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PEDOMAN PENULISAN

I. UMUM Redaksi majalah ilmiah BERITA SELULOSA menerima naskah ilmiah yang berhubungan dengan bidang rekayasa teknik dan teknologi selulosa dari kalangan peneliti, perekayasa, litkayasa, dan praktisi industri terkait. Naskah dapat berupa hasil penelitian, wawasan, ulasan dan tinjauan bidang selulosa yang meliputi masalah : bahan baku, proses, produk, mutu, pencemaran / lingkungan, rancang bangun dan perekayasaan. Naskah harus asli (belum pernah dipublikasikan) dan ditulis menggunakan bahasa Indonesia atau bahasa Inggris. Naskah yang telah diseminarkan dalam pertemuan ilmiah nasional dan internasional, hendaknya disertai dengan catatan kaki. Naskah dapat ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia atau bahasa Inggris, berisi maksimum 15 halaman kuarto (A4) termasuk gambar dan tabel. Jumlah total halaman tabel, gambar dan grafik tidak melebihi 25%. Naskah ditulis pada kertas ukuran A4 dengan format margin kiri 1 inch (2,5 cm), margin kanan 1 inch, margin bawah 0,8 inch (2,0 cm) dan margin atas 1,2 inch (3,0 cm); jenis huruf Times New Roman dengan ukuran judul 14 pt, nama penulis 12 pt, dan alamt, instansi, dan teks 11 pt, satu spasi dan teks dalam format dua kolom dengan jarak antar kolom 0,3 inch. Naskah yang dikirim ke Redaksi akan di-review terlebih dahulu oleh Dewan Penyunting Ahli atau Mitra Bestari atau pakar di bidangnya. Keputusan diterima atau tidak diterimanya suatu naskah merupakan hak dari Dewan Redaksi BERITA SELULOSA berdasarkan saran dari Mitra Bestari. Redaksi dapat mengubah tata bahasa dan tata letak Gambar / Tabel tanpa mengubah makna dari substansi naskah. Isi naskah sepenuhnya menjadi tanggung jawab penulis. II. FORMAT PENULISAN NASKAH Format penulisan naskah BERITA SELULOSA terdiri dari (sesuai urutan): Judul, Nama Penulis, Alamat, Intisari, Kata Kunci Pendahuluan; Bahan dan Metoda; Hasil dan Pembahasan; Kesimpulan; Saran (jika ada), Ucapan terima kasih (jika ada); Daftar Pustaka Judul : Harus singkat, jelas dan konsisten menggambarkan isi naskah, ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris. Nama Penulis : Ditulis lengkap tanpa gelar. Dilengkapi alamat penulis mencakup lembaga, nomor telpon/faksimili/ e-mail. Abstrak, Kata kunci : Ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris yang baik dan benar dalam satu paragraph diawali pada ketukan ke 5 dengan jumlah kata tidak lebih dari 250, Abstrak dan kata kunci dalam bahasa Inggris ditulis dengan huruf miring; Jumlah kata kunci maksimal 5 kata. Penulisan isi naskah: Kata-kata atau istilah asing ditulis dengan huruf miring. Paragraf baru dimulai pada ketikan keempat dari batas kiri, sedangkan antar paragraph tidak diberi spasi antara. Setiap persamaan (Equation) harus dituliskan menggunakan Equation Editor dalam Ms. Word. Tabel dan gambar harus diberi keterangan yang jelas. Rujukan : Setiap pustaka yang dirujuk dalam naskah harus ada dalam daftar pustaka dan sebaliknya yang tertulis dalam daftar pustaka harus ada dalam naskah. Cara penulisan pustaka yang dirujuk dalam naskah, berdasarkan jumlah pengarang : a. Satu pengarang : contoh ( Satrio, 2007) b. Dua pengarang : contoh ( Putra dan Prima, 2007) c. Tiga pengarang atau lebih : contoh (Mariana, dkk., 2006) Daftar Pustaka : Pustaka yang dirujuk harus telah disusun secara alfabetis. Pustaka dengan nama pengarang yang sama disusun berdasarkan urutan tahun penerbitan. Judul publikasi harus ditulis lengkap. Nama jurnal ditulis dengan huruf miring dan singkatan majalah/jurnal ditulis berdasarkan tata cara yang dipakai oleh masing-masing jurnal. Tata cara penulisan daftar pustaka pada naskah ditulis dengan format sebagai berikut : Nama Pengarang, Tahun Penerbitan, Judul buku/Artikel, Kota penerbit. Contoh Penulisan Daftar Pustaka : a. Pustaka yang berupa majalah/jurnal ilmiah/prosiding: Magnus, E., 2000. TMT Wastewater Treatment, Including a Biological High Efficiency Compact Reactor. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal. Vol. 15, No. 1, 29-36 b. Pustaka yang berupa judul buku : Casey, J.P., 1981. Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3rd ed., Vol. 3., 34 37. Wiley Inter Science, New York Molerus, O., 1993, Principles of Flow in Disperse Systems, edisi 1, Chapman & Hall, London, hal. 43 c. Pustaka yang berupa disertasi Setyawan, H., 1996, Flow Patterns of Coal Water Moxture in an Agitated Tank, disertasi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. d. Pustaka yang berupa paten: Primack, H.S., 1983, Method of Stabilizing Polyvalent Mrtal Solutions, U.S. Patent No. 4,373,104 e. Pustaka yang berupa Handbook: Hovmand, S., 1995, Fluidized Bed Drying, in A.S. Mujumdar (Ed.) Handbook of Industrial Drying, 2nd Ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, hal. 195-248 III. UNDUH FORMAT PENULISAN NASKAH Template format penulisan naskah BERITA SELULOSA versi bahasa Indonesia dan bahas Inggris dapat diperoleh di website http://www.bbpk.go.id Pengiriman Naskah Dalam bentuk hard copy (2x), disertai soft copy (1x). Naskah dikirim ke alamat : Redaksi Majalah Ilmiah BERITA SELULOSA Perpustakaan BBPK Jln. Raya Dayeuhkolot 132 - Bandung 40258 e-mail : selulosa@bbpk.go.id, website : http://www.bbpk.go.id

SARI PUSTAKA
1. Guanglei Zhao, Ronald Lai, Beihai He, Thomas Greschik, dan Xiaofeng Li SUBSTITUSI PULP KRAFT SOFTWOOD DENGAN PULP BAMBU ECF PADA KERTAS HALUS Bioresources, Agustus 2010 Negeri Cina memproduksi pulp non kayu yang cukup banyak sehingga memberikan kontribusi yang besar terhadap produksi pulp dan kertas di negeri itu. Keterbatasan bahan baku kayu mendorong produsen dan para peneliti untuk menggunakan tanaman non kayu dalam produksi pulp dan kertas. Sumber tanaman non kayu yang penting di negeri Cina adalah bambu. Ide yang muncul adalah membuat perbandingan dengan softwood kraft pulp sehingga dapat diketahui potensi yang lebih dalam dari pulp berbahan baku bambu. Sampel pulp yang digunakan sebagai perbandingan dalam penelitian ini adalah NBSK (Northern pine Bleached Softwood Kraft pulp) dan BHKP (bahan baku acacia dari Indonesia). Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam urutan kegiatan penelitian adalah: 1. Refining; 2.Wetend; 3. Paper Testing dan 4. Fiber Length Measurement. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagai pulp murni, pulp bambu membutuhkan energi penggilingan lebih sedikit daripada NBSK untuk setiap target freenes. Tetapi untuk tensile index tertentu energi penggilingan sama. Untuk mendapatkan pembahasan yang lebih lengkap Anda dapat membaca naskah aslinya.(DN) 2. Mian Xing, Sheng Yao, Shu-Ke Zhou, Qiang Zhao, Jian-Hang Lin, dan Jun-Wen Pu PENGARUH PERLAKUAN ULTRASONIK PADA PEMUTIHAN CHEMI-MECANICAL PULP Bioresources, Agustus 2010 Proses mekanika-kimia menggunakan efek mekanik dalam menghasilkan pulp dan menggunakan relatif sedikit bahan kimia sehingga banyak senyawa pengotor masih tersisa di dalam pulp mekanik diantaranya lignin dan hemiselulosa. Untuk membersihkannya dibutuhkan bahan kimia yang tidak sedikit sehingga para peneliti mencari solusi alternatif dalam memecahkan masalah ini. Dengan melihat dari beberapa penelitian terdahulu terungkaplah bahwa penggunaan efek suara dengan frekuensi tinggi (ultrasonik) dapat digunakan untuk membersihkan permukaan pulp dan dapat mempercepat reaksi dalam fasa cair (Suslick, 1989 dan Shi 2006). Ultrasonik yang dimaksud adalah suara dengan frekuensi 20 KHz sampai dengan 10 MHz. Penggunaan efek suara ini telah diaplikasikan dalam industri lainnya seperti dalam industri makanan, pengolahan limbah dan industri manufaktur. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah : 1. Ultrasonik pretreatment, 2. Proses pemutihan, 3. Pengamatan menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), 4. Pengukuran menggunakan AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), 5. Analisa Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 6. Studi difraksi sinar X. Lapisan permukaan serat Chemi-Mechanical Pulp mengandung lignin dan senyawa lain dalam jumlah yang tinggi. Kemudian pulp yang diberi perlakuan ultasonik memiliki brightness yang lebih tinggi yaitu 80,2% ISO daripada yang tidak menggunakan ultrasonik sekitar 76,8% ISO. Dari analisa SEM ditemukan bahwa serat pulp dapat mengalami kerusakan setelah diberikan perlakuan ultrasonik yang cukup lama. Oleh karena itu diperlukan pengaturan waktu yang lebih baik dalam melakukan perlakuan ultrasonik. (DN) 3. Qingzheng Cheng, Jingxin Wang, Joseph F. McNeel, dan Peter M. Jacobson PENGUKURAN NILAI RETENSI AIR DARI BAHAN SELULOSA MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK SENTRIFUGAL Bioresources, Agustus 2010 Metode sentrifugal dimodifikasi dan aplikasikan ke dalam penentuan nilai retensi air pada bahan selulosa. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) , partikel kecil/fibril yang terisolasi dari MCC hasil dari homogenisator bertekanan tinggi

dan serat pulp jenuh di dalam air disentrifugasi pada kecepatan dan waktu yang berbeda dengan kertas saring dan/atau membran yang berfungsi sebagai saringan di awal pengukuran WRV. Ketika kecepatan sentrifugal, waktu dan ukuran pori-pori saringan meningkat, maka diperoleh WRV terbawah. Partikel MCC yang lebih kecil mengandung lebih banyak air dibandingkan MCC pada umumnya dan serat pulp. Hasil penelitian ini lebih bermanfaat untuk pengukuran WRV dari bahan selulosa, khususnya untuk mikrofibril selulosa dan fibril selulosa yang kecil. 4. Lindsey M. Kline, Douglas G. Hayes, Alvin R. Womac, dan Nicole Labbe PENENTUAN SEDERHANA KANDUNGAN LIGNIN DALAM KAYU KERAS DAN LUNAK MENGGUNAKAN ANALISA UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DARI BIOMASSA TERLARUT DALAM CAIRAN IONIK Bioresources, Agustus 2010 Tulisan ini mendefinisikan metode perhitungan kandungan lignin yang sederhana dan aman dalam biomassa lignoselulosa. Pendekatan yang dilakukan terdiri dari pengukuran absorbansi biomassa terlarut dalam cairan ionik 1-n-butyl-3methyl imidazolium chloride, [Bmim][Cl], pada 440 nm menggunakan spektrofotometri UV-Vis. Koefisien ekstensidari strandar lignin, lignin dengan kemurniantinggi yang diisolasi dari biomassa melalui proses organosolv digunakan dalam konjungsi sesuai hukum Beer-Lambert untuk menghitung konsentrasi lignin. Principal component analysis (PCA) dari Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) dikumpulkan untuk beberapa macam standar lignin yang berbeda untuk memahami perbedaan struktur kimia dan komposisi (contohnya jumlah relatif dari syringyl dan guaiacyl). Analisa FTIR yang cepat terhadap contoh biomassa yang tidak diketahui kandungan ligninnya ini dibutuhkan untuk membantu seleksi standar lignin yang lebih baik agar dapat digunakan untuk analisa spectrophotometric berikutnya. Metode yang diajukan diuji dan divalidasi dalam 2 tipe biomassa yaitu yellow poplar dan southern pine. Pendekatan spektrofotometrik menghasilkan kandungan lignin untuk yellow poplar dan southern pine masing-masing sebesar 25,7 1,1% dan 26,7

0,7%, dibandingkan dengan nilai yang diperoleh sesuai standar protokol kimia basah, yaitu masing-masing 25,1% 0,7 dan 26,6 0,4% 5. Roman E. Popil OPTIMISASI KEKAKUAN PERMUKAAN SALUT MELALUI ENKAPSULASI PATI PADA KAOLIN PIPIH Bioresources, Nopember 2010 Bahan pengisi yang dimodifikasi mengandung partikel kaolin yang dienkapsulasi oleh pati telah didemonstrasi di pabrik untuk memperoleh besar muatan bahan pengisi yang signifikan tanpa mengurangi kekuatan kertas. Pada penelitian ini, percobaan laboratorium mengeksplorasi keuntungan potensial jika digunakan pigmen yang dimodifikasi dengan pati untuk meningkatkan kekuatan permukaan kertas salut. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kaolin pipih dan kaolin pipih yang dienkapsulasi oleh pati akan meningkatkan kekuatan kertas per unit berat jika dibandingkan dengan kaolin halus. Kaolin dienkapsulasi oleh pati akan meningkatkan kekuatan kertas dibandingkan dengan proporsi campuran masing-masing pati dan kaolin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengurangan volume void dari kertas salut selama proses enkapsulasi dan kenaikan transfer tegangan pada penggunaan kandungan kaolin pipih yang tinggi. 6. Zhibin He, Yonghao Ni, dan Yajun Zhou KEBERADAAN CHIP KAYUDAUN DAN PENGARUHNYA PADA KEKUATAN PULP DALAM MEMPRODUKSI PULP PUTIH KRAFT KAYUJARUM Bioresources, Nopember 2010 Keterbatasan suplai bahan baku pulp kayujarum di negara - negara barat telah menyebabkan para peneliti di sana mencari alternatif yang dapat dijadikan sebagai jalan keluar dalam produksi pulp. Salah satu percobaan yang dikembangkan oleh para peneliti tersebut adalah dengan mencampur chip softwood dan chip hardwood. Diharapkan kekurangan bahan baku softwood tidak lagi menjadi halangan dalam memproduksi pulp softwood. Untuk menambah pengetahuan yang lebih mendalam dilakukan penelitian

dengan tujuan di atas. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan pertama kali adalah klasifikasi bahan baku, proses pemasakan diikuti oleh pemutihan ECF, pulp beating dan evaluasi handsheet. Bahan baku yang digunakan adalah spruce (softwood), birch dan aspenPenambahan chip hardwood sebanyak 15-25% tidak memberikan kontribusi yang signifikan dalam menaikkan kekuatan pulp/ kertas. Demikian pula densitas tidak terpengaruh oleh keberadan campuran dari hardwood. Dengan demikian keberadaan chip hardwood tidak cocok untuk dicampur dalam menghasilkan pulp softwood. (DN) 7. Jrmy Allix, Davide Beneventi, Elisa Zeno, dan Patrice Nortier FLOTASI PENGHILANGAN TINTA DARI CAMPURAN KERTAS DAUR ULANG 50% ONP/ 50% OMG MENGGUNAKAN SURFAKTANNONIONIK, SABUN, DAN CAMPURAN SURFAKTAN/SABUN Bioresources, Nopember 2010 Kolom flotasi skala laboratorium dilengkapi dengan aerator venturi dan sistem penghilangan busa digunakan untuk mempelajari pengaruh sabun kalsium dan campuran sabun kalsium/ surfaktan alkil fenol etoksilat pada proses transfer tinta dan serat selama flotasi penghilangan tinta terhadap campuran kertas daur ulang 50% old newsprint (ONP) / 50% old magazines (OMG). Fenomena transportasi masa dalam flotasi dan pembuangan busa ini dapat menentukan redemen proses flotasi diinterpretasi menggunakan model persamaan yang menggambarkan penghilangan partikel. Terjadi penurunan konstanta laju tinta dan bahan pengisi mineral, pembuangan busa, dan suspensi serat pada saat konsentrasi surfaktan ditingkatkan. Tren penurunan laju ini sejalan dengan dispersi nonionik surfaktan. Terjadi efek yang bertolak belakang yaitu pada tinta dan bahan pengisi yang diamati saat digunakan sabun kalsium saja, dan terjadi kenaikan konstanta laju flotasi dan pembuangan busa yang konsisten dengan penghilangan busa dari sabun kalsium. Terlebih lagi, suspensi serat menjadi berkurang pada saat konsentrasi sabun ditingkatkan. Penelitian campuran surfaktan / sabun ini mengungkapkan tidak adanya sinergi

antara sabun kalsium dengan surfaktan atau sensitif terhadap komposisi sabun / surfaktan. 8. Marie Backstrom dan Lars Ake Hammar PENGARUH COUNTER-ION TERHADAP GUGUS FUNGSI BERMUATANDALAMKEMAMPUAN REFINING PULP PUTIH YANG BELUM MELALUI PROSES PENGERINGAN Bioresources, Nopember 2010 Penelitian ini mempelajari refining pulp kayu keras dan kayu lunak yang telah diputihkan mempunyai counter-ion yang berbeda terhadap gugus fungsi bermuatan. Hasil menunjukan bahwa penurunan energi sebesar 50% untuk pulp kayu keras dan 20% untuk pulp kayu lunak dapat dicapai jika serat yang di konversi dalam Na+dari bentuk asli refining. Hasil juga menunjukan bahwa jumlah gugus fungsi bermuatan dalam serat menjadi penting dalam refining, yang menjelaskan bahwa efisiensi refining yang terjadi lebih rendah untuk serat kayu jarum yang diputihkan yang mempunyai gugus fungsi bermuatan dalam jumlah lebih kecil daripada pulp kayu daun putih. 9. Qiang Wang, Kefu Chen, Jun Li, Shanshan liu, dan Zhaojiang Wang METODA CEPAT PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN SILIKON DALAM LINDI HITAM SECARA SPEKTROSKOPI UV Bioresources, Nopember 2010 Penelitian ini menggambarkan metode spektroskopi UV yang sederhana untuk menentukan kandungan silikon dalam lindi hitam. Metode ini menggunakan fakta bahwa Si (IV) dapat beraksi dengan amonium molibdat untuk menghasilka bentuk asam heterofoni Si-Mo dalam kondisi asam (pH = 4). Puncak absorbsi dari asam heterofoni alfa Si-Mo yaitu 340 nm. Untuk menghindari kompensasi instrumen, 360 nm digunakan untuk kuantifikasi spektoskopik. Diperlukan waktu selama 20 menit untuk bereaksi Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa 480 nm dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan metoda dua-

panjang gelombang untuk menghitung gangguan spektral dari lignin terlarut dalam lindi hitam. Metode ini sederhana, cepat, sensitif, akurat, dan berpotensi untuk diaplikasikan secara on-line. 10. Antti Haapala, Mika Krkk, Kalle Kemppainen, Donald MacNeil, dan Jouko Niinimki PEMURNIAN AIR PASI SECARA FLOTASI SELEKTIF Bioresources, Nopember 2010 Penghilangan kontaminan yang mengganggu dari air sirkulasi ini dapat menguntungkan proses jalannya mesin dan kualitas kertas. Kemampuan flotasi selektif dapat diaplikasikan untuk menghilangkan substansi dari kandungan hidrofobik pada air sirkulasi mesin kertas

yang diinvestigasi dalam skala laboratorium. Efisiensi pemisahan tinta, stikies, dan ekstraktif dipelajari dengan menggunakan skema dimana busa dihasilkan dari komponen aktif permukaan air yang inheren tanpa penambahan bahan kimia lain. Efisiensi pemisahan kontaminan pengganggu berhubungan dengan hilangnya material padatan secaratotal. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tidak semua air pasi dapat memproduksi busa yang stabil, maka dari itu busa dihasilkan dari pemisahan kontaminan dari busa secara substansial. Dihasilkan pemisahan yang moderat yaitu sekitar 10% padatan total dari air pasi, pemisahan 45% stikies, 27% tinta, dan 20 50% ekstraktif. Pemisahan kontaminan yang lebih tinggi menghasilkan hilangnya padatan menjadi kurang ekonomis dalam produksi kertas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa flotasi air pasi yang selektif akan menguntungkan dalam proses pembuatan kertas.

