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PERANG DUNIA 1

PERANG DUNIA 1

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Dipublikasikan oleh Kamaruzaman Yusoff

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PD1: SEBAB DAN PERISTIWA

 PENYATUAN JERMAN 1871

 KETIDAKSEIMBANGAN ANTARA KUASA BESAR

DI EROPAH  PERANCHIS TIDAK PUAS HATI  PERSAINGAN EKONOMI, TENTERA DAN TANAH JAJAHAN  THE EASTERN QUESTION

SIAPA YG TERLIBAT?

 KUASA BERIKAT : PERANCHIS, UK, RUSIA
   

(JAPAN,ITALI, USA) Japan in August 1914, Italy in April 1915, and the United States in April 1917. PAKSI: JERMAN, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, UTHMANIYYAH, BULGARIA, PENIAGA, ZIONIS, PEMIMPIN ARAB, ARMENIA, KURDI, YAHUDI, NEGARA BERKECUALI BELANDA, SWITZERLAND, SEPANYOL, SCANDANIVIA

PENGLIBATAN KUASA BESAR

KRONOLOGI PD1
 June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated  July 23: Austro-Hungarian demarche made to Serbia.  July 25: Russia enters period preparatory to war, mobilization begins on all

    

frontiers. Government decides on partial mobilization in principal to begin on July 29. July 25: Serbia mobilizes its army; responds to Austro-Hungarian demarche with less than full acceptance; Austria-Hungary breaks diplomatic relations with Serbia. July 26: Serbia reservists accidentally violate Austro-Hungarian border at Temes-Kubin. July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia and mobilizes against Serbia only. July 29: Russian general mobilization ordered, then changed to partial mobilization. July 30: Russian general mobilization reordered at 5PM. July 31: Austrian general mobilization is ordered.

KRONOLOGI
        

July 31: Germany enters period preparatory to war. July 31: Germany demands a halt to Russian military preparations within 12 hours. August 1: French general mobilization is ordered. August 1: German general mobilization is ordered. August 1: Germany declares war against Russia. August 2: Germany and The Ottoman Empire sign a secret treaty[31] entrenching the Ottoman-German Alliance August 3: Germany, after France declines (See Note) its demand to remain neutral,[32] declares war on France. August 4: Germany invades Belgium according to the modified Schlieffen Plan. August 4: Britain declares war on Germany. With Britain, France, and Germany all at war, their overseas colonies now had to be defended against invading armies. The European empires made World War One become a global war. August 23: Japan, honoring the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, declares war on Germany.

OPERASI TENTERA DI ASIA BARAT
DALAM PERANG DUNIA PERTAMA

STRATEGI BERIKAT DI ASIA BARAT

• 1. membahagi wilayah sesama mereka..
• 2. mengalahkan ottoman dr. segi politik. • 3. menyemarakkan semangat nasionalisme arab

lawan turki. • 4. meneruskan penguasaan ekonomi di A/B. • 5. membahagikan sama rata tanah jajahan antara bri. dan france. • 6. mengadakan perjanjian sulit dgn. zionis dan arab.

PD1 DI TURKI
• 1. perang bermula dgn. percubaan turki menawan

caucasus dan mengalahkan azerbaijan dan terus ke iran yg. masih nutral pd. tahap ini. tapi pd. akhir 1914, rusi berjaya mengambil semula wilayah itu dan berjaya masuk ke dalam turki spt. erzurum, erzinjan dan van.

• 2. mac 15, armada british cuba tawan dardanelles tapi

gagal. april, british dgn. bantuan askar new z. australia dan french mendarat di galipoli utk. tawan istanbul tapi gagal kerana tentera turki di bawah comander german berjaya dan jan 1916, allies terpaksa tinggalkan gallipoli.

CAUCASIA

SEMENANJUNG SINAI

• feb 15, askar turki cuba melintas terusan suez tapi

digagalkan oleh british. british yg. berada di mesir sejak 1882 menambahkan askar bila askar yg. kalah di gallipoli dibawa ke suez. • 16, british cuba lintas sinai utk tawan palestine dan syria. • may 17, dgn. bantuan german, turki bersdia lawan british di palestine tapi gagaal pertahan palestine bila comander allenby tawan jerusalem pd dec. 17. akhrinya syria jatuh ke tangan british pd. sept 18.

