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Page

Approved

Oil-free air

64

Sperre compressors are approved by


all major classification societies.

Installation

65

Weights

68

Piston speed

70

Lubricants

72

Useful Formulas
& Classification
Requirements

74

Conversion Factors

76

The Sperre / TMC alliance 78

62

Contacts

80

Core values

82

63

Proper filtration is the only way to obtain oil-free air


A compressor installed on-board a ship
will compress the ambient air, which
normally contains impurities up to
1 mg/m3 of oil. Due to the large oil content
in suction air, proper filtration should
always be installed downstream to ensure
the quality of the air.

Recommended installation instrument air compressors

An oil-lubricated compressor with proper


filtration can easily achieve oil-free
air of the highest purity class under
ISO 8537.1.
An oil-free compressor without filtration
of the compressed air cannot achieve
this.
To determine the total economy of an oilfree compressor versus an oil-lubricated
compressor, consider the following:
Investment costs
Considerably lower for an oil-lubricated
compressor.

INSTRUMENT AIR

AIR DRYER
PS

AIR
RECEIVER

CONTROL AIR PIPE


FOR COMPR. UNLOADING SYSTEM

NON-RETURN
VALVE

Overhaul intervals
Considerably longer for an oil-lubricated
compressor.

OIL / WATER
SEPARATOR

Service
Considerably simpler and easier for an
oil-lubricated compressor.

Suction
air with
impurities

Reliability
The reliability of oil-lubricated Sperre
compressors is well-established.
Reliability is particularly high for those
high ambient temperatures in which an
oil-free compressor suffers.

Filters

Compressor

64

Compressed
air with
impurities

Dryer

Technical
oil-free
compressed
air

DRAIN
DRAIN

INSTRUMENT AIR
COMPRESSOR

Every compressor unit is supplied complete with drawings and specifications showing
its dimensions and attachment points. The customer also receives installation instructions giving recommendations for the installation of equipment and piping.
To ensure trouble-free operation, it is important that the foundation is well stiffened
and free from vibrations from other installed machinery. The compressor unit bedplate
should lie level with its foundation. After the unit is installed, the alignment of compressor and motor should be checked.
The compressor should be installed in a location where the air is not too hot. Normally,
the ambient temperature for electrical equipment should not exceed 45C. For aircooled compressors, a well-dimensioned fresh air duct must be provided to the location
where the compressor is to be installed. A water/oil separator should be fitted at some
distance from the compressor, and arranged so that the line slopes downwards from
the compressor to the separator. This will prevent condensate water from damaging
valves and cylinders. Care should be taken to arrange the piping so that condensate
cannot collect in pockets. A non-return valve of strong construction and offering little
air resistance should be installed after the compressor.
Other equipment should not be installed around the compressor unit in a way that
might hamper inspection and maintenance.

65

Recommended installation water cooled starting air compressors

Recommended installation air cooled starting air compressors

Pressure switch
compressor no. 2

Pressure switch
compressor no. 1

Pressure switch
compressor no. 2

STARTING AIR
30 Barg

Pressure switch
compressor no. 1

STARTING AIR
30 Barg

PS

PS

PS

PS

STARTING AIR
RECEIVER
No. 1

STARTING AIR
RECEIVER
No. 1

STARTING AIR
RECEIVER
No. 2

DRAIN

STARTING AIR
RECEIVER
No. 2

DRAIN
DRAIN

DRAIN

NON-RETURN
VALVE
OIL / WATER
SEPARATOR

DRAIN

NON-RETURN
VALVE

NON-RETURN
VALVE

OIL / WATER
SEPARATOR

C.W.

66

STARTING AIR
COMPRESSOR
No. 1
H.P. DRAIN
L.P. DRAIN

C.W.

C.W.

STARTING AIR
COMPRESSOR
No. 2
H.P. DRAIN
L.P. DRAIN C.W.