PEMBERITAHUAN

Penggantian nama majalah ilmiah berkala BERITA SELULOSA menjadi JURNAL SELULOSA yang semula akan dimulai tahun 2010 untuk sementara ditunda

BERITA SELULOSA
Vol. 45, No. 2, Desember 2010
PENANGGUNG JAWAB
DR. Ngakan Timur Antara (Kepala Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas)

ISSN 0005 9145 No.754/D.2/2010


MITRA BESTARI
Teknologi Proses dan Energi Prof. DR. Ir. Herri Susanto (ITB) Teknologi Proses Kimia Prof. DR. Ir. Suprapto, DEA (ITS) Bahan Baku Industri DR. Ir. Tini Sustiningsih, DEA (UNAIR) Proses Produksi Pulp dan Kertas Ir. Darono Wikanaji, MEng (PT Kertas Leces) Drs. Triyanto Hadisoemarto, MSc Ir. Wieke Pratiwi, MS (B4T) Bioteknologi DR. Trisanti Anindyawati (LIPI) Drs. Zeily Nurachman, MS, DSc (ITB) Teknologi Membran Ir. Gede Wenten, MSc, PhD (ITB) Teknologi Pengelolaan Lingkungan Prof. DR. Ir. Enri Damanhuri (ITB) Konservasi Tanah dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Lingkungan DR. Ir. Undang Kurnia, MSc (Balai Penelitian Tanah) Bioremediasi Tanah DR. Enny Widyati (Puslitbang Hutan dan Konservasi Alam) Polimer dan Nanoteknologi DR. Veinardi Suendo (ITB) Teknologi Bahan Bangunan Lasino, ST, APU (Puslitbang Permukiman)

DEWAN PENYUNTING
Ketua Penyunting : Penyunting Ahli : Evi Oktavia, SSi, MSi Dra. Rina S. Soetopo, MSi Ir. Taufan Hidayat, MKom Ir. Andoyo Sugiharto, MSc Ir. Lies Indriati Ir. Sri Purwati Dra. Susi Sugesty Hendro Risdianto ST, MT Syamsudin, ST, MSi Susilo Yuwono, ST Mukharomah Nur Aini, ST Krisna Septiningrum, SSi, MSi Herman Noor Yusuf AD Hj. Tjutju Hasanah, SSos Takdir Aziz Hendy Kuswaendy, SKom Wachyudin Aziz, A.Md Putri Dwisakti Khatomdani, A.Md

Penyunting Penyelia

Penyunting Pelaksana

Penerbit

Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas (BBPK) Jl.Raya Dayeuhkolot No.132 Bandung, 40258 Telp. 022 5202980 Fax. 022 5202871 e-mail : selulosa@bbpk.go.id website : http://bbpk.go.id

UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH


Redaksi BERITA SELULOSA mengucapkan banyak terima kasih kepada para Mitra Bestari yang telah berpartisipasi dalam menelaah naskah yang akan diterbitkan di majalah ilmiah ini, sehingga majalah ini dapat terbit tepat pada waktunya. Para Mitra Bestari yang telah berpartisipasi dalam terbitan Vol 45. No. 2, Desember 2010 adalah : DR. Veinardi Suendo Ir. Wieke Pratiwi, MS Prof. DR. Ir. Enri Damanhuri DR. Enny Widyati

Alamat Redaksi

Redaksi menerima artikel yang berkaitan dengan bidang pengetahuan dan teknologi selulosa. Terbit tiap 6 bulanan.

BERITA SELULOSA
Vol. 45, No. 2, Desember 2010 KATA PENGANTAR

ISSN 0005 9145 No.754/D.2/2010

Dalam terbitan kedua tahun 2010, Berita Selulosa menampilkan lima artikel hasil penelitian dan review dari para peneliti dan perekayasa Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas, Unit Pelaksana Teknis Biomaterial Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, dan Pusat Penelitian Bioteknologi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. Penyajian diawali dengan artikel yang membahas tentang biopulping bambu betung menggunakan beberapa jenis jamur pelapuk putih yang menjelaskan bahwa penggunaan kultur campuran lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kultur tunggal. Artikel kedua menginformasikan tentang penelitian pulp rami putih sebagai bahan baku kertas. Sedangkan artikel ketiga menyajikan data bahwa sintesis serbuk barium titanat dengan ukuran sekitar 47-115 nm telah berhasil dilakukan dengan metoda prekursor dan pulp merang (Oryza sativa) sebagai templatnya. Artikel ke empat merupakan artikel review yang menginformasikan bahwa limbah pertanian berlignoselulosa dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pupuk organik yang bersifat ramah lingkungan untuk meningkatkan produksi pertanian. Artikel terakhir merupakan hasil penelitian yang menjelaskan bahwa unit kombinasi pengolahan air limbah secara anaerobik dan aerobik dapat menurunkan kadar pencemar TSS, COD, dan BOD dalam air limbah proses pemutihan pulp hingga memenuhi baku mutu dan mampu menurunkan tingkat toksisitasnya. Kami berharap majalah ini dapat selalu memberikan sumbangan yang bermanfaat bagi perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan di Indonesia.

Ketua Penyunting

BERITA SELULOSA
Vol. 45, No. 2, Desember 2010 DAFTAR ISI

ISSN 0005 9145 No.754/D.2/2010

Widya Fatriasari, Sita Heris Anita, Faizatul Falah, Triyono Nugroho Adi, Euis Hermiati Biopulping Bambu Betung Menggunakan Kultur Campur Jamur Pelapuk Putih (Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus dan Phanerochaete crysosporium) Biopulping of Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) using Mixed Culture of White Rot Fungi (Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete crysosporium) ............ 44 - 56 Sonny Kurnia Wirawan, Jenni Rismijana, Cucu, Dadang Setiawan Asid Pulp Rami Putih sebagai Bahan Baku Kertas Bleached Ramie Pulp for Papermaking Raw Material ............................................................ 57 - 63 Bambang Sunendar P., Mery Agustina, Arie Wibowo, Evi Oktavia Sintesis Partikel Nano Barium Titanat menggunakan Metode Proses Prekursor dengan Pulp Merang sebagai Templat Synthesis of Nanoparticles Barium Titanate by Using Precursor Process Method with Rice Straw Pulp as Template ............................................................................................................ 64 - 69 Trisanti Anindyawati Potensi Selulase dalam Mendegradasi Lignoselulosa Limbah Pertanian untuk Pupuk Organik Cellulase Potency in Degradation of Agricultural Waste for Organic Fertilizer .......

70 - 77

Krisna Adhitya W, Rina S.Soetopo, Djumhana, Enung Fitri M Tingkat Toksisitas Akut Air Limbah Proses Pemutihan Pulp Hasil Pengolahan Biologi The Acute Toxicity Level of Pulp Bleaching Wastewater after Biological Treatment .............. 78 - 84 INDEKS KATA KUNCI ........................................................................................................ 85 - 1 INDEKS JUDUL .................................................................................................................... 85 - 2 INDEKS PENULIS ................................................................................................................ 85 - 3 SARI PUSTAKA KULIT MUKA : Rangkaian Peralatan Proses Polimerisasi, Struktur Morphology Partikel Hidrogel SAP, Bibit Lumpur Granul dalam Reaktor UASB dan Grafik Kinerja Pembersihan Stok MTH

BERITA SELULOSA
ISSN 0005 9145 No.230/AU1/P2MBI/08/2009 Vol. 45, No.1, June 2010 Keywoods used are free terms. Abstracs can be reproduces without permission or charge

DDC 668.9 Lik Anah, et.al (Chemical Research Center LIPI, Bandung) likanah@yahoo.com PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SYNTHESIS OF CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE-GRAFTPOLY(ACRYLIC ACID)/MONTMORILLONITE SUPERABSORBEN COMPOSITES HYDRO GEL POLYMER BY GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION Berita Selulosa Vol.45,No.1, June 2010, page1-8 A carboxymethyl cellulose-graft-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite superabsorbent polymer composite (SAPCs) or hydro gel was prepared by graft-copolymerization among carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), acrylic acid (AA), and montmorillonite (MMT) in aqueous solution. In this research, factors influencing water absorbency or swelling ratio of the hydro gel such as reaction of temperature, concentration of benzoylperoxide (BPO) initiator and concentration of methyl bisacrylamide crosslinker (MBA) were studied. As fixed variable were used time of reaction is five hours and speed of mechanic agitation is 300 rpm. Hydro gel acquired the highest equilibrium water absorbency of 126.56 g/g when ratio of AA to CMC is 10 : 1; 2.5 wt% BPO; 3.75 wt% MBA; and 10 wt% MMT was incorporated. In this experiment the hydro gel PAA Absorb commercial was used as standard that has equilibrium water absorbency of 123 g/g. The graft-copolymerization reaction mechanism, morphology, and thermal stability of the composites were also investigated by FTIR, SEM, and TGA, respectively. FTIR spectra showed OH of CMC participated in graft polymerization with AA. The introduced CMC and MMT endowed the composite a higher thermal stability. Key words : CMC-g-poly(AA)/MMT, superabsorbent polymer composites, hydro gel, BPO, MBA DDC 676.12 Lies Indriati (Center for Pulp and Paper) e-mail : liesinag@yahoo.com ; liesinag@gmail.com THE MULTISTAGE CLEANING SYSTEM FOR HARDWOOD PULP PITCH REMOVAL Berita Selulosa Vol.45,No.1, June 2010, page 9-15 The most common problem found in the use of hardwood pulps as paper raw material is pitch problems which will affect the paper machine runnability and the quality of paper produced. One of treatment to overcome those pitch problems is done by removing as much as possible extractives content of pulp used in the stock preparation process. A multistage cleaning system consisted of screens and a series of cleaners, is applied to remove contaminants including extractives of hardwood pulp which is used as 100% paper raw material. The eficiency of cleaning system on pitch removal of Mixed Tropical Hardwood (MTH) and Acacia mangium pulps were 95-99% and 85-97% respectively. Key words : pitch problem, extractives, mixed tropical hardwood, MTH, Acacia mangium, cleaning system, dirt

ABSTRACT

DDC 676.22 Zainal Abidin Nasution (Center for Industrial and Standardization, Medan) CHARACTERIZATION OF HAND MOLD COASTER GLASSES FROM RICE STRAW Berita Selulosa Vol.45,No.1, June 2010, page 16-21 Paper for coasters in this research was made from hand made paper using rice straw. Process used for rice straw pulping was the caustic process cooking at atmosphere pressure. This caustic method selection is based on its easiness to be processed and low cost operation. The process of making coasters paper sample were divided into two steps. The first step was cooking using 5% NaOH as cooking solution at the weight 9 kg AD straw rice for 4 hours and yield of 65,6%. The second step was the papermaking of coasters paper on basis weight of 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 g/m2. The result of coasters paper testing showed that there were two optimum yield i.e at tearing index 1155,9 mN and bursting index 105 kPa and the other at tearing index 1064,7 mN and bursting index 128 kPa. Key words : rice straw, caustic process, coaster for glasses paper. DDC 676.26 Kristaufan J.P., et.al (Center for Pulp and Paper) WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF BOARD PAPER INDUSTRY BY UP-FLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET (UASB) AND ACTIVATED SLUDGE Berita Selulosa Vol.45,No.1, June 2010, page 22-31 Paper mill is one of the industries that discharge huge wastewater containing high pollutant. A low-rate wastewater treatment system is not adequate anymore to treat wastewater which has high dissolved organic pollutant. Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) system is one of the anaerobic processes which has high efficiency and can be run at high organic loading rate as well. As post treatment, the activated sludge could further reduce organic pollutant. The wastewater discharged from a paperboard industry was used on this research. Granular sludge was seeded into UASB reactor which was provided by a biogas measurement. The activated sludge reactor was seeded by activated sludge taken from an aeration tank of a wastewater treatment of the paperboard mill. Varied HRT of 24, 18, 12, and 10 hours were implemented with organic loading rate of 0.88 4.65 kg COD/m3.day. Results indicated that the UASB reactor could reduce COD up to 87%, TSS up to 85%, and BOD5 up to 95% at organic loading rate of 0.88 1.94 kg COD/m3.day. The wastewater threshold for the coarse paper industry COD of 175 mg/L, TSS of 80 mg/l, and BOD5 of 90 mg/l could be complied by the results of the treatments accomplished by the UASB reactor and the activated sludge process arrangement at the time retention of 18 24 hours. Key words : wastewater, activated sludge, granular sludge, paperboard industry, UASB

DDC 676.26 Rina S. Soetopo, et.al. (Center for Pulp and Paper) THE POTENCY OF COMPOST FROM JOSS PAPER MILL SOLID WASTE TO IMPROVE THE CROP PRODUCTION Berita Selulosa Vol.45,No.1, June 2010, page 32-43 A research about paper sludge from joss paper industry as compost material has been conducted. Initially, paper sludge from waste water treatment plant was characterized. Cellulose degrading fungi were added as activator in composting experiment. Mature compost test using sensitive plant, tomato, was performed using paper sludge by product. Plant bioassay using Albazia was carried out using optimum dosage from mature compost test. Result showed that paper sludge from joss paper industry contain high content of organic matter thus can be use as organic compost. Composting experiment was performed using sawdust as bulking agents for 30 days, with 0,6% of cellulolytic fungi (weigth basis) as activator agents. Compost T-1 product quality was in complience with the Indonesian National Standard requirements. The extract compost materials (T-1) from paper sludge composting did showed positive effect to tomato plant. Meanwhile, plant bioassay showed that growth of Albazia using compost T-1 70% (10,5 kg/tree) product was better than control. Key words : solid waste, T. harzianum,, cellulose, compost, joss paper mill

BERITA SELULOSA
ISSN 0005 9145 No.754/D.2/2010 Vol. 45, No.2, December 2010 Keywoods used are free terms. Abstracs can be reproduces without permission or charge

ABSTRACT DDC 676.14 Widya Fatriasari, et.al. (Technical Assistan Unit of BPP Biomaterial, LIPI) fatriasari@gmail.com BIOPULPING OF BETUNG BAMBOO (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER) USING MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE ROT FUNGI (TRAMETES VERSICOLOR, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS AND PHANEROCHAETE CRYSOSPORIUM) Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, December 2010, page 44 - 56 This research was to study the pretreatment effect of mixed culture fungi (T.versicolor, P.ostreatus and P.crysosporium) of betung bamboo on quality of pulp kraft and to determine the effect of pretreatment compared to monoculture. Bamboo chips were inoculated at room temperature and analysed by SEM. Bamboo chips was cooked by kraft process and analysed its properties i.e yield, kappa number, delignification selectivity, freeness and pulp brightness. Results showed that mixed culture pretreatment of T.versicolor, P.ostreatus, dan P.crysosporium gave better pulp quality compared to monoculture. Each fungi treatment gives different effect on pulp properties. Pulp yield was increased which compare to without fungi treatment. If three fungi species were mixed, it showed little positive effect on pulp properties. Mixed culture pretreatment can increased freeness. Meanwhile, pulp yield and delignification selectivity were increased, and kappa number was decreased. Fungi pretreatment can increase pulp brightness level compare to control. SEM image indicated a degradation of bamboo cell wall caused by fungi activity. The longer incubation time reduced kappa number and improved pulp yield and delignification selectivity. The highest pulp quality is by a co-culturing T.versicolor and P.crysosoporium on 30 days incubation. Key words: white rot fungi, mixed culture, kraft pulping, betung bamboo, pulp quality DDC 676.14 Sonny Kurnia Wirawan, et.al. (Center for Pulp and Paper) BLEACHED RAMIE PULP FOR PAPERMAKING RAW MATERIAL Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, December 2010, page 57 - 63 The experiment of papermaking from bleached ramie fiber has been conducted on a laboratory scale, with a variation of the composition of mixture 1030% of ramie pulp and 90%-70 % LBKP, with the addition of 15 - 20% filler, 0,6% sizing agent and 1% dry strength. Hand sheet of 80 g/m2 grammage were made and the optical and physical properties including brigthness, opacity, tensile strength, tear strength, bursting strength, roughness and water absorption tested. The result showed that as ramie fiber content increased in the sheet, the opacity, roughness, strength and water absorption also increased, meanwhile the brightness and porocity decreased. As filler content were increased, brigthness, opacity, porosity and water absorption of hand sheet also increased, meanwihle paper strength decreased. Key words : ramie, pulp, kraft, paper.

