Anda di halaman 1dari 106

Power Transformers - Switch Mode

What differentiates a power transformer and a switch mode power transformer from other transformers? Power transformers (and inductors) are essentially A.C. (alternating current) devices. They cannot sustain transformer operation from a fixed D.C. (direct current) voltage source. However they can sustain transformer operation in a transient condition(s) that allows resetting or reversal of the transformers magnetic flux levels. An A.C. voltage source keeps reversing the polarity of the voltage being applied across the transformer. Consequently the magnetic fields keeps reversing. Voltage reversal can also be accomplished with a D.C. source such as a battery. The connections between the D.C. source and the transformers are repeatedly switched, thereby reversing the voltage polarity across the transformer, hence reversing the magnetic field. The transformer can also be switched off from the D.C. source. In this case the magnetic field simply collapses until it reaches its residual value (ideally equal to zero). This collapse resets the transformers magnetic field. Switch mode power transformers (and supplies) get their name from the switching action needed to sustain transformer operation. By controlling the amount of on time and off time of the switches, one can also control the amount of power delivered to the transformers load (or load circuit). The voltage can be fed to the switch mode power transformer in voltage pulses. The pulse duration is a portion of an overall cycle time. The cycle time is equal to the inverse of the operating frequency. The terms duty cycle and pulse width modulation arise from the control of the switching on time and off time. Switch mode power transformers are used extensively in electronic applications, usually within a switch mode power supply. A switch mode

power supply is usually powered from a D.C. source, such as a battery. The switching mode power supply converts the input D.C. source to one or more output D.C. sources. The power supplies are often referred to as DC to DC converters. In similar fashion, the switch mode power transformers are often referred to as DC to DC transformers (or DC-DC transformers). A switch mode power transformer can have several secondary windings. Consequently, the switch mode transformers permits multiple outputs which can be electrically isolated from one another. Transformer action permits one to step up or step down the voltage as needed via an appropriate turns ratio. Pulse width modulation is used to provide voltage regulation. Many electronic applications require some sort of power supply which converts power from the conventional low frequency sinusoidal A.C. wall socket (for example, 115V 60 Hz) to the necessary voltage, current, and/or waveform required by the circuit. Typically the circuits need a wellregulated D.C. voltage. Designers often choose either a rectifier type circuit (to convert A.C. voltage to D.C. voltage), a switch mode power supply, or both. For the both case, the A.C. voltage is first rectified to provide a D.C. voltage. The D.C. voltage varies as the A.C. voltage varies, hence good voltage regulation cannot be assured. One or more switching mode power supplies follow the rectifying circuitry. The switching mode power supplies provide a more tightly regulated output voltage. A.C. rectification is not a necessity. Although tricky, it is possible, through switching actions, to divide (chop) the A.C. waveform into a series of pulses, which are directly fed into the switching mode power transformer. Pulse width modulation is used to control the regulation. Butler Winding can make (and has made) switching mode power transformers (and /or inductors) for Buck, Flyback, and Boost applications (discussed below) in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine

for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Switching Mode Power Transformers, Basic Application Circuits The design of a switch mode power transformer will differ depending upon the type of circuit used. There are many variations of switching mode power supplies, but they can be narrowed down to three basic circuit configurations (each also has a mirrored configuration); Buck, Boost, and Flyback. Be aware that the name for the Buck circuit varies from industry to industry and from person to person. It may also be referred to as an inverter, D.C. converter, forward converter, feed forward, and others. There are also unipolar and bipolar (push-pull) versions. The basic Buck circuit is illustrated in Figure 1A with an inductor and in Figure 1B with both a switch mode power transformer and an inductor. A push-pull version is shown in Figure 4. The basic Flyback circuit is illustrated in Figure 2A with an inductor and in Figure 2B with a switch mdoe power transformer. The basic boost circuit is illustrated in Figure 3A with an inductor, Figure 3B and 3C with a transformer and in Figure 5 with a push-pull forward converter type of switch mode power transformer. The circuits shown in Figures 1A, 2A, and 3A, which have no switch mode power transformers, are the simplest circuits. They are useful for explaining the operating theory. The Forward Converter (Buck) Circuit The inductors in all of the buck circuits act as filtering elements to smooth out the ripple and reduce peak currents. Since they must store energy for part of a cycle they usually have a discrete air gap(s) or a distributed air gap in the magnetic core path. The switch mode power transformer in the Buck Circuit of Figure 1B couples energy from the input side (primary) to the output side (secondary). An ideal transformer does not store any energy and consequently does not provide any ripple filtering. The inductor does the ripple filtering. Ideally, a Buck circuit transformer couples energy without storing it (hence it meets