OIL / WATER
SEPARATOR

STARTING
AIR
COMPRESSOR
No. 1
DRAIN

STARTING
AIR
COMPRESSOR
No. 2

DRAIN

67

Weights Compressors & Accessories

HLH/119*
HLF2/77
HL2/77
HL2/90
HL2/105
HL2/120
HL2/140
HL2/160
HV1/85
HV1/120
HV1/140A
HV1/156A
HV2/200
HV2/210
HV2/219
HV2/220
HV2/240
HV2/270A
HV2/285A
HV2/300A
HLF2/77-D**
HL2/77-D**
HL2/90-D**
HL2/105-D**
HL2/120-D**
HL2/140-D**
HL2/160-D**
LL2/77
LL2/90
LL2/105
LL2/120
LL2/140
LL2/160

COMPR.

BASEPLATE

KG
30
73
138
138
138
317
319
319
133
159
394
386
543
543
542
992
990
1353
1348
1347
73
138
138
138
317
319
319
142
142
142
331
335
332

KG
45
23
58
58
58
126
126
126
68
84
135
135
150
150
150
280
280
344
344
344
32
60
60
60
155
155
155
58
58
58
126
126
126

MOTOR
EL./DIESEL
KG
N/A
24
50
59
87
130
145
205
49
79
93
145
225
225
225
255
320
500
500
575
81
185
185
185
277
277
322
50
59
87
145
165
225

NON RETURN
VALVE
KG
N/A
2
2
2
2
10
10
10
2
2
10
10
13
13
13
20
20
20
20
20
2
2
2
2
10
10
10
2
2
2
10
10
10

* Baseplate for HLH/119 is a 30L Air Receiver.

68

SPARE
PARTS
KG
0.5
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
4.8
4.1
4.1
0.7
1.0
4.2
4.3
5.2
5.2
5.3
7.9
8.3
14.5
14.6
14.9
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
4.8
4.1
4.1
3.6
3.6
3.7
8.1
8.5
8.6

STARTER
PANEL
KG
N/A
14
14
14
14
21
21
21
11
11
14
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
32
32
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
14
14
14
21
21
21

HOSES AND
RESILIENT MOUNT.
KG
N/A
5
12
12
12
16
16
16
22
22
32
32
32
32
32
64
64
84
84
84
13
14
14
14
16
16
16
12
12
12
16
16
16

C.W.
PUMP
KG
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

OIL/WATER
SEPARATOR
KG
N/A
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

SEAWORTHY
PACKING
KG
45
45
90
90
90
150
150
150
70
80
120
120
170
170
170
220
220
260
260
260
45
90
90
90
150
150
150
90
90
90
150
150
150

TOTAL NET.
WEIGHT
KG
75
160
300
305
335
645
660
720
310
380
730
780
1040
1040
1040
1690
1750
2390
2395
2460
225
420
420
420
800
800
845
300
310
340
680
700
760

TOTAL SHIPPING
WEIGHT
KG
120
205
390
395
425
795
810
870
380
460
850
900
1210
1210
1210
1910
1970
2650
2655
2720
270
510
510
510
950
950
995
390
400
430
830
850
910

SHIPPING
DIMENSIONS
(LxWxH) CM
106x46x91
90x65x70
130x75x85
130x75x85
130x75x85
175x110x125
175x110x125
175x110x125
120x55x105
135x55x105
155x75x140
155x75x140
205x75x140
205x75x140
205x75x140
225x110x155
225x110x155
240x115x165
240x115x165
240x115x165
110x70x80
160x90x110
160x90x110
160x90x110
200x100x190
200x100x190
200x100x190
130x75x85
130x75x85
130x75x85
175x110x125
175x110x125
175x110x125

SHIPPING
VOLUME
M3
0.40
0.41
0.83
0.83
0.83
2.41
2.41
2.41
0.70
0.78
1.63
1.63
2.77
2.77
2.77
3.84
3.84
4.55
4.55
4.55
0.62
1.58
1.58
1.58
3.80
3.80
3.80
0.83
0.83
0.83
2.41
2.41
2.41

