DAFTAR GAMBAR

Halaman
Gambar 2.1.

: Dual Porosity pada Reservoir rekah Alami …………….........… 15

Gambar 2.2.

: Diagram Percobaan Pengukuran Permeabilitas ……………...... 19

Gambar 2.3.

: Kurva Permeabilitas Efektif Untuk Sistem Minyak dan Air ....... 21

Gambar 2.4.

: Variasi Pc Terhadap Sw ................................................................ 22

Gambar 2.5.

: Kesetimbangan Gaya-gaya pada Batas Air-Minyak-Padatan
.........................................................................................................
24

Gambar 2.6.

: Distribusi Ideal Fasa Fluida “Wetting” dan “non Wetting”
Untuk Kontak Antar Butir-butir Batuan yang Bulat
.........................................................................................................
24

Gambar 2.7.

: Kurva
Tekanan
Kapiler
.........................................................................................................
26

Gambar 2.8.

: Kompresibilitas Gas Alam Sebagai Fungsi dari Tekanan dan
Temperatur
Reduced
.........................................................................................................
31

Gambar 2.9.

: Tipe Plot Kompresibilitas Sebagai Fungsi Tekanan dan
Temperatur
Konstan
.........................................................................................................
32

Gambar 2.10. : Sifat-sifat Pseudoritical Gas Alam Sebagai Fungsi Gravity Gas
.........................................................................................................
32
Gambar 2.11. : Viscositas
Gas
Alam
pada
1
atm
.........................................................................................................
35
Gambar 2.12. : Kuva

Hubungan

µ

Gas

vs

Gravity

Gas

.................. 52 Gambar 3......................................................................... 36 Gambar 2............................ : Diagram Fasa untuk Gas Kondensat ..................................................................................... : Aliran Radial Steady State ..................................................................... 62 ........................14............................ 51 Gambar 2.......................................... 39 Gambar 2.................................................... : Tipe-tipe Fungsi Tekanan Terhadap FVF ....................................................... : Kurva Kelaruan Gas Sebagai Fungsi Tekanan Reservoir ............................... : Diagram Fasa untuk Gas Kering ......................................... : Kelarutan Gas dalam Air . 49 Gambar 2........................................................................................................................................21.... 41 Gambar 2.....................................................................18..........................20........................................16....... : Mekanisme Pendorong Water Drive ............... : Depletion Drive Reservoir ..... : Pengaruh P dan T pada Viscositas Gas ...................................... 37 Gambar 2.............................13.........1..................................................... : Diagram Fasa untuk Gas Basah ................................ 48 Gambar 2.........22...... : Kelarutan Gas dalam Minyak dari Reservoir Minyak ..................................................................19............................................................. 41 Gambar 2..........................17.................................... 50 Gambar 2......................................... 42 Gambar 2............15................

...........4. 71 DAFTAR GAMBAR (Lanjutan) Halaman Gambar 3..........1......2....................6... : Diagram Laju Produksi dan Tekanan dari Isochronal Test ........................................ : Plot Test Konvensional untuk ∆P2 vs qsc . 96 Gambar 4.... 91 Gambar 4.................. : Aliran Radial Unsteady State dengan Tekanan Sumur Konstan ............................... : Plot Test Konvensional untuk (∆ψ .................................................. 78 Gambar 4............................................................................................. : Harga ∆PD pada Berbagai Kondisi Batas .................... 66 Gambar 3........................................................... : Variasi Harga Perkalian µz untuk Gas Nyata ......... 76 Gambar 3.............. dan b Berdasarkan Plot (∆P2 / qsc) vs qsc ........................Gambar 3......................................................................................................................5...................... : Koefisien Kecepatan Gas ............................ : Penentuan at........................................................................ 88 Gambar 4.............. 99 Gambar 4.................2.............................. : Grafik Deliverabilitas ......4........................ 97 Gambar 4..................................................................7........................................................................ : Penentuan at.........bqsc) vs qsc pada LIT .................................. a dan b Berdasarkan Metoda Grafik .... 90 Gambar 4........... : Diagram Laju Produksi dan Tekanan dari Back Pressure ..............................................................................3..5.......................3................................

...................... 123 ..........................................16.............................8.................................................................. : Horner Plot untuk Reservoir Gas yang Infinte .........12... 112 Gambar 4.. 102 Gambar 4..................................... : Hubungan (∆ψ ...................................10....... 100 Gambar 4....................................................... : Plot Tes Isochronal Untuk (∆ψ .... 108 Gambar 4.............. 107 Gambar 4...................................................................... 118 Gambar 4...............................................................13.................................................................. 113 Gambar 4............ 119 Gambar 4......................................................... : Diagram Tekanan dan Laju Produksi Selama Uji Modified Isochronal ...15............................. 106 Gambar 4.................................................14.................. 121 Gambar 4...............................11............. : Tipe Kurva Derivative untuk Penyelesaian Wellbore Storage ............................................................9............................ : Bentuk Grafik Laju Alir dan Tekanan Ideal pada Pressure BuildUp .....bqsc) vs qsc pada LIT ................bqsc) vs qsc pada Modified Isochronal .......................................................................................................17............................................. : Solusi Line Source dan Waktu Derivative ............................................. : Hubungan ∆P2 vs qsc ........................................................... : Plot (∆P2 –bqsc2) vs qsc pada Uji Modified Isochronal ...... : Plot Antara ∆P2 vs qsc pada Modified Isochronal ...........................................................................

........ : Daerah Aliran Infinite Acting Reservoir Constant Pressure Boundary ......... : Plot Derivative pada Closed Outer Boundary (Pseudosteady State) ....................................................... : Plot Derivative pada Finite Conductivity Fracture ..........18........... 132 DAFTAR GAMBAR (Lanjutan) Halaman Gambar 4..Gambar 4...................................................22............................................. : Plot Derivative pada Karakteristik Kerusakan sumur ....................23.............................................................................................................................. : Plot Derivative pada Infinite Conductivity Fracture .................... : Plot Derivative pada Linear Impermeabel Boundary ......................................... : Plot Derivative pada Aliran Radial Infinite Acting ..................................................................20.............26..........25......................................................................... 131 Gambar 4............... : Plot Derivative .. 130 Gambar 4.....................................................................19.................. 135 Gambar 4......................................24................ 128 Gambar 4................21...................................... : Plot Derivative pada Sistem Dual Porositas .. : Plot Derivative pada Constan Pressure Boundary ............................... 129 Gambar 4.................27.............................................. 134 Gambar 4............................... 125 Gambar 4................................................ 133 Gambar 4...................

.................. 137 Gambar 4..............................31............................... 141 Gambar 4..... : Bentuk Grafik Laju Alir dan Tekanan Ideal pada Pressure Drawdown ............29.... 138 Gambar 4...............................32........................................................ : Aliran Radial pada Infinite Acting ........28. : Perbandingan Antara Persamaan (4-58) dan (4-60) untuk Menetukan ω Secara Langsung ........... : Skema Hubungan Tekanan vs Waktu ..................................................................... 138 Gambar 4............................................................................. 143 ........................................ : Reaksi Build-Up dan Drawdown pada Closed Reservoir (Pseudosteady State) ............. : Reaksi Build-Up dan Drawdown pada Reservoir Constant Pressure Boundary ...................................................................................................................................33...........30...................................... 137 Gambar 4.................................................................................................................................... 139 Gambar 4..............................

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