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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 2.1 Hasil Data Pembubutan I................................................................................ 46


Tabel 2.2 Hasil Data Pembubutan II.............................................................................. 46
Tabel 2.3 Hasil Data Penguliran..................................................................................... 46
Tabel 2.4 Data Grafik s-Pz............................................................................................. 49
Tabel 2.5 Data Grafik n-Nc............................................................................................ 49
Tabel 3.1 Hasil Data Proses............................................................................................ 69
Tabel 4.1 Hasil Data Praktikum..................................................................................... 94

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DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 1.1 Pakaian Kerja Standar K3..........................................................................5
Gambar 1.2 Sepatu Kerja Standar K3............................................................................6
Gambar 1.3 Kacamata Standar K3.................................................................................6
Gambar 1.4 Sarung Tangan Standar K3.........................................................................7
Gambar 1.5 Helm Kerja Standar K3..............................................................................7
Gambar 1.6 Sabuk Pengaman.........................................................................................8
Gambar 1.7 Penutup Telinga..........................................................................................8
Gambar 1.8 Masker Standar K3.....................................................................................9
Gambar 1.3 Kotak P3K..................................................................................................9
Gambar 2.1 Mesin Bubut ...........................................................................................12
Gambar 2.2 Mesin Bubut Kuno Wilayah Asia............................................................13
Gambar 2.3 Mesin Bubut Kuno Wilayah China..........................................................13
Gambar 2.4 Mesin Bubut Kuno Wilayah Barat...........................................................14
Gambar 2.5 Mittelalterliche Hausbuch........................................................................14
Gambar 2.6 Mesin Bubut Kuno....................................................................................15
Gambar 2.7 Mesin Bubut Kuno....................................................................................15
Gambar 2.8 Ilustrasi Mesin Bubut dari buku Teater Instrumens
Mathmatiques et des Mecanique .........................................................15
Gambar 2.9 Ilustrasi Mesin Bubut dari buku Teater Instrumens
Mathmatiques et des Mecanique......................................................... 16
Gambar 2.10 Mesin Bubut Besi Kuno.........................................................................16
Gambar 2.11 J. Ramsdens Screw Cutting Lathe........................................................17
Gambar 2.12 Maudslays Original Screw Cutting Lathe.............................................18
Gambar 2.13 Turret Lathe ...........................................................................................18
Gambar 2.14 Capstan Lathe.........................................................................................19
Gambar 2.15 Turret Lathe with Friction Clutch Headstock........................................19
Gambar 2.16 Mesin Bubut CNC..................................................................................20
Gambar 2.17 Line of Power pada Mesin Bubut...........................................................20
Gambar 2.18 Bagian-bagian Mesin Bubut...................................................................21
Gambar 2.19 Gear Box ................................................................................................22
Gambar 2.20 Quick Change Gear Box.........................................................................22

Gambar 2.21 Apron .....................................................................................................22


Gambar 2.22 Carriage...................................................................................................23
Gambar 2.23 Chuck .....................................................................................................24
Gambar 2.24 Tail Stock24
Gambar 2.25 Tool Post.................................................................................................24
Gambar 2.26 Kontrol Utama pada Universal Lathe....................................................25
Gambar 2.27 Mesin bubut turet jenis ram nomor 3 dengan kendali daur listrik.........27
Gambar 2.28 Mesin bubut turet pencekaman jenis sadel............................................27
Gambar 2.29 Mesin Bubut Turet Horizontal Otomatis...............................................28
Gambar 2.30 Mesin Bubut Turet Vertikal...................................................................29
Gambar 2.31 Mesin Bubut Pencekam Vertikal Stasiun Jamak...................................29
Gambar 2.32 Mesin Bubut Otomatis Vertikal.............................................................30
Gambar 2.33 Mesin Bubut Duplikat Otomatis............................................................30
Gambar 2.34 Chuck and Tailstock...............................................................................31
Gambar 2.35 Steady Rest ...........................................................................................31
Gambar 2.36 Follow Rest. ...........................................................................................32
Gambar 2.37 Pahat Bubut Rata Kanan.........................................................................32
Gambar 2.38 Pahat Bubut Rata Kiri.............................................................................32
Gambar 2.39 Pahat Bubut Muka..................................................................................33
Gambar 2.40 Pahat Bubut Ulir Metris.........................................................................33
Gambar 2.41 Proses Terbentuknya Geram..................................................................34
Gambar 2.42 Chip Discontinous..................................................................................34
Gambar 2.43 Geram Continous....................................................................................35
Gambar 2.44 Geram Continous dengan Built Up Edge...............................................35
Gambar 2.45 Straight Chip35
Gambar 2.46 Snarling Chip..........................................................................................35
Gambar 2.47 Infinite Helix Chip..................................................................................35
Gambar 2.48 Full Turn Chip........................................................................................35
Gambar 2.49 Half Turn Chip........................................................................................36
Gambar 2.50 Tight Chip...............................................................................................36
Gambar 2.51 Jangka Sorong.........................................................................................37
Gambar 2.52 Center Gauge......................................................................................... 37
Gambar 2.53 Stopwatch...............................................................................................37

