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ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS


ATOMIC STRUCTURE
E h c
K
P

= p P

( = -
2.178 x 10
n
joule
-18
2


EQUILIBRIUM
[ ]
-
a
H A
K
HA




[ ]
-
b
OH HB
K
B




K
w
|OH
-
| |H

| 10
-14
25C
K
a
x K
b


pH -log|H

|, pOH -log|OH
-
|
14 pH pOH

[ ]
-
a
A
pH pK log
HA



[ ]

b
HB
pOH pK log
B




pK
a
- logK
a
, pK
b
-logK
b


K
p
K
c
(RT)
n

where n moles oI product gas - moles reactant gas

THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS

S
0

S
0
products -

S
0
reactants
H
0

H
0
I
products -

H
0
I
reactants
G
0

G
0
I
products -

G
0
I
reactants
G
0
H
0
- TS
0

- RT ln K -2.303 RT log K
- n E
0

G G
0
RT ln Q G
0
2.303 RT log Q
q mcT
p
H
C
T


ln|A|
t
ln|A|
0
-kt
[ ]
kt
A A
t
=
0
1 1
] ln[

A
T R
E
k
a
ln ln +

=
1

E energy velocity
Irequency n principal quantum number
wavelength m mass
p momentum

Speed oI light, c 3.00 x 10
8
ms
-1

Planck`s constant, h 6.63 x 10
-34
Js
Boltzmann`s constant, k 1.38 x 10
-23
JK
-1

Avagadro`s number 6.022 x 10
23
molecules mol
-1

Electron charge, e -1.602 x 10
-19
coulomb
1 electron volt/atom 96.5 kJmol
-1



Equilibrium constants
K
a
(weak acid)
K
b
(weak base)
K
w
(water)
K
p
(gas pressure)
K
c
(molar concentration)
S
0
standard entropy
H
0
standard enthalpy
G
0
standard Iree energy
E
0
standard reduction potential
T temperature
n moles
m mass
q heat
c speciIic heat capacity
C
p
molar heat capacity at constant pressure
E
a
activation energy
k rate constant
A Irequency Iactor

Faraday`s constant, 96,500 coulombs per mole
oI electrons

Gas Constant, R 8.31 Jmol
-1
K
-1

0.0821 L atm mol
-1
K
-1

8.31 volt

coulomb mol
-1
K
-1

3DJHRI
GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS

PV nRT
( ) 3
Q D
9
+

=
2
2
V - nb nRT

P
A
P
total
x X
A
, where X
A

moles total
A of moles


P
total
P
A
P
B
P
c


.

m
n
M


K C 273

1 1 2 2
1 2
P V P V

T T

m
D
V

3 3
rms
kT RT
u
m M
= =

KE per molecule m
2

RT
2
3
mole per KE =
r
r
1
2
=
0
0
2
1


molarity, M moles solute per liter solution
molality moles solute per kilogram solvent

T
I
i K
I
x molality
T
b
i K
b
x molality
MRT
A abc


OXIDATION REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
4
& '
$ %
F G
D E
= , where aA bB cC dD
q
I
t

0 0
cell cell cell
RT 0.0592
E E - lnQ E - logQ
n n
25C
0
nE
log K
0.0592




P pressure
V volume
T Temperature
n number oI moles
D density
m mass
velocity


rms
root mean square velocity
KE kinetic energy
r rate oI eIIusion
M molar mass
osmotic pressure
Lvan`t HoII Iactor
K
I
molal Ireezing point depression constant
K
b
molal boiling point elevation constant
A Absorbance
a molar absorptivity
b path length
c concentration
Q reaction quotient
I current (amperes)
q charge (coulombs)
t time (seconds)
E
0
standard reduction potential
K equilibrium constant



Gas Constant, R 8.31 Jmol
-1
K
-1

0.0821 L

atm mol
-1
K
-1

8.31 volt

coulomb mol
-1
K
-1


Boltzmann`s constant, k 1.38 x 10
-23
JK
-1


K
I
Ior H
2
O 1.86 K kg mol
-1

K
b
Ior H
2
O 0.512 K

kg mol
-1

1 atm 760 mm Hg
760 torr
STP 0.000C and 1.000 atm
Faraday`s constant, 96500 coulombs per mol
oI electrons