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This question paper consists of two sections: Section A and Section B.

Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua bahagian: Bahagian A dan Bahagian B.


Section A
Bahagian A
[60 marks / markah]
Answer all questions in this section.
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1.

Diagram 1 shows an animal cell.

Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu sel haiwan.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1
(a) Based on the given model, identify the cell components labelled P, Q, R and S.
Berdasarkan pada model yang diberi, kenal pasti komponen sel berlabel P, Q,
R, dan S.
[4 marks/markah]
(b) (i) On Diagram 1, label a cell component which has the following properties.
Pada Rajah 1, labelkan komponen sel yang mempunyai ciri-ciri berikut.
It is a rod-shaped organelle with two membranes.
Organel berbentuk rod dengan dua membran.
Its size ranges from 1 to 10 m.
Saiznya berukuran di antara 1 hingga 10 m.
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) What is the function of the cell component labelled in (b)i?
Apakah fungsi komponen sel yang dilabel di (b)i?
__________________________________________________________________
[2 mark/markah]

(iii) It is found that a human male sex cell has a larger number of the organelle labelled
in (b)i. than a human somatic cell. Give an explanation for this.
Didapati bahawa sel seks jantan manusia mempunyai bilangan organel yang
berlabel di (b)i. yang banyak berbanding sel soma manusia. Berikan penerangan
tentang hal ini.
___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]
(c) Based on your answer in (a), Berdasarkan pada jawapan kamu di (a),
(i) suggest the function of the part labelled S. cadangkan fungsi struktur berlabel S.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) name the component in S that helps to conduct the function which you have
suggested in (c)i.
nyatakan komponen dalam S yang membantu untuk menjalankan fungsi yang kamu
cadangkan di (c)i.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(d) Name the process whereby unspecialised cells become specialised for particular
functions.
Namakan proses dimana sel yang tidak spesifik menjadi spesifik bagi fungsi yang
tertentu.
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(e) Give an example of the process which you have named in (d).
Berikan satu contoh proses yang kamu namakan di (d).
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
2. A green mustard stem is cut longitudinally into four equal strips as shown in Diagram
2.
Batang sawi dipotong secara menegak kepada empat jaluran yang sama saiz seperti
dalam Rajah 2.

Diagram 2 / Rajah 2
Three of the strips are placed in solutions X, Y and Z respectively.
Tiga daripada jaluran tersebut diletakkan di dalam larutan X, Y dan Z secara individu.

Below are the results obtained from this experiment.


Berikut merupakan keputusan yang diperolehi daripada eksperimen ini.
Solution
X
Y
Z
Larutan
Shape of the strip
Bentuk jaluran
(a)What are solutions X, Y and Z used in this experiment?
Apakah larutan X, Y dan Z yang digunakan dalam eksperimen ini?
i. Solution X: Larutan X:
______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
ii Solution Y: Larutan Y:
______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
iii Solution Z: Larutan Z:
.
______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(b)Identify solutions X, Y and Z. Kenalpasti larutan X,Y dan Z.
i. Solution X: Larutan X:
______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
ii. Solution Y: Larutan Y:
______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
iii. Solution Z: Larutan Z:
______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(c)Describe the condition of the strips that are immersed in the following solutions.
Terangkan keadaan jaluran yang direndam dalam larutan berikut:
i. Solution X: Larutan X:
_______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
ii. Solution Z: Larutan Z:
_______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(d)i. Explain your answer in (c)i. Jelaskan jawapan anda di (c)i.
________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/markah]
ii. Explain your answer in (c)ii. Jelaskan jawapan anda di (c)ii.
________________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]
3.Diagram 3 shows the action of an enzyme on a substrate.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan tindakan suatu enzim terhadap substrat.

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3
(a) What does X in Diagram 3 represent? Apakah yang diwakili oleh X pada Rajah 3?
__________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b)State two properties of enzymes which are shown in Diagram above.
Nyatakan dua sifat enzim yang ditunjukkan pada Rajah di atas.
1. ________________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(c) State two other properties of enzymes which are not shown in Diagram 5.
Nyatakan dua lagi sifat enzim yang tidak ditunjukkan pada Rajah 5.
1. ________________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(d)The explanation of the action of an enzyme on a substrate as shown in Diagram 3 above is
based on a hypothesis. What is this hypothesis called?
Huraian tentang tindakan suatu enzim terhadap substrat seperti yang ditunjukkan pada
Rajah 3 di atas adalah berdasarkan pada satu hipotesis. Apakah hipotesis itu?
__________________________________________________________________________
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[1 mark/1 markah]
(e) Diagram 4 is a graph which shows the effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction catalysed
by pepsin.
Rajah 4 ialah satu graf yang menunjukkan kesan suhu terhadap kadar tindak balas yang
dimangkinkan oleh pepsin.

Diagram 4 / Rajah 4
(i) What is the temperature, t, which is shown in Diagram 4?
Apakah suhu, t, yang ditunjukkan pada Rajah 4?
_______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) Explain your answer in (e)(i). Huraikan jawapan anda di (e)(i).
_______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(iii) Why is there no reaction at 60C?
Mengapakah tiada tindak balas pada suhu 60C?
_______________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(f) Pepsin is found in the gastric juice which is secreted by the stomach. What is the optimum pH
for the action of pepsin?
Pepsin ditemui dalam jus gaster yang dirembes oleh perut. Apakah pH optimum bagi
tindakan pepsin?
__________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

4.Diagram 5 shows a cell cycle with four major phases, J, K, L and M.


