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Emergency Stop

Crash Stop Rudder Cycling

Crash Stop

No type of main engine can be reversed immediately from full rpm ahead to full rpm astern because no engine can drive the propeller at full revolutions astern while the ship herself is moving ahead at considerable speed. The application of full astern power to an engine of any type when the ship is moving at full speed ahead would place high and perhaps crippling stresses on the engine. This is well known to the engineer, who is unlikely to attempt it except in the gravest of emergency situations.

A fully loaded motor ship of about 14,000 tonnes displacement manoeuvring from sea speed to standstill from a speed of about 14 knots, will still be moving ahead at 2 to 3 knots so fifteen minutes after the 'Stop' order was given. The engine rpm will fall from 110 to 40 in about 7 to 8 minutes and gradually come to rest after about 12 minutes. If a crash stop is demanded, the engine can readily be reversed after about 3 minutes, while still running ahead at about 30 rpm and can be running at 60% power in about 5 minutes. A slower vessel, or one in ballast, would take less time to accomplish this.

A single-screw ship will cant her bow briskly to starboard under astern power and will bring her stern into the wind once sternway is built up. Under collision risk, the stopping TIME matters much less than the stopping DISTANCE and this is shortest (in larger, faster vessels) when (a) the ahead power is instantly shut off and (b) after an interval of about 2 to 3 minutes the engine is put slow, half and then full astern in succession. The immediate application of full astern power will result in cavitation at the propellor and actually increase the stopping distance. In smaller and slower ships, the application of full astern power as soon as practicable may still be more effective.

Most vessels will travel approximately 5 to 12 times their own length before coming to rest from full ahead depending on displacement, trim, speed, type of machinery, etc., and will take from 4 to 10 minutes to do so. This is why it is so important to reduce speed in low visibility.

The application of full rudder to both sides alternately will help in reducing headway during the first few minutes after stopping engines.

Rudder Cycling

High Frequency Cycling Low Frequency Cycling

High Frequency Cycling

Gives a stopping distance of approximately 10 times the ships length. Uses the drag of the rudder to reduce headway Put the rudder hard over and stop the engines. As the vessel starts to swing, put helm hard over the other way. Continue to do this cycling until vessel is stopped. You may need a short burst of ahead power and corrective helm to bring the vessel back on course. This results in minimal deviation of heading and the effectiveness of the manoeuvre is not reduced by shallow water.

This manoeuvre is not really suitable for use on vessels of full hull form which are deeply laden. Most effective on fine form vessels in lightship condition.

Low Frequency Cycling

Gives a stopping distance of approximately 6 times the vessel length. Uses the drag of the hull as the vessel turns. Put rudder hard over to port until vessel is 40 degrees off course, then hard to starboard with full astern. This will stop the vessel with small deviation to the port side of her course and close to her original heading. Shallow water will reduce the effectiveness of this manoeuvre

Low Frequency Cycling continued

It must be remembered that vessels on reciprocal courses will close at their combined speeds and that a 'safe' speed to conform with IRPCS should therefore be one at which the vessel can be brought to a standstill in half the range of her visibility.

Heavy Weather

Have master, engine room & crew been informed of conditions? Have all moveable objects been secured above & below decks, particularly in engine room, Galley & storerooms? Has ships accommodation been secured & all ports & deadlights closed? Have all weather deck openings been secured? Have speed & course been adjusted as necessary? Have crew been warned to avoid upper deck areas made dangerous by weather? Have safety lines/hand ropes been rigged where necessary? Have instructions been issued on the following? monitoring weather reports transmissions of weather reports to appropriate authorities, or in case of TRS, danger messages in accordance with SOLAS

Man Overboard Manoeuvre


Determined by Type of Vessel Proximity of traffic Time of discovery and circumstances of the case immediate or delayed turn? Williamson, Scharnow, single turn, double turn.

Williamson Turn
Vessel steadied when course has altered by 60o

Immediate and Delayed Action

Helm placed hard over the other side immediately

Helm initially placed Steadied and Engine hard over to the side revolutions controlled for from which the man fell manoeuvring

Vessel should round to the reciprocal of Original course

Scharnow Turn
Delayed action Manoeuvre Rudder Hard Over

When heading 20 degrees short of opposite course rudder to midships position so that ship will turn to opposite course

After deviation from original course by 240 degrees rudder hard over to the opposite side

Single Turn (270 degree)


Immediate Action Situation

Rudder hard over

After deviation from original course by 250 degrees rudder to midships position and stopping manoeuvre to be initiated

Double Turn
Rudder hard over to side of casualty

30

Hard over again when original position 30 degrees abaft Steadied on reciprocal course

MOB

Rudder hard over to swing stern away from casualty Release MOB smoke float Sound general alarm / call Master Inform ER maneuvering speed required immediately Post Lookouts Note position on chart (GPS man overboard function) VHF warning to other ships Prepare Rescue Boat Hoist O flag, if other ships in your vicinity