** Diesel engine driven units.

69

Weights Heat Exchangers


TYPE
DIA/LENGTH
MM
102/332
102/512
102/700
139/512
139/700
152/700
152/1000
152/1200
152/1500
152/1800
152/2200
152/2500
219/700
219/1000
219/1200
219/1500
219/1800
219/2200
219/2500
219/2800
298/700
298/1000
298/1200
298/1500
298/1800
298/2200
298/2500
298/2800
406/1000
406/1200
406/1500
406/1800
406/2200
406/2500
406/2800
558/1200
558/1500
558/1800
558/2200
558/2500
558/2800
711/1500
711/1800
711/2200
711/2500
711/2800
711/3000

70

NET
WEIGHT
KG
13
18
23
30
40
70
80
85
95
105
115
125
145
165
175
195
215
245
265
285
245
280
305
345
380
430
465
500
520
550
625
700
775
850
900
1100
1250
1400
1550
1700
1850
1900
2100
2350
2550
2750
2900

SEAWORTHY
PACKING
KG
5
7
8
8
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
20
30
35
40
45
50
60
65
35
45
50
60
70
85
90
100
75
85
100
115
130
145
160
140
160
180
200
220
240
230
260
290
320
350
370

TOTAL
WEIGHT
KG
18
25
31
38
50
85
100
110
125
140
155
170
165
195
210
235
260
295
325
350
280
325
355
405
450
515
555
600
595
635
725
815
905
995
1060
1240
1410
1580
1750
1920
2090
2130
2360
2640
2870
3100
3270

SHIPPING
DIMENSIONS
(LxWxH) CM
50x20x20
70x20x20
90x20x20
80x25x25
100x25x25
104x35x40
134x35x40
154x35x40
184x35x40
214x35x40
254x35x40
284x35x40
105x42x49
135x42x49
155x42x49
185x42x49
215x42x49
255x42x49
285x42x49
315x42x49
113x51x60
143x51x60
163x51x60
193x51x60
223x51x60
276x51x60
293x51x60
323x51x60
156x62x74
176x62x74
206x62x74
240x62x74
276x62x74
306x62x74
336x62x74
192x82x88
222x82x88
252x82x88
292x82x88
322x82x88
352x82x88
230x97x105
260x97x105
300x97x105
330x97x105
360x97x105
380x97x105

VOLUME
M3
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.26
0.30
0.36
0.40
0.21
0.27
0.31
0.37
0.43
0.51
0.57
0.63
0.34
0.43
0.49
0.58
0.67
0.83
0.88
0.97
0.72
0.81
0.95
1.10
1.27
1.41
1.55
1.38
1.60
1.81
2.10
2.32
2.53
2.34
2.65
3.06
3.36
3.66
3.87

Piston speed
Frequency
No. of poles 4
Synchronous 1500
speed [rpm]
Compressor
model
HLF2/77
HL2/77-90-105
HL2/120-140-160
LL2/77-90-105
LL2/120-140-160
HV1/85-120
HV1/140A-156A
HV2/200-210-219
HV2/220-240
HV2/270A-285A-300A

Nominal
speed [rpm]
Stroke [mm]
40
80
100
80
100
85
100
110
140
140

1450

1.9
3.9
4.8
3.9
4.8

50 Hz
8

10

12

60 Hz
8

10

12

1000

750

600

500

1800

1200

900

720

600

975

725

580

480

1750

1150

875

700

580

0.6
1.3
1.6
1.3
1.6
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.2
2.2

PISTON SPEED (mean) [m/s]


1.5
1.2
0.9
0.8
3.1
2.3
1.9
1.5
3.8
2.9
2.3
1.9
4.7
3.1
2.3
1.9
1.5
5.8
3.8
2.9
2.3
1.9
3.3
2.5
2.0
1.6
3.8
2.9
2.3
1.9
4.2
3.2
2.6
2.1
4.1
3.3
2.7
4.1
3.3
2.7

PISTON SPEED (mean) [m/s]


1.3
1.0
0.8
2.6
1.9
1.5
3.3
2.4
1.9
2.6
1.9
1.5
3.3
2.4
1.9
2.8
2.1
1.6
3.3
2.4
1.9
3.6
2.7
2.1
4.6
3.4
2.7
4.6
3.4
2.7

2.3
4.7

71

Tips for safe and reliable operation


Just a little attention to maintaining your compressor will keep it running
smoothly and efficiently. To avoid problems and save money, schedule preventive
maintenance with the right lubrication and cleaning, and replace wear parts
at the right time.