the true definition of a transformer). The transformer does not need to do any ripple filtering. The transformer should have minimal air gap. The on time on the transistor (switch) controls how much energy is delivered to the capacitor hence it regulates the output voltage. Note that for the inductor circuit of Figure 1, the average capacitor voltage can never be more than the source voltage even for ideal circuit components. Real life voltage drops (diode, transistor, winding resistance) ensure that the average output voltage will be less than the source voltage. The transformer in Figures 1B remove this voltage limit and can also provide electrical isolation between input and output. The circuits of Figures 1A and 1B are unipolar applications of forward converters. Push-pull versions, such as that shown in Figure 4, are bipolar applications. Unipolar and bipolar applications are explained further below. Click on the available link for more information about push-pull switching mode power transformers.

Inductive Flyback (Kickback) in Switch Mode Power Transformers Unlike the Buck transformer; the flyback inductor, flyback transformer, boost inductor, and boost transformer intentionally store energy during the on time (charging portion) of a cycle and then discharge energy during the off time portion. (Technically, since they intentionally store energy, the switch mode flyback and boost power transformers are not true transformers.) They usually have a discrete air gap(s) or a distributed gap in their cores magnetic path. The transistor is turned on and current flows into the inductor or transformer (which has inductance). When the transistor is

turned off, the input current that formed and maintained the cores magnetic field become zero. The magnetic field collapses causing a voltage reversal to occur in the inductor or transformer. The collapsing magnetic field induces sufficiently high voltage (known as inductive kickback voltage) to discharge energy into the capacitor connected to the inductor or to the switch mode power transformer secondary. Inductive discharge into the capacitor continues until the magnetic field completely dissipates or power is restored to the input. Restoring the power starts the inductive charging cycle again. The use of inductive kickback permit the output voltages of the inductor circuits of Figures 2A and 3A to be either lower, equal, or greater than the input source voltage. A transformer step up is not needed to achieve voltages higher than the source voltage. Flyback transformers are usually preferred over flyback inductors. The appropriate turns ratio can optimize current levels. The transformer can provide voltage isolation between input and output, and removes a polarity restriction that comes with a flyback inductor design.

Boost Inductor Circuits You might ask what distinguishes the boost inductor application from the flyback inductor application. One characteristic is the polarity reversal of the output capacitor due to the placement of the circuit components. Compare the circuits of Figures 2A and 3A. The diode in the flyback circuit, Figure 2A, completely blocks direct flow of current from the input source to the capacitor regardless of the capacitors voltage value. The capacitor can only be charged by the inductive kickback. The diode in the boost circuit, Figure 3A, permits current flow from the input source to the capacitor without the use of inductive kickback if the capacitor voltage is sufficiently low.

Consequently it both stores energy and passes through energy during the charging portion of a cycle. Pass through current flow stops whenever the capacitor voltage approaches the value of the source voltage minus the diode voltage drop. (Further increase requires the inductive kickback voltage.) This may be a desirable feature for rapid power supply startup Few designers are aware of the boost transformer circuit shown in Figure 3B because the circuit is not very practical. With only half-wave rectification it is either a forward (Buck) converter transformer application or a flyback transformer application depending on choice of polarity. Full wave rectification, as shown, permits it to duplicate the boost inductor actions discussed in the prior paragraph; both storing energy and passing through energy (by transformer coupling like a Buck transformer) during the charging portion of a cycle if the secondary capacitor voltage is sufficiently low. It acts likes a flyback transformer during the discharging portion of the cycle. It is rarely used with the full wave rectification as shown. It has seen some limited use as modified in the circuit shown in Figure 3C. The transformer has two secondary windings. One is used as a

Forward (Buck) converter. The other is used as a flyback. It effectively divides the full-wave rectification into two half-wave applications. A more common boost inductor application is shown in Figure 5. A boost inductor is used with a push-pull (Buck) transformer. High power power supplies might use this type of circuit. In this application both switches are not open at the same time. Both switches are closed to charge the inductor, otherwise the switches are alternated on and off with one closed and one open.