DDC 676.5 Bambang Sunendar P (Skill Group of Physical Technic, FTI-ITB) SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES BARIUM TITANATE BY USING PRECURSOR PROCESS METHOD WITH RICE STRAW PULP AS TEMPLATE Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, December 2010, page 64 - 69 Barium titanate (BaTiO3) with perovskite tetragonal crystal structure is known as ferroelectric materials. Recently, this material is widely used in electronic industry such as sensor, transducer, infrared detector and Multi Layer Ceramic Capacitors (MLCCs) because barium titanate is more environmental friendly, the Tcurie of barium titanate is lower than the other dielectric materials and it has a high dielectric constant. Nanoparticle size of barium titanate is needed to improve the its performance. Conventional method of material synthesizing usually produces impurities from ball milling process and the particle size of material is not in nano size. This experiment, we synthesize barium titanate using precursor process method with pulp of rice straw (Oryza sativa) as a template. Variation in calcination temperature (700C, 900C, 1100C) and precursor concentration (0.1 M and 0.07 M) was conducted to get information about the influence of calcination temperature and precursor concentration to the cristallinity and particle size of barium titanate. XRD result showed that barium titanante was already formed in 700C calcination temperature and has its optimum temperature on 900C. As the concequence of rising of calcination temperature, cristallinity of sample was increased. SEM images showed that particle size of sample was already in nano size. Meanwhile, as the result of decreasing of precursor concentration, the particle size of sample was decreased. Key words : barium titanate, nano particle, pulp Oryza sativa, precursor process method DDC 574 Trisanti Anindyawati (Research Center for Biotechnology-Indonesia Institute of Sciences) CELLULASE POTENCY IN DEGRADATION OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, December 2010, page 70 - 77 It is quite evident that agriculture product waste is abundant. Further process of it will produce a value-added product such as organic fertilizer. Lignocellulose waste contain important compounds, i.e cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (include rice straw, wood, bagasse). In the degradation process maximum results will be attained through a necessary pretreatment - mechanical, physico-chemical, chemical and biological. Lignocellulolitic microbes consisting of molds, bacteria and actinomycetes were able to degrade lignocellulosic materials to produce organic fertilizers, whereas anaerobic bacteria can produce multi-enzyme complex / cellulosome. Key words : cellulase, agricultural wastes, lignocellulose, organic fertilizer

DDC 574 Krisna Adhitya W., et.al.(Center for Pulp and Paper) THE ACUTE TOXICITY LEVEL OF PULP BLEACHING WASTEWATER AFTER BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, December 2010, page 78 - 84 Pulp bleaching process effluent could make problem to environment. AOX which has toxic, bioaccumulate, carcinogen, and persistent characteristic is specific pollutant from bleaching efluent. The toxicity test used three kinds of wastewater samples, which were from bleaching process, Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) effluent and combined biological treatment ( UASB + activated sludge) effluent. The results showed that UASB treatment could remove AOX and COD concentration up to 44% and 59% respectively, and combined biological treatment (UASB + activated sludge treatment) remove AOX and COD concentration up to 73% and 89% respectively. Biological treatment could reduce toxicity level of bleaching effluent by EC50 value for bleaching wastewater at range of 1,05 1,38 ppm (AOX concentration), EC50 value for UASB effluent at range of 3,77-4,98 ppm and after UASB+activated sludge treatment, wastewater showed practically non-toxic characteristic. Key words : bleaching wastewater, AOX, UASB, activated sludge, daphnia magna

BERITA SELULOSA
ISSN 0005 9145 No.230/AU1/P2MBI/08/2009 Vol. 45, No.1, Juni 2010 Kata kunci yang digunakan adalah istilah bebas. Lembar intisari ini boleh dikopi tanpa ijin dan biaya

INTISARI DDC 668.9 Lik Anah, dkk. (Pusat Penelitian Kimia LIPI, Bandung) likanah@yahoo.com STUDI AWAL SINTESA CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE-GRAFT-POLY(ACRYLIC ACID)/MONMORILONIT SUPERABSORBEN POLIMER HIDRO GEL KOMPOSIT MELALUI PROSES KOPOLIMERISASI CANGKOK Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.1, Juni 2010, hal.1-8 Material superabsorben polimer komposit (SAPCs) atau hidro gel karboksimetil selulosa cangkok - asam poliakrilat / monmorilonit dipersiapkan melalui proses graft-kopolimerosasi antara karboksimetil selulosa, asam akrilat (AA), dan monmorilonit (MMT) dalam larutan encer. Dalam penelitian ini telah dipelajari faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan hidro gel dalam menyerap air seperti suhu reaksi, konsentrasi inisiator benzoil peroksida (BPO), dan konsentrasi pengikat silang metil bisakrilamida (MBA). Variabel tetap yang digunakan adalah waktu reaksi 5 jam dan kecepatan pengadukan 300 rpm. Hidro gel hasil penelitian memberikan serapan air atau swelling ratio tertinggi 126,56 g H2O/g hidro gel pada kondisi operasi yaitu rasio AA terhadap CMC adalah 10 : 1, konsentrasi BPO 2,5% w/w, MBA 3,75% w/w, dan MMT 10% w/w. Hidro gel PAA Absorb komersial digunakan sebagai standar dengan kesetimbangan penyerapan air123 g/g. Mekanisme reaksi kopolimerisasi cangkok, morfologi, dan kestabilan panas dari SAPCs dipelajari melalui analisa FTIR, SEM, dan TGA. Hasil spektra FTIR menunjukkan gugus fungsional OH dari CMC berperan aktif dengan AA. Penggunaan CMC dan MMT dalam proses kopolimerisasi cangkok telah memberikan kestabilan panas yang lebih tinggi pada material hidro gel. Kata kunci : CMC-g-poli(AA)/MMT, superabsorben polimer komposit, hidro gel, BPO, MBA DDC 676.12 Lies Indriati (Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas) e-mail : liesinag@yahoo.com; liesinag@gmail.com SISTEM PEMBERSIHAN STOK MULTI TAHAP UNTUK PENGHILANGAN PITCH DARI PULP KAYUDAUN Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.1, Juni 2010, hal.9-15 Permasalahan yang umum terjadi pada penggunaan pulp kayudaun sebagai bahan baku kertas adalah permasalahan pitch yang dapat mempengaruhi kelancaran jalannya proses produksi pada mesin kertas dan kualitas kertas yang dihasilkan. Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi permasalahan pitch ini adalah dengan menghilangkan semaksimal mungkin kandungan ekstraktif pulp yang digunakan pada proses penyiapan stok. Suatu sistem pembersihan multi tahap yang terdiri dari screen dan serangkaian cleaner digunakan untuk menghilangkan kontaminan termasuk senyawa ekstraktif dari pulp kayudaun yang digunakan sebagai 100% bahan baku kertas. Sistem pembersihan ini mampu menghilangkan kandungan pitch pada pulp kayudaun tropis campuran (Mixed Tropical Hardwood atau MTH) dan pulp Acacia mangium berturut-turut 95-99% dan 85-97%. Kata kunci : masalah pitch, ekstraktif, kayudaun tropis campuran, Acacia mangium, sistem pembersihan, noda

DDC 676.22 Zainal Abidin Nasution ( Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industr, Medan) PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI KERTAS TATAKAN GELAS CETAK TANGAN DARI LIMBAH JERAMI PADI Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.1, Juni 2010, hal.16-21 Kertas tatakan gelas pada penelitian ini dibuat dengan cetak tangan, menggunakan bahan baku jerami padi. Pembuatan pulp jerami padi dengan proses pemasakan soda kostik pada suhu kamar karena mudah dilakukan dan biaya operasinya sangat rendah. Proses pembuatan kertas tatakan gelas terbagi atas dua langkah. Langkah pertama adalah pemasakan pulp jerami pada dengan larutan pemasak 5% NaOH dan rendemen pemasakannya adalah 65,6%. Langkah kedua adalah pembuatan contoh kertas tatakan gelas dengan gramatur 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, dan 200 g/m2. Hasil pengujian kertas tatakan gelas menunjukkan diperoleh dua hasil yang optimal yaitu pada indeks sobek 1155,9 mN dan indeks retak 105 kPa dan yang lain pada indeks sobek 1064,7 mN dan indeks retak 128 kPa. Kata kunci : jerami padi, proses kaustik, kertas tatakan gelas. DDC 676.26 Kristaufan J.P.,dkk. (Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas) PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI KERTAS KARTON DENGAN UP-FLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET (UASB) DAN LUMPUR AKTIF Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.1, Juni 2010, hal.22-31 Industri kertas karton adalah salah satu industri yang mengeluarkan air limbah dalam jumlah besar yang mengandung bahan pencemar cukup tinggi. Sistem pengolahan air limbah yang berkategori low-rate kurang sesuai lagi untuk mengolah air limbah yang mengandung cemaran organik tinggi dan bersifat kompleks terlarut. Sistem Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) adalah salah satu proses anaerobik dengan efisiensi tinggi yang dapat beroperasi pada beban organik tinggi. Proses aerobik sistem lumpur aktif sebagai pengolahan lanjutan dapat menurunkan kadar cemaran organik lebih lanjut. Pada percobaan digunakan air limbah yang berasal dari industri kertas karton. Lumpur granul digunakan sebagai bibit lumpur reaktor UASB yang dilengkapi dengan alat pengukur biogas. Reaktor lumpur aktif konvensional yang diberi bibit lumpur aktif dari bak aerasi Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) industri kertas karton digunakan sebagai pengolahan lanjutan. Waktu tinggal divariasikan secara bertahap dari 24 jam, 18 jam, 12 jam, dan 10 jam dengan laju beban organik 0,88 4,65 kg COD/m3 .hari. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa reaktor UASB dapat mereduksi COD dengan efisiensi tertinggi 87%, TSS 85%, dan BOD5 95% pada laju beban organik 0,88 1,94 kg COD/m3.hari. Pengolahan air limbah dengan kombinasi UASB dan lumpur aktif pada waktu tinggal 18 24 jam telah dapat memenuhi baku mutu air limbah industri kertas kasar yaitu COD = 175 mg/l, TSS = 80 mg/l, dan BOD5 = 90 mg/l. Kata kunci : air limbah, lumpur aktif, lumpur granul, industri kertas karton, UASB

DDC 676.26 Rina S. Soetopo, dkk. ( Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas) POTENSI KOMPOS DARI LIMBAH PADAT PABRIK JOSS PAPER UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.1, Juni 2010, hal.32-43 Penelitian terhadap potensi limbah padat pabrik joss paper sebagai kompos telah dilakukan. Penelitian diawali dengan karakterisasi terhadap potensi limbah padat pabrik kertas yang berasal dari Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL). Proses pengomposan dilakukan dengan menambahkan aktivator jamur pendegradasi selulosa. Terhadap kompos yang telah memenuhi syarat, dilakukan uji potensi terhadap tanaman tomat sebagai tanaman sensitif. Dosis optimum kompos pada tanaman tomat, diujicobakan ke tanaman sengon. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa limbah padat IPAL pabrik joss paper memiliki bahan organik yang cukup tinggi, sehingga memiliki potensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai kompos organik. Pengomposan dengan penambahan aktivator jamur selulolitik 0,6% dari berat total limbah kering dilakukan selama 30 hari menghasilkan kualitas kompos (T-1) yang memenuhi persyaratan SNI. Hasil uji kompos (T-1) terhadap tanaman tomat menunjukkan pengaruh positif pada pertumbuhan vegetatif maupun generatif. Uji coba kompos (T-1) sampai dosis 70% (10,5 kg/pohon) terhadap tanaman sengon menunjukkan pertumbuhan vegetatif yang jauh lebih baik dibanding kontrol. Kata kunci : limbah padat, T. harzianum, selulosa, kompos, pabrik joss paper

BERITA SELULOSA
ISSN 0005 9145 No.754/D.2/2010 Vol. 45, No.2, Desember 2010 Kata kunci yang digunakan adalah istilah bebas. Lembar intisari ini boleh dikopi tanpa ijin dan biaya

INTISARI DDC 676.14 Widya Fatriasari, dkk (UPT BPP Biomaterial LIPI) fatriasari@gmail.com BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPUR JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH (Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus dan Phanerochaete crysosporium) Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, Desember 2010, hal. 44 - 56 Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh perlakuan kultur campur jamur T. versicolor, P.ostreatus dan P. crysosporium pada bambu betung dengan proses pemasakan kraft terhadap kualitas pulp. Selain itu, untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruhnya terhadap kualitas pulp yang dihasilkan dari perlakuan kultur tunggal. Bambu diinokulasi pada suhu ruang dan dianalisa dengan SEM. Bambu dimasak dengan proses kraft dan dianalisa kualitas pulp berupa rendemen pulp, bilangan kappa, selektifitas delignifikasi, derajat giling, dan derajat putih. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa perlakuan awal kultur campur T.versicolor, P.ostreatus, dan P.crysosporium memberikan kualitas pulp yang lebih baik dibandingkan kultur tunggal ditinjau dari bilangan kappa, selektifitas delignifikasi dan rendemen. Masing-masing kombinasi perlakuan jamur memberikan respon yang berbeda. Terjadi peningkatan rendemen dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Jika ketiga spesies jamur dicampur maka kurang berpengaruh positif terhadap kualitas pulp. Perlakuan kultur campur menyebabkan pulp lebih kasar yaitu terjadi peningkatan derajat giling. Sedangkan rendemen dan selektifitas delignifikasi meningkat, serta bilangan kappa menurun. Perlakuan jamur meningkatkan derajat giling pulp dibandingkan kontrol. Pencitraan SEM menunjukkan perlakuan kultur campur menyebabkan degradasi dinding sel bambu. Bertambahnya lama inkubasi menyebabkan penurunan bilangan kappa, peningkatan selektifitas delignifikasi dan rendemen. Perlakuan terbaik adalah inokulasi secara bersamaan T.versicolor and P.crysosoporium dengan lama inkubasi 30 hari. Kata kunci: jamur pelapuk putih, kultur campur, pulping kraft, bambu betung, kualitas pulp DDC 676.14 Sonny Kurnia Wirawan, dkk. (Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas) PULP RAMI PUTIH SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU KERTAS Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, Desember 2010, hal. 57 - 63 Penelitian pembuatan kertas dari pulp rami putih telah dilakukan pada skala laboratorium, dengan variasi komposisi campuran pulp rami 10 % - 30% dan pulp LBKP 90% - 70%, dengan penambahan bahan pengisi 15% - 20%, zat darih 0,6% serta penguat kering 1%. Stok dibentuk menjadi lembaran dengan gramatur 80 g/m2 dan diuji sifat optik dan sifat fisik yang meliputi derajat putih, opasitas, ketahanan tarik, ketahanan sobek, ketahanan retak, kekasaran, porositas, dan daya serap air. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi kandungan serat rami pada lembaran maka nilai opasitas, kekasaran, kekuatan dan daya serap air semakin tinggi, sedangkan nilai derajat putih dan porositas menurun. Semakin tinggi bahan pengisi, maka semakin tinggi nilai derajat putih, opasitas, porositas dan daya serap air lembaran, sedangkan nilai kekuatan kertas menurun. Kata kunci : rami, pulp, kraft, kertas.

DDC 676.5

Bambang Sunendar P.,dkk (Kelompok Keahlian Teknik Fisika, FTI-ITB)

SINTESIS PARTIKEL NANO BARIUM TITANAT MENGGUNAKAN METODE PROSES PREKURSOR DENGAN PULP MERANG SEBAGAI TEMPLAT Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, Desember 2010, hal. 64 - 69 Barium titanat (BaTiO3) dengan struktur kristal perovskite tetragonal telah dikenal bersifat material ferroelektrik. Material ini telah banyak digunakan dalam aplikasi di bidang elektronik seperti sensor, transducers, infrared detector dan multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCCs). Hal ini dikarenakan barium titanat lebih ramah lingkungan, memiliki Tcurie yang lebih rendah daripada material dielektrik lain, dan memiliki konstanta dielektrik yang tinggi. Partikel barium titanat yang berukuran nano diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kinerjanya. Metode konvensional dalam memproses material seringkali menimbulkan pengotor yang berasal dari proses ball milling serta ukuran partikel yang didapatkan belum mencapai nano. Dalam penelitian ini, partikel titanat berukuran nano partikel disintesis dengan menggunakan metode proses prekursor dengan pulp merang (Oryza sativa) sebagai template. Variasi suhu kalsinasi (700C, 900C, 1100C) dan konsentrasi prekursor (0,1 M dan 0,07 M) dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu kalsinasi dan konsentrasi prekursor terhadap kristalinitas dan ukuran partikel barium titanat. Hasil XRD menunjukkan bahwa pada suhu kalsinasi 700C barium titanat telah terbentuk dan temperatur optimum pada 900C. Seiring dengan peningkatan suhu kalsinasi, kristalinitas barium titanat juga meningkat. Hasil SEM menunjukkan serbuk barium titanat hasil sintesis telah berukuran nano. Dengan menurunkan konsentrasi prekursor menjadi 0,07 M, didapatkan serbuk barium titanat yang lebih kecil bila dibandingkan dengan serbuk yang disintesis menggunakan konsentrasi prekursor 0,1 M. Kata kunci : barium titanat, nano partikel, pulp Oryza sativa, metode proses prekursor DDC 574 Trisanti Anindyawati (Pusat Penelitian Bioteknologi-LIPI) POTENSI SELULASE DALAM MENDEGRADASI LIGNOSELULOSA LIMBAH PERTANIAN UNTUK PUPUK ORGANIK ORGANIK Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, Desember 2010, hal. 70 - 77 Limbah pertanian yang berlimpah merupakan suatu bahan yang mempunyai nilai tambah bila diproses lebih lanjut, salah satunya adalah untuk pupuk organik. Limbah lignoselulosa seperti jerami padi, kayu, bagas terdiri dari selulosa, hemiselulosa dan lignin. Untuk memperoleh hasil yang maksimal pada proses degradasi, diperlukan perlakuan awal yang bisa dilakukan secara mekanik, fisika-kimia, kimia dan biologi. Mikroba lignoselulolitik yang terdiri dari kapang, bakteri dan aktinomisetes dapat mendegradasi bahan lignoselulosa untuk menghasilkan pupuk organik, termasuk bakteri anaerob yang dapat menghasilkan multi enzim kompleks/selulosom. Kata kunci : selulase, limbah pertanian, lignoselulosa, pupuk organik

DDC 574 Krisna Adhitya W. dkk. (Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas) TINGKAT TOKSISITAS AKUT AIR LIMBAH PROSES PEMUTIHAN PULP HASIL PENGOLAHAN BIOLOGI Berita Selulosa Vol.45, No.2, Desember 2010, hal. 78 - 84 Tahap pemutihan pulp dapat menghasilkan air limbah yang menyebabkan permasalahan bagi lingkungan. AOX merupakan polutan spesifik yang berasal dari air limbah proses pemutihan pulp, yang mempunyai karakteristik beracun, bioakumulatif, karsinogen, dan persisten. Kombinasi pengolahan biologi anaerob dan aerob diharapkan dapat menurunkan nilai AOX dan mengurangi kadar toksisitas dalam air limbah. Uji toksisitas menggunakan tiga sampel air limbah, yaitu air limbah proses pemutihan sebelum pengolahan, air limbah proses pemutihan yang telah diolah secara anaerob menggunakan Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) dan juga air limbah yang telah diolah secara anaerob (UASB) yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pengolahan biologi secara aerob (lumpur aktif). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengolahan UASB dapat mereduksi AOX dan COD dari air limbah pemutihan sebesar 44% dan 59% sementara kombinasi pengolahan biologi (UASB+Lumpur aktif) dapat mereduksi AOX dan COD hingga 73% serta 89%. Selain itu pengolahan biologi dapat menurunkan tingkat toksisitas air limbah pemutihan dengan Nilai EC50 dari air limbah pemutihan sebelum pengolahan berada pada kisaran konsentrasi AOX 1,05 1,38 ppm. EC50 dari air limbah pemutihan setelah pengolahan dengan UASB berada pada kisaran konsentrasi AOX 3,77-4,98 ppm dan setelah pengolahan dengan UASB+lumpur aktif, air limbah menunjukkan efek tidak toksik pada Daphnia magna. Kata kunci : air limbah pemutihan, AOX, UASB, lumpur aktif, Daphnia magna

INDEKS KATA KUNCI


A AOX, 78 Acacia mangium, 9 Air limbah pemutihan, 78 Air limbah, 22 B Bambu betung, 44 Barium titanat, 64 BPO, 1 C CMC-g-poli(AA)/MMT, 1 D Daphnia magna, 78 E Ekstraktif, 9 H Hidro gel, 1 I Industri kertas karton, 22 J Jamur pelapuk putih, 44 Jerami padi, 16 K Kayudaun tropis campuran, 9 Kertas cetak tangan, 16 Kraft, 57 Kualitas pulp, 44 Kultur campur, 44 L Lignoselulosa, 70 Limbah padat, 32 Limbah pertanian, 70 Lumpur aktif, 78 Lumpur granul, 22 M Masalah pitch, 9 MBA, 1 Metode proses prekursor, 64 N Nano partikel, 64 Noda, 9 P Pabrik joss paper, 32 Proses kostik, 16 Pulp, 57 Pulping Kraft, 44 Pupuk organik, 70 Pulp Oryza sativa, 64 R Rami, 57 S Selulase, 70 Sistem pembersihan, 9 Superabsorben polimer komposit, 1 T Tatakan gelas, 16 T. harzianum, 32 U UASB, 22, 78