Choose the right lube oil


The choice of lubrication oil is very important. We have approved all the oils
in our Lubrication Oil Chart after testing them on our compressors. During
the warranty period, approved oils must be used. When the warranty period
is over, it is still a good idea to use an oil that Sperre has tested and
recommended. In our experience, this improves performance and reduces
running costs. Some oils are far more suitable for compressors than others.
The pictures below illustrate this. The picture on the left shows a compressor
valve after only 300 operating hours with a compressor oil that has not been
approved by Sperre. The picture on the right shows a similar valve after the
same number of operating hours with an approved compressor oil.

Normal Oil Consumption


Values stated are average after running-in period
(500 hours) and based on lubricating oil type MOBIL
Rarus 427 (mineral oil, 84 cSt/40C). The oil consumption may vary from one brand to another, and is
also dependent on lubricating oil temperature.
Compressor Capacity
model
F.A.D.
HV1/85
HV1/120
HV1/140A
HV1/156A
HV2/200
HV2/210
HV2/219
HV2/220
HV2/240
HV2/270A
HV2/285A
HV2/300A
HLF2/77
HL2/77
HL2/90
HL2/105
HL2/120
HL2/140
HL2/160
LL2/77
LL2/90
LL2/105
LL2/120
LL2/140
LL2/160

72

22 m3/h @ 1150 rpm


45 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
71 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
94 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
177 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
195 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
182 m3/h @ 975 rpm
234 m3/h @ 975 rpm
279 m3/h @ 975 rpm
358 m3/h @ 975 rpm
398 m3/h @ 975 rpm
441 m3/h @ 975 rpm
13 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
28 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
38 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
47 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
88 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
123 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
160 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
50 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
68 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
94 m3/h @ 1750 rpm
114 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
155 m3/h @ 1150 rpm
203 m3/h @ 1150 rpm

Oil
consumption
[g/h]
4
5
17
17
20
20
20
17
17
20
22
26
6
7
10
12
14
15
17
8
10
14
17
17
20

Lubrication Oil Chart


Mineral oils
BP ENERGOL RC 68
CASTROL AIRCOL PD 100
CALTEX RPM COMPR. OIL 68
FINA EOLAN AC
GENERAL COMPOL A 100
MITSUBISHI COMPR. OIL 100
SHELL CORENA P 68
MOBIL RARUS 427
NYNAS COMPR. OIL 68
PHILLIPS COMPR. OIL 68
ESSO / EXXON EXXCOLUB 77
Synthetic oils
BP ENERSYN RX 100
CASTROL AIRCOL SN 100
CHEVRON HD COMPR. OIL 100
DAPHNE MARINE COMPR. 100
BARELF AL 100
ESSO / EXXON ZERICE S 100
ESSO / EXXON SYNNESTIC 68
MOBIL RARUS 827
NIPPON OIL CO. FAIRCOL SA 100
STATOIL COMPWAY S 100
TEXACO CETUS DE 100
SHELL CORENA AP 68

Choose genuine Sperre parts


Sometimes non-genuine parts cause no problems. Sometime they just take
more time to fit. But sometimes they start vicious circles of trouble for the
compressor: oil coke deposits, overheating, excessive oil consumption,
unnecessary strain on your system, leaks, scuffing and cracks. With essential
equipment like a starting-air compressor on a ship at sea, it is not worth
gambling with imitation parts.
Because of the enormous pressure at work in the compressor, safety
and reliable operation must come first.

