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- Antennas
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- DC Lab Manual
- Antenna System Design V5
- L07_NoiseE
- Ionosphere
- PM_2HH-38A-R4
- XST-AN019a_XBeeAntennas
- Summary Report

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DEPARTMENT OF ECE SUBJECT:ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION SUBJECT CODE: EC2353 SET _ 1 UNIT-I PART-A 1. Define Isotropic radiator. 2. Calculate the directivity of an Isotropic antenna. 3. Differentiate Radian & Steradian. 4. Define Gain & Beam width of an antenna. 5. Derive an expression for effective aperture area of antenna. 6. Calculate the maximum effective aperture area of antenna which is operating at a wavelength of 2 meters and has a directivity of 100. 7. Define Antenna Efficiency. 8. Write note on radiation pattern. 9. What is radiation intensity and explain in terms of poynting vector?

10. Explain directivity of an antenna. 11. Find out the radiation resistance of a ?/16 wire dipole in free space. 12. Define power gain and write down the relation between directive gain and power gain. 13. Define radiation resistance and write down the expression for it. 14. Differentiate antenna bandwidth and beam width. 15. Define beam solid angle and antenna beam efficiency. 16. An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72 Ohms, a loss resistance of 8 Ohms and a power gain of 12dB. Determine the antenna efficiency and its directivity. 17. Define Terminal impedance. 18. State reciprocity theorem and briefly explain it. 19. Calculate the radiation resistance of short dipole. 20. Calculate a maximum effective aperture of a half wave dipole. 21. Calculate the length of a half wave dipole antenna meant to have correct half wave length at 60 MHz. 22. Calculate the maximum effective aperture of a microwave antenna which has a directivity of 900. 23. Calculate the radiation resistance of an antenna which is drawing 15A current and radiating 5 KW.

24. Calculate the power being radiate by an antenna having a radiation resistance of 50 Ohms and is drawing a current of 8A. 25. Calculate the radiation resistance of an antenna which is radiating 1000W and drawing current of 5A. 26. How much current does an antenna draw when radiating 1000W and is having a radiation resistance of 300 Ohms. 27. Mention the radiation and Induction field component for a small current element. 28. Show the directivity of an electric current element 3/2. 29. Define poynting vector. 30. What is effectiveness ratio? 31. What is scattering loss aperture? 32. Define effective length of an antenna.

PART - B 1. Explain the retarded vector potential in detail. 2. Derive an expression for the power radiated by the current element and calculate the radiation resistance.

3. Derive an expression for the far field component of a half wave dipole of an antenna. 4. a) Derive the total power radiated by half wave dipole. b) Show that the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole is 80?2 (dl/?)2 Ohms. 5. Explain the reciprocity theorem in detail. 6. Derive an expression for the electric field and magnetic field due to a current element at a distance point in free space. 7. a) Derive an expression for the gain of half wave dipole. b) Explain effective aperture area with its types in detail. 8. At what distance in ?, is the radiation component of magnetic field twice the inductance component ? At what distance is it 100 times.

UNIT II Antenna Arrays PART - A 1. What is an array and mention the various forms of antenna arrays? 2. What is a uniform linear array? 3. What is Broad side array and draw its radiation pattern? 4. What is End fire array and draw its radiation pattern? 5. What is collinear array? 6. What is parasitic array? 7. What is pattern multiplication concept? 8. List some of the advantages of pattern multiplication. 9. What is tapering of array? 10. Write a note on Binomial array. 11. How the secondary lobes are eliminated? 12. What is Pascals triangle? 13. What is a Phased array?

14. What is a smart antenna? PART-B 1. Write short notes on various forms of arrays i.Broad side array ii.End fire array iii.Collinear array iv.Parasitic array

2. Derive the expression for the far field pattern of an array of 2 isotropic point sources i) Equal amplitude and phase ii) Equal amplitude and opposite phase iii) Unequal amplitude and any phase

4. Explain the array of N- sources of equal amplitude and spacing- Broad side case i. Direction of pattern maxima ii. Direction of pattern minima ii. Beam width of major lobe

5. Explain the array of N- sources of equal amplitude and spacing- End fire case i) Direction of pattern maxima ii. Direction of pattern minima ii) Beam width of major lobe

PART-A 1. What are the applications of loop antenna ? 2. Give the reason for poor radiation of a loop antenna . 3. Distinguish between sectorial and pyramidal Horn antenna. 4. What are the advantages of folded dipole ? 5. What is a folded dipole ? What are its important properties ? 6. Draw the structure of Log- periodic antenna. 7. What is a Yagi Uda array ? 8. State Babinets principle. 9. Why is flaring required in Horn antennas ? 10. What is primary radiation and secondary radiation as applicable to parabolic reflector ? 11. What is the reason for using Yagi antenna for TV broadcast reception ? 12. What are the applications of Yagi Uda antenna ? 13. What are parasitic elements and where are they used ? 14. How does a parabolic reflector provide very high gain ?

