DAFTAR GAMBAR

Halaman
Gambar 2.1.

: Dual Porosity pada Reservoir rekah Alami …………….........… 15

Gambar 2.2.

: Diagram Percobaan Pengukuran Permeabilitas ……………...... 19

Gambar 2.3.

: Kurva Permeabilitas Efektif Untuk Sistem Minyak dan Air ....... 21

Gambar 2.4.

: Variasi Pc Terhadap Sw ................................................................ 22

Gambar 2.5.

: Kesetimbangan Gaya-gaya pada Batas Air-Minyak-Padatan
.........................................................................................................
24

Gambar 2.6.

: Distribusi Ideal Fasa Fluida “Wetting” dan “non Wetting”
Untuk Kontak Antar Butir-butir Batuan yang Bulat
.........................................................................................................
24

Gambar 2.7.

: Kurva
Tekanan
Kapiler
.........................................................................................................
26

Gambar 2.8.

: Kompresibilitas Gas Alam Sebagai Fungsi dari Tekanan dan
Temperatur
Reduced
.........................................................................................................
31

Gambar 2.9.

: Tipe Plot Kompresibilitas Sebagai Fungsi Tekanan dan
Temperatur
Konstan
.........................................................................................................
32

Gambar 2.10. : Sifat-sifat Pseudoritical Gas Alam Sebagai Fungsi Gravity Gas
.........................................................................................................
32
Gambar 2.11. : Viscositas
Gas
Alam
pada
1
atm
.........................................................................................................
35
Gambar 2.12. : Kuva

Hubungan

µ

Gas

vs

Gravity

Gas

.............................. : Diagram Fasa untuk Gas Basah .......................20...................... : Tipe-tipe Fungsi Tekanan Terhadap FVF ....... 37 Gambar 2.................... 39 Gambar 2.................. 42 Gambar 2................................. : Depletion Drive Reservoir ............................... 41 Gambar 2............................................... 62 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ : Pengaruh P dan T pada Viscositas Gas ................................18...... 52 Gambar 3...................... 49 Gambar 2........................................... : Mekanisme Pendorong Water Drive .......................... : Diagram Fasa untuk Gas Kondensat .. 51 Gambar 2.................... : Kelarutan Gas dalam Minyak dari Reservoir Minyak .............................1................ 48 Gambar 2........................................14........................................................................................... 41 Gambar 2............................................... 50 Gambar 2.........................21............................................................17................................................... 36 Gambar 2............................................................................................19...................15.......................... : Aliran Radial Steady State ........................ : Diagram Fasa untuk Gas Kering ....................................................................................22.. : Kurva Kelaruan Gas Sebagai Fungsi Tekanan Reservoir ..................16..... : Kelarutan Gas dalam Air .........13...........................

............................................................................................................................................................................................. : Diagram Laju Produksi dan Tekanan dari Isochronal Test .......... 71 DAFTAR GAMBAR (Lanjutan) Halaman Gambar 3........ 78 Gambar 4..............................................6.................................... 66 Gambar 3.......................... : Variasi Harga Perkalian µz untuk Gas Nyata ..........2......................................................................................................... : Plot Test Konvensional untuk (∆ψ ........ 96 Gambar 4...7.............................................bqsc) vs qsc pada LIT ..1............5......... : Diagram Laju Produksi dan Tekanan dari Back Pressure ..........4............5....... a dan b Berdasarkan Metoda Grafik ...................... 97 Gambar 4........Gambar 3...3....... 91 Gambar 4.................................. 88 Gambar 4...................... : Grafik Deliverabilitas ...3..................................................................................................... : Koefisien Kecepatan Gas ............................................. dan b Berdasarkan Plot (∆P2 / qsc) vs qsc ......... 99 Gambar 4................................................... : Penentuan at..................4......... 76 Gambar 3. 90 Gambar 4..................................... : Plot Test Konvensional untuk ∆P2 vs qsc .......................................................... : Harga ∆PD pada Berbagai Kondisi Batas ................................................ : Penentuan at....2................ : Aliran Radial Unsteady State dengan Tekanan Sumur Konstan ..........................................

.................15......................................10........ 107 Gambar 4............................................................... 123 ................... 106 Gambar 4............ : Tipe Kurva Derivative untuk Penyelesaian Wellbore Storage ..... : Plot (∆P2 –bqsc2) vs qsc pada Uji Modified Isochronal .................................................... : Diagram Tekanan dan Laju Produksi Selama Uji Modified Isochronal ......................... 119 Gambar 4..........................................................................................................................................13..................17............................................................. 112 Gambar 4.......................................... : Hubungan (∆ψ .................................................12................ 113 Gambar 4.............16... : Horner Plot untuk Reservoir Gas yang Infinte .9.......... : Plot Antara ∆P2 vs qsc pada Modified Isochronal .....................................................................................bqsc) vs qsc pada LIT ......... 108 Gambar 4......................8................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 102 Gambar 4....................11................................................................................................................... : Hubungan ∆P2 vs qsc ................ : Plot Tes Isochronal Untuk (∆ψ ........................................ : Bentuk Grafik Laju Alir dan Tekanan Ideal pada Pressure BuildUp ....... 100 Gambar 4.... 118 Gambar 4.....bqsc) vs qsc pada Modified Isochronal ........... 121 Gambar 4.14........................ : Solusi Line Source dan Waktu Derivative ....

................................................................................... : Plot Derivative pada Karakteristik Kerusakan sumur ............................. : Daerah Aliran Infinite Acting Reservoir Constant Pressure Boundary ...........24................19........ : Plot Derivative pada Linear Impermeabel Boundary ............................................ 129 Gambar 4..........23............................. 135 Gambar 4.................................... 132 DAFTAR GAMBAR (Lanjutan) Halaman Gambar 4.................................... : Plot Derivative pada Closed Outer Boundary (Pseudosteady State) .............................21.........................25........................................ 128 Gambar 4......................................Gambar 4............................................... 125 Gambar 4...................................................20..............................................................................22......... 131 Gambar 4.. : Plot Derivative pada Constan Pressure Boundary ...................................... : Plot Derivative pada Sistem Dual Porositas .............................................................................................. : Plot Derivative .................18.... 133 Gambar 4.... 130 Gambar 4....... : Plot Derivative pada Finite Conductivity Fracture ........... : Plot Derivative pada Infinite Conductivity Fracture .................................................. 134 Gambar 4.....26.......................27...................................................... : Plot Derivative pada Aliran Radial Infinite Acting ......................................

........................................28......... : Skema Hubungan Tekanan vs Waktu ................................ : Reaksi Build-Up dan Drawdown pada Closed Reservoir (Pseudosteady State) ...............................30..32......................................................................................... : Aliran Radial pada Infinite Acting ..33..........................31................................................................................ 137 Gambar 4................... 137 Gambar 4............................................................................................... 139 Gambar 4.................................................... 143 .. : Perbandingan Antara Persamaan (4-58) dan (4-60) untuk Menetukan ω Secara Langsung .............................. 138 Gambar 4......... : Bentuk Grafik Laju Alir dan Tekanan Ideal pada Pressure Drawdown .................................................................................................................. 141 Gambar 4.................................... : Reaksi Build-Up dan Drawdown pada Reservoir Constant Pressure Boundary ........... 138 Gambar 4...................................................29..................