SINAI

ARABIA

 sebelum perang, Arabia di bawah Uthmaniyyah

kecuali aden dan tk./ parsi lain di bawah ottoman.  british dgn. tipu muslihat berjaya ajak famili saud (india office utk. selamatkan india dan tk. parsi).

GERAKAN IBN SAUD DI ARABIA
 ibn saud ada hubngan dgn. colonial off. di india hingga pd. 26/12/1915,  ibn saud dan bri. t.t. damai utk. tidak masuk perang dan hijaz selamat

  

sekurangnya utk sementara. pd. 1918 dan 19, berlaku perang berebut kwsn. tanah. a. ziz b. a. rahman b. faysal b. saud lahir pd. 1880 adalah penerus famili saud yg. telah dikalahkan oleh mmuhd ali dr. mesir kerana gerkana wahabi. mula gerakan dgn. tawan al-hasa, wil. turki pd. 1913. 1919. anak husin, abdullah berjaya tawan khurma. British benarkan tetapi jangan kacau hijaz

IRAQ
 nov. 14, british tlh. ada di iraq bertujuan utk. jaga

telaga minyak di iran.  tujuan utama utk. tawan basra dan bertemu dgn. askar rusia yg. dtg. dr. caucasus dan tutup jalan perhubungan turki.  mac 17, baghdad jatuh.

SIRI PERJANJIAN SULIT
• 1. perjanjian constantinople mac 1915.

• perjanjian sulit ini dibuat antara rusia, france dan bri melalui pertukaran

nota antara tiga pihak itu. • a- rusia dikehendaki menakluk selat dan kws. perairan termasuk istanbul. • dan dijanjikan istanbul akan jadi pelabuhan bebas kpd. semua allies, tanah suci islam akan dibebaskan dr. turki dan diberi merdeka.
• b-rusia bersetuju dgn. pembahagian zon dlm. janji pd. 1907 termasuk

nutral zon tapi bandar isfahan dan yazd diberi kpd. rusia, nutral zon di sebelah afghan diberi kpd. rusia dan rusia diberi kuasa penuh terhadap kuasa yg. diberi dlm. perjanjian di atas. dan rusia berjanji bantu allies dlm. perang di dardanelles.

• perjanjjian ini tamatkan kuasa bri. di istanbul dan hak diberi kpd. rusia,

• 2. london april 15, • janji sulit ini dibuat antara bri. france, rusia dan itali •


• •

sebagai habuan itali kerana bersama mereka. a-itali berkuasa penuh di pulau dodecanese dekat perairan turki. b-semua kuasa sultan libya diserahkan kpd. itali. c-bersetuju menyerahkan kepentingan itali di medi sekiranya mereka menang dlm. perang ini. tapi ternyata itali kurang senang dgn. janji ini keran akhirnya tidak bnyak yg. itali dapat lepas allies menang besar dlm. perang ini.

• 3. sykes-picot pd. may 15. • lepas selesaikan hak rusia dan itali, kini giliran france dan british pula yg.

nak bahagikan wilayah di t/t. france sedar bahawa bri. menjanjikan sesuatu kpd. arab sednagkan france juga inginkan kws. itu.

• a- rusia diberi tanah di erzurum, terbizond, van, bitlis, • b-france dpt. pantai syria, adana dan tanah di sempadan dgn. yg. rusia • •

• •

dpt., c-brit. dpt. sel mesopotamia, baghdad, pel. haifa dan acre. d- sempadan antara kuasa franc edan bri. akan ujud negeri arab yg. baru yg. di bawah kuasa france dan bri. france akan diberi tnaah lagi di mesopo dan bri. akan diberi lagi tanah di antara plesti dan iran. e-alexandretta diistihar pel. bebas. f-pales akan jadi zon antarabangsa.

SYKES-PICOT

KORESPONDEN MACMAHON – SHARIF HUSAIN(July 14, 1915 to January 30, 1916)[
  hubungan tlh. dibuat sejak awal perang bila kitchener (bri. high comm. di

cairo) janji akan merdekakan arab jika mereka bantu bri dan ini diterima oleh abdullah, anak sharif.

 sharif yg. terpaksa lari ke istanbul kerana sebab politik dihantar oleh

ottoman utk., jadi amir di mekah pd. 1908 dan berjaya jadi jaguh arab  pd. 1914. lambatkan istihar jihad sedangkan mereka sedang bincang dgn. britis utk sokong mereka.
 april 1915, sharif hantar anaknya, faisal (pd. awalnya sokong ottoman dan

anti bri) dihantar utk. jumpa wakil ottoman di damascus dan janji akan sokong ottoman.  perkara sebaliknya berlaku bila beliau lihat jamal pasha (gabnor) yg. zalim dan majunya gerakan nasionalis syria utk. lawan ottoman. masa di sana bri. setuju buat pakatan utk. lawan ottoman dgn. bantuan byk. nasionalis.