Unipolar versus Bipolar What is the difference? When a current flows through an inductor or a transformer a magnetic field is created in its core. The value of the magnetic field will be greater than zero and it will have a direction associated with it. This direction is also referred to as the polarity of the field. If the value of the current varies, then the value of the magnetic field will vary accordingly, but the field polarity (direction) will remain the same as long as the current direction does not reverse. When an inductor or transformer continually operates with the same magnetic polarity it is a unipolar application. The circuits shown in Figures 1 through 3, including A thru C versions, are all unipolar applications. Applications were the magnetic field polarity is continually reversing are bipolar applications. A.C. applications are bipolar applications. Push-Pull types of forward converters (Buck) are bipolar applications. Push-pull transformers are often used in inverter circuits to create A.C. voltage from a D.C. source. A push-pull center-tap application is shown in Figure 4. There are several types of push-pull applications. More information about push-pull transformer applications is available on this website. Click on the available link.

Need More Power TransformerTechnical Information? More information about the theory of operation for flyback transformers is available. Click on the available link for flyback transformer. Much of its theory of operation also applies to the boost inductor. There is also a link for forward (Buck) converters and links for other types of power transformers, inductors, chokes, etc. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Toroidal Transformer

Toroidal transformers are the high performers among transformers. They offer the smallest size (by volume and weight), less leakage inductance, and lower electromagnetic interference (EMI). Their windings cool better because of the proportionally larger surface area. A 360 degree wound toroidal transformer has a high degree of symmetry. Its geometry leads to near complete magnetic field cancellation outside of its coil, hence the toroidal transformer has less leakage inductance and less EMI when compared against other transformers of equal power rating. Toroidal transformers with a round core cross section are better performers than toroidal transformers with a rectangular cross section. The cancellation is more complete for the round cross section. The round cross section also gives a shorter turn length per unit of cross sectional area, hence lower winding resistances. The toroidal transformer also has better winding to winding magnetic coupling because of its toroidal shape. The coupling is dependent on the winding being wound a full 360 degrees around the core and wound directly over the prior winding, hence sector wound windings do not couple as well and have higher leakage inductance.

As winding turns are positioned further away from the core less complete coupling will occur; hence toroidal transformers with multi-layered windings will exhibit more leakage inductance.

Toroidal transformers can be used in any electronic transformer application that can accommodate its shape. Although usable, toroidal transformers are not always practical for some applications. Gapped toroidal transformers usually require that the gap be filled with some type of insulating material to facilitate the winding process. This is an extra expense. Split core current transformers can be assembled directly on a conductor while toroids must be passed over a disconnected end of the conductor. A toroid can be split in two, but a suitable clamping mechanism (difficult and costly) is required. Some printed circuit boards are space critical. Mounting a toroidal transformer flat on the board may take up too much precious board area. Some applications also have restricted height so the toroid cannot be mounted vertically. Generally speaking toroidal transformers are more expensive than bobbin or tube wound transformers. Sufficient winding wire must first be wound (loaded) onto the winding shuttle, then wound onto the toroidal transformers core. After that, the best situation, from a cost perspective, is no insulation required over the winding and the next winding uses the same wire size. If the wire is different, then the leftover wire must be removed and the wire for the next winding must be loaded. However, if the winding must be insulated, then if must either be insulated (taped) by hand or the toroidal transformer must be removed and taken to a separate taping machine, then placed back on the toroid winding machine after taping. The shuttle must then be loaded with the wire size and type for the toroidal transformers next winding. A toroidal transformer with a single winding (auto-transformer, current transformer) wound on a coated core will probably be cost competitive with an equivalent bobbin or tube wound transformer since the