15. What is a parasitic element ? How does it act when length is greater than and smaller than ? / 2 ? 16. What is cheese feed as applicable to parabolic reflectors ? 17. Mention the antennas used in medium frequency range . 18. How is a high frequency dipole antenna fed and matched with driving source ? 19. Sketch the diagrams of various types of Horn antennas. 20. What are Traveling wave antennas ? 21. Distinguish between resonant antenna and TWA ? 22. Distinguish between standing wave antenna and TWA ? 23. Define Spill over. 24. What is meant by smart antenna ? 25. What is the principle of microwave antenna ? 26. Define pitch angle. When a = 0o and a = 90o, how does the helical antenna behave ? 27. What are the parameters to be considered in the design of an helical antenna ? 28. What are the different modes of operation that can be used in Helical antenna ?

29. List the applications of Helical antenna. 30. Why does the normal mode of operation is not preferred in Helical antenna ? 31. Draw the structure of an Helical antenna with its parameters. 32. What is Cassegrain feed mechanism ?

PART - B

1. Explain the principle of traveling wave radiator. 2. Derive an expression for the radiated field due to a TWA. 3. Obtain the expression for the field produced by TWA and compare its radiation with resonant antenna. 4. Obtain the expression for the emf due to loop antenna and explain its use as a Direction finder. 5. Explain the special features of various types of Horn antennas and frequency independent antennas.

6. With a suitable diagram, discuss the construction and operation of a Yagi antenna. 7. Write detailed notes on (a) Parabolic reflectors (b) Log Periodic antennas 8. (a) Explain the principle of operation and applications of folded dipoles. (b) With a suitable diagram explain the construction and principle of operation of a log periodic antenna. 9. Write short notes on (a) Slot radiators (b) Loop antennas 10. How does a log periodic antenna provide a large bandwidth of operation? 11. Explain the principle of operation and applications of loop antenna. 12. Write detailed notes on (a) Horn antennas (b) Frequency independent antennas. 13. Explain the principle of operation and applications of loop antenna. 14. Explain in detail the working principle of Helical antenna in (a) Normal mode (b) Axial mode 15. Explain in detail the design aspects of Microstip antenna.

PART-A 1. What are the various modes of Propagation? 2. What is Duct Propagation 3. What do you mean by ground Wave Propagation 4. What do you mean by Sky Wave Propagation 5. What do you mean by Space Wave Propagation 6. What do you mean by Troposphere Scatter Propagation 7. Write short notes on Structure of Troposphere 8. Write short notes on Structure of Ionosphere layers 9. Write short notes on D region 10. Write short notes on Normal E region 11. Write short notes on Sporadic E region 12. Write short notes on F region 13. What is Critical Frequency 14. What is Magneto Ionic Splitting?

15. Define Gyro Frequency 16. Define Virtual Height 17. Define Maximum Usable Frequency(MUF) 18. Define Skip Distance 19. Define Optimum Working Frequency(OWF) 20. State some Ionospheric abnormalities 21. Define Sun Spot Cycle 22. Define Fading and Mention its types 23. What are Whistlers 24. What do you understand by Multi hop Propagation? 25. Write the ranges for various layers of atmosphere. PART-B 1. Explain briefly the various modes of Propagation 2. Explain Ground Wave Propagation in detail 3. Explain the Structure of Atmosphere

4. Explain the various layers of Ionosphere 5. Explain the effect of Earths Magnetic Field on Radio wave Propagation 6. Explain Virtual Height and derive the Expression 7. Explain Maximum Usable Frequency and show how to Calculate MUF 8. Explain (a) Skip Distance (b) Optimum Working Frequency 9. Explain briefly about Ionospheric abnormalities 10. Determine the Effective Earths Radius in Space Wave Propagation 11. Explain Super Refraction.

UNIT V - ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS PART A 1. What are the types of antenna measurements? 2. Define Impedance measurements. 3. Define Pattern measurements. 4. Define Gain of antenna.

5. Define Radiation Resistance. 6. Define Transmission bandwidth of an antenna. 7. Define Power Gain. 8. Define VSWR. 9. What is standing wave ratio method of impedance measurements? 10. Define Radiation pattern measurements. 11. Define Directivity. 12. Define antenna Radiation Efficiency. 13. Define Polarization measurement. 14. Define Antenna Aperture Efficiency. 15. List the different methods used for measuring the Polarization. 16. Define Vertical Incidence measurement. 17. Define Oblique incidence measurement. 18. Give the relation between Vertical and Oblique incidence transmission. 19. Determine the gain and beam width for a parabolic antenna with 10Mdiameter dish and dipole feed at 10GHz.