PERSEFAHAMAN ANTARA MEREKA
 1. sharif janji utk istihar perang kpd. otto dgn. bantuan bri.  2. mcmahon, dgn. mandat king, akan istihar merdeka kpd. neg. arab

termasuk beberpa kawsn. iaitu di utara, sempadan turki dan kwsn. france di timur sebelah iran hingga gulf, dan di sel. hingga neg. arab di gulf. di barat, sharif minta hingga laut medi. dan laut merah tapi mcmahon hanya beri laut merah dan tak termausk syria, lubnan dan palestin.

 3. holy places akan dijaga oleh bri.  4. sharif dapat wang 200 ribu pound sebulan.

 Jun 1916, sharif mula main peranan
 Isytiharkan sebagai raja arab sedangkan british nak lantik beliau sebagai

raja di hijaz sahaja

 6 bulan lepas tu, bri. buat perjanjian sykes-picot

 pd. dec. 1917, husin tau bri. tipu bila ottoman, dgn.

bantuan rusia berjaya dptkan salinan  Khalifah Uthamaniyyah hantar surat kpd. husin agar putus hubungan dgn. bri kerana tipu dan kembali kpd. semangat islam dan jihad. sharif marah lalu hantar surat minta penjelasan tapi bri. jawab tak jelas tapi beliau masih teruskan hubungan dgn. bri.

British yakin akan berjaya di Asia Barat
 bri. yakin arab akan bersama mereka utk. lawan ottoman

kerana 3 faktor utama kerana mereka inginkan merdeka  1. adanya gerakan nasionalisme arab yg. dipelopori oleh kristian arab di syria yg. bertujuan utk. bebas dr. ottoman tapi kemudian arab muslim bersama utk. bebaskan negeri mereka dr. ottoman. pendidikan mainkan peranan penting dlm. hal ini dgn. sekolah misionari dan s/khabar.  2.gerakan merdeka oleh ketua kabilah di tengah dan timur arabia.  3. gerakan yg. dilakukan oleh sharif mekah.

zionis
 bri. juga adakan janji dgn. zionis utk. kemenangan di t/t.  zionis, diketuai oleh dr. chaim Weizmann, pensyarah di

manches. berjaya jumpa senjata baru, bantu dan pengaruhi bri. kpd gerakan mereka sejak 1914.  sebelum perang, pusat zionis di berlin. bila perang berlaku dan bri lawan german, terjadi rebut kuasa utk. kuasa seluruh zionis dunia.  zionis us juga bergerak utk. tujuan yg. sama dgn. zionis bri. bahawa mereka sokong allied dan bila memang akan diberi palestin. weizmann berjaya pengaruhi tokoh yahudi bri. spt. herbet samuel dan balfour, s/u luar bri. pd. 1917, picot diperintah bertemu wakil zionis.

KESIMPULAN PD1 DI ASIA BARAT
 1.faktor poltik lebih banyak beri kesan dr. faktor tentera dl. perang itu.  2. dipihak otto. lahir perasaan utk. memang dan penguasaan semula ke

atas tanah yg. pernah diduduki dgn. semangat nasionalisme turki,

 3.perang menjadi saatu maslaah baru kpd. dasarluar bri. yg. dibuat masa

perang dan beri kesan lepasnya khasnya di a/b

 4. pd. okt. 1918, ottoman dan bri janji utk tamat perang.  5. s/jaya allies bersama askar berkumpul di istanbul dan ottoman hancur.  

PARIS KONFERENS YG GAGAL
 pd. jan 1919, semua org. datang ke paris dgn. bawa ide masing2.  piem bri, george bawa harapan org. t/t tapi beliau sendiri harap utk.