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Gambar 2.54 Kunci Chuck38


Gambar 2.55 Kunci Pahat ...........................................................................................38
Gambar 2.56 Tachometer ...........................................................................................38
Gambar 2.57 Pahat........................................................................................................39
Gambar 2.58 Flowchart Pengerjaan pada Mesin Bubut..............................................44
Gambar 2.59 Penampang Benda Kerja Hasil Pembubutan.........................................54
Gambar 3.1 Bagian-Bagian Mesin Sekrap...................................................................60
Gambar 3.2 Mesin Sekrap Horizontal..........................................................................61
Gambar 3.3 Mesin Sekrap Vertikal..............................................................................62
Gambar 3.4 Mesin Sekrap Planner...............................................................................62
Gambar 3.5 Pahat Sekrap Kasar Lurus........................................................................62
Gambar 3.6 Pahat Sekrap Kasar Lengkung.................................................................63
Gambar 3.7 Pahat Sekrap Datar...................................................................................63
Gambar 3.8 Pahat Sekrap Runcing...............................................................................63
Gambar 3.9 Pahat Sekrap Sisi......................................................................................63
Gambar 3.10 Pahat Sekrap Sisi Kasar..........................................................................63
Gambar 3.11 Pahat Sekrap Sisi Rata............................................................................64
Gambar 3.12 Pahat Sekrap Profil.................................................................................64
Gambar 3.13 Pahat Sekrap Masuk Kedalam dan Pahat Masuk Keluar Lurus............64
Gambar 3.14 Jangka Sorong.........................................................................................65
Gambar 3.15 Stopwatch...............................................................................................66
Gambar 3.16 Waterpass................................................................................................66
Gambar 3.17 Pahat........................................................................................................66
Gambar 3.18 Kunci L ..................................................................................................66
Gambar 3.19 Flowchart Pengerjaan pada Mesin Sekrap.................................. 68
Gambar 4.1 Bagian Mesin Milling...............................................................................75
Gambar 4.2 Kontrol Utama Mesin Milling..................................................................76
Gambar 4.3 Index Dividing Plate.................................................................................77
Gambar 4.4 Index Dividing Head................................................................................77
Gambar 4.5 Inner Index Dividing Head.......................................................................77
Gambar 4.6 Mesin Milling Vertikal.............................................................................78

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Gambar 4.7 Mesin Milling Horizontal.........................................................................78