PART B

1. Describe the methods for measuring the gain and beam width of antenna. 2. Describe the methods for measuring the Power gain, Radiation efficiency and Transmission bandwidth of an antenna. 3. Describe the Slotted line technique for Impedance measurement. 4. Describe how the radiation pattern and Radiation resistance of a given antenna can be measured experimentally. 5. Derive the relation between oblique and vertical incidence transmission. 6. Write short notes on Vertical incidence measurement of the ionosphere. 7. Write short notes on Oblique incidence measurement of the ionosphere. 8. Describe briefly about Polarization measurements.

9. Derive an expression to determine Antenna efficiency and Antenna Aperture. 10. Derive an expression to determine the Directivity of an antenna.

SET _ 2

PART A( 2 Marks)

1. Define a Hertzian dipole? 2. Draw the radiation pattern of a horizontal dipole? 3. What do you mean by induction field and radiation field? 4. What is magnetic vector Potential? 5. Define scalar Potential? 6. What is Retarded Current? 7. Write down the expression for magnetic vector Potential using three standard current distributions? 8. Define top loading? 9. What is a capacitance hat? 10. What is quarter wave monopole? 11. Write down the expression for radiated fields of a half wave dipole antenna? 12. What is the effective aperture and directivity of a half wave dipole? 13. What is the effective aperture and directivity of a Hertzian dipole antenna? 14. Write down the expression for radiation resistance of a Hertzian dipole?

15. Define retardation time? 16. What is radiation resistance of a half wave dipole? 17. Compare electric scalar potential and magnetic vector potential?

PART B

1. Derive the expression for the radiated field from a short dipole? (16) 2. Starting from first principles obtain the expression for the power radiated by a half wave dipole? (16) 3. Derive the expression for power radiated and find the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole? (16) 4. Derive the radian resistance, Directivity and effective aperture of a half wave dipole? (10)

5. Derive the fields radiated from a quarter wave monopole antenna? (8) 6. Find the radiation resistance of elementary dipole with linear current distribution? (8) 7. Derive the radiation resistance, Directivity and effective aperture of a hertzian dipole? (10)

UNIT II

PART A( 2 Marks)

1. Define array factor? 2. What is the relationship between effective aperture and directivity? 3. Write the principle of pattern multiplication? 4. What is meant by broadside array and end fire array? 5. Define radiation intensity? 6. Define an isotropic antenna? 7. Define a broadside array? 8. Define radiation pattern? 9. What are the two types of radiation pattern? 10. Define Beam solid angle or beam area? 11. Define beam efficiency? 12. Define directivity? 13. Define antenna gain?

14. Define effective aperture? 15. What is collecting aperture? 16. Define HPBW? 17. Define FBR? 18. Define BWFN? 19. Write down the expressions for BWFN for both broadside and end fire array? 20. Differentiate broadside array and end fire array? 21. Write down the expressions for minor lobe maxima and minima for both broadside and end fire array? 22. Define loop antenna? 23. What is axial ratio of a helical antenna? 24. What are advantages of helical antenna? 25. What are the disadvantages of loop antenna? 26. State reciprocity principle? 27. List out the applications helical antenna? 28. Give the expressions for the field components of a helical antenna?

29. Define pitch angle? What happens when =0 and =90? 30. What are applications loop antennas?

PART B

1. With neat sketch, explain the operation of helical antenna? (16) 2. Obtain the expression for the field and the radiation pattern produced by a 2 element array of infinitesimal with distance of separation /2 and currents of unequal magnitude and phase shift 180 degree? (16) 3. Derive the expression for far field components of a small loop antenna. (16)

4. Derive the expression for electric field of a broadside array of n sources and also find the maximum direction minimum direction and half power point direction? (16) 5. Design a 4 element broadside array of /2 spacing between elements the pattern is to be optimum with a side lobe level 19.1 db. Find main lobe maximum? (16) 6. Explain pattern multiplication? (8) 7. Derive the expression for electric field of a end fire of n sources and also find the maximum direction minimum direction and half power point direction? (16) 8. Write short notes a radiation resistance? (8) 9. Calculate the maximum effective aperture of a /2 antenna? (8) 10. Derive the maxima directions, minima directions, and half power point direction for an array of two point sources with equal amplitude and opposite phase? (16)

UNIT III

PART A( 2 Marks)

1. What are traveling wave antenna? 2. What is the type of radiation pattern produced when a wave travels in a wire?

3. Draw the structure of 3-elements yagi-uda antenna and give the dimensions and spacing between the elements in terms of wavelength? 4. What are the applications of log periodic antenna? 5. What are the applications of rhombic antenna? 6. What do you meant by self impedance? 7. What do you meant by mutual impedance? 8. Define traveling wave impedance? 9. What is the main advantage of traveling wave antenna? 10. What are the limitations of rhombic antenna? 11. What are the two types of rhombic antenna design? 12. Define rhombic antenna? 13. Give the expressions for design ratio, spacing factor and frequency ratio, of log periodic antenna? 14. What are the three different regions in log periodic antenna and how they are differentiated? 15. What is frequency independent antenna? 16. What is LPDA?