toroidal transformer will not require a bobbin or tube. The cost differential will then depend on the method and cost of mounting the transformers. Toroidal transformer cores are available in many materials: silicon steel, nickel iron, moly-permalloy powder, iron powdered, amorphous, ferrites, and others. Silicon steel and nickel iron are available as tape wound cores or laminated pieces. Non-magnetic toroids are also available to make air core toroidal transformers. Butler Winding manufactures toroidal transformers in a wide variety of materials and sizes. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Need More Technical Information about Electronic Transformers in general ? More information is available on other web pages included in this web site. Saturation and the volt-second product are discussed in the pulse transformer web page. An equivalent circuit for a transformer is included in the power transformers web page. The inverter transformer and push pull web pages include some discussion about magnetic bipolar and unipolar operating modes. There are web pages for various types (applications) of electronic transformers (and inductors). Click on one of the available links. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance.

Flyback Transformers - Kickback Transformers A simple and low cost power supply is bound to be quite popular. The single ended flyback circuit topology fits this description. The flyback transformer utilizes the "flyback" action ( also known as "kickback" ) of an inductor or flyback transformer to convert the input voltage and current to the desired output voltage and current. Figures 1A and 1B show simple flyback transformer schematics for an inductor and a flyback transformer. These schematics do not show any parasitic effects ( such as leakage inductance

and winding capacitance ). Modern flyback transformer and circuit design now permit use in excess of 300 watts of power, but most applications are less than 50 watts. By definition a transformer directly couples energy from one winding to another winding. A flyback transformer does not act as a true transformer. A flyback transformer first stores energy received from the input power supply (charging portion of a cycle) and then transfers energy (discharge portion of a cycle) to the output, usually a storage capacitor with a load connected across its terminals. An application in which a complete discharge is followed by a short period of inactivity (known as idle time) is defined to be operating in a discontinuous mode. An application in which a partial discharge is followed by charging is defined to be operating in the continuous mode. See figures 2A and 2B for illustration. Gapped core structures increase the magnetizing force needed to reach saturation and lower the inductance of the flyback transformer (or inductor). Consequently, a gapped flyback transformer (or inductor) can handle higher peak current values, and thereby storing more energy, most of which is stored in the magnetic field of the gap. For these reasons almost all flyback transformers (or inductors) are gapped. The gap may be a discrete physical gap, several smaller discrete physical gaps or a distributed gap. Distributed gaps are inherently present in low permeability powdered cores. The bulk of the stored energy is stored in the magnetic field of the gap(s). Most modern flyback transformers are operated at high frequency hence gapped ferrite core materials are typically used. Butler winding can make (and has made) flyback transformers in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, EC, ETD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on

these machines. For more information on our capabilities, click on our "capabilities" link. How does a flyback transformer ( or inductor ) work? Flyback circuits repeat a cycle of two or three stages; a charging stage, a discharging stage, and in some applications idle time following a complete discharge. Charging creates a magnetic field. Discharging action results from the collapse of the magnetic field. The typical flyback transformer application is a unipolar application. The magnetic field flux density varies up in down in value ( 0 or larger ) but keeps the same ( hence unipolar ) direction. Charging Stage The flyback transformer ( or inductor ) draws current from the power source. The current increases over time. The current flow creates a magnetic field flux that also increases over time. Energy is stored within the magnetic field. The associated positive flux change over time induces a voltage in the flyback transformer ( or inductor ) which opposes the source voltage. Typically, a diode and a capacitor are series connected across a flyback transformer winding ( or inductor ). A load resistor is then connected across the capacitor. The diode is oriented to block current flow from the flyback transformer ( or source ) to the capacitor and the load resistor during the charging stage. Controlling the charging time duration (known as duty cycle) in a cycle can control the amount of energy stored during each cycle. Stored energy value, E = ( I x I x L ) / 2, where E is in joules, I = current in amps, L = inductance in Henries. Current is defined by the differential equation V(t) = L x di/dt. Applying this equation to applications with constant source voltage and constant inductance value one obtains the following equation; I = Io + V x t / L , where I = currents in amps, Io = starting current in amps, V = voltage in volts across the flyback transformer winding ( or inductor ), L = inductance in Henries, and t = elapsed time in seconds. Note that increasing L will decrease the current. Stored energy will consequently decrease because effects of the current squared decrease will more than offset the effects of the inductance increase. Also be aware that the flyback transformer ( or inductor ) input voltage is less than the source