85 - 1

INDEKS JUDUL

B
Biopulping Bambu Betung menggunakan Kultur Campur Jamur Pelapuk Putih (Trametes Versicolor, Pleurotus Ostreatus dan Phanerochaete Crysosporium), 44 - 56

P
Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Kertas Tatakan Gelas Cetak Tangan dari Limbah Jerami Padi, 16-21 Pengolahan Air Limbah Industri Kertas Karton dengan Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) dan Lumpur Aktif, 22 - 31 Potensi Kompos dari Limbah Padat Pabrik Joss Paper untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas Tanaman, 32-43 Potensi Selulase dalam Mendegradasi Limbah Pertanian Limbah Pertanian untuk Pupuk Organik, 70 - 77 Pulp Rami Putih sebagai Bahan Baku Kertas, 57 - 63

S
Sintesis Partikel Nano Barium Titanat menggunakan Metode Proses Prekursor dengan Pulp Merang sebagai Templat, 64-69 Sistem Pembersihan Stok Multi Tahap untuk Penghilangan Pitch dari Pulp Kayudaun, 9-15 Studi Awal Sintesa Carboxy Methyl Cellulose-Graft-Poly (Acrylic Acid) / Monmorilonit Superabsorben Polimer Hidro Gel Komposit Melalui Proses Kopolimerisasi Cangkok, 1-8

T
Tingkat Toksisitas Akut Air Limbah Proses Pemutihan Pulp Hasil Pengolahan Biologi, 78 - 84

85 - 2

INDEKS PENULIS

Aep Surachman, 32 Agus Haryono, 9 Asep Nurhikmat, 9 Arie Wibowo, 64

Lies Indriati, 9 Lik Anah, 1

M N R S

Mery Agustina, 64

Bambang Sunendar P., 64

Nuri Astrini, 9

C D

Cucu, 57

Rina S. Soetopo, 32, 78

Dadang Setiawan Asid, 57 Djumhana, 78

Sonny Kurnia Wirawan, 57 Sri Purwati, 22 Suharto, 9 Sita Heris Anita, 44

Euis Hermiati, 44 Evi Oktavia, 64 Enung Fitri M, 57

F J

Trisanti Anindyawati, 70 Triyono Nugroho Adi, 44

Faizatul Falah, 44

W Y Z

Widya Fatriasari, 44

Jenni Rismijana, 57

Yusup Setiawan, 22

Krisna Adhitya W., 78 Krisna Septiningrum, 32 Kristaufan J.P., 22

Zainal Abidin Nasution, 16

85 - 3

INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Journal of Animal Science (REVISED 2010)


The Instructions for Authors to the Journal of Animal Science (JAS) is divided into 2 sections: (I) Manuscript Preparation, which gives the Style and Form to be used by authors in the preparation of manuscripts; and (II) Policies and Procedures of JAS, which provides details concerning the mission of JAS, contact information, care and use of animals, the types of articles accepted by JAS, submitting manuscripts to JAS (including copyright policies), the review procedures and policies, and papers in press, author proofs, and publication charges. For anatomical nomenclature, consult the current Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (http://www. wava-amav.org/Downloads/nav_2005.pdf). Manuscripts should be prepared double-spaced in Microsoft Word, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. Special characters (e.g., Greek and symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Complex equations should be entered using MathType or an equation editor. Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed in the text). Authors should prepare their manuscript in Microsoft Word and upload the manuscripts using the fewest files possible to facilitate the review and editing processes. Manuscripts should contain the following sections (Appendices or On-Line Only Data Supplements, described below, are optional), in this order: Title Page. The title page includes a running head (the first word only and any proper nouns capitalized and no more than 45 characters plus spaces); the title (only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized, as brief as possible, and including the species involved); names of authors (e.g., T. E. Smith; no title, positions, or degrees) and institutions, including the city, state or country (all with first letters capitalized), and ZIP or postal code. Affiliations are footnoted using the symbols *, , , , #, , and are placed below the author names. Footnotes on the first page (present address, and e-mail address of the corresponding author) are referenced by superscript numbers. Acknowledgments, including acknowledgements of grants, experiment station, or journal series number, are given as a footnote to the title. Authors who hold patents related to the research presented in the manuscript should include a statement in a footnote. Abstract. The abstract consists of no more than 2,500 keystrokes (characters plus spaces) in one paragraph and summarizes the pertinent results (with statistical evidence; i.e., P-values) in a brief but understandable form, beginning with a clear statement of the objective and ending with the conclusions, with no references cited. Abbreviations in the abstract that are not Standard JAS abbreviations must be defined at first use. Key Words. List up to 6 key words or phrases including the species, variables tested, and the major response criteria. The first letter of each key word is lowercase (unless a proper noun); key words are separated by commas and presented in alphabetical order; and no abbreviations should be used. Because major words 1

I. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION (STYLE AND FORM)


The most important thing you can do as you prepare your manuscript is to consult a recent issue of JAS in terms of the acceptable format for headings, title page, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion (or combined Results and Discussion), Literature Cited, and tables and figures (including figure captions), which are described in more detail below. Failure to adhere to the style and form will result in immediate rejection of the manuscript. General. Papers must be written in English and must use the American spelling and usage as well as standard scientific usage, as given in the following online resources: For general style and form, authors should follow that recommended in Scientific Style and Format. The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 7th ed. Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA. For American English spelling and usage: Merriam-Webster OnLine (http://www.m-w.com/). For numbers usage, consult http://www.council scienceeditors.org/publications/ssf_numberstyle. cfm or the Policies Regarding Number Usage later in this document. For SI units, the following site (National Institute of Standards and Technology) provides a comprehensive guide: http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/ index.html For capitalization and spelling of plants, consult the USDA Plants Web site (http://plants.usda. gov).

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

in the title are not used for the subject index, which is published in the last issue of each volume of JAS, appropriate words from the title (or synonyms) should be listed as key words. Introduction. The Introduction must not exceed 2,000 keystrokes (characters plus spaces) and briefly justifies the research, specifies the hypotheses to be tested, and gives the objective(s). Extensive discussion of relevant literature should be included in the Discussion. Materials and Methods. A clear description or specific original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Diets, dates of experimental activities if appropriate, animals [breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions (i.e., with or without restriction of feed and water)], surgical techniques, measurements, and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Appropriate statistical methods should be used, although the biology should be emphasized. Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of the statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions. The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and should not be considered as independent experimental units. Reporting the actual P-value is preferred to the use of the terms significant and highly significant. Thus, the observed significance level (e.g., P = 0.027) should be presented, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject. Other probability (alpha) levels may be discussed if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled. Provide a validation for assays [e.g., mean and CV for repeated analysis of a sample (both between and within-assay if available) and the sensitivity (minimum amount or concentration detectable)]. Also, provide a publication reference for the methodology used in kits. Centrifugal force should be provided in g, not rpm, and duration and temperature of centrifugation must be included. Include volume of blood collected, container used, and amount of preservative or anticoagulant (e.g., heparin). Results. The results are presented in the form of tables or figures when feasible. If data are discussed in the text but not presented in the tables or figures, specify data not shown in the text. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached, should be

presented to allow the reader to interpret the results of the experiment. Discussion. The discussion should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and significance and also should integrate the research findings with the body of previously published literature to provide the reader with a broad base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. A stand-alone Discussion section should not refer to any tables or figures, nor should it include P-values (unless citing a P-value from another work). Results and Discussion. In JAS, authors have the option of combining the results and discussion into one section. Literature Cited. To be listed in the Literature Cited section, papers must be published or accepted for publication (in press). Personal communications and unpublished data must not be included in the Literature Cited section. See the Literature Cited Guidelines later in this document. Tables and Figures. Tables and figures must be prepared so they stand alone. Author-defined abbreviations should be defined in each table and figure. Manufacturer name and location should be provided for any proprietary product appearing in a table or figure. Tables must be created using the table feature in MS Word (for instructions, see Guidelines for Creating Tables in Microsoft Word). Refer to a recent issue of JAS for examples of table construction. When possible, tables should be organized to fit across the page without running broadside. Each column must have a heading (e.g., Item, Ingredient, Trait, Fatty acid). Units should be separated from headings by a comma. Limit the data field to the minimum needed for meaningful comparison within the accuracy of the methods. In the body of the table, references to footnotes should be numerals. Each footnote should begin on a new line. To indicate significant differences among means within a row or column, superscript lowercase letters are used; the preferred statement in the footnotes is: Within a row (or column), means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05). Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript and should follow the Quality Guidelines for JAS Figures (http://jas.fass.org/misc/ifora.shtml). Each figure should be placed on a separate page (separated by section breaks) and identified by the manuscript number and figure number. Figure captions should be typed double spaced on a separate page. The use of color in figures should be avoided unless it is essential to understanding the figure. There is an additional fee for color figures that are printed in the journal (see Color Charge Agreement at http://www.asas.org/jas/ color_charge.pdf). Appendices. To provide readers with numerical examples or give extensive detail of analytical procedures, an appendix or appendices can be included. However, if the supplemental material is of interest only to a lim-

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

ited number of JAS readers, it should not be included as an appendix. Instead, mention that supplemental information is available on request from the author; addresses for Web sites with appropriate supplemental information are acceptable. If extensive, the data may be included as an e-supplement to the manuscript (see Online-Only Data Supplements). Appendices should follow the Literature Cited section and be introduced by a major heading. Online-Only Data Supplements. Authors can present material online that cannot physically be displayed in the print journal (e.g., Excel files, video), that might be cost-prohibitive (e.g., color figures), or that provides data sets too detailed for publication in print. A note will appear in the print version that more material can be found online. Material posted online only must go through the review process, and consequently should be in an format easily accessible by most reviewers and readers.

pers in Press Web site (http://jas.fass.org/papbyrecent. dtl) represents the official publication date]. Current QTL databases for livestock include, but may not be limited to, the Animal QTL database (http://www. animalgenome.org/QTLdb) and the Bovine QTL database (http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu/). Commercial Products. The use of names of commercial products should be minimized. When a commercial product is used as part of an experiment, the manufacturer name, and location (city and state if in the United States; city and country otherwise) or a Web site address should be given parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and figures. The generic name should be used subsequently. No or symbols should be used. Note that and/or is not permitted; choose the more appropriate meaning or use x or y or both. Report time using the 24-h system (e.g., 1410 h rather than 2:10 p.m.). Use italics to designate genus and species (Bos taurus) and botanical varieties (Medicago sativa var. Potomac). Designations for botanical cultivars should be preceded by cv. or enclosed in single quotes (e.g., Festuca arundinacea cv. Kentucky 31 or Festuca arundinacea Kentucky 31). Specify the basis (as-fed or dry matter) for dietary ingredient and chemical composition data listed in text or in tables. Similarly, specify the basis for tissue composition data (e.g., wet or dry basis). Calculations of efficiency should be expressed as output divided by input (i.e., gain:feed, not feed:gain). This avoids the spurious positive and negative infinity values when body weight gain is zero or negative. It also avoids the confusion associated with discussing an improvement as being a decrease. A diet is a feedstuff or a mixture of feedstuffs; a ration is the daily allotment of the diet. Restrict the use of while and since to meanings related to time. Appropriate substitutes include and, but, or whereas for while and because or although for since. The words Table and Figure are capitalized and not abbreviated when used in the text to refer to a specific table or figure. Experiment and equation should be abbreviated to Exp. and Eq., respectively, when preceding a numeral. Avoid jargon unfamiliar to scientists from other disciplines. Do not use the term head to refer to an animal or group of animals. Instead, use animal, sow, ewe, steer, heifer, cattle, etc. Avoid bi- as a prefix because of its ambiguity; biweekly means twice per week and once every 2 wk. Breed and variety names should be capitalized (Landrace, Hereford). Trademarked or registered names should be capitalized, but no or symbols should be used.

General Usage.

Additional Usage Notes Numbers. See JAS Policies Regarding Number Usage later in this document. Abbreviations. Abbreviations in the text that are not Standard JAS abbreviations must be defined at first use. Authors should not use standard JAS abbreviations (e.g., t = metric ton and cannot be used as an abbreviation for temperature). Once defined, authoridentified abbreviations should always be used, except to begin a sentence. Author-identified abbreviations need to be redefined in the abstract, at first use in the body of the paper, in each table, and in each figure. See Standard JAS abbreviations later in this document, which includes standard abbreviations for physical units, units of time, statistical symbols and abbreviations, and others. Standard JAS abbreviations should always be used except to begin a sentence or unless otherwise contraindicated (e.g., units of time should only be abbreviated when used with a number). Gene and Protein Names. Because there is no universally accepted style for gene and protein names that applies to all species, the Journal of Animal Science asks the authors to assume the responsibility of using the convention appropriate for the particular species. Some general guidelines can be found in the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th ed., 2006). For example, the gene that codes for the protein p53 is TP53 in humans and Trp53 in mice (note that, by convention, gene names are italicized; also note that protein names are generally not italicized). Quantitative Trait Loci and DNA Markers. Papers that publish quantitative trait loci (QTL) or DNA marker association results for livestock are strongly encouraged to make their data available in an electronic form to one of the publicly available livestock QTL databases after the manuscript appears in publication [the date on which the paper is posted to the JAS-Pa-

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

II. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES OF JAS (return to Style and Form)


The mission of the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS) is to foster communication and collaboration among individuals and organizations associated with animal science research, education, industry, or administration To discover, disseminate, and apply knowledge for sustainable use of animals for food and other human needs. The Journal of Animal Science (JAS), which is published monthly by ASAS, accepts manuscripts presenting information for publication with this mission in mind. The editorial policies of JAS are established by the editor-in-chief, managing editor, division and associate editors, and editorial board, subject to review by the publications committee, board of directors, and the membership of ASAS. The views expressed in papers published in JAS represent the opinions of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the institution with which the author is affiliated, the ASAS, or the editor-in-chief. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure the accuracy of collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in manuscripts and ultimately to guarantee the veracity of the contents of articles published in JAS. The JAS is one of the most frequently cited, peerreviewed, agriculturally oriented research journals in the world, based on statistics published by ISI Inc. (Philadelphia, PA). Its high ranking in several ISI categories, including impact factor, attests to the quality standards maintained by the JAS editorial board, editors, and staff and by authors who submit manuscripts for publication.

that any research that involves animals has followed established standards for the humane care and use of animals and must specify which standards were used. Only investigations that have followed high standards for the humane care and use of animals in research will be reported in JAS. The manuscript must include a statement of institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) (or equivalent) approval of all animal procedures. The IACUC statement should appear as the first item in the Materials and Methods. The manuscript should discuss anesthetics, analgesics, tranquilizers, and care taken to minimize pain and discomfort during preoperative, operative, and postoperative procedures. If research requires discomfort to the animals or stressful conditions, justification for these conditions must be evident in papers published in JAS.

Types of Articles
Articles published in JAS encompass a broad range of research topics in animal production and fundamental aspects of genetics, nutrition, physiology, and preparation and utilization of animal products. Articles typically report research with beef cattle, companion animals, goats, horses, pigs, and sheep; however, studies involving other farm animals, aquatic and wildlife species, and laboratory animal species that address fundamental questions related to the biology of livestock, companion animals, and other managed animals will be considered for publication. Manuscripts that report research on production issues in animals other than those constituting the main focus of the journal should be submitted to other journals. The preceding paragraph is not meant to exclude manuscripts but, rather, is a clarification of the focus of the journal. If there are any questions concerning the appropriateness of a manuscript for the journal, please contact the editor-in-chief. Research Articles. Results of work contained in manuscripts submitted to JAS must not have been published or submitted previously in a refereed scientific journal. Previous presentation at a scientific meeting or the use of data in field day reports or similar documents, including press publications or postings to personal or departmental Web sites, does not preclude the publication of such data in JAS. Articles simultaneously posted to Web sites and submitted to JAS should carry a disclaimer on the Web site that this version of the paper has not undergone JAS peerreview and is not to be considered the final published form of the article. If the article is published in JAS, the author should post the PDF (reprint) version of the article to the Web site so proper credit can be given to JAS as the publisher of the article. Because JAS holds the copyright to articles it publishes, posting altered JAS articles that are represented as exact duplicates of the published version constitutes copyright violation.

Contact Information
For information on the scientific content of the journal, contact the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Steven A. Zinn, Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-4040; phone: 860-486-0861; FAX: 860-486-4375; e-mail: steven.zinn@uconn.edu. For other information or to submit a paper, contact Susan Pollock, Managing Editor and Director of Editorial and Production, Headquarters Office, American Society of Animal Science, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822; telephone 217-356-7641; FAX 217-378-4083; journals@assochq.org. For assistance with Manuscript Central, Manuscript Submission/Copyright forms, publication charge invoices, or offprint orders, contact Jeremy Holzner, Manuscript Central Coordinator and Editorial Assistant, Headquarters Office, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822; FAX 217-378-4083; jeremyh@ assochq.org.

Care and Use of Animals


All manuscripts submitted to JAS must be accompanied by a manuscript submission form certifying

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

ed review articles each year; these reviews are identified by the editor-in-chief in consultation with the editors. Occasionally proposals for review articles to be published in JAS may be solicited by division editors, after consultation with the editor-in-chief; the authors will be responsible for publication charges for these articles. Unsolicited review articles will not be considered. Special Topics. Papers will be considered for publication in this division that present Biographical or Historical Sketches, or that present viewpoints dealing with Contemporary Issues or Teaching in the animal sciences, or Perspectives that put a particular current topic into context in terms of its relationship or important to an entire area. Biographies and Histories are part of the Special Topics Division but will be published only on the ASAS Web site (http://www.asas.org/pub_biohist.asp). The frequency of publication depends on the availability of the prepared sketches. See http://jas.fass.org/misc/ JAS_Bibliographical_Sketch_Instruct_10.pdf for more information. Contemporary Issues include topics such as environmental concerns, legislative proposals, systems analysis, and others. Teaching papers may discuss innovative pedagogical methods, philosophy of education, or solutions to teaching problems in animal science. Although Contemporary Issues or Teaching papers do not have to include original data, whenever appropriate the stated assertions should be substantiated by references to established information from credible published sources. Special Topics papers will be subject to peer review in a manner similar to other submissions. Because of the nature of these papers, their format may vary from that of standard scientific articles. Technical Notes. A technical note is a vehicle to report a new method, technique, or procedure of interest to JAS readers. When possible, a technical note should include a comparison of results from the new method with those from previous methods, using appropriate statistical tests. The advantages and disadvantages of the new procedure should be discussed. When typeset, a technical note shall not exceed 6 pages (9 typed manuscript pages), including tables and figures. The words Technical note shall be the first words of the title of such manuscripts. The review process for a technical note will be the same as that for other manuscripts. Letters to the Editor. Letters judged suitable for publication will be printed in a Letters to the Editor section of JAS. The purpose of this section is to provide a forum for scientific exchange relating to matters published in JAS. To be acceptable for publication, letters must adhere to the following guidelines: 1) Only letters that address matters of science and relate to information published in JAS will be considered. In general, letters should not exceed 5,000 characters plus spaces and should contain no more than 5 citations; 2) Letters

Review Articles. The journal publishes board-invit-

should provide supporting evidence based on published data for the points made or must develop logical scientific hypotheses; letters based on conjecture or on unsubstantiated claims will not normally be published. No new data may be presented in the letters; 3) Letters will be considered by the editor-in-chief and if deemed appropriate for publication, the author(s) of original paper(s) will be invited to write a letter of response. Normally both letters will be published together; and 4) All letters will be subject to acceptance and editing by the editorin-chief and editing by the technical editor.

SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS
Manuscripts should be submitted electronically at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jas. Authors who have questions about using the electronic manuscript submission system should contact Jeremy Holzner, Manuscript Central coordinator and editorial assistant at: jeremyh@assochq.org. Authors who are unable to submit electronically should contact Jeremy Holzner (jeremyh@assochq.org) for assistance; include your manuscript as an attachment (saved as a Microsoft Word file). Staff at ASAS headquarters will post manuscripts by proxy, but authors should be aware that delays might occur in the review process.

Copyright Agreement
Authors shall complete the Manuscript Submission and Copyright Release form for each new manuscript submission; faxed copies are acceptable. The form is available online at http://jas.fass.org/misc/JASCopyright_new.pdf. The copyright agreement is included in the Manuscript Submission and Copyright Release form and must be completed by all authors before publication can proceed. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining the signatures of coauthors. Persons unable to sign copyright agreements, such as federal employees, must indicate the reason for exemption on the form. The copyright to material published in JAS is held by ASAS. Persons who wish to reproduce material in JAS must request written permission to reprint copyrighted information from the managing editor. Likewise, authors of JAS manuscripts who include material (usually tables or figures) taken from other copyrighted sources must secure permission from the copyright holders and provide evidence of this permission at the time the manuscript is submitted to JAS for review. Tables or figures reproduced from the work of others must include an acknowledgment of the original source in a footnote or legend.

REVIEW OF MANUSCRIPTS General Procedures. The suitability of all manuscripts for publication in JAS is judged by the reviewers and associate editors, division editors, and the editor-in-chief. All communications regarding a submitted manuscript should maintain confidentiality. Associate

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

editors handle correspondence with the author and promptly advise the division editor whether a manuscript should be rejected or accepted. The division editors decision to reject or accept is based on the associate editors recommendation and his or her own review of the manuscript. The division editor forwards document files for accepted manuscripts to the editor-in-chief for further review and editing, after which the editor-inchief forwards the document file(s) to the technical editors. Note that most manuscripts that are eventually published are first returned by the associate editor to the author for revision, and in addition, the division editor may ask for changes before acceptance. The editor-in-chief is the final arbiter regarding acceptance or rejection of manuscripts submitted for publication. Rejections. There are 3 main grounds for rejection of manuscripts. First, manuscripts that are not written clearly, concisely, and coherently or that do not conform to JAS style and form guidelines will be rejected without review. Nonnative English authors are urged to have their paper reviewed by a native English writer. Second, the substance of the manuscript may not meet JAS standards: the work may be incomplete, the evidence may not support the conclusions, the experimental approach may be poorly conceived, or the work may repeat established fact or represent no advance of existing knowledge. Third, although the work may be sound and the results valid, the paper may be better suited for publication elsewhere. Appeals. If a manuscript is rejected, as a first course of action the author may discuss the matter with the associate editor or division editor responsible for the manuscript. Decisions must be appealed to the editorin-chief if the author(s) believe(s) that the judgment was erroneous or unfair. A letter presenting the reasons for the appeal should be sent to the editor-in-chief. The editor-in-chief will review the authors reasons, as well as all materials related to the manuscript and, after consulting with the editors who reviewed the manuscript, will render a decision whether to accept or deny the appeal. A rejected manuscript may be resubmitted for publication in another division of JAS only if this course of action has been specifically recommended by the associate editor or division editor originally assigned to the manuscript and the transfer has been approved by the editor-in-chief. Revisions. Most manuscripts that are eventually published are returned to the author(s) for revision. Normally, the revised manuscript must be returned to the associate editor via JAS Manuscript Central within 6 wk from the date of receipt by the author or the manuscript will be withdrawn. Extenuating circumstances must be communicated to the technical editing staff, who will consult with the editor-in-chief before granting an extension. A Revision Checklist (http://jas. fass.org/misc/JAS_Revison_checklist.pdf) is sent with requests for revision to assist the authors.

PAPERS IN PRESS, AUTHOR PROOFS, AND PUBLICATION CHARGES Papers in Press. To facilitate earlier dissemination, accepted manuscripts will be assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) and posted to the JAS Papers in Press site (http://jas.fass.org/papbyrecent.dtl) in the form in which they are accepted; because this does not represent the final, published form of the manuscript, the authors bear the primary responsibility for the content of manuscripts posted to the publish-ahead-of-print site. Author Proofs. Accepted manuscripts are forwarded by the editor-in-chief to the editorial office for technical editing and typesetting. At this point, the technical editor may contact the authors for missing information or figure revisions. The manuscript is then typeset, figures reproduced, and author proofs prepared. Correspondence concerning the accepted manuscript should be directed to the technical editor. Proofs of all manuscripts will be provided to the corresponding author and should be read carefully and checked against the typed manuscript; accuracy of the galley proof is the authors responsibility. Corrections may be returned by fax, mail, or e-mail. For faxed or mailed corrections, changes to the proof should be made neatly and clearly in the margins of the proof. If extensive correction is required, changes should be provided on a separate sheet of paper with a symbol indicating location on the proof. Changes sent by e-mail to the technical editor must indicate page, column, and line numbers for each correction to be made on the proof. Editor queries should be answered on the galley proofs; failure to do so may delay publication. Excessive author changes made at the proof stage may result in a $250 surcharge. Publication Charges and Reprints. The journal has 2 options available for publication: open access (OA) and conventional page charges. For the OA option, authors will pay the OA fee when proofs are returned to the editorial office so that their paper will become freely available upon publication in an online issue. Charges for OA publication are $2,500 per article, if at least one author is a current professional member of ASAS; the charge is $3,250 when no author is an ASAS member. For conventional publication, the charge is $85 per printed page in JAS if at least one author is an ASAS member; the page charge is $170 when no author is a member of ASAS. Reprints may be ordered at an additional charge. When the galley proof is sent, the author is asked to complete a reprint order form requesting the number of reprints desired and the name of the institution, agency, or individual responsible for publication charges. Authors who submit articles containing color illustrations are responsible for paying the additional charge for color printing, including the printing of any reprints they order.

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

STANDARD JAS ABBREVIATIONS


(return to Style and Form)
The following abbreviations should be used without definition in JAS; plural abbreviations do not require a final s. Use of 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids (e.g., Ala) is acceptable in JAS. For chemical units and abbreviations, refer to the ACS Style Guide (published by the American Chemical Society, Washington, DC).

df F LSD n P r r2 R R2 s2 SD SE SED SEM t 2 2

Physical units
Item Bq C cal Ci cM Da Eq g ha Hz IU J L lx m M mol N Pa rpm t V W Unit becquerel degree Celsius calorie curie centimorgan (spell out morgan if used without a prefix) dalton equivalent (only can be used with a prefix) gram hectare hertz international unit joule liter lux meter molar (concentration; preferred over mol/L) mole normal (concentration) pascal revolutions/minute (not to be used to indicate centrifugal force) metric ton (1,000 kg) volt watt

degree(s) of freedom (spell out if used without units) F-distribution (variance ratio) least significant difference sample size (used parenthetically or in footnotes) probability simple correlation coefficient simple coefficient of determination multiple correlation coefficient multiple coefficient of determination variance (sample) standard deviation (sample) standard error standard error of the differences of means standard error of the mean t- (or Student) distribution probability of Type I error probability of Type II error mean (population) standard deviation (population) variance (population) chi-squared distribution

Others
Item AA ACTH ADF ADFI ADG ADIN ADL ADP AI AIA ARS ATP avg BCS BLUP bp BSA BTA BW cDNA C/EBP cfu CIE CLA CoA Co-EDTA CP Term amino acid(s) adrenocorticotropic hormone acid detergent fiber (assumed sequential unless designated otherwise) average daily feed intake (not to be confused with DMI) average daily gain acid detergent insoluble nitrogen acid detergent lignin adenosine diphosphate artificial insemination acid insoluble ash Agricultural Research Service adenosine triphosphate average (use only in tables, not in the text) body condition score best linear unbiased prediction base pair bovine serum albumin Bos taurus chromosome body weight (used for live weight) complementary deoxyribonucleic acid CAAT-enhancer binding protein colony-forming unit International Commission on Illumination conjugated linoleic acid coenzyme A cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetate crude protein (N 6.25)

Units of time
Item s min h d wk mo yr Unit second(s) minute(s) hour(s) day(s) week(s) month(s) year(s)

Statistical symbols and abbreviations


Item ANOVA CV Term analysis of variance coefficient of variation

8
d

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

diam. DE DEAE DFD DM DMI DNA EBV eCG EDTA EFA EIA ELISA EPD Eq. Exp. FFA FSH g GE G:F GLC GLM GnRH GH GHRH hCG HCW HEPES HPLC i.d. Ig IGF IGFBP IL IVDMD kb KPH

LD50 LH LHRH LM ME MP mRNA MUFA NAD NADH

dextrodiameter digestible energy (dimethylamino)ethyl (as in DEAEcellulose) dark, firm, and dry (meat) dry matter dry matter intake deoxyribonucleic acid estimated breeding value equine chorionic gonadotropin ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid essential fatty acid enzymeimmunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay expected progeny difference Equation(s) experiment (always followed by a numeral) free fatty acid(s) follicle-stimulating hormone gravity gross energy gain-to-feed ratio gas-liquid chromatography general linear model gonadotropin-releasing hormone growth hormone growth hormone-releasing hormone human chorionic gonadotropin hot carcass weight N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N-2ethanesulfonic acid high-performance (pressure) liquid chromatography inside diameter immunoglobulin (when used to identify a specific immunoglobulin) insulin-like growth factor insulin-like growth factor-binding protein(s) interleukin in vitro dry matter disappearance kilobase(s) kidney, pelvic, heart fat levolethal dose 50% luteinizing hormone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone longissimus muscle metabolizable energy metabolizable protein messenger ribonucleic acid monounsaturated fatty acid nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form of NAD

NDF NDIN NE NEg NEl NEm NEFA No. NPN NRC o.d. OM PAGE PBS PCR PG PMSG PPAR PSE PUFA QTL RDP REML RFLP RIA RNA RQ RUP rRNA SAS SDS SFA SNP ssp. ST spp. SSC TDN TLC Tris tRNA TSAA USDA UV VFA vol vol/vol vs. wt wt/vol wt/wt

neutral detergent fiber neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen net energy net energy for gain net energy for lactation net energy for maintenance nonesterified fatty acid number (use only in tables, not in the text) nonprotein nitrogen National Research Council outside diameter organic matter polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis phosphate-buffered saline polymerase chain reaction prostaglandin pregnant mares serum gonadotropin peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pale, soft, and exudative (meat) polyunsaturated fatty acid(s) quantitative trait locus (loci) ruminally degradable protein restricted maximal likelihood restriction fragment length polymorphism radioimmunoassay ribonucleic acid respiratory quotient ruminally undegradable protein ribosomal ribonucleic acid Statistical Analysis System sodium dodecyl sulfate saturated fatty acid single nucleotide polymorphism subspecies somatotropin species Sus scrofa chromosome total digestible nutrients thin layer chromatography tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane transfer ribonucleic acid total sulfur amino acids US Department of Agriculture ultraviolet volatile fatty acid(s) volume volume/volume (used only in parentheses) versus weight (use only in tables, not in the text) weight/volume (used only in parentheses) weight/weight (used only in parentheses)

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

LITERATURE CITED GUIDELINES FOR JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE (return to Literature Cited in Style and Form)
Citations in the Text. In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993). When there are more than 2 authors of an article, the first authors name is followed by the abbreviation et al. More than 1 article listed in the same sentence or parentheses must be in chronological order first and alphabetical order for 2 publications in the same year. Published articles, and not abstracts, should be cited whenever possible; if the work was originally described in an abstract, the author(s) should use a literature search to determine if the work has been published as a peer-reviewed article. Work that has not been accepted for publication shall be listed in the text as J. E. Jones (institution, city, and state or country, personal communication). The authors own unpublished work should be listed in the text as (J. Smith, unpublished data). Personal communications and unpublished data must not be included in the Literature Cited section. Literature Cited Section. To be listed in the Literature Cited section, papers must be published or accepted for publication (in press). In the Literature Cited section, references are listed alphabetically by the author(s) last name(s), and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors names. As with text citations, 2 or more publications by the same author or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date. All authors names must appear in the Literature Cited section. Journals shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi). A list of standard abbreviations for frequently cited journals and abbreviations used in citations is available at http://www.asas.org/jas/journal_abbrevs.pdf One-word titles must be spelled out. Inclusive page numbers must be provided. Sample references are as follows:
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Arlington, VA. NRC. 1989. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC. Robinson, P. H., E. K. Okine, and J. J. Kennelly. 1992. Measurement of protein digestion in ruminants. Page 121 in Modern Methods in Protein Nutrition and Metabolism. S. Nissen, ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Goering, H. K., and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analyses (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications). Agric. Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC. Sigma. 1984. Total hemoglobin: Quantitative, colorimetric determination in whole blood at 530550 nm. Tech. Bull. No. 525. rev. ed. Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO. Ward, J. D. 1995. Effects of copper deficiency on performance and immune function of cattle. PhD Diss. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh.

Cleale, R. M., IV, R. A. Britton, T. J. Klopfenstein, M. L. Bauer, D. L. Harmon, and L. D. Satterlee. 1987a. Induced non-enzymatic browning of soybean meal. II. Ruminal escape and net portal absorption of soybean protein treated with xylose. J. Anim. Sci. 65:13191326. Hall, J. B., R. B. Staigmiller, R. E. Short, R. A. Bellows, S. E. Bartlett, and D. A. Phelps. 1993. Body composition at puberty in beef heifers as influenced by nutrition and breed. J. Anim. Sci. 71(Suppl. 1):205. (Abstr.) NMC. 1995. Summary of peer-reviewed publications on efficacy of premilking and postmilking teat disinfections published since 1980. Pages 8292 in Natl. Mastitis Counc. Reg. Meet. Proc., Harrisburg, PA. Natl. Mastitis Counc., Arlington, VA. Talmant, A., X. Fernandez, P. Sellier, and G. Monin. 1989. Glycolytic potential in longissimus dorsi muscle of Large White pigs as measured after in vivo sampling. Page 1129 in Proc. 35th Int. Congr. Meat Sci. Technol., Copenhagen, Denmark. Van der Werf, J. H. J. 1990. A note on the use of conditional models to estimate additive genetic variance in selected populations. Proc. 4th World Congr. Genet. Appl. Livest. Prod., Edinburgh, Scotland XIII:476479. FDA. 2001. Effect of the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals on pathogen load: Systematic review of the published literature. http://www.fda.gov/cvm/antimicrobial/PathRpt.PDF Accessed Dec. 14, 2001. Huntington, G. B., D. L. Harmon, N. B. Kristensen, K. C. Hanson, and J. W. Spears. 2006. Effects of a slow-release urea source on absorption of ammonia and endogenous production of urea by cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci. 2006.01.012 Le Neindre, P., C. Terlouw, X. Boivin, A. Boissy, and J. Lensink. 2001. Behavioral research and its application to livestock transport and policy: A European perspective. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E-Suppl.) http://www.asas.org/jas/jas0905.pdf Accessed Oct. 7, 2001.

3. Journal articles and abstracts

4. Conference proceedings

5. Electronic Publications

POLICIES REGARDING NUMBER USAGE FOR JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE


(return to Style and Form)
In 2006, JAS adopted the proposed changes for number style by the Council of Science Editors for the seventh edition of their Scientific Style and Format. The greatest change is more widespread use of numerals for single-digit numbers. A full description of the new number style is available online (http://www.council scienceeditors.org/publications/ssf_numberstyle.cfm). A summary of the CSE number style policies is as follows:

1. Books and articles within edited books:

2. Handbooks, technical bulletins, theses, and dissertations

10

Instructions to Authors of Journal of Animal Science

All cardinal numbers are written as numerals except when they begin a sentence or appear in a title, when 2 numerals are adjacent in a sentence (spell out the number most easily expressed in words; e.g., two 10-kg samples), or when a number is used as a figure of speech. Numbers less than 1 are written with a preceding (leading) zero (e.g., 0.75). A comma separator is used in numbers greater than 999. Numerals should be used to designate ratios and multiplication factors (e.g., 2:1, 3-fold increase). If a number is spelled out at the beginning of a sentence, its associated unit is also spelled out (e.g., Ten milliliters of fluid . . ., not Ten mL of fluid . . .). Units of measurement not preceded by a number should be spelled out rather than abbreviated (e.g., lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogram of diet) unless used parenthetically. Single-digit ordinals are spelled out (i.e., first through ninth); larger ordinals are expressed in numeric form. Single-digit ordinals may be expressed numerically when they form part of a series (e.g., 1st, 3rd, 10th, 20th, not first, third, 10th, 20th). General number usage policies of JAS are as follows: Measures must be presented in the metric system (SI or Systme International dUnits; see: http://

physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/introduction.html, or http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP330/sp330.pdf When a term must be expressed in nonmetric units for clarity (e.g., bushel weight), give such values in parentheses after the metric value. Use to instead of a hyphen to indicate a numerical range in text. Avoid the use of multiplying factors (e.g., 106) in table columns or rows, or in figure axis labels because of the uncertainty whether the data are to be, or already have been, converted by the factor. Avoid ambiguity by stating units (e.g., numbers of spermatozoa, millions/mL). Do not use more than one slant line (for per) in a single expression (e.g., use 5 mg/(gd) or 5 mg g1d1 instead of 5 mg/g/d). Mathematically, per implies division; when 2 per occur consecutively, it is unclear precisely what is being divided by what. Dietary energy may be expressed in calories or in joules; the standard SI unit for energy is the joule. Hyphenate units of measure used as preceding adjectives (e.g., 5-kg sample). Hyphens are not used with percent or degree signs. Insert spaces around all signs (except slant lines) of operation (=, , +, , >, or <, etc.) when these signs occur between 2 values. Convert mg % to other units, such as mg/L or mg/mL; use mol/100 mol rather than molar percent.