       

dapat kuasa dan luaskan perdagangan di mesir, iraq, arabia, palestin, iran, cyprus dan caucasus. french, clemenceau pula harap kekalkan syria dan sel. anatolia, kuasa selat dan tempatkan penasihat france di istanbul spt. yg. bri. ada di mesir. wilson usa pula harap dpt. sedikit hasil w/pun tak ikut perang. faisal harap bri. tunai janji utk. merdekakan arab. armenia dtg. utk. dpt. hak dlm. janjisetia sulit itu. venizelos, piem greek dtg. utk. luaskan kws. nya. wakil zionis berlagak spt. wakil negeri, lobi sana-sini. piem italy utk. luaskan kws. takluknya. ada juga pedagang, tokey minyak, ahli agama dll. KECUALI TURKI YG. TAK ADA WAKIL.

ISU UTAMA SELEPAS PD1
 bila pemimpin berikat bertemu di paris pada 1919, dua isu utama terpaksa

ditangani iaitu b/mana kegiatan tentera berikat di t/t nak diselesaikan dan janji sulit mereka nak dilaksanakan.

  1. keg. askar.  diakhir perang, iran berada di bawah bri. neg. arab pula, meßopotamia,

syria dan palestin bawah bri dgn. bantuan faisal dan kuasa tentera di bawah allenby.  di turki pula dipecahkan kpd. beberapa kuasa spt, adalia di bawah italy,
  2. janji sulit.  terdapat skurangnya 6 kelemahan janji sulit itu yg. ditanggung oleh semua

pihak.  2.1. bri dan france. bri cuba utk. kajisemula sykes-picot utk. tunaikan janji dgn. arab dan kepentingan sendiri di syria sedangkan france tak mau tolakansur dan akan beri mosul saja kpd. bri.

 2.2. tuntutan arab. faisal yg. jadi jurucakap arab dlm. conferen itu minta

bri. tunaikan janji mereka.
 

MERDEKA BENARKAN MEREKA MASUK KE PALESTIN
dr. weizmann minta perakuan hak di palestin dan tentang jadikan palestin hak internasional

 2.3. zionis.

 2.4. tuntutan greek.  dijanji tanah di smyrna. greek masuk pd. may 1919 dan kuasai smyrna.
 2.5. tuntutan armenia. armenia minta 6 wilayah turki

 2.6. sikap usa.  cadang agar buka jalan dagang kpd. semua khasnya kwas. selat itu.

Perjanjian versailles
 JERMAN  MAHARAJA JERMAN DIHUKUM BERSALAH  AKAN DIBICARAKAN SEBAGAI PENJENAYAH PERANG (227-

230)  TANGGUNG SEMUA KEROSAKAN SEMASA PD1

 TIDAK BOLEH BERGABUNG DGN AUSTRIA  KEGIATAN TENTERA DIHADKAN DAN DIKAWAL  WILAYAH RHINE DILETAKKAN DI BAWAH KAWALAN    

PERANCHIS DAN BRITAIN JUMLAH TENTERA TIDAK BOLEH LEBIH DARI 100RIBU SAHAJA TENTERA LAUT HANYA 15RIBU, TANPA KAPAL SELAM PROSES,IMPOT DAN EKSPOT ALATSENJATA, GAS BERACUN ADALAH DILARANG KERETA KEBAL, KAPAL PERANG ADALAH DIHARAMKAN

JERMAN HILANG WILAYAH

PENUBUHAN NEGARA BARU
 Negara baru tertubuh

 Dasarkan kpd etnik
 Czechoslovakia  Hungary

 Austria
 Poland

Implikasi tamatnya perang di Timur Tengah

    

Keruntuhan Empayar Turki Pembentukan sistem mandat Revolusi Mesir Rampasan kuasa Reza Khan di Iran Kesan di Sem.Arab, Afrika Utara dan Barat Mesir

Pembentukan Sistem Mandat
* Syria,

Lebanon dibawah mandat kelas A :Perancis Diakui oleh Liga Bangsa 1922

 Iraq ,Transjordan ,Palestin di bawah

mandat kelas A : British Hasil Persidangan San Remo 1920

Oleh: Ahmad Fadzil/16.10/04

Revolusi Mesir 1919

 Mesir dibawah Uthamaniyyah  Tuntutan kemeredekaan Mesir  Peranan Saad Zaghlul  Revolusi Mesir  Kemerdekaan yang tidak sebenar

Oleh: Ahmad Fadzil/16.10/04

Kejatuhan Dinasti Qajar

 Pemerintah di Iran sejak abad ke 1  Ramapasan kuasa Reza Khan  Penubuhan negara Rebublik  Pembaharuan Reza Khan

Oleh: Ahmad Fadzil/16.10/04

 Di Semenanjung Arab Saudi

Kesan-Kesan lain

Bani Hashim dan Keluarga Sa’ud Husain mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai Raja  Afrika Utara (pergolakan di Libya)  Barat Mesir (pergolakan Maghribi, Algeria dan Tunisia)
Oleh: Ahmad Fadzil/16.10/04

Persaingan

KESIMPULAN
 Peperangan dunia pertama memberi kesan

yang besar kepada dunia Islam hingga hari ini.