Rajah 5 menunjukkan satu kitar sel dengan empat fasa utamanya, J, K, L, dan M.

Diagram 5 / Rajah 5
(a)i. State the phases for interphase. Nyatakan fasa-fasa bagi interfasa.
________________________________________________________________________
[3 mark/markah]
ii.Name phases J, K and L.
Namakan fasa-fasa J, K, dan L.
J: ______________________________________________________________________
K: ______________________________________________________________________
L: ______________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]
(b)Stages I, II, III and IV are included in the M-phase. Match the stages with the descriptions.
Peringkat I, II, III, dan IV terdapat dalam fasa M. Padankan peringkat-peringkat ini dengan
penerangannya.

[4 marks/markah]

(c)Diagram 6 shows stage V which occurs in a plant cell.


Rajah 6 menunjukkan peringkat V yang berlaku dalam sel tumbuhan.

i. Name stage V.

Diagram 6 / Rajah 6
Namakan peringkat V.

________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
ii. Based on Diagram 6 explain how stage V occurs in a plant cell.
Berdasarkan Rajah 6, terangkan bagaimana peringkat V berlaku dalam sel tumbuhan.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]
5.Diagram 7 below shows four stages of mitosis in an animal cell.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan empat peringkat mitosis di dalam sel haiwan.

Diagram 7 / Rajah 7
(a)i. Arrange the stages in Diagram 7 according to the correct sequence of the mitotic process.
Susun peringkat pada Rajah 7 mengikut susunan peringkat mitosis yang betul.
[1 mark/markah]
ii. Name the stages labelled W to Z. Namakan peringkat yang dilabel sebagai W hingga Z.
W: _____________________________________________________________________
X: _____________________________________________________________________
Y: _____________________________________________________________________
Z: _____________________________________________________________________
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[2 marks/markah]
(b)Name the type of cells in humans where mitosis takes place.
Namakan jenis sel di dalam manusia yang berlakunya mitosis.
___________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(c)Give three examples of cells named in (b). Berikan tiga contoh sel yang dinamakan di (b).
1. _________________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]
(d)Give two significance of mitosis.

Berikan dua kepentingan mitosis.

1.__________________________________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________________________________
[4 marks/markah]

Section B
Bahagian B
[40 marks / markah]
Answer any two questions from this section.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan daripada bahagian ini.
6.

(a)(i)What is an enzyme? Apakah enzim?


[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii) Discuss the general characteristics of enzymes.
Bincangkan ciri-ciri umum enzim.
[8 marks/8 markah]
(b) Explain how enzymes are synthesised in the cells.
Terangkan bagaimana enzim disintesis di dalam sel.
[10 marks/10 markah]

7.

Diagram 8 shows three different types of cells. Rajah 8 menunjukkan tiga jenis sel.

Diagram 8 / Rajah 8
(a) i. Name the cells labelled X, Y and Z in Diagram 8 above.
Namakan sel - sel yang berlabel X, Y dan Z dalam Rajah 8 di atas.
[3 marks/markah]
ii. State the functions of the cells labelled X, Y and Z in Diagram 8.
Nyatakan fungsi - fungsi sel yang berlabel X, Y dan Z dalam Rajah 8.
[3 marks/markah]
(b) Using the cells given above, describe the process of cell organisation until it reaches the
formation of a complete multicellular organism.
Dengan menggunakan sel - sel yang diberikan di atas, jelaskan proses organisasi sel
hingga ke peringkat organisma multiselular yang lengkap.
[14 marks/markah]

8.

Diagram 9 shows a red blood cell. Rajah 9 menunjukkan sel darah merah.

Diagram 9 / Rajah 9
(a) What is the function of red blood cells? Apakah fungsi sel darah merah?
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b) Explain what happens when red blood cells are immersed in...
Huraikan apa yang berlaku apabila sel darah merah direndam dalam...
(i) a hypotonic solution, larutan hipotonik,
[3 marks/3 markah]
(ii) an isotonic solution, larutan isotonik,
[3 marks/3 markah]
(iii)a hypertonic solution. larutan hipertonik.
[3 marks/3 markah]
(c) Diagram 10 shows a plant cell. Rajah 10 menunjukkan sel tumbuhan.

Diagram 10 / Rajah 10
Explain what happens when plant cells are immersed in...
Huraikan apa yang berlaku apabila sel tumbuhan direndam dalam...
(i) a hypotonik solution, larutan hipotonik,
[4 marks/4 markah]
(ii) an isotonik solution, larutan isotonik,
[2 marks/2 markah]
(iii)a hypertonik solution. larutan hipertonik.
[3 marks/3 markah]
(d) Why do red blood cells and plant cells behave differently when they are immersed in a
hypotonic solution?
Mengapakah sel merah darah dan sel tumbuhan berkelakuan berbeza apabila
direndam dalam larutan hipotonik?
[1 mark/1 markah]
9.

(a)

Water is an important inorganic compound.


Air adalah penting bagi sebatian bukan organik
10

Explain the importance of water in cells. Terangkan kepentingan air di dalam sel.
[8 marks/markah]
(b) i. Describe the structure of nucleic acid. Terangkan struktur asid nukleik.
[10 marks/markah]
ii. State two importances of nucleic acids in cells.
Nyatakan dua kepentingan asid nukleik di dalam sel.
[2 marks/markah]

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