J. Dairy Sci. 92:Instructions 117 American Dairy Science Association, 2009.

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors1


Editorial Policies and Procedures The American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) invites scientists from the global community to submit papers for consideration to the Journal of Dairy Science. Authors need not be members of ADSA. These instructions detail the form and style required by the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS) for papers submitted for publication. Papers that do not follow the form and style of the journal may be rejected without review. It is recommended that authors refer to these instructions when preparing manuscripts, when incorporating requested changes into revisions after review, and when checking author proofs. Contact Information for Journal Staff For information on the scientific content of the journal, contact the editor-in-chief, Dr. Gary W. Rogers, Geno Global Ltd., 2153 Buck Hollow Rd., New Market, TN 37820; phone: 865-471-1566 or 865-680-4208; email: grogers200@yahoo.com. For assistance with Manuscript Central, Manuscript Submission/Copyright forms, and page charge/offprint orders contact Jeremy Holzner, Editorial Assistant, Headquarters Office, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822; phone (217) 356-2426 ext. 38; FAX (217) 378-4083; jeremyh@assochq.org. For other information or to submit a paper, contact Susan Pollock, Managing Editor, Headquarters Office, American Dairy Science Association, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822; phone (217) 3567641; FAX (217) 378-4083; journals@assochq.org. Care and Use of Animals All research animals should be acquired, retained, and used in compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The authors should state explicitly that IACUC (or equivalent) approval was obtained before commencement of the study. Authors should make it clear that experiments were conducted in a manner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to the animals by the use of proper management and laboratory techniques. Experiments should be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelines presented in Guidelines for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (available from Federation of Animal Science Societies, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822). Methods of killing experimental animals must be described in the text. When describing surgical procedures, the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent must be specified. Types of Articles Full-Length Research Papers. The majority of papers published in JDS are full-length research articles. The journal emphasizes the importance of good scientific writing and clarity in presentation of the concepts, methods, and sufficient background information that would be required for thorough understanding by scientists in other disciplines. The results of experiments published in the journal must be replicated, either by replicating treatments within experiments or by repeating experiments. In addition to full-length research papers, the following types of articles appear in the journal: Our Industry Today. The Our Industry Today section includes interpretive applied summaries and recommendations from research that are useful to the dairy industry. Syntheses and applications from technical reports that contribute to solutions of problems in the dairy industry especially are solicited. Authors of reports for extension education of the nonscientist are encouraged to share their contributions with colleagues and to achieve larger circulation of their conclusions and recommendations through this section. In addition, papers that report on advances in teaching and outreach techniques are suitable for this section. The organization of papers for Our Industry Today may vary but should be logical and effective; an abstract is required. All other style and form instructions apply. Hot Topics. Papers submitted for this section must report on a completed experiment testing a timely, original hypothesis of importance to an area of dairy science. The work may be preliminary in nature, but with sufficient data so that the hypothesis is clearly tested. Results may point to avenues for fruitful, indepth analyses. Reports must contain an explicitly stated hypothesis and objectives, with sufficient detail in methodology for repetition of the work, as well as a results section, a brief discussion, and references. Total page limits for text, tables, figures, and references 1

Revised February 2009.

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

must be no more than 4 journal pages (approximately 10 typewritten pages minus space for tables and figures). The manuscript should contain a title and short abstract but not separate sections. The total number of tables and figures should be no more than 3; references should be minimal. The first page must have HOT TOPICS in capital letters on the header line. These papers will be given priority for publication. An effort will be made to notify authors of a decision within 1 mo of the date of receipt. Once accepted, the paper should be published within 3 mo. Short Communications. Short communications are reports of limited experiments that test a timely, original hypothesis of importance to some area of dairy science. The manuscript, which should be no more than 4 journal pages in length (approximately 10 typewritten pages minus space for tables and figures), should contain a title and short abstract but not separate sections. Short communication: should precede the title on the title page of the manuscript. The manuscript may report negative results. Reports must contain a hypothesis, objectives, sufficient detail in methodology for repetition of the work, results with brief discussion, and references. Technical Notes. Papers in this section should report a method that is useful to some aspect of dairy science. Submissions should include a brief justification for the technique, be it new or an improvement on a previously published technique. The report should state a hypothesis, include a full description of procedures that can be repeated by researchers, and include explicit controls to indicate sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of the technique. If the technique is an improvement on an existing technique, sufficient comparison of the previous technique should be included, and mean and dispersion information must be included. The page limit is 4 printed pages (approximately 10 typewritten pages minus space for tables and figures). Use of tables, figures, and references should be minimized. The manuscript should contain a title and short abstract but not separate sections. Requests for longer Technical Notes may be made to the senior editor and editor-in-chief, but justification for a longer report will be required. Nucleic Acid Sequences. The section on nucleic acids sequences is suitable for data that are not appropriate for a full paper but that are useful to other scientists. The section is not intended for data that will be published in full elsewhere, nor is the section a repository for nucleic acid sequence information; the reported sequence must address basic questions of structural or functional interest. Authors should be aware that publication of sequences or description of molecular clones places them in the public sector. Sequences
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

published must relate to dairy cattle, dairy products, or dairy pathogens and microorganisms. Manuscripts dealing with comparative analyses of sequences may be considered if the genes are relevant to dairy science. Sequences of cDNA or genes for which gene products are not relevant to dairy science are not acceptable. All DNA sequences should be accompanied by a statement indicating that both strands have been sequenced with appropriate overlapping sequence runs. Sequences should be presented at a maximum of 100 characters per line. Acceptance for publication of sequencing data is contingent on the submission to one of the databases (e.g., GenBank, EMBL Data Library). Accession number and name and address of the database should be stated in a footnote to the article title. Sequence data are peerreviewed, but publication is rapid. The format for publication of nucleic acids sequences is name of sequence, species in which the sequence was determined, origin of the clone, evidence that a protein is produced from the DNA, sequencing method (both strands must be sequenced with appropriate overlapping sequence runs), submission number (or accession number) to EMBL data bank (or GenBank), comments, and references. Sequences not accompanied by an EMBL Data Library (GenBank) accession number will be returned to the authors. Invited Reviews. The mechanism for consideration of invited reviews is to encourage additional publication (~10 to 12 per year) of invited reviews in all sections of the journal. Section editors will advise the editor-inchief on suggested reviewers and justification for the review. The editor-in-chief will make the invitation and the invited reviews editor will ensure the quality of the review. The first 10 printed pages of an invited review are published at no cost to the author. Authors of symposium papers and invited papers presented at the joint annual meeting of ADSA/American Society of Animal Science may be selected to contribute invited review papers. Letters to the Editor. Short (300 words) letters to the editor on topics of concern to readers, including comment on publications with rebuttals from authors if needed, may be submitted to the editor-in-chief or to any of the editors. The letters should be titled, and the title and running head should include Letter to the editor. Letters will be published at the discretion of the editor-in-chief. Authors of letters are subject to the same copyright release requirements as other authors. Letters are published at no charge to the author(s). Biographical Sketches. Occasionally, retiring or past scientists and educators should be subjects of biographical essays, both as a small honor to them and as an example and history for other readers. This

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

section brings a sense of maturity and completeness to our field. Individuals who wish to submit biographical sketches should contact the editor-in-chief or one of the editors for additional instructions. SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS Authors should submit their papers online at Manuscript Central (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jds). Detailed instructions for submitting electronically are provided online (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jds). Authors who are unable to submit online should mail one copy of the manuscript and a disk with all manuscript materials (text, figures, and tables; preferably saved as a Microsoft Word file) to Jeremy Holzner, Editorial Assistant, American Dairy Science Association, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822. Staff at ADSA headquarters will post manuscripts by proxy, but authors who submit by mail should be aware that delays might occur in the review process. Copyright Agreement Data (including graphs, figures, tables, and illustrations) must not have appeared in print elsewhere except as abstracts, local or regional field day reports, extension letters, or non-peer-reviewed, noncopyrighted proceedings of conferences. Material submitted to JDS should not be submitted for publication to popular magazines, company advertisements, or organizational proceedings until the author has received notification of acceptance of the manuscript. Before manuscripts are submitted, authors should have them read critically by others well versed in English to facilitate review, and the senior author should have authorization to publish. All coauthors should approve the manuscript before its submission to the journal. The Manuscript Submission and Copyright Release form (published in issues of the journal and available from the journal web site: http://jds.fass.org/misc/ifora. shtml) should be submitted for each paper; faxed copies are acceptable. The copyright agreement is included in the Manuscript Submission and Copyright Release Form; manuscripts cannot be published without this form. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining the signatures of all coauthors. Authors who are not permitted to release copyright must still return the form with a statement of the reason for not releasing the copyright. The editor-in-chief may authorize reproduction of graphs, tables, and illustrations for books and periodicals, as well as reprints of entire articles for inclusion in theses and dissertations. Requests to reproduce material published in JDS must be made in writing (e-mail

is acceptable) to the managing editor, Susan Pollock, Headquarters Office, American Dairy Science Association, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, IL 61822; telephone (217) 356-7641; FAX (217) 378-4083; susanp@ assochq.org. Permission to reproduce whole articles can be requested online at http://www.copyright.com. The Association grants to the authors the right of republication of their own material in any book, thesis, or dissertation of which they are authors or editors subject only to giving proper credit in the book to the original JDS publication. In addition, authors may post abstracts of manuscripts on the web at the time of submission. Once an author receives notification of acceptance, a manuscript can be posted to the authors website. Authors may post articles to personal web sites in lieu of reprints and may forward an electronic version of the final (typeset) paper to fulfill reprint requests, but must provide customary crediting to JDS (e.g., Reprinted from J. Dairy Sci. 85:1015. Copyright American Dairy Science Association, 2002. For personal use only.). Authors may deposit their article into a repository upon payment of the open access fee (see page 4 of these instructions). For more information, read the Terms and Conditions pages at http:// jds.fass.org/. REVIEW OF MANUSCRIPTS Upon submission to JDS, a manuscript is assigned to an editor, who enlists reviewers to assist in the evaluation of the manuscript. The review process is confidential, which infers a bond of trust among the authors, editor, and reviewers. The editor is trustee of the manuscript until the review process is completed and ensures that the review process is fair, thorough, and confidential. Reviewers are asked not to share the contents of the manuscript with anyone, except that they may ask a colleague to assist with the review with approval of the editor. Communication with authors should only be through the editor. Reviewers should notify the editor of conflicts of interest that may compromise their ability to provide a fair and unbiased review. Moreover, they must recognize their responsibility in maintaining the confidential nature of the review. Authors should suggest names of appropriate reviewers when submitting the manuscript to streamline the review process and may list reviewers whom they consider unacceptable because of potential bias. These recommendations will be considered by the editor when assigning reviewers. Authors should read the statement on publication ethics, Journal of Dairy Science 68:3124. A reviewed paper returned to authors for revision must be returned to the editor within 6 wk. If not, the
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

paper may be treated as a new submission. Under unusual circumstances, editors may extend the revision deadline beyond 6 wk. PRODUCTION OF PROOFS Accepted manuscripts are forwarded by the section editors to the editorial office for technical editing and typesetting. At this point the technical editor may contact the authors for missing information or figure revisions. The manuscript is then typeset, figures reproduced, and author proofs prepared. Proofs Author proofs will be sent by e-mail (in PDF format) to the corresponding author. Although the proof appears in a 2-column page format, it should be considered a galley proof; page layout may change when the article is paginated into an issue. Author proofs should be read carefully and checked against the typed manuscript, because responsibility for proofreading lies with the authors. Corrections may be returned by fax, mail, or e-mail. The Comments feature in Adobe Acrobat may be used to insert changes and comments within the proof PDF. For faxed or mailed corrections, changes to the proof should be made neatly and clearly in the margins of the proof. If extensive editing is required, corrections should be provided on a separate sheet of paper with a symbol indicating location on the proof. Changes sent by e-mail to the technical editor must indicate page, column, and line numbers for each correction to be made on the proof. Author queries should be answered on the galley proofs; failure to do so may delay publication. Proof corrections should be made and returned to the technical editor within 3 days of receipt. Publication cannot proceed until proofs are returned. Contact a technical editor at journals@assochq.org if you have questions about the proof correction process. Publication Costs The Journal of Dairy Science now offers two options for publication of articles: Conventional and Open Access. Conventional: The current charge for publication is $85 per printed page (or fraction thereof) in the journal for articles if at least one author is a professional member of ADSA. If no authors are ADSA members, the publication charge is $140 per journal page. The cost to publish a color figure is $995 (per figure) plus an offprint surcharge. There is charge for all offprints. An offprint order form will be sent to the correspondJournal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

ing author with the author proof. Conventional pages become freely available to the public via the internet 12 months after publication in a journal issue. Open Access: For authors who wish to publish manuscripts under Open Access, an open access fee of $1,000 is required in addition to the page charges outlined above. Open access articles will become freely available to the public via the journals web site at the time the journal issue containing the open access article is posted by HighWire Press. Open access articles will be freely accessible through HighWire, but author(s) submitting open access articles shall bear sole responsibility for meeting specific posting requirements of their funders. The Journal of Dairy Science shall provide the corresponding author with a PDF of the open access article at the time payment is received. By signing the Manuscript Submission and Copyright Release Form at the time of submission, the authors agree to bear responsibility for payment of publication charges. Invoices for publication charges will be issued at the time an issue goes to press (approximately 2 weeks before being posted online). Payment is due within 30 days of receipt of the invoice. The preferred method of payment is by credit card, with credit card details submitted on the page charge form sent out with the authors proof. Payment may be made by check, drawn on a US bank. For payments by wire transfer, contact Vicki Paden at vickip@assochq.org. Manuscripts will be withheld from publication for authors with past-due page charge invoice(s) until all prior payment obligations have been met. Page Charge Waivers Authors who must use personal funds to pay for page charges and for whom such charges would entail hardship can request of the editor-in-chief that these charges be waived, under the following conditions: 1) the request must be made in writing at the time the manuscript is submitted; 2) the request should be accompanied by a statement from a financial officer or other official from the institution with which the author is affiliated, indicating the reasons why page charges cannot be paid; and 3) if the waiver is granted, the author is expected to become a professional member of ADSA. Only one waiver will be granted per institution per twelve-month period. Authors who request waivers cannot order offprints. Offprints may be ordered at an additional charge. Offprints will be shipped approximately 1 month after publication of the issue. Invoices for offprints will be sent to the author or institution shown on the page

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

charge and offprint order form. There is a charge for all offprints. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION: STYLE AND FORM General Papers must be written in English. The text and all supporting materials must use American spelling and usage as given in Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., Websters Third International Dictionary, or the Oxford American English Dictionary. Authors should follow the style and form recommended in Scientific Style and Format. The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed., published by the Council of Science Editors in cooperation with The Rockefeller University Press. Authors should prepare their manuscripts in Microsoft Word and upload them using the fewest files possible to facilitate the review and editing processes. Preparing the Manuscript File Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced (in Microsoft Word) with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. Special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Complex math should be entered using MathType from Design Science (www.dessci.com). Note that equations created using the new Equation Builder in Microsoft Word 2007 may not be compatible with earlier versions of Word or other software used in our composition system. Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed within the text). Failure to follow these instructions may result in immediate rejection of the manuscript. Interpretive Summary All authors of JDS papers should provide an interpretive summary (IS) of 100 words or less that has been written for nonspecialist readers. That summary should consist of a short title, the first authors last name, and a summary, which must include a sentence or two to summarize the projects expected importance, or its economic, environmental, and/or social impact (similar to the CRIS Progress Report Statement for those who must complete that form). Common abbreviations are permitted (those from the JDS Unrestricted list). The summary should appear on top of the first page of the manuscript, before the running head and title. Interpretive summaries will be peer reviewed. At publication,

interpretive summaries will appear in a section at the beginning of the journal. The summaries are intended for an audience who may not be familiar with work in the authors area of expertise and for government or media researchers, and they will provide JDS readers with a brief overview of the research presented in each issue. Authors must make the summary readable by the general public. The goal is to make JDS research more visible to a wider audience and to emphasize its impact. Headings Major Headings. Major headings are centered (except ABSTRACT), all capitals, boldface, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), CONCLUSIONS (optional), APPENDIX (optional), and REFERENCES. First Subheadings. First subheadings are placed on a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first letter of all important words is capitalized, and the headings are boldface and italic. The heading is not followed by punctuation. Text that follows a first subheading should be in a new paragraph. Second Subheadings. Second subheadings begin the first line of a paragraph. They are indented, boldface, italic, and followed by a period. The first letter of each important word should be capitalized. The text follows immediately after the final period of the subheading. Title Page Across the top of the title page (first page), indicate a running head (abbreviated title) of 45 characters or less. The running head is centered and all uppercase. Our Industry Today, Hot Topics, and Nucleic Acids Sequences serve as the running heads for those respective article types. Short Communications, Technical Notes, Invited Reviews, and Letters to the Editor use a running head beginning with the appropriate designation (i.e., SHORT COMMUNICATION:) followed by a short title. The title should be in boldface; the first letter of the article title and proper names are capitalized and the remainder of the title is lowercase. The title should contain words or phrases used for indexing the article. Under the title, names of authors should be typed upper and lowercase (e.g., T. E. Smith) and in boldface. Institutional addresses are displayed below the author names; footnotes referring from author names to displayed addresses should be symbols in the following order: *, , , , #, ||, and . The full name, mailing adJournal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

dress, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author should appear directly below the affiliation lines on the title page. The corresponding author will be identified by a numbered footnote and e-mail address below the accepted line on the first page of the published article (e.g., 1Corresponding author: my.name@university.edu). Note that there is no period following the corresponding authors e-mail address. Supplementary address information may be given in footnotes to the first page; use numerals for these footnotes. Acronyms (except USDA) for affiliations are discouraged unless the acronym is the official name. State or provincial postal code abbreviation is not included between city and zip code if the state or province is previously mentioned in the address (see example). Acceptable format is shown below: J. E. Smith,* R. A. Jones, and A. T. Peters *Department of Animal Science, and Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706 Department of Animal Science, Utah State University, Logan 84321 Abstract. Abstracts should be limited to 2,500 keystrokes. The abstract should review important objectives, materials, results, conclusions, and applications as concisely as possible. The abstract disseminates scientific information through abstracting journals and is a convenience for readers. Open the abstract with objectives and make the abstract intelligible without reference to the manuscript. Use complete sentences and standard terms. Limit the use of abbreviations in the Abstract. Refer to the list on the inside front cover of JDS for those terms that should be defined in the abstract. If a term is used less than 3 times in the abstract, it should be spelled out at each use. Minimize the amount of data in the abstract and exclude statements of statistical probability (e.g., P < 0.05). Exclude references to other work because the abstracts will appear online and in indexing services without the reference list. Key Words. After the abstract, list 2 to 4 key words or phrases; these will be used to create the subject index of JDS. In most instances, these key words should be taken from the title; they should be typed in lowercase letters, and separated by commas. Key words should be singular (e.g., dairy cow not dairy cows). Abbreviation Key An abbreviation key will no longer appear in JDS articles. Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript. The abbreviation will be shown in bold
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

type at first use in the body of the manuscript. Refer to the Miscellaneous Usage Notes for more information on abbreviations. Body of the Paper The body of the paper should contain an introduction to the problem (questions, objectives, reasons for research, and related literature); materials, methods, experimental design, and procedures; and results, discussion, conclusions, and applications. Results and discussion may be combined into a single section. If not, the results section should not contain discussion of previously published work. Results and references to tables and figures already described in the results section should not be repeated in the discussion section. Appendix A technical appendix, if desired, shall follow the References section. The appendix may contain supplementary material, explanations, and elaborations that are not essential to other major sections but are helpful to the reader. Novel computer programs or mathematical computations would be appropriate. The appendix will not be a repository for raw data. References List only pertinent references. No more than 3 references should be needed to support a specific concept. Research papers and reviews should cite a reasonable number of references. Abstracts and articles from nonpeer-reviewed magazines and proceedings should be cited sparingly. Citation of abstracts published more than 3 yr ago is strongly discouraged. Citations in Text. In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993) with citations listed chronologically and then alphabetically within a year. Where there are more than 2 authors of one article, the first authors name is followed by the abbreviation et al. Work that has not been accepted for publication shall be listed in the text as: J. E. Jones (institution, city, and state, personal communication). The authors own unpublished work should be listed in the text as (J. Smith, unpublished data). Personal communications and unpublished data (including papers under review) must not be included in the references section. References Section. To be listed in the references section, papers must be published or accepted for pub-

