. The following tool contains opinions of various people in the form of statements. These statements are neither right nor wrong. Kindly indicate your degree of agreement or disagreement after carefully reading the each statement below. Circle the letter which best describes your response to the statement. If you strongly disagree with the statement, circle SD. If you DISAGREE, circle D, AGREE, A, or STRONGLY AGREE, SA. 2. Never give any approval to the responses if interview method is adopted. Do not summarize the responses given by the respondents. Respondent may change his degree of agreement due to influence of the one item over another. 3. Strictly follow the order and wording of the questions. 4. Use response show card if you use more than 5 degrees during interview. 5. If neutral or undecided responses expressed, repeat the statement after all the statements are responded. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Scoring of Likert scale: 1. All favourable statements are scored from maximum to minimum as SA 5 SA 1 A 4 A 2 N 3 N 3 DA 2 DA 4 SDA 1 SDA 5

2. All unfavourable statements are scored from minimum to maximum as

The total scores obtained on all the items measure a respondents favourableness towards the subject in question. For e.g. if the Likert scale contains 20 items, score above 60 will indicate a favourable attitude and scores will below indicate unfavourable attitude. Advantages of Likert Scale 1. It is relatively easy to construct in comparision of thurstone type of scale. 2. It is more reliable because the items included in the scale are the statements expressed by substantial number of people in their own words. 3. Likert scale is having good discriminating power. 4. Very easy to administer and assign scoring. It facilitates to have individual comparison. Limitations of Likert scales 1. There is no basis for the belief that the five positions indicated on the scale are equally placed. 2. They answer to the items based on what they should feel rather than how they feel! 3. Responses may be inaccurate; the attitude will differ in the real life situations.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Semantic Differential Scales Semantic Differential Scale consists of two opposite adjectives with a 7-point scale between them. Respondent is asked to rate a given concept by selecting one point on the scale that best describes his or her point of view. The adjectives commonly used such as effective/ineffective, good/bad, or important/unimportant. The semantic differential is a method for measuring the meaning of concepts that was developed by Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum (1957). Components: The semantic differential has three components: (1) the concept to be rated in terms of its attitudinal properties, (2) bipolar adjectives that anchor the scale, and (3) a series of 5 to 9 scale steps (7 is the optimal number of steps suggested). Logic underlying the semantic differential stems from the recognition that, in spoken and written language, characteristics of ideas and objects are communicated largely by adjectives. It is reasonable on this basis to assume that meaning often can be and usually is communicated by adjectives; it is also reasonable to assume that adjectives can be used to measure various facets of meaning. Factor analytic studies of semantic differential scales have suggested that there are three major factors of meaning assessed by such scales: (1) evaluation, (2) potency, and (3) activity.

Scoring of Semantic differential Scale: Scoring pattern similarly like Likert scale. Scores 1-7 are assigned to each bipolar scale response, which higher scores generally associated with positively worded adjective. Advantages: 1. Highly flexible and easy to construct. 2. It is very useful in evaluating several concepts such as person, place, situation, abstract idea, controversial issue and so forth.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS


Example of Semantic Differential Scale: (Ph.D thesis submitted by Elizabeth Noela Emmanuel -reproduced with permission) Instructions:

The purpose of this questionnaire is to measure what certain things mean to you. I am interested in what these ideas mean to you. There is no right or wrong answers. The page that follows has a different idea printed at the top followed by pairs of opposite words below it to describe each idea. Each pair of opposite words is separated by seven spaces. We call these spaces scales. For your better understanding, please read the following example.. My home.

My self as Mother

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS OBSERVATION Observation involves the systematic selection, observation, and recording of behaviours, events, and settings relevant to a problem under investigation. Phenomenon Amenable To Observation 1. Characteristics and conditions of the individuals such as physical appearance, physiological symptoms, sleep wake cycle etc., 2. Activities of the individual such as health status, physical and emotional functioning, eating habits etc., 3. Skill attainment and performance which manifested behaviourally, such as inserting urinary catheter, job performance, etc., 4. Verbal Communication and Non-Verbal Communication 5. Environmental Characteristics 6. Events and Conditions occur in the setting. Approaches of Observation Molar Approach - the molar approach entails observing large units of behaviour and treating them as a whole. This approach is adopted in qualitative studies using unstructured observation. Molecular Approach - the molecular approach uses small and highly specific behaviours as the unit of observation. Each movement, action, gesture, or phrase is treated as a separate entity Types of Observation Observation methods are broadly classified into Structured and Unstructured based on the time frame and controls. Based on the time frame and controls- Structured and Unstructured Observation Based on observer role Structured Observation Participant and Non-Participant Observation