Gambar 4.8 Mesin Milling Universal...........................................................................79
Gambar 4.9 Mesin Milling Hobbing............................................................................79
Gambar 4.10 Mesin Milling Copy...............................................................................80
Gambar 4.11 Mesin Milling Gravier............................................................................80
Gambar 4.12 Mesin Milling Planner............................................................................81
Gambar 4.13 Mesin Milling CNC................................................................................81
Gambar 4.14 Climb Mill..............................................................................................82
Gambar 4.15 Conventional Milling..............................................................................83
Gambar 4.16 Pisau Frais Muka....................................................................................83
Gambar 4.17 Pisau Frais Sisi........................................................................................83
Gambar 4.18 Pisau Frais Alur Sisi dan Muka..............................................................83
Gambar 4.19 Pisau Frais Gergaji.................................................................................84
Gambar 4.20 Pisau Frais Roda Gigi.............................................................................84
Gambar 4.21 Pisau Frais Sudut Tunggal......................................................................84
Gambar 4.22 Pisau Frais Sudut Ganda.........................................................................84
Gambar 4.23 Pisau Frais Jari........................................................................................85
Gambar 4.24 Pisau Frais Alur T...................................................................................85
Gambar 4.25 Macam Pisau Frais.................................................................................85
Gambar 4.26 Jangka Sorong.........................................................................................88
Gambar 4.27 Stopwatch...............................................................................................88
Gambar 4.28 Kunci Chuck88
Gambar 4.29 Kunci L...................................................................................................89
Gambar 4.30 Kunci Inggris..........................................................................................89
Gambar 4.31 Obeng (-).................................................................................................89
Gambar 4.32 Poros Berulir89
Gambar 4.33 Flowchart Pengerjaan pada Mesin Milling............................................93
Gambar 4.34 Tidak sesuainya depth of cut dengan desain..........................................99
Gambar 4.35 Terkikisnya Benda Kerja......................................................................100
Gambar 4.36 Tidak sesuainya depth of cut dengan desain........................................100
Gambar 5.1Mesin Las.................................................................................................105
Gambar 5.2 Logam Las..............................................................................................106

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Gambar 5.3 Fusion Line.............................................................................................106


Gambar 5.4 H A Z......................................................................................................107
Gambar 5.5 Logam Induk .........................................................................................107
Gambar 5.6 Sambungan Sebidang.............................................................................108
Gambar 5.7 Sambungan Lewatan..............................................................................108
Gambar 5.8 Sambungan Tegak..................................................................................109
Gambar 5.9 Sambungan Sudut...................................................................................110
Gambar 5.10 Sambungan Sisi....................................................................................110
Gambar 5.11 Elektroda..............................................................................................111
Gambar 5.12 Fluks.....................................................................................................113
Gambar 5.13 Polaritas Lurus......................................................................................113
Gambar 5.14 Polaritas Terbalik..................................................................................114
Gambar 5.15 Contoh Posisi Pengelasan Bawah Tangan..........................................114
Gambar 5.16 Contoh Pengelasan Horizontal.............................................................115
Gambar 5.17 Contoh Posisi Pengelasan Vertikal......................................................115
Gambar 5.18 Contoh Posisi Pengelasan Over Head..................................................116
Gambar 5.19 Cacat Undercut.....................................................................................117
Gambar 5.20 Porositas................................................................................................117
Gambar 5.21 Pengerutan Benda Kerja.......................................................................118
Gambar 5.22 Over Spatter..........................................................................................119
Gambar 5.23 Penetrasi atau Penembusan Kurang Sempurna....................................120
Gambar 5.24 Incomplete Fusion................................................................................120
Gambar 5.25 Hot Cracking.........................................................................................121
Gambar 5.26 Proses Drilling......................................................................................122
Gambar 5.27 Bagian-Bagian Mesin Bor....................................................................124
Gambar 5.28 Mesin Bor Meja beserta Bagian-bagiannya.........................................125
Gambar 5.29 Mesin Bor Lantai beserta Bagian-bagiannya.......................................125
Gambar 5.30 Mesin Bor Radial..................................................................................126
Gambar 5.31 Mesin Bor Koordinat............................................................................126
Gambar 5.32 Mata Bor jenis Twist Bor.....................................................................127
Gambar 5.33 Mata Bor jenis Masonry Bits...............................................................127
Gambar 5.34 Mata Bor jenis Spur Bits......................................................................128
Gambar 5.35 Mata Bor jenis Countersink Bits..........................................................128

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Gambar 5.36 Mata Bor jenis Forster Bit....................................................................128