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

Table 1. Effect of garlic oil, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, monensin, and lovastatin on a 17-h in vitro batch culture rumen microbial fermentation trial Treatment1 Item pH Apparent disappearance of DM, % Fiber digestibility NDF, % ADF, % Gas, mol CH4, mol Total VFA, mM Individual, mol/100 mol Acetate Propionate Butyrate Branched-chain VFA C2:C3 CH4 (mol):VFA (mol) N-NH3, mg/100 mL
ad 1

Control 6.6 61.0a 56.8a 53.7a 4,674.8a 417.3a 49.3a 61.2a 22.6d 12.5c 2.0a 2.7a 0.20a 16.7ab

GAR300 6.7 50.7b 44.3b 36.8b 3,756.9cd 110.1d 39.7c 54.3d 25.8c 16.5a 1.7b 2.1b 0.05d 16.6bc

DAD300 6.7 51.2b 41.4b 34.9b 3,359.7d 131.3d 38.8c 53.9d 28.3b 14.0bc 1.7b 1.9c 0.07cd 19.0a

ALM300 6.6 60.4a 55.9a 52.5a 4,388.2ab 335.9b 45.4b 58.3b 22.8d 15.0ab 2.0a 2.5a 0.15ab 17.2ab

MON 6.6 53.9b 39.3b 30.7b 4,009.6bc 241.7c 45.7ab 56.4c 34.2a 6.6d 1.4c 1.6d 0.10bcd 14.4c

LOV 6.6 62.4a 60.0a 57.0a 4,673.1a 396.3a 48.4ab 61.1a 22.8d 12.4c 2.0a 2.7a 0.17ab 16.4bc

SEM2 0.01 1.11 1.73 2.03 123.34 21.56 1.17 0.53 0.78 0.60 0.10 0.07 0.00 1.10

Means within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05). Treatments: GAR300 = 300 mg/L Allium sativa (garlic oil); DAD300 = 300 mg/L diallyl disulfide; ALM300 = 300 mg/L allyl mercaptan; MON = 12.5 mg/L monensin; LOV = 5 mg/L lovastatin. 2 SEM = standard error of the mean.

lication. Manuscripts submitted for publication can be cited as personal communication or unpublished data in the text. In the references section, references shall first be listed alphabetically by author(s) last name(s), and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors names. As with text citations, two or more publications by the same author or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date. The dates for papers with the same first author that would be abbreviated in the text as et al., even though the second and subsequent authors differ, shall also be differentiated by letters. All authors names must appear in the reference section. Journals shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=journals). One-word titles are spelled out. Inclusive page numbers must be provided. Sample references are given below. Journals
Lane, M. A., R. L. Baldwin, and B. W. Jesse. 1995. Sheep rumen metabolic development in response to different dietary treatments. J. Dairy Sci. 78(Suppl. 1):310. (Abstr.) Tyrrell, H. F., and P. W. Moe. 1975. Effect of intake on digestive efficiency. J. Dairy Sci. 58:11511163. Huntington, G. B., D. L. Harmon, N. B. Kristensen, K. C. Hanson, and J. W. Spears. 2006. Effects of a slow-release urea source on absorption of ammonia and endogenous production of urea by cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. doi:10.1016/j. anifeedsci.2006.01.012

Books
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I (or Vol. II). 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Goering, H. K., and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analyses (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications). Agric. Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC. Lengemann, F. W., R. A. Wentworth, and C. L. Comar. 1974. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the accumulation of contaminant radionuclides in milk. Pages 159170 in Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise. Nutrition and Biochemistry of Milk/ Maintenance. Vol. 3. B. L. Larson and V. R. Smith, ed. Academic Press, London, UK. National Research Council. 1989. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.

Conferences
Barbano, D. M. 1996. Mozzarella cheese yield: Factors to consider. Page 29 in Proc. Wisconsin Cheese Makers Mtg. Ctr. Dairy Res., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. National Mastitis Council. 1995. Summary of peer-reviewed publications on efficacy of premilking and postmilking teat disinfections published since 1980. Pages 8292 in Natl. Mastitis Counc. Reg. Mtg. Proc., Harrisburg, PA. Natl. Mastitis Counc., Inc., Madison, WI.

Other
Biernoth, G., and W. Merk, inventors. 1985. Fractionation of milk fat using a liquified gas or a gas in the supercritical state. Unilever NV-PLC, assignee. US Pat. No. 4,504,503. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. 1988. Consortium, Association Headquarters, 1111 N. Dunlap Avenue, Savoy, IL 61874. Interbull. 2005. Genetic evaluation. Direct longevity. http://www interbull.slu.se/longevity/framesida-long.htm Accessed Dec. 20, 2005.

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Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

Kelly, M. G. 1977. Genetic parameters of growth in purebred and crossbred dairy cattle. MS Thesis. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Department of Agriculture, Plant and Animal Health Inspection Service. 2004. Blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and rendering establishments, final rule. 9CFR part 71. Fed. Regist. 69:1013710151.

Tables The use of tables should be minimized. When used, tables should be self-explanatory and may be the most effective way to organize extensive data. Refer to Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers for more information on effective use of tables. Table 1 may be used as an example. Tables must be prepared using the table feature in Microsoft Word; tables prepared in other programs (e.g., Excel) or by using spaces, tabs, and hard returns will not convert accurately and errors can result. When possible, tables should be organized to fit across the page without running broadside. Be aware of the dimensions of the printed page when planning tables (use of more than 15 columns will create layout problems). Place table number and title on the same line above the table (as shown in sample table). The table title does not require an ending period. Do not use vertical lines and use few horizontal lines. Bold and italic typefaces should not be used in tables. When it is necessary to do so, such use must be defined in a footnote. Limit the data field to the minimum needed for meaningful comparison within the accuracy of the methods. For each table, spell out the first use of abbreviations in parentheses or in numbered footnotes. Abbreviations should conform to journal style and be consistent with those used in the text. Avoid reference to other tables, figures, or text. Footnotes to tables should be numerals. Each footnote should begin a new line (see sample table). For differences among means within a row or column, superscript letters should be used as appropriate sequentially (e.g., a, ab, b, c, cd) consistently from largest to smallest means. Probability may be indicated: P < 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Figures To facilitate review, figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript (separated by section breaks). Each figure should be placed on a separate page, and identified by the last name of the first author and figure number. Figure captions should be typed (double spaced) on a separate page. Current detailed informa-

tion (summarized below) on figure preparation can be found at http://jds.fass.org/misc/ifora.shtml Figuresize. Prepare figures at final size for publication. Figures should be prepared to fit one column (8.9 cm wide), 2 columns (14 cm wide), or full-page width (19 cm wide). Fontsize. Ensure that all type within the figure and axis labels are readable at final publication size. A minimum type size of 8 points (after reduction) should be used. Fonts. Use Helvetica, Times New Roman, and the symbols palette within those fonts only. Line weight. For line graphs, use a minimum stroke weight of 1 point for all lines. If multiple lines are to be distinguished, use solid, long-dash, shortdash, and dotted lines. Avoid the use of gray or shaded lines, as these will not reproduce well. Lines with different symbols for the data points may also be used to distinguish curves. Axislabels. Each axis should have a description and a unit. Units may be separated from the descriptor by a comma or parentheses, and should be consistent within a manuscript. Shading and fill patterns. For bar charts, use different fill patterns if needed; e.g., black, white, gray, diagonal stripes. Avoid the use of multiple shades of gray, as they will not be easily distinguishable in print. Remove unnecessary backgrounds and gridlines from graphs. Symbols. Identify curves and data points using the following symbols only: o, n, s, d, m, ., n, ,, w, q, e, r, +, or . Symbols should be defined in the figure caption or in a key on the figure (but not both). Fileformats. Figures can be submitted in Word, PDF, EPS, TIFF, and JPEG formats. Grayscalefigures. If figures are to be reproduced in grayscale (black and white), submit in grayscale. Often color will mask contrast problems that are apparent only when the figure is reproduced in grayscale. Colorfigures. If figures are to appear in color in the print journal, files must be submitted in CMYK color (not RGB). Resolution. Minimum resolution is 300 dpi for grayscale and color figures, and 600 dpi for line art. Photomicrographs. Photomicrographs must have their unmagnified size designated, either in the caption or with a scale bar on the figure. Reduction for publication can make a magnification power designation (e.g., 100) inappropriate. Captions. The caption should provide sufficient information that the figure can be understood without excessive reference to the text. All author-derived abbreviations and symbols used in the figure should be defined in the caption.

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Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

Generaltips. Avoid the use of three-dimensional bar charts, unless essential to the presentation of the data. Use the simplest shading scheme possible to present the data clearly. Ensure that data, symbols, axis labels, lines, and key are clear and easily readable at final publication size. Color Charge. The use of color in figures should be avoided unless it is essential to understanding the figure. The cost to publish each color figure is $995; a surcharge for offprints will also be assessed. Authors must indicate in writing that they are willing to pay the additional cost of color reproduction; complete the Color Charge Agreement (http://jds.fass.org/misc/ifora. shtml) and fax to JDS Headquarters. Authors may ask for supplementary color figures to be published online only at no additional charge (see below); contact journal headquarters (journals@assochq.org) for details. Online-Only Data Supplements. Authors are now able to present material online that cannot physically be displayed in the print journal (e.g., Excel files, video), or that might be cost-prohibitive (e.g., color figures or extra tables), or that is too detailed for publication in the print issue. A note will appear in the print version that more material can be found online. A small charge may be levied for preparing data supplements; contact journal headquarters (journals@assochq.org) for more information. Material posted online only must go through the review process, and consequently should be in an application or format easily accessible by most reviewers and readers. Statistical Analysis Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and interpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultation with a statistician is recommended. Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions. When possible, results of similar experiments should be pooled statistically. Do not report a number of similar experiments separately. The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. For group-fed animals, the group of animals in the pen or the paddock is the experimental unit; therefore, groups must be repli-

cated. Repeated chemical analyses of the same sample usually do not constitute independent experimental units. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and must not be considered as independent experimental units. For analysis of time effects, use time-sequence analysis. Usual assumptions are that errors in the statistical models are normally and independently distributed with constant variance. Most standard methods are robust to deviations from these assumptions, but occasionally data transformations or other techniques are helpful. Most statistical procedures are based on the assumption that experimental units have been assigned to treatments at random. If animals are stratified by ancestry or weight or if some other initial measurement should be accounted for, the model should include a blocking factor, or the initial measurement should be included as a covariate. A parameter [mean (), variance (s2)], which defines or describes a population, is estimated by a statistic (x, # s2). The term parameter is not appropriate to describe a variable, observation, trait, characteristic, or measurement taken in an experiment. Standard designs are adequately described by name and size (e.g., a randomized complete block design with 6 treatments in 5 blocks). For a factorial set of treatments, an adequate description might be as follows: Tryptophan at 0.05 or 0.10% of the diet and niacin at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of diet were used in a 2 3 factorial arrangement in 5 randomized complete blocks, each block consisting of littermates. Note that a factorial arrangement is not a design; the term design refers to the method of grouping experimental units into homogeneous groups or blocks (i.e., the way in which the randomization is restricted). Standard deviation refers to the variability in a sample or a population. The standard error (calculated from error variance) is the estimated sampling error of a statistic such as the sample mean. When a standard deviation or standard error is given, the number of degrees of freedom on which it rests should be specified. When any statistical value (as mean or difference of 2 means) is mentioned, its standard error or confidence limit should be given. The fact that differences are not statistically significant is no reason for omitting standard errors. They are of value when results from several experiments are combined in the future. They also are useful to the reader as measures of efficiency of experimental techniques. A value attached by to a number implies that the second value is its standard error (not its standard deviation). Adequate reporting may require only 1) the number of observations, 2) arithmetic treatment means, and 3) an estimate of experimental error. The pooled standard error of the
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Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

mean is the preferred estimate of experimental error. Standard errors need not be presented separately for each mean unless the means are based on different numbers of observations or the heterogeneity of the error variance is to be emphasized. Presenting individual standard errors clutters the presentation and can mislead readers. For more complex experiments, tables of subclass means and tables of analyses of variance or covariance may be included. When the analysis of variance contains several error terms, such as in split-plot and repeated measures designs, the text should indicate clearly which mean square was used for the denominator of each F statistic. Unbalanced factorial data can present special problems. Accordingly, it is well to state how the computing was done and how the parameters were estimated. Approximations should be accompanied by cautions concerning possible biases. Contrasts (preferably orthogonal) are used to answer specific questions for which the experiment was designed; they should form the basis for comparing treatment means. Nonorthogonal contrasts may be evaluated by Bonferroni t statistics. The exact contrasts tested should be described for the reader. Multiple-range tests are not appropriate when treatments are orthogonally arranged. Fixed-range, pairwise, multiple comparison tests should be used only to compare means of treatments that are unstructured or not related. Adjusted, or so-called least squares, means should not be used unless the design is unbalanced or contains missing values or an adjustment is being made for a covariate. In factorial treatment arrangements, means for main effects should be presented when important interactions are not present. Means for individual treatment combinations also should be provided in table or text so that future researchers may combine data from several experiments to detect important interactions. An interaction may not be detected in a given experiment because of a limitation in the number of observations. The terms significant and highly significant traditionally have been reserved for P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively; however, reporting the P-value is preferred to the use of these terms. For example, use . . . there was a difference (P < 0.05) between control and treated samples rather than . . . there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between control and treated samples. When available, the observed significance level (e.g., P = 0.027) should be presented rather than merely P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject. Other probability (alpha) levels may be discussed if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled. Do not report P-values to more than 3 places after the decimal. Regardless of the probability level used, failure to reject a hypothesis should be based on
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the relative consequences of Type I and II errors. A nonsignificant relationship should not be interpreted to suggest the absence of a relationship. An inadequate number of experimental units or insufficient control of variation limits the power to detect relationships. Avoid the ambiguous use of P > 0.05 to declare nonsignificance, such as indicating that a difference is not significant at P > 0.05 and subsequently declaring another difference significant (or a tendency) at P < 0.09. In addition, readers may incorrectly interpret the use of P > 0.05 as the probability of a beta error, not an alpha error. Present only meaningful digits. A practical rule is to round values so that the change caused by rounding is less than one-tenth of the standard error. Such rounding increases the variance of the reported value by less than 1%, so that less than 1% of the relevant information contained in the data is sacrificed. In most cases, 2 or 3 significant digits (not decimal places) are sufficient. Sensory Data Sensory data should comply with the Statement of Policy in the Report of the Committee on Sensory Data to the Journal Management Committee of the American Dairy Science Association, 1986, Journal of Dairy Science 69:298. Computer Software Computer software should conform to the Report of ADSA Subcommittee on Standards for Publications with Reference to Computer Software, Journal of Dairy Science 70:209210. Nomenclature Microorganisms. All microorganisms must be named by genus and species. The name of the genus must appear in full the first time that the microorganism is cited in the abstract, in the body of the paper, and in each table and figure legend. Thereafter, the genus can be abbreviated by its first initial unless it will be confused with other microorganisms cited in the paper, in which case each genus should be abbreviated to use enough letters to avoid confusion (e.g., Strep. vs. Staph.). The names of all microorganisms should be in italics. Specific strain designations and numbers should be used when appropriate. Authorities are not required. For microorganisms that are genetic variants of a parent strain, the genotypic and phenotypic properties should be cited according to the procedures described

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

11

by Demerec et al. (1966) in Genetics 54:6176. Phenotypes should be identified by 3 letters; the first is capitalized. Genotypes should be identified by 3 lowercase italic letters. Superscript plus (+) signs are used to refer to a wild-type. The serial isolation number is placed after the locus symbol for mutations. The delta symbol is used to indicate deletions. Nomenclature for bacterial plasmids should be cited according to Novick et al. (1976) in Bacteriological Reviews 40:168189. Enzymes. Mention of an enzyme should include the EC number. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests Please refer to the JDS policy in Appendix 2 of this document. Miscellaneous Usage Notes Abbreviations. Abbreviations should not be used in the title, key words, or to begin sentences, except when they are widely known throughout science (e.g., DNA, RNA) or are terms better known by their abbreviation (e.g., IgG, CD). Abbreviations may be used in heads within the paper if they have been first defined within the text. The inside back cover of every issue of the journal lists abbreviations that can be used without definition. The list is subject to revision at any time, so authors should always consult the most recent issue of the journal (or the updated list at http://jds. fass.org/misc/ifora.shtml) for relevant information. Abbreviations are allowed when they help the flow of the manuscript; however, excessive use of abbreviations can confuse the reader. The suitability of abbreviations will be evaluated by the reviewers and editors during the review process and by the technical editor during editing. As a rule, author-derived abbreviations should be in all capital letters. Terms used less than 3 times after first use must be spelled out in full rather than abbreviated. Do not use abbreviations that replace single words, or single-letter abbreviations that could be confused with chemical elements (e.g., P, C, S). All terms are to be spelled out in full with the abbreviation following in bold type in parentheses the first time they are mentioned in the main body of the text. Abbreviations shall be used consistently thereafter, rather than the full term. The abstract, text, each table, and each figure must be understood independently of each other. Therefore, abbreviations shall be defined within each of these units of the manuscript. Plural abbreviations do not require s. Chemical symbols and 1-letter and 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids do not need definition. Units of measure, except those in the standard JDS abbreviation list,

should be abbreviated as listed in the CRC Handbook for Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL 33431) and do not need to be defined. International Words and Phrases. Non-English words in common usage (defined in recent editions of standard dictionaries) will not appear in italics (e.g., in vitro, in vivo, ad libitum, in situ, a priori). However, genus and species of plants, animals, or bacteria and viruses should be italicized. Authors must indicate accent marks and other diacriticals on international names and institutions. German nouns shall begin with capital letters. Capitalization. Breed and variety names are to be capitalized (e.g., Holstein, Danish Red). Trademarked or registered names should be capitalized, but no or symbols should be used. Proper nouns should be capitalized. Numbers and Units. The Journal of Dairy Science uses the Council of Science Editors number style given in the seventh edition of Scientific Style and Format. Numbers less than 1 shall be written with preceding zeros (e.g., 0.75). All numbers shall be written as digits; a comma separator must be used in numbers greater than 999. Measures must be in the metric (SI) system; however, US equivalents may be given in parentheses. Units of measure not preceded by numbers must be written out rather than abbreviated (e.g., lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogram of diet) unless used parenthetically. Measures of variation must be defined in the Abstract and in the body of the paper at first use. GeneralUsage. Note that and/or is not permitted; choose the more appropriate meaning or use x or y or both. Use the slant line only when it means per with numbered units of measure or divided by in equations. Use only one slant line in a given expression: e.g., g/d per cow. The slant line may not be used to indicate ratios or mixtures. Use to instead of a hyphen to indicate a range of values. Insert spaces around all signs (except slant lines) of operation (=, , +, , >, or <) when these signs occur between 2 items. Items in a series should be separated by commas: e.g., a, b, and c. Restrict the use of while and since to meanings related to time. Appropriate substitutes include and, but, or whereas for while and because or although for since. Commercial Products. The use of names of commercial products should be minimized. When a
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

12

Journal of Dairy Science: Instructions to Authors

commercial product is being tested as part of the experiment, the manufacturer and location (or web site address) should be given parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and figures, but, when possible, the generic name should be used thereafter. Trademark symbols and registration marks should not be used and will be removed. Avoid describing a method as per manufacturers instructions. If the product goes out of production, the method will be lost to readers. Many products come with literature references; try to use references that can be found by other researchers to describe a method being used.