It aims to provide measurable and quantifiable data that are valid and reliable. Characteristics of Structured Observation 1. It signifies a particular systematic approach to the business of quantifying behaviour. 2. It usually conducted in natural setting (clinic) as contrived settings such as laboratory. 3. The researcher determines, well in advance, What variable to be observed, and how it should be measured? 4. It involves systematic way of recording of behaviour with objectivity. 5. It is guided by the preplanned structured or semi-structured instrument 6. It involves recording the frequency of the behaviour or rating the behaviour using check list or rating scales. 7. The behaviour or events recorded by direct observation or indirect methods such as audio taping, video taping, process recording and also using mechanical aids. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Unstructured Observation It involves describing events or behaviour as they occur with no preconceived ideas of what will be seen Characteristics of Unstructured Observation 1. All the behaviours are observed in the participants natural setting using observation guide. 2. All the data recorded as descriptive information or pictorial information 3. No numerical value assigned to any behaviour. 4. The information regarding physical setting, characteristics of the participants, interactions of the participants with fellow group in addition to the behaviour being observed. 5. Researcher may assume various position such as Single Position, Multiple Position or Mobile Position to gather information. Tools Used in Unstructured observation 1. Log and field notes 2. Anecdotes 3. Field Diary Participant Observation 1. Observer becomes more or less a member of group which is under observation. 2. The observer plays a dual role that is as observer and also as participant. 3. He may assume the role of an attentive listener or a full fledged participant. 4. It is flexible, reliable and discloses the hidden, minute and delicate facts. Advantages of Participant Observation 1. The investigator does not rely totally on intuition to understand the perspective of his subjects. He sees the world at least for sometime, in the same way as other members of the group see it. 2. It has a built-in validity test Disadvantages of Participant Observation 1. It is time consuming. 2. Sometimes the observers presence modifies the behaviour of the subjects to be observed. Non-Participant Observation 1. The observer takes a position so that his presence does not disturb the activities of the group. 2. It is very helpful in recording and studying the behaviour of the members of the group in detail. 3. Non-participant observation is used in the case of abnormal individuals, infants and children. 4. Observer merely observes the phenomenon or views the situation with out interacting with the participants. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Planning Good and Reliable Observation in Quantitative Research 1. Sampling to be observed should be adequate. 2. Traits to be observed should be defined as accurately as possible. 3. Methods of recording should be simplified. 4. Too many variables may not be observed at a time. 5. Length of observation should be adequate. 6. Length of each observation period, interval between periods and number of periods should be clearly stated. 7. Conditions of observation should remain constant. 8. Observers should be fully equipped and trained. 9. Interpretations should be carefully made objectively. 10. Record of observation should be complete and comprehensive. OBSERVER RELATED ERRORS Error of standards result when numerical and descriptive rating scales fail to provide definitions of behaviors specific enough to prevent raters from using their own standards to rating items differently from those intended by the developer of the measure. Hence, different raters would be more likely to rate the same items differently, thereby reducing reliability of ratings between raters. Halo error -It refers to the tendency of the observer to be influenced by one characteristic in judging other. This may be done subconsciously and may be in a negative or positive direction. Therefore, halo error can affect scores negatively or positively. Logic error results when a rater rates one characteristic of a performer when another characteristic is supposed to be the focus of the rating. This occurs when the rater is not fully aware of the independence of two performance characteristics. For example, suppose a clinical instructor assumes that a student who takes longer to perform a procedure is less knowledgeable about the procedure. In actuality, speed of conducting the procedure may have nothing to do with the amount of knowledge about the procedure. Central tendency error is associated with rating scales that allow raters to choose points along a continuum, such as with behaviorally anchored, descriptive, or numerical scales.Raters will often avoid rating performers on the extreme anchors of rating scales and tend to group ratings more in the middle of the scale. Error of Leniency -Rater assign high scoring to each and every respondent irrespective of their performance. Reactive measurement effect- Presence of the observer lead to behaviour distortion among the participant called as reactive measurement effect. Tools Used in Structured Observation 1. Rating Scale 2. Check list

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS CHECK LIST Checklists are items that encompass several items on a topic and require same response format of all items. It consists of a list of items with a place to check or to mark Yes or No. A checklist enables the observer to note only whether or not a trait is present. It consists of a listing of steps, activities, and behaviours which the observer records when an incident occurs. Responses to the checklist items are largely matter of fact, not judgement. It is two dimensional in nature i.e. Items and response. Definitions A check list is a simple instrument consisting prepared list of expected items of performance or attributes, which are checked by a researcher for their presence or absence. Checklists are constructed by breaking a performance and the quality of a product, which specifies the presence or absence of an attribute or trait which is then checked by the rater / observer. Uses of checklist: Checklist will be very useful for evaluating skills, behaviour, conditions, personality, manifestations, and mastery of particular exercise. Four Common Styles Of Constructing Check Lists (Kempfer Styles) 1. In one of the arrangements, all items found in a situation are to be checked. For example, observer may be asked to check ( ) in the blank beside each activity undertaken in the unit. 1.Washing hands 2.Wearing mask 3.Following aseptic precautions. 4.Following barrier technique () ( ) () ( )

