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Fisika Zat Padat

Pertemuan Pertama :
Ceramic

Pengaruh jari-jari ion


kecil pada pergerakan
(pacing) ion-ion besar

KOORDINASI ION-ION SEBAGAI FUNGSI RASIO JARI-JARI IONIK


Bilangan
koordinasi

Disposisi ion-ion sekitar ion


pusat

Rasio jari-jari (r/R)

Linear

0.155 - 0

Corners of triangle

0.225 0.155

Corners of tetrahedron

0.414 0.225

Corners of octahedron

0.732 0.414

Corners of cube

1.0 0.732

GEOMETRI KOORDINASI TRIANGULAR


Bukti : rasio jari-jari (r/R)

Jadi rasio jari-jari (r/R)


koordinasi triangular =
0,155 0,225.

Geometri koordinasi triangular ion-ion kecil (jari-jari = r)


dan ion-ion besar (jari-jari = R)

Pekerjaan rumah 1 :
Buktikanlah rasio jari-jari (r/R) pada :
a) Koordinasi tetrahedron (CN = 4) sebesar 0,225 0,414 ?
b) Koordinasi oktahedron (CN = 6) sebesar 0,414 0,732 ?
c) Koordinasi kubus (CN = 8) sebesar 0,732 1,000?

JARI-JARI IONIK ()
Ion

Valensi

Jarijari

Ion

Valensi

Jarijari

Ion

Valensi

Jarijari

Ion

Valensi

Jarijari

Ac

+3

1.15

Br

+7

0.39

-7

0.08

Pb

+2

1.24

Ag

+1

1.22

+4

0.18

-1

1.34

Pt

+4

0.65

Ag

+2

0.89

Ca

+2

1.00

Fe

+2

0.77

Rb

+1

1.48

Al

+3

0.51

Cd

+2

0.99

Ga

+3

0.62

Rh

+3

0.69

Am

+3

1.03

Ce

+3

1.13

Ge

+4

0.50

-2

1.83

Am

+4

0.91

Cl

+7

0.27

Hg

+3

1.11

Sb

+5

0.62

As

+3

0.58

Cl

-1

1.81

-1

2.18

Sn

+2

0.93

As

+5

0.47

Co

+2

0.76

+1

1.33

Ta

+5

0.68

At

+7

0.62

Co

+3

0.63

Li

+1

0.69

Ti

+4

0.65

Au

+1

1.37

Cr

+3

0.64

Mg

+2

0.69

+6

0.82

Au

+3

0.85

Cr

+6

0.45

Mn

+4

0.53

+5

0.53

+3

0.20

Cs

+1

1.70

+3

0.16

+6

0.62

Ba

+2

1.35

Cu

+1

0.96

Na

+1

1.02

+3

0.95

Be

+2

0.43

Cu

+2

0.72

Nd

+3

1.04

Zr

+4

0.81

Bi

+3

0.93

Dy

+3

0.92

Ni

+2

0.72

CO3

-2

1.31

Bi

+5

0.74

Er

+3

0.97

+6

0.10

OH

-1

1.33

Br

-1

1.96

Eu

+3

0.98

-2

1.39

NH4

-1

1.74

Pekerjaan rumah 2:
Predict the coordination number (bilangan
koordinasi) and crystal structure for the ions solids
CsCl and NaCl?
Use the following ionic radii for the prediction :
Cs+ = 0,170 nm; Na+ = 0,102 nm; Cl- = 0,181 nm

INTRODUCTION : FERROELECTRIC
MATERIAL APPLICATION

BST/PZT, IR SENSOR, SATELLITE

FERROELECTRIC/PYROELECTRIC MATERIAL

(a)

(b)
Ferroelectric material perovskite structure (PZT/BST)
(a) Up Polarization (b) Down Polarization
1 and 0 = binary

Merit of BaxSr1-xTiO3 and PbZrxTi1-xO3 based


pyrosensor compared to other infrared sensor
materials, such as semiconductors are :

Use at room temperature,

High quality materials for pyrosensor is unnecessary.

Wide range of response frequency,


Quick response in comparison with other temperature sensor,

Lattice constants of BaxSr1-xTiO3


and PbZrxTi1-xO3 ferroelectric ceramic using XRD
method

Methodology PTZT ferroelectric ceramic


5.3020 gram
lead titanate
(PbTiO3, 99 %]

6.6980 gram
lead zirconate
[PbZrO3, 99,7 %]

A pellet pressing by the presser


at 31.43 MPa for
15 minutes and sintering by
furnace at 850oC for 10 hours.
12 grams
of PTZT
bulk.

Preparation DC
Unbalanced Magnetron
Sputtering (UBMS)
method

Stop

0.0600, 0.1200, 0.1296,


0.1800 gram tantalum oxide
[Ta2O5, 99,9 %]

12 grams of
PTZT powder

PTZT thin
films of
Pt (200)/
SiO2/Si(100)
substrate

Mixing by
bowl of
polishing for
6 hours.

Analyzing and
characterizing :
the structure (XRD Diano
type 2100E), morphology
surface and films
thickness (SEM JEOL type
JSM-35C).

Flow diagram on research

Spectrum XRD PTZT

Analytic method for cubic

2d sin ,

(1)

1
h2 k 2 l 2

2
d
a2

(2)

where : d = interplanar spacing; a, b, c = the lattice constants;


h, k, l = the planes indices; = wave length (Cu element =
1.54056 ); = angle of diffraction.