Supplemental Information The following information is available online and updated regularly. Please refer to these pages when preparing a manuscript for submission. Journal Title Abbreviations. A list of standard abbreviations for common journal titles and words used in citations is available in Appendix 3. SI Units. The following site (National Institute of Standards and Technology) provides a comprehensive guide to SI units and usage: http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/ Units/index.html FigureandTablePreparationGuidelines. Current information on figure and table preparation can be found at http://jds.fass.org/misc/ifora.shtml Manuscript Central Instructions. Manuscripts are submitted at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jds. Full user instructions for using the Manuscript Central system are available at http://mc.manuscriptcentral. com/jds/index.html?mode=instruction.

Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 92 No. 2, 2009

Appendix 1 ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations may be used without definition in the Journal of Dairy Science. In addition, all chemical elements, common combinations of chemical elements, SI units of measure used with a value, and common amino acids (see list, instructions for authors) should be used without definition. Abbreviations are generally not permitted in the title, running head, and key words. Plural abbreviations do not require s. Unrestricted Use AA = amino acid ACTH = adrenocorticotropin AMP = adenosine monophosphate ANOVA = analysis of variance AOAC = Association of Official Analytical Chemists International ARS = Agricultural Research Service ATP = adenosine triphosphate ATPase = adenosine triphosphatase BLUP = best linear unbiased predictor BSA = bovine serum albumin cDNA = complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cRNA = complementary ribonucleic acid DEAE = diethyl amino ethyl DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid DNase = deoxyribonuclease EDTA = ethylenediaminotetraacetate ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay FDA = Food and Drug Administration FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase GnRH = gonadotropin-releasing hormone HEPES = N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N-ethanesulfonic acid HPLC = high performance (pressure) liquid chromatography IFN = interferon Ig = immunoglobulin IL = interleukin LH = luteinizing hormone mAb = monoclonal antibody mRNA = messenger ribonucleic acid NAD = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADP = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH2 = reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate PAGE = polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis PCR = polymerase chain reaction PGF2 = prostaglandin F2 REML = restricted maximum likelihood RFLP = restriction fragment length polymorphism RIA = radioimmunoassay RNA = ribonucleic acid RNase = ribonuclease rRNA = ribosomal ribonucleic acid Tris = tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane UHT = ultra-high temperature USDA = United States Department of Agriculture UV = ultraviolet Define in Abstract; Unrestricted Use Elsewhere ADF = acid detergent fiber ADG = average daily gain ADIN = acid detergent insoluble nitrogen ADP = adenosine diphosphate AI = artificial insemination BCS = body condition score BHBA = -hydroxybutyrate bST = bovine somatotropin BUN = blood urea nitrogen BW = body weight CN = casein CNS = coagulase-negative staphylococci CP = crude protein CV = coefficient(s) of variation* DCAD = dietary cation-anion difference df = degrees of freedom* DHI = Dairy Herd Improvement *Use generally restricted to tables and parenthetical expressions. DHIA = Dairy Herd Improvement Association DIM = days in milk DM = dry matter DMI = dry matter intake EBV = estimated breeding value ECM = energy-corrected milk ETA = estimated transmitting ability FCM = fat-corrected milk FFA = free fatty acids GC-MS = gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GLC = gas-liquid chromatography h2 = heritability* HTST = high temperature, short time IGF = insulin-like growth factor IMI = intramammary infection LA = lactalbumin LG = lactoglobulin LPS = lipopolysaccharide LSD = least significant difference* LSM = least squares means* ME = metabolizable energy MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration MP = metabolizable protein MS = mean square* MUN = milk urea nitrogen n = number of samples* NAN = nonammonia nitrogen NDF = neutral detergent fiber NDM = nonfat dry milk NEFA = nonesterified fatty acids NEG = net energy for gain NEL = net energy for lactation NEM = net energy for maintenance NFC = nonfiber carbohydrates NPN = nonprotein nitrogen NRC = National Research Council NS = nonsignificant* NSC = nonstructural carbohydrates OM = organic matter PBS = phosphate-buffered saline PMNL = polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte PTA = predicted transmitting ability r = correlation coefficient* R2 = coefficient of determination* QTL = quantitative trait loci RDP = rumen-degradable protein RUP = rumen-undegradable protein SAS = Statistical Analysis System SCC = somatic cell count SCM = solids-corrected milk SCS = somatic cell score SD = standard deviation* SDS = sodium dodecyl sulfate SE = standard error* SEM = standard error of the means* SNF = solids-not-fat SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism SPC = standard plate count SS = sums of squares* TCA = trichloroacetic acid TMR = total mixed ration(s) TS = total solids UF = ultrafiltration, ultrafiltered VFA = volatile fatty acids

Revised January 2009

Appendix 2 Selected Units and Terms


The following abbreviations and terms can be used without definition in the Journal of Dairy Science.
afternoon atomic mass unit atmosphere base pair calorie (gram) celsius (with number) centimeter centimeter, square circa centimorgan centipoise central processing unit colony-forming unit counts per minute counts per second crossed with, times cubic cubic centimeter cubic millimeter curie cycles per second (hertz) day(s) dalton deci deciliter equivalents foot-candle gram gravity hectare hour(s) inside diameter international unit intramuscularly intraperitoneally intravenously joule kilo kilobase kilobase pair kilobyte kilocalorie kilogram Klett units kiloelectron volts kilopascal liter logarithm (natural) logarithm (base 10) lux mega meter metric tonne micro microcurie micro-einstein microfarads microgram microliter milli milliliter p.m. amu atm bp cal C cm cm2 ca. cM cP CPU cfu cpm cps cu cc, cm3 mm3 Ci Hz d Da d (prefix) dL Eq use lx g g ha h i.d. IU i.m. i.p. i.v. J k (prefix) kb kbp KB kcal kg KU keV kPa L ln log10 lx M (prefix) m tonne (prefix) Ci E F g L m (prefix) mL millimeters of mercury millimolar (concentration) millimole (mass) minute(s) molar (concentration) molar (mass) mole (number, mass) month(s) morning nano newton normal (concentration) nanogram osmolality outside diameter parts per billion parts per million pascal pico picogram plaque-forming unit probability rennet activity unit revolutions per minute second(s) siemens species subcutaneous subspecies unit volt volume volume/volume watt week(s) weight/volume year(s) Amino Acids alanine arginine asparagine aspartic acid citrulline cysteine glutamic acid glutamine glycine histidine isoleucine leucine lysine methionine ornithine phenylalanine proline serine threonine tryptophan tyrosine valine Ala Arg Asn Asp Cit Cys Glu Gln Gly His Ile Leu Lys Met Orn Phe Pro Ser Thr Trp Tyr Val mm Hg mM mmol min M mol mol mo a.m. n (prefix) N N ng use mmol/kg o.d. g/kg mg/kg Pa p (prefix) pg pfu P RU rpm s S spp. s.c. ssp. U V vol vol/vol (use parenthetically) W wk wt/vol (use parenthetically) yr

Appendix 3 Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Journals Acta Agric. Scand. A Anim. Sci. Acta Endocrinol. Acta Theriol. Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem. (since 1968) Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Adv. Genet. Adv. Protein Chem. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. (since 1969) Agric. Biol. Chem. Am. J. Anat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Am. J. Opthalmol. Am. J. Pathol. Am. J. Physiol. Am. J. Vet. Res. Anal. Biochem. Anal. Chem. Anat. Rec. Anim. Behav. Anim. Breed. Abstr. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. Anim. Prod. Anim. Reprod. Sci. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. Ann. Rech. Vet. Ann. Zootech. (Paris) Annu. Rev. Biochem. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Antibiot. Chemother. Appl. Anim. Ethol. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (since 1976) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. Arch. Gefluegelkd. Arch. Tierernahr. Arch. Tierz. Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci. Aust. J. Agric. Res. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. Aust. Vet. J. Bacteriol. Rev. Behav. Processes Biochemistry Biochem. J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Biochimie Biochim. Biophys. Acta Biol. Reprod. Biol. Technol. Biometrics Bioscience Bio/Technology (New York) Biotechnol. Bioeng. Biotechnol. Lett. Br. J. Nutr. Br. Vet. J. Cancer Res. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. Can. J. Anim. Sci. Can. J. Comp. Med. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Can. J. Zool. Can. Med. Assoc. J. Carbohydr. Res. Cell. Tissue Res. Cheese Rep. Chem. Ind. (Lond.) Clin. Chem. Clin. Chim. Acta Clin. Endocrinol. Clin. Toxicol. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (now in series: (A Comp. Physiol., B Comp. Biochem., C Comp. Pharmacol., or C Comp. Pharmacol. Toxicol.) Compend. Contin. Educ. Proc. Vet. Cornell Vet. CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. Dairy Field Dairy Ind. Int. Dairy Sci. Abstr. Dev. Biol. DNA Cell Biol. (since 1989) DNA (New York); changed in 1989 to DNA Cell Biol. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr.; continued in 1972 by DTW Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. Electrophoresis Endocrinology Eur. J. Biochem. FASEB J. FEBS Lett. Fed. Proc. (now FASEB J.) FEMS Microbiol. Immunol. Fertil. Steril. Food Eng. (New York) Food Res. Food Technol. Gastroenterology Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. Gene (Amst.) Genet. Sel. Evol. Genetics Horm. Behav. Immunol. Today

Indian J. Dairy Sci. Infect. Immun. Int. Dairy J. Int. J. Food Microbiol. Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. J. Agric. Food Chem. J. Agric. Sci. [(Camb.) if published in England (before 1991)] J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. J. Anim. Sci. J. Appl. Physiol. J. AOAC; continued in 1992 by J. AOAC Int. J. Bacteriol. J. Biol. Chem. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. J. Cell Biol. J. Cell Physiol. J. Chromatogr.; continued in 1994 by J. Chromatogr. A and B J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. J. Clin. Invest. J. Clin. Pathol. (Lond.) J. Comp. Pathol. J. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. Dairy Res. J. Dairy Sci. J. Endocrinol. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. J. Exp. Biol. J. Exp. Med. J. Food Sci. J. Food Prot. J. Gen. Microbiol. J. Gen. Physiol. J. Hered. J. Immunol. J. Immunol. Methods J. Infect. Dis. J. Lab. Clin. Med. J. Lipid Res. J. Mol. Biol. J. Morphol. J. Nutr. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. J. Physiol. (Lond.) [or (Paris)] J. Range Manage. J. Reprod. Fertil. J. Sci. Food Agric. J. Soc. Dairy Technol.

J. Texture Stud. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health J. Ultrastruct. Res. J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. J. Vet. Med. Ser. A or B J. Vet. Res. J. Zool. (Lond.) Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. Lab. Anim. Lait J. Leukocyte Biol. Lipids Livest. Prod. Sci.; continued in 2006 by Livest. Sci. Milchwissenschaft Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. Mol. Gen. Genet. Nature (Lond.) Neuroendocrinology New Engl. J. Med. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. Neth. Milk Dairy J. Nutr. Res. Rev. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. Obstet. Gynecol. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. Pharmacol. Rev. Physiol. Rev. Physiol. Zool. Poult. Sci. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. Process Biochem. Protein Expr. Purif. Recent Prog. Lipid Res. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. Res. Vet. Sci. Science Theor. Appl. Genet. Theriogenology Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. Transgenic Res. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. Vet. Rec. Vet. Res. Commun. Z. Tierz. Zuchtungsbiol.; continued in 1985 by J. Anim. Breed. Genet. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. A, B, or C; continued in 2000 by J. Vet. Med. Ser. A or B Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch.

Appendix 4 Journal of Dairy Science Policy on In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests Authors should avoid the use of the term antibiotic when referring to a specific agent unless that agent is naturally occurring and unmodified (e.g., penicillin). The broader term antimicrobial agent is preferred because it includes naturally produced agents, semisynthetic agents, and totally synthetic agents. The term susceptibility should be used instead of sensitivity. Authors unfamiliar with antimicrobial susceptibility testing should obtain CLSI (formerly NCCLS) document M31 (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 W. Valley Rd., Suite 1400, Wayne, PA 19087-1898) for specific information regarding antimicrobial susceptibility testing of veterinary pathogens. CLSI or NCCLS equivalent methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing available outside the US are also acceptable. A list of these methods is available at http://www. oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/a_00021.htm. Two methods are generally used to generate antimicrobial susceptibility data: the agar disk diffusion (ADD) method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The use of the term Kirby-Bauer to refer to the ADD method is incorrect and should be avoided. The correct citation for this method is the disk diffusion method of Bauer et al. The ADD method is a qualitative method and results should be reported as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant (SIR). If zone of inhibition diameters are reported, these should be reported in millimeters. The MIC method is quantitative and results should be reported in micrograms per milliliter (g/mL). The minimum summary statistics for reporting MIC results from multiple strains of an organism are the MIC50, the MIC90, and the range. The MIC50 and MIC90 represent the concentrations required to inhibit 50 and 90% of the strains, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 reported should be the actual concentrations tested, not values calculated from the actual data obtained. When <10 isolates of a species are tested, tabulate only the MIC range of each antimicrobial agent tested. If more than a single drug is studied, insert a column labeled test agent between the columns listing the organisms and the columns containing the numerical data, and record data for each agent in the same isolate order. In addition, the percentage of strains categorized as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant may be reported. If only one of these categories is to be reported, the percent susceptible value is preferred. The percentage of resistant isolates is to be reported for an agent, it should include isolates categorized as intermediate. The percentage of strains susceptible and/or resistant to an antibiotic at its breakpoint concentration may be given only if an appropriate breakpoint has been approved, as by CLSI. Given the paucity of approved breakpoints for mastitis pathogens, authors may use breakpoints from other species (e.g., human breakpoints for ampicillin or canine breakpoints for enrofloxacin). However, authors must clearly state that the breakpoints are not approved for mastitis pathogens. Moreover, authors cannot assign breakpoints or use breakpoints from related antibiotics (except for class testing purposes) or breakpoints developed for other methods. Authors must indicate that the appropriate quality control tests were performed. Information regarding the frequency of testing and the specific strains tested should be provided. The frequency of quality control testing and organisms tested should conform to the recommendations in the CLSI standard (document M31) or equivalent. A single statement in the manuscript indicating that the results obtained for the quality control documents were within published ranges is acceptable. However, authors may be requested to provide the quality control information during the manuscript review cycle.

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Official Journal of the International Goat Association

Guide for Authors


Official Journal of the International Goat Association

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INTRODUCTION Types of paper Contact details for submission Page charges BEFORE YOU BEGIN Ethics in Publishing Policy and ethics Conflict of interest Submission declaration Copyright Retained author rights

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Original Research Papers (Regular Papers) Review Articles Short Communication Position Papers Technical Notes Letters to the Editor Book Reviews

Original Research Papers should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form. Review Articles should cover subjects falling within the scope of the journal which are of active current interest. Reviews will often be invited, but submitted reviews will also be considered for publication. All reviews will be subject to the same peer review process as applies for original papers. A Short Communication is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications may be submitted to the journal as such, or may result from a request to condense a regular paper, during the peer review process. They should not occupy more than 8 journal pages including figures, tables and references. Position Papers are informative and thought-provoking articles on key issues, often dealing with matters of public concern. These will usually be invited, but a submitted paper may also be considered for publication. They should not occupy more than 10 Journal pages. A Technical Note is a report on a new method, technique or procedure falling within the scope of Small Ruminant Research. It may involve a new algorithm, computer program (e.g. for statistical analysis or for simulation), or testing method for example. The Technical Note should be used for information that cannot adequately incorporated into and Original Research Article, but that is of sufficient value to be brought to the attention of the readers of Small Ruminant Research. The note should describe the nature of the new method, technique or procedure and clarify how it differs from those currently in use if cannot be incorporated. They should not occupy more than 4 Journal pages.

Letters to the Editor offering comment or useful critique on material published in the journal, within 4 months Reviewers Home preceding the most current issue, are welcomed. The decision to publish submitted letters rests purely with the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief also reserves the right to edit or shorten submitted letters that are accepted for publication. It is hoped that the publication of such letters will permit an exchange of views which will be of Advertisers/Sponsors benefit to both the journal and its readers. Please follow the information below to submit your letter. Book Reviews will be included in the journal on a range of relevant books which are not more than 2 years old. Book reviews will be solicited. Unsolicited reviews will not usually be accepted, but suggestions for appropriate books for review may be sent to the Editor-in-Chief. Papers on polymorphism studies will only be accepted if they contain significant new information for the readers and have direct relevance to those small ruminant species described in the aims and scope of this journal. Submissions on studies involving single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) only, without linking them strongly and experimentally to production traits, are not encouraged. Contact details for submission
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Manuscripts should have numbered lines, with wide margins and double spacing throughout, i.e. also for abstracts, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary one may refer to sections. Avoid excessive usage of italics to emphasize part of the text. Manuscripts in general should be organized in the following order: Abstract Keywords (indexing terms), normally 3-6 items Introduction Material studied, area descriptions, methods, techniques Results Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgment and any additional information concerning research grants, etc. References Essential title page information Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Nomenclature and units Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/ equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents: for further information. Authors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified. Math formulae Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text). Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general only equations explicitly referred to in the text need be numbered. The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Levels of statistical significance which can be mentioned without further explanation are *P< 0.05,** P<0.01 and *** P<0.001. In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g. Ca 2+ , not as Ca ++. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g. 18 O. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g. phosphate as P 2O 5). Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. Table footnotes Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter. Artwork Electronic artwork General points Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font. Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol. Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. Provide captions to illustrations separately. Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version. Submit each figure as a separate file. A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. Formats Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".

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TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required. DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is". Please do not: Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document; Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low; Supply files that are too low in resolution; Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content. Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. electronic artwork, please see Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to "gray scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations. Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Tables Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. References Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Reference style Text: All citations in the text should refer to: 1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; 2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication; 3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...." List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication. Examples: Reference to a journal publication: Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 5159. Reference to a book: Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York. Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281304. Video data Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a maximum size of 30 MB and running time of 5 minutes. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the products, including ScienceDirect: video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content. Supplementary data Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Submission checklist It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal's Editor for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item. Ensure that the following items are present: One Author designated as corresponding Author: E-mail address Full postal address Telephone and fax numbers All necessary files have been uploaded Keywords All figure captions All tables (including title, description, footnotes) Further considerations

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Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked" References are in the correct format for this journal All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web) Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://epsupport.elsevier.com..

Use of the Digital Object Identifier The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows (example taken from a document in the journal Physics Letters B): doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071 When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web, they are guaranteed never to change. Proofs One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/acrrsystemreqs.html#70win. online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received. Offprints The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.

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