2. In the second form, the observer is asked to check with a yes or no or asked to encircle or underline the response to the given item. For example, Does unit have disinfection solution in the hand washing area? Yes / No

3. This is the form which all the items are positive statements with checks () to be marked in a column on the right, for example, The school functions as a community centre. ( )

4. In the fourth form, the items are presented in sentences and the appropriate response out of the supplied responses is checked, underlined or encircled, for example, The Student Nurses Association organizes various student activities. - Weekly, fortnightly, monthly, irregularly. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Construction of Good Checklists 1. The list of items in the checklist may be continuous or divided into groups of related items. 2. The response items should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. 3. Formulate the list of items on the basis of standard procedural guidelines, best supportive evidence, and consultation of experts. 4. All items should be arranged in logical order. 5. Express each item in clear, simple language, observable and measurable concrete concepts. Each item should assess or describe only one behavior or criteria. 6. Items should be discriminative in quality i.e to secure the required information and details. 7. An intensive survey of the literature is made to determine the type of checklist to be used in a particular research. 8. Avoid negative statements whenever possible. 9. Ensure that each item has clear responses: yes or no. 10. Reviews the items independently. 11. Checklist must have the quality of completeness and comprehensiveness. 12. Pilot study or trial run will help to develop most appropriate items. Observation using Checklists Observe one respondent at one time. Clearly specify the characteristics of behaviour to be observed. Use only carefully prepared checklist to avoid more complex traits. The observer should be trained how to observe, what to observe, and how to record the observed behaviour. Advantages of Checklist Checklists allow inter-individual comparisons. It provides a simple method to record observation. It is useful in evaluating learning activities. Helpful in evaluating procedural work. Properly prepared, it allows the observer to contain the direct attention. Checklists have the objectivity to evaluate characteristics. Useful for evaluating those processes that can be subdivided into a series of actions. Decreases the chances of errors in observation especially error of leniency hence, no rating or degree of performance is observed. Disadvantages of Checklist In many situations, summative scoring (overall score) and interpretation of scores will be difficult. Does not indicate quality or degree of performance, so usefulness of checklist is limited. It has a limited use in qualitative research studies. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS RATING SCALE Rating scales resemble check lists but are used when finer discriminations are required. Instead of merely indicating the presence or absence of a trait or characteristic, it enables us to indicate the degree to which a trait is present. Rating scales provide systematic procedures for obtaining, recording and reporting the observers judgement.By a rating is meant the judgement of one person by another. A.S.Barr and others state, Rating is a term applied to expression of opinion or judgement regarding some situation, object or character. Opinions are usually expressed on a scale or values. Rating techniques are devices by which such judgement may be quantified. Types of Rating Scales 1.Graphic Scale In graphic rating scale, each characteristic is followed by a horizontal line. A set of categories identifies specific positions along the line to form continuum and the rater indicates his rating by simply marking a tick at the appropriate point on a line that run from one extreme to the other. Even rater is free to check between these points. Example: To what extent, does the staff nurse participate in clinical conference?

Never

Seldom

occasionally

frequently

always

Types of graphic rating scale: 1. Constant -alternative scale: This type of scale contains same set of categories for each and every item of the rating scale. 2. Changing-alternative scale: This type of scale contains different set of categories for each and every item of the rating scale. Limitations of graphic rating scale: 1. The respondents may check at almost any position along the line which leads to difficulty in analysis. 2. The meaning of the categories-Respondents as well as raters may have varying understanding about the categories and equivalency among the respondents is always challenged. 2.Numerical Rating Scale(Itemized rating scale) This is one of the simplest types of rating scales. The rater simply marks a number that indicates the extent to which a characteristic or trait is present. The trait is presented as a statement and values from 1 to 5 are assigned to each trait that is rated. Typically a common key is used throughout, the key providing a verbal description.

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Example: Indicate the degree to which the staff nurse practices universal precautions in General Medical Ward? The numbers represent the following values: 5-very good,4-good,3-Fair,2-Poor, 1-very poor. To what extent, does the staff nurse participate in clinical conference? 1 2 3 4 5

Descriptive Rating Scale These types of rating scales do not use number but divide the categories into series of verbal phrases to indicate the level of performance.