 Kuasa barat terus ingin memusnahkan

negara Islam seperti yang berlaku di Afghanistan dan Iraq dalam abad ke 21.

ASIA BARAT PADA ZAMAN

 1916  Arab Revolt: In 1916, a combination of diplomacy and genuine dislike of

the new leaders of the Ottoman Empire (the Three Pashas) convinced Sherif Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca to begin a revolt. He gave the leadership of this revolt to two of his sons: Faisal and Abdullah, though the planning and direction for the war was largely the work of Lawrence of Arabia.  Caucasus Campaign: The Russian offensive in northeastern Turkey culminated with the capture of Erzurum in February and Trabzon in April.  Sinai and Palestine Campaign: The Ottoman forces launched a second attack across the Sinai with the objective of destroying or capturing the Suez Canal. Both this and the earlier attack (1915) were unsuccessful, though not very costly by the standards of the Great War. The British then went on the offensive, attacking east into Palestine. However, two failed attempts to capture the Ottoman fort of Gaza resulted in sweeping changes to the British command and the arrival of General Allenby, along with many reinforcements.

 1917  Turkish trenches at the shores of the Dead Sea, 1917.  Mesopotamian Campaign: British Empire forces reorganized 

 

and captured Baghdad in March 1917. Caucasus Campaign: Russia effectively withdrew from the war in 1917; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 1918 eventually restored to Ottoman Empire the territories it had lost to Russia during the war. Arab Revolt: The revolt was a success, aided immensely by General Allenby's conquest of Palestine in 1917 (see the Sinai and Palestine Campaign for details). British artillery placements during the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917. Sinai and Palestine Campaign: Late in 1917, Allenby's Egyptian Expeditionary Force smashed the Ottoman defenses and captured Gaza, and then captured Jerusalem just before Christmas. While strategically of minimal importance to the war, this event was key in the subsequent creation of Israel as a separate nation in 1948.

 1918  Sinai and Palestine Campaign: The Ottoman Empire could be

defeated with campaigns in Palestine and Mesopotamia and the Spring Offensive delayed the expected attack. General Allenby was given brand new divisions recruited from India. The British achieved complete control of the air. General Liman von Sanders had no clear idea where the British were going to attack. Compounding the problems, withdrew their best troops to Caucasus Campaign. General Allenby finally launched the Battle of Megiddo, with the Jewish Legion under his command. Ottoman troops started a full scale retreat.  Arab Revolt: T. E. Lawrence and his Arab fighters staged many hit-and-run attacks on supply lines and tied down thousands of soldiers in garrisons throughout Palestine, Jordan, and Syria.

 The negotiations for a peace treaty continued at the

Conference of London, and took definite shape only after the premiers' meeting at the San Remo conference in April 1920. France, Italy, and Great Britain, however, had secretly begun the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire as early as 1915. The Ottoman Government representatives signed the Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920, however, treaty was not sent to Ottoman Parliament for ratification, as it was abolished on March 18 1920 by the British, during the occupation of Istanbul. The treaty was never ratified by the Ottoman Empire[6][7] The Treaty of Sèvres was annulled in the course of the Turkish War of Independence and the parties signed and ratified the superseding Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

SYKES-PICOT
 The Sykes-Picot(-Sazonov) Agreement[1] of 1916

was a secret agreement between the governments of the UK and France, with the assent of Imperial Russia, defining their respective spheres of influence and control in west Asia after the expected downfall of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. It was largely a trade agreement with a large area set aside for indirect control through an Arab state or a confederation of Arab states. The agreement was concluded on 16 May 1916.[2] It did not contemplate the assignment of any League of Nations mandates, since the League and its mandates were developed during the post-war period. The terms were negotiated by the French diplomat François GeorgesPicot and Briton Sir Mark Sykes.

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