voltage due to switching and resistive voltage drops in the circuit. Discharge Stage The current ( which creates the magnetic field ) from the source is then interrupted by opening a switch, thereby causing the magnetic field to collapse or decrease, hence a reversal in the direction of the magnetic field flux change ( negative flux change over time ). The negative flux change induces a voltage in the opposite direction from that induced during the charging stage. The terms flyback or kickback originate from the induced voltage reversal that occurs when the supply current is interrupted. The reversed induced voltage(s) tries to create ( induce ) a current flow. The open switch prevents current from flowing through the power supply. With the voltage reversed, the diode now permits current flow through it, hence current flows into the capacitor and the load across the capacitor. If current can flow, then the resulting flow of current is in the direction, which tries to maintain the existing magnetic field. The induced current cannot maintain this field but does slow down the decline of the magnetic field. A slower decline translates to a lower induced flyback voltage. If current cannot flow, the magnetic field will decline very rapidly and consequently create a much higher induced voltage. In effect, the flyback action will create the necessary voltage needed to discharge the energy stored in the flyback transformer or inductor. This principle, along with controlling the duration of the charging stage, allows a flyback inductor to increase or decrease the voltage without the use of a step-up or step-down turns ratio. In the typical flyback circuit, the output capacitor clamps the flyback voltage to the capacitor voltage plus the diode and resistive voltage drops. For a sufficiently large & fully charged capacitor, the clamping capacitor voltage can be treated as a constant value. The equations V(t) = L x di/dt, and I = Io + V x t / L can also be applied to the discharge stage. Use the inductance value of the discharging winding and the time duration of the discharging stage. The time will either be the cycle time minus the charging time ( no idle time ), or the time it takes to fully discharge the magnetic field thereby reaching zero current. The cycle time equals the period which equals 1 / frequency.

Idle Stage: This stage occurs whenever the flyback transformer ( or inductor ) has completely discharged its stored energy. Input and output current ( of the transformer or inductor ) is at zero value. Other Principles of Operation Equal Ampere-Turns Condition: A magnetic field is created by the current flow through the winding(s). The current creates a magnetizing force, H, and a magnetic field flux density B. A core dependent correlation will exist between B and H. B is not usually linear with H. By definition H is proportional to the product of the winding turns and the current flowing through the winding, hence ampere-turns. In classical physics, the magnetic field flux cannot instantaneously change value if the source of the field ( the current flow ) is removed. When the source current is removed from the flyback transformer ( or inductor ) the charging stage ends and the discharge stage begins. The value of the magnetic field will be the same for both stages at that point in time ( cannot instantaneously change to another value ). The same magnetic core is used for both stages, hence if the magnetic field is the same, then the magnetizing force, H, must be the same. Consequently the ampere-turns at the end of the charging stage must equal the ampere-turns at the start of the discharge stage. If there are multiple outputs then the total amperes turns of all outputs at the start of the discharge stage must equal the ampere-turns at the end of the charging stage. The same condition applies at the start of the charging stage. The total ampere-turns of all outputs at the start of the charging stage must equal the ampere-turns at the end of the discharge stage. Note that there are zero ampere-turns at both the start and end of an idle stage when an idle stage exists. Zero Average Voltage During steady state operation, the average voltage across the charging winding must equal the average voltage across the discharge winding, or equivalently, the volt-seconds of the charging stage must equal the voltseconds of the discharge stage. If not, flux density increases over time and the core saturates. Assuming a 1:1 turns ratio, then from V1 x t1 = V2 x t2 one can obtain t1 / t2 = V2 / V1 for both continuous and discontinuous modes of operation. For continuous mode operation, t1 + t2 = 1 / operating frequency.