Advantages of Rating Scales It will direct and focus observation toward specific aspects of behavior. It will provide a common frame of reference for comparing all participants on the same set of characteristics. They can be efficient and economical in the use. It is used to evaluate performance, skills and product outcomes. They can be comprehensive in the amount of information recorded. They can be help to reduce the subjectivity and unreliability that are usually associated with observation methods. Rating scales are useful in wide range of applications. Rating scales may also be used with a large number of properties or variables. Limitations 1. Some characteristics are more difficult to rate. 2. Subjectivity element is present. 3. Lack of opportunities to rate students. 4. Raters tend to be generally generous. 5. The measurements obtained from the rating scale are largely based on assumptions and judgements of the raters. 6. Three types of errors are common 1. Error of Leniency, 2. Error of central tendency and 3. Error of Halo effect. L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Constructing good Rating Scale: 1. Identify the significant traits that should be rated. 2. Clearly define the traits to be rated and the scale points to be used. 3. Avoid technical terms. 4. Express the traits to be rated as questions (preferably) rather than as declarative statements. 5. If the line showing the continuum is used, it should follow immediately after the question. 6. Define several points on each scale with as great precision as possible. 7. The usual way to get qualitative-cum-quantitative judgements on the selected aspects of a thing or person is to set up three to seven categories. The rater should clearly know that he is rating at a three, four, five or seven point scale. 8. The trait to be rated should be readily observable and concrete in nature. 9. Avoid words such as average in the middle range of the scale. The rater who does not wish to give too much effort to the rating procedure is likely to class too many as average. 10. The number of characteristics to be rated should be limited to 15. 11. The directions should be clear and comprehensive. Also indicate the need for honest rating. 12. Items may be arranged in ascending or descending order from left to right. 13. Well informed and experienced persons should be selected for rating. Their number should be large to increase the reliability of any scale. 14. In the rating scale card, some space may be provided for the rater to write some supplementary material.

Biophysiological Methods Definition Biophysical method involves the collection of biophysical data from subjects by using the specialized equipments to determine physical and biological status of subjects. For example, blood pressure measurement by using special equipments such as sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. Types of Biophysiological Methods Biophysiological methods are basically classified in two categories: 1. In Vivo Biophysiological Methods - Performed directly to measure processes occurring internally within living organisms through medical or surgical instruments, e.g., TPR, BP monitoring 2. In Vitro Biophysiological Methods - Physiological processes are measured and analyses done outside the organism, e.g., blood tests

L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.

N U R S I N G RESEARCH : DATA COLLECTION METHODS Advantages of Biophysiological Methods 1. Biophysiological measures are relatively more accurate and error-less 2. Biophysiological measures are more objective in nature. 3. Provide valid measures for targeted variables. 4. Easy access to most of the instruments used for Biophysiological measurements. The instruments used for Biophysiological measurements are easily available in hospital settings, which are used for routine patient care. Disadvantages of Biophysiological Methods 1. Some of the instruments used for Biophysiological measurements are very expensive. 2. The use of Biophysiological method requires significant amount of training, knowledge, and experience. 3. The results produced by the Biophysiological measurements instruments may be affected by the environment and caliberation, for example, auxiliary temperature recording in a room with or without air conditioning may have different readings. 4. The use of Biophysiological measurement instruments may cause fear and anxiety among participants. For example, the collection of blood sample for Biophysiological measurements may have traumatic impact on the subjects. 5. The use of some of the Biophysiological methods may have harmful effect on the participants such as repeated exposure to X-ray increase the health risk for study subjects.

References
1. Janet Houser. Nursing Research. 1st edition, London : Jones & Bartlett Learning 2011. 269 - 292. 2. Polit D.F. & Hungler B.P. Nursing Research - Principles and Methods. 6th edition, Philadelphia Lippincott 1999. 307 - 384 3. Nieswiadomy R.M. Foundations of Nursing Research. 5th edition, New Delhi : Pearson Education 2008 210 - 258 4. 5. Suresh K. Sharma. Nursing Research & Statistics. 1st edition, New Delhi : Elsevier 2011. 176 - 221 Burns N. & Grove S.K. Understanding Nursing Research. 4th edition, Missouri : Saunders 2007. 358 - 399

6. Sidhu K.S. Methodology of Research in Education. 5th edition, New Delhi : Sterling 2011. 131 - 172 7. Kothari C.R. Research Methodology. 2nd edition, New Delhi : New Age 2008. 69 - 121 8. Rajammal Rajagopal K. Evaluation, Statistics and Research & Education. 1st edition, Chennai Shantha 2006. 28 - 79. 9. Sidhu K.S. New Approaches to Measurement and Evaluation. 1st edition, New Delhi : Sterling 2007. 130 - 150 L .Anand,Lecturer,College of Nursing,NEIGRIHMS,Shillong.