Perhitungan lengkap dari konstanta kisi dari target PZT didadah 1.08 % Ta2O5
(PTZT) menggunakan metode analitik struktur kubik
Puncak

2
(deg.)

(deg.)

Sin2

(Sin2 )/2

(Sin2 )/3

(Sin2 )/4

(Sin2 )/5

21.85 10.925

0.03588

0.01794

0.01196

0.00897

0.00718

31.10 15.550

0.07180

0.03589

0.02393

0.01795

0.01436

38.35 19.150

0.10751

0.05375

0.03593

0.02688

0.0215

44.55 22.275

0.14354

0.07177

0.04785

0.03589

0.02871

50.15 25.075

0.17944

0.08972

0.05981

0.04486

0.03589

55.30 27.650

0.21516

0.10758

0.07172

0.05379

0.04303

64.40 32.200

0.28370

0.14185

0.09326

0.07093

0.05674

68.35 34.175

0.31525

0.15763

0.10508

0.07881

0.06305

73.10 36.550

0.59622

0.17717

0.11811

0.08858

0.07087

Puncak

2
(deg.)

(deg.)

(Sin2 )/6

(Sin2 )/A

hkl

21.85

10.925

0.00598

1.00000

100

31.10

15.550

0.01197

2.00099

110

38.30

19.150

0.01792

2.99629

111

44.55

22.275

0.02392

4.00063

200

50.15

25.075

0.02991

5.00111

210

55.30

27.650

0.03586

5.99663

211

64.40

32.200

0.04663

7.79756

220

68.35

34.175

0.05254

8.78626

300

73.10

36.550

0.05906

9.87568

10

310

untuk memperoleh nilai konstanta kisi dengan


menggunakan hubungan . Jadi nilai konstanta kisi
struktur kubuk untuk material PZT doping 1,08 %
Ta2O5) diperoleh sebesar :
a = Cu/(2A) = 1,54056/(20,03589) = 4,066 .

Cohen method for tetragonal

sin
sin
sin

C 2 B A ,

2
2
C B A , ,

2
C B A 2 ,

(3)

2d sin ,
1 h2 k 2 l 2

2.
2
2
d
a
c

where : d = interplanar spacing; a, b, c = the lattice constants;


h, k, l = the planes indices;
= wave length (Cu element =
1.54056 ); = angle of diffraction, = h2 + k2; = l2;
= 10 sin22; A = D/10; B = 2/(4c2); C = 2/(4a2); A, B, C =
numeric number. We carry out A, B, C using Cramer method.

(1)

(2)

Perhitungan lengkap dari konstanta kisi dari target PZT didadah 1 % Ta2O5
(PTZT) menggunakan metode Cohen (struktur tetragonal)
No Puncak

hkl

1.

100

21,6

10,80

2.

110

31,5

15,75

3.

111

38,8

19,40

4.

200

44,7

22,35

16

5.

210

50,2

25,10

25

6.

211

55,4

27,70

25

7.

220

65,2

32,60

64

8.

300

70,2

35,10

81

9.

310

73,6

36,80

10

100

320

Sin22

Sin2

1.

0,1355157

0,0351118 1,355157

1,836450

2.

0,2730048

0,0736799 2,730048

7,453159

3.

0,3926323

0,1103310 3,926323

15,41602

4.

0,4947641

0,1446003 4,947641

24,47915

5.

0,5902596

0,1799452 5,902596

34,84064

6.

0,6775535

0,2160781 6,775535

45,90787

7.

0,8240600

0,2902740 8,240600

67,90748

8.

0,8852566

0,3306310 8,852566

78,36793

9.

0,9202833

0,3588293 9,202833

84,69214

No

360,9008

sin2

sin2

sin2

1.

1,355157

0,0351118

0,0475819

2.

5,460095

0,1473598

0,2011497

3.

3,926323

7,852647

0,2206620

0,1103310

0,4331953

4.

19,79056

0,5784011

0,7154302

5.

29,51298

0,8997258

1,0621435

6.

6,775535

33,87767

1,0803906

0,2160781

1,4640449

7.

65,92480

2,3221917

2,3920314

8.

79,67310

2,9756794

2,9269332

9.

92,02833

3,5882927

3,3022459

10,701858

335,4753

11,847815

0,3264091

12,5447559

No

7 B 335, 475300 A

0,3264091
7C
2 B 10, 701858 A .

12,5447559 335, 475300C 10, 701858B 360,900800 A


11,847815

320C

Untuk memperoleh bilangan numerik A, B, C dipecahkan dengan


metode Cramer, maka diperoleh bilangan numerik
C = 0,0035726585 dan B = 0,035501007.
Selanjutnya diperoleh konstanta kisi PZT doping 1 % Ta2O5 (PTZT)
untuk :
a = Cu/(2C) = 1,54056/(20,035726585) = 4,075 ;
c = Cu/(2B) = 1,54056/(20,035501007) = 4,088 ; c/a ratio = 1,003

Pekerjaan Rumah ke -2
Perhitungan lengkap dari konstanta kisi dari target PZT didadah 1,08 % Ta2O5
(PTZT) menggunakan metode Cohen (struktur tetragonal).
No Puncak

hkl

1.

100

21.85

2.

110

31,10

3.

111

38,35

4.

200

44,55

5.

210

50,15

6.

211

55,30

7.

220

64,40

8.

300

68,35

9.

310

73,10

2
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Sin22

Sin2


No

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

sin2

sin2

sin2