73

Required capacity of starting air compressors

Required volume of starting air receivers

According to classification society requirements, two (2) or more compressors


of approximately equal capacity must be installed. At least one of the
compressors must be independently driven (for emergency use).
The total capacity of the compressors should be sufficient for charging the
starting air receivers from atmospheric to full pressure in one (1) hour.
Required compressor capacity, based on two (2) equal starting air receivers
and two (2) equal starting air compressors:

According to classification society requirements, main engines started by


compressed air must have at least two (2) starting air receivers of about equal
capacity, and which may be used independently. The air receivers must have
capacity for the number of starts specified below without reloading the
receivers.
Required receiver capacity, V, based on two receivers of equal capacity:

Q = V Pmax

V=

[m3/h]

Pmax
Pmin
q
n

Charging time of air receivers


Capacity for starting air compressors is normally quoted as Pumping Up
Capacity, i.e. the capacity is measured by filling an air receiver with an exact
known volume. The charging time is normally calculated as follows:

V = Receiver volume [m3]


Q= Compressor capacity [m3/h]

60 V (P1 P0)
Q

[min.]

P0 = Absolute press. in receiver at start [bar a]


P1 = Absolute press. in receiver at end [bar a]

If the temperature increase in the air receiver during the test should be taken
into account, the capacity has to be calculated by formula as follows (according to ISO1217, Annex F):

where:

r
1
qZ = V T
z P1

P4Z P40
T4Z T40

3600

[m3/h]

Vr = Receiver volume [m3]


P1 =
T1 =
P40 =
T40 =
P4Z =
T4Z =
z =

74

[m3]

where:

where: Pmax = Max. receiver pressure (normally 30 bar) [bar]


V = Starting air receiver volume
[m3]

T=

nq
2 (Pmax Pmin)

Absolute pressure at standard inlet point [bar a]


Absolute temperature at standard inlet point [K]
Absolute pressure in receiver at beginning of charging period [bar a]
Absolute temperature in receiver at beginning of charging period [K]
Absolute pressure in receiver at end of charging period [bar a]
Absolute temperature in receiver at end of charging period [K]
Charging time (z) [sec.]

=
=
=
=

Max. receiver pressure*)


Min. required start pressure **)
Air consumption per start **)
Number of starts required as follows:

Duty of engine(s)
Propulsion engine, reversible
Propulsion engine, non-reversible
Engines for driving electric generators
and emergency generators, and engines
for other purposes

[bar]
[bar]
[Nm3]

Number of starts required


12 starts
6 starts
3 starts each

Notes: *) Normally 30 bar. **) Normally informed by diesel eng. manufact.

Classification requirements electrical components


Class. Temp.
Oil press. or Separate Remote Main Type
Heating
Society switch air level switch alarms
control switch approved element
SP 80C
SP 0.8 bar
el. motor
LR




GL


*)


BV



RINA 

NK


KR

DNV
CCS

CR
**)
RMRS 



Notes: *) Notation AUT-Z only. **) El.motors 40 kW and up.

75

Length
m
1
25.4x10-3
0.3048
0.9144
1609.344
1852

Pressure / Tension
in (inch)
39.3701
1
12
36
63360
72913.4

ft (feet)
3.28084
83.3333x10-3
1
3
5.28x10-3
6076.12

yd (yard)
1.09361
27.7778x10-3
0.333333
1
1760
2025.37

mile
0.621371x10-3
15.7828x10-6
0.189394x10-3
0.568182x10-3
1
1.15078

nautical mile
0.539957x10-3
13.7149x10-6
0.164579x10-3
0.493737x10-3
0.868976
1

in2
1550.00
1
144
1296
6272640
4.01449x109

ft2
10.7639
6.94444x10-3
1
9
43560
27878400

yd2
1.19599
0.771605x10-3
0.111111
1
4840
3097600

acre
0.247105x10-3
0.159421x10-6
22.9569x10-6
0.206612x10-3
1
640

square mile
0.386102x10-6
0.249098x10-9
35.8701x10-9
0.322831x10-6
1.5625x10-3
1

in3
61023.7
1
1728
46656
277.42
231

ft3
35.3147
0.578704x10-3
1
27
0.160544
0.133681

yd3
1.30795
21.4335x10-6
37.0370x10-3
1
5.94606x10-3
4.95113x10-3

gallon (UK)
219.969
3.60465x10-3
6.22884
168.178
1
0.832675

gallon (US)
264.172
4.32900x10-3
7.48052
201.974
1.20095
1

lb (pound)