Gambar 5.37 Mata Bor Hole Saw Bits.......................................................................129
Gambar 5.38 Bahan Dasar V-Belt..............................................................................130
Gambar 5.39 Konstruksi Sabuk V-Belt......................................................................130
Gambar 5.40 Penampang Belt Berdasarkan Bentuknya............................................131
Gambar 5.41 Sabuk Gerigi131
Gambar 5.42 Penampang Open Belt Drive................................................................131
Gambar 5.43 Crossed or Twist Belt Drive.................................................................132
Gambar 5.44 Quarter Turn Belt Drive.......................................................................132
Gambar 5.45 Belt Drive with Idler Pulley.................................................................133
Gambar 5.46 Compound Belt Drive...........................................................................133
Gambar 5.47 Mesin Roll............................................................................................134
Gambar 5.48 Mesin Penekuk.....................................................................................136
Gambar 5.49 Mesin Penekuk Otomatis......................................................................137
Gambar 5.50 Mesin Penekuk Manual........................................................................137
Gambar 5.51 Bagian-Bagian Utama Power Hack Saw.............................................139
Gambar 5.52 Bagian Bagian Utama Power Hack Saw..............................................140
Gambar 5.53 Bagian-Bagian Mesin Pemotong Pelat................................................143
Gambar 5.54 Control Panel pada Mesin Pemotong Pelat..........................................144
Gambar 5.55 Gerinda Tangan....................................................................................145
Gambar 5.56 Gerinda Duduk.....................................................................................146
Gambar 5.57 Gerinda Datar.......................................................................................147
Gambar 5.58 Proses Balancing..................................................................................149
Gambar 5.59 Bench Vise...........................................................................................150
Gambar 5.60 Ragum Berputar...................................................................................151
Gambar 5.61 Parallel Vise.........................................................................................151
Gambar 5.62 Ragum Universal.................................................................................151
Gambar 5.63 Kikir Pipih............................................................................................152
Gambar 5.64 Kikir Rata..............................................................................................152
Gambar 5.65Kikir Segi-4...........................................................................................153
Gambar 5.66 Kikir Bulat............................................................................................153
Gambar 5.67 Kikir Segi-3 .........................................................................................153
Gambar 5.68 Kikir Pisau............................................................................................154

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Gambar 5.69 Kikir Setengah Bulat............................................................................154


Gambar 5.70 Penitik...................................................................................................155
Gambar 5.71 Spray Gun.............................................................................................155
Gambar 5.72 Palu Konde............................................................................................155
Gambar 5.73 Macam-macam Palu Lunak..................................................................156
Gambar 5.74 Macam-Macam Palu Pembentuk.........................................................157
Gambar 5.75 Flowchart Pengerjaan PP3....................................................................158
Gambar 5.76 Penumpukan Fluks pada Pengelasan...................................................167
Gambar 5.77 Lubang pada Benda Kerja akibat Pengelasan......................................168
Gambar 5.78 Penyambungan pada Pijakan kaki........................................................168

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DAFTAR GRAFIK
Grafik 2.1 Grafik Hubungan Feed Motion (s) dengan Gaya Pemotongan (Pz)............. 50
Grafik 2.2 Grafik Hubungan Kecepatan Putar (n) dengan Daya Pemotongan (Nc)...... 51

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DAFTAR SIMBOL
Besaran Dasar

Satuan

Simbol

Diameter Awal Benda Kerja

mm

Diameter Benda Kerja Setelah Pemakanan

mm

Putaran Spindle

rpm

Jarak Pitch

mm

Koefisien Bahan

Kg/mm2

Feed Motion

mm/rev

Depth of Cut

mm

Gaya Pemotongan

Kg

Pz

Daya Pemotongan

Kw

Nc

Machining Time

menit

Tm

Panjang Pembubutan

mm

Jumlah Pemotongan

Konstanta Eksponen

Momen Torsi

Kg.mm

Mt

Tenaga Motor

Kw

Nm

Kecepatan Pemotongan

m/menit

Diameter Pitch

mm

dp

Diameter Kepala

mm

dk

Modul

mm

Jumlah Gigi

Tinggi Gigi

mm

Tinggi Kepala Gigi

mm

hk

Tinngi Kaki Gigi

mm

hf

Faktor Kelonggaran Puncak

ck

Faktor Tinggi Kepala

Tebal Gigi

mm

Daya Pengelasan

Kw

Kekuatan Las

Kg

Po

Panas yang Timbul

kalori

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