Conservation of Energy Power out cannot exceed power in. Sum up output power ( V x I ) of each output at maximum steady state load plus allowances for parasitic output power losses ( diode and resistive losses ). Divide power in watts by operating frequency. The result is the energy in Joules that must be discharged each cycle into the output storage capacitor during steady state operation. It is also the amount of energy that must be added to the flyback transformer ( or inductor ) during the charging stage. The energy being transferred equals ( Ipeak x Ipeak Imin. x Imin. ) x L /2. If operating in the continuous mode, the stored energy will exceed the energy being transferred because the starting level of stored energy is above zero ( Imin. > 0 ). The flyback transformer ( or inductor ) must be designed to handle the peak stored energy, Ipeak x Ipeak x L / 2. The power source will have to supply the transferred energy plus the parasitic switching and resistive losses of the charging circuit, plus some power allowance for transient conditions. Take this value and divide by the power supply voltage. The result will be the average input current. Need additional information about Flyback Transformers? Contact Butler Winding. Ask for engineering assistance.

Electronic Transformer - Inverter Transformer The term "inverter" is associated with several different electronic applications. In logic circuits "inverter" may be a logic inverter, the equivalent of a "Not" gate. In analogue signal processing an inverter can be a circuit which inverts the phase of the signal being transmitted. In power conversion applications an inverter is an electronic transformer which converts power from a Direct Current (D.C.) source into Alternating Current (A.C.) power. Power conversion inverters can be divided into two sub-categories, voltage-fed inverters and current-fed inverters. Voltage-fed inverters are more common than the current-fed inverters. The electronic transformers used in inverter circuits are often called inverter transformers. Inverters produce A.C. power by switching the polarity of the D.C. power source across the D.C. power sources load. The early inverters used mechanical switches to do the switching. Vacuum tubes replaced mechanical switches in low power applications. Eventually semiconductor based switches (diodes, transistors, F.E.T.s, S.C.R.s, etc.) replaced both mechanical and vacuum tube switches. The schematic in Figure 1A illustrates a very simple inverter circuit. The circuit does not have an inverter electronic transformer. The switches are alternated on and off (cycled), but are not on at the same time. The load will see alternating square wave pulses of voltage equal to the source voltage minus the circuits resistive voltage drops. The pulse voltage cannot be adjusted, but the average load voltage can be made less than the source

voltage by holding both switches open (off) at the same time. The portion (ratio < 1) of time during a cycle that a switch is on is called the duty cycle. The inverter schematic in Figure 1B utilizes a capacitor and another switch to provide a lower load voltage. One switch controls the amount of charge delivered to the capacitor hence it also controls the capacitor voltage. The set of two switches alternately switches the polarity for the connection between the capacitor and the load. The load voltage cannot exceed the input source voltage. The inverter schematic of Figure 1C adds an electronic transformer inverter with two secondary windings. The switching action sends alternating current through the inverter transformers primary winding. This is referred to as push-pull action. The core has bipolar utilization. Bipolar utilization is discussed further below. The inverter transformers turns ratio can permit either higher or lower load voltage. The inverter transformers output is an A.C. square wave. Output filter networks can be used to obtain sine wave output. The inverter transformer can also provide electrical isolation between the inverter transformers input and output sides. Full wave rectification can be applied to the inverter transformers outputs to obtain a D.C. voltage of different value than that of the input source. This is shown in the schematic of Figure 1D. Compare the schematic of Figure 2A to the one in Figure 1D. Note in figure 2A the center-tap connections on the electronic transformer windings, a set of two switches instead of a set of four switches on the input side, the two diodes on the secondary instead of four, and the output filter inductor between the capacitor and load. The inverter transformer center-taps allow use of fewer switches and diodes. The inductors smooth out the current surges from the rectification thereby maintaining tighter output voltage regulation (less ripple voltage). The circuit in Figures 2A depicts a typical Push-Pull Forward Converter circuit. Be aware that the name for a Forward Converter circuit (and transformer) varies from industry to industry and from person to person. It may also be referred to as Buck, inverter, D.C. converter, feed forward, and others. There are also unipolar versions and there are bipolar versions that utilize saturable transformers to trigger transistor switching. Butler Winding makes electronic transformers and inverter transformers in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of

core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link.

The Difference between Bipolar and Unipolar Applications Since the connections of the electronic transformer "inverter" are alternated, the current direction through the electronic transformer will also alternate. Consequently the magnetic field polarity of the inverter transformers core will alternate between positive and negative flux directions. This is known as bipolar utilization of the inverter transformers core. This is graphically illustrated in Figure 2B