slug

oz (ounce)

tons (long) (UK) tons (short)

SI and Technical System of Units

2.20462
1
32.174
62.5x10-3
2240
2000

68.5218x10-3
31.0810x10-3
1
1.94256x10-3
69.6213
62.1619

35.274
16
514.785
1
35840
32000

0.984207x10-3
0.446429x10-3
14.3634x10-3
27.9018x10-6
1
0.892857

SI system

kp/cm2

bar
10x10
1
0.980665
98.0665
1.01325
68.9476x10-3
-6

kp/mm2

10.1972x10
1.01972
1
100
1.03323
70.3070x10-3
-6

0.101972x10
10.1972x10-3
10x10-3
1
10.3323x10-3
0.703070x10-3
-6

atm (normal
atmosphere)
9.86923x10-6
0.986923
0.967841
96.7841
1
68.0460x10-3

psi
lbf/in2
0.145038x10-3
14.5038
14.2233
1422.33
14.6959
1

Energy / Heat / Work

Area
m2
1
0.64516x10-3
92.9030x10-3
0.836127
4046.86
2589990

N/m2
Pa
1
100000
98066.5
9806650
101325
6894.76

J
Nm. Ws

kWh

kpm

kcal

ftxlbf (foot
pound-force)

Btu (British
thermal unit)

1
3600000
9.80665
4186.8
1.35582
1055.06

0.277778x10-6
1
2.72407x10-6
1.163x10-3
0.376616x10-6
0.293071x10-3

0.101972
367098
1
426.935
0.138255
107.586

0.238846x10-3
859.845
2.34228x10-3
1
0.323832x10-3
0.251996

0.737562
2655220
7.23301
3088.03
1
778.169

0.947817x10-3
3412.14
9.29491x10-3
3.96832
1.28507x10-3
1

kcal/s

kcal/h
0.859845
3600
1
632.415
641.186
0.251996

hp (UK. US)
(horse power)
1.34102x10-3
5.61459
1.55961x10-3
0.98632
1
0.393015x10-3

Btu/h

0.238846x10-3
1
0.277778x10-3
0.175671
0.178107
69.9988x10-6

hk (metric
horse power)
1.35962x10-3
5.69246
1.58124x10-3
1
1.01387
0.398467x10-3

3.41214
14286.0
3.96832
2509.63
2544.43
1

Volume
m3
1
16.3871x10-6
23.3168x10-3
0.764555
4.54609x10-3
3.78541x10-3

Power
W
Nm/s. J/s
1
4186.8
1.163
735.499
745.7
0.293071

Mass
kg
(US)
1
0.45359237
14.5939
28.3495x10-3
1016.05
907.185

76

1.10231x10-3
0.5x10-3
16.0869x10-3
31.25x10-6
1.12
1

Technical
system (old)

Force
N
1 N =1 kgm/s2

Mass
kg [g]
1 kg =1000 g

Pressure
N/m2 Pa [bar]
1 Pa =1 N/m2
=10-5 bar

Energy, Heat
J Nm Ws [kWh]
1J =1 N/m =1 Ws
= 2.77810-7 kWh

Power
W [kW]
1 W =1 Nm/s
=1 J/s

kp

kps2/m

kp/m2 [kp/cm2] [at]


1 at =1 kp/cm2

kpm [kcal]
1 kpm
= 2.34210-3 kcal

kpm/s [hk]
1 hk =75 kpm/s

Units in [] deviate from basic units in the system

77