PART B

1. Explain the radiation from a travelling wave on a wire? (8) 2. What is Yagi-uda Antenna ?Explain the construction and operation of Yagi-uda Antenna .Also explain its general characteristics? (16) 3. Explain the construction, operation and design for a rhombic antenna? (16) 4. Explain the geometry of a log periodic antenna? Give the design equations and uses of log periodic antenna? (16) 5. Discuss in details about (a) Self impedance (b) Mutual impedance? (8)

UNIT IV

PART A( 2 Marks)

1. State Huygens Principle? 2. What is Slot Antenna? 3. Which antenna is complementary to the slot dipole? 4. How will you find the directivity of a large rectangular broadside array? 5. What is the relationship between the terminal impedance of slot and dipole antenna?

6. What is the difference between slot antenna and its complementary dipole antenna? 7. Define lens antenna? 8. What are the different types of lens antenna? 9. What is a dielectric lens antenna? 10. What are the drawbacks of lens antenna? 11. What are the field components that are radiated from open end of a coaxial line? 12. What are the advantages of stepped dielectric lens antenna? 13. What is biconical antenna? 14. What is Lunenburg lens? 15. What are the advantages of lens antenna? 16. Mention the uses of lens antenna? 17. How spherical waves are generated? 18. Define the characteristic impedance of biconical antenna? 19. Bring out the expressions for voltage across the feed points of the biconical antenna and current flowing through the surface of the cone?

20. What do you meant by sect oral horn? 21. What do you meant by pyramidal horn? 22. What is back lobe radiation? 23. What are the various feeds used in reflectors? 24. What are the different types of horn antennas? 25. Define refractive index of lens antenna? 26. What are secondary antennas? Give examples?

PART B

1. Explain the different types of lens antenna? (10) 2. Explain the radiation from a rectangular aperture? (16)

3. Explain the radiation from an elemental area of a plane wave (or) explain the radiation from a Huygens source ? (16) 4. Describe the parabolic reflector used at micro frequencies? (16) 5. Write short notes on luneberg lens? (16) 6. Discuss about spherical waves and biconical antenna? (16) 7. Derive the various field components radiated from circular aperture and also find beamwidth and effective area ? (12) 8. Derive the field components radiated from a thin slot antenna in an infinite cyclinder ? (10) 9. Show the relationship between dipole and slot impedances? (8) 10. Explain the radiation from the open end of a coaxial cable? (8)

UNIT V

WAVE PROPAGATION

PART A ( 2 Marks)

1. Define Gyro frequency? 2. What is multihop Propagation? 3. How spherical waves are generated? 4. What are the effects of earth curvature on tropospheric propagation ? 5. Define critical frequency of an ionized layer of ionosphere? 6. What are the factors that affect the propagation of radio waves?

7. Define ground wave? 8. What are the components present in space wave? 9. Define Fading? 10. Define ionosphere? 11. Define Troposphere? 12. How can minimize Fading? 13. What are the various types diversity reception? 14. Define critical frequency? 15. What is virtual height? 16. Define MUF? 17. State secant law? 18. Define space wave? 19. What are height ranges of different regions in the ionosphere? 20. Write down the expression for the refractive index? 21. What is OWF or OTF? 22. Define duct Propagation?

23. What is skip distance? 24. How will you find the range of space wave propagation or line of sight distances? 25. What is sporadic E layer in ionosphere?

PART B

1. Explain in details about ionosphere? (8) 2. Explain space wave propagation and sky wave propagation? (16) 3. Explain the ground wave propagation? (8) 4. Discuss the effects of earths magnetic field on ionosphere radio wave propagation? (10)

5. Describe the troposphere and explain how ducts can be used for microwave propagation? (8) 6. Explain in details, the diversity reception methods? (8) 7. Explain the advantages of tropospheric wave propagation and sky wave propagation? (8) 8. Deduce an expression for the critical frequency of an ionized region in terms of its maximum ionization density? (10) 9. Derive an expression for the refractive index of the ionosphere in terms of the electron number density and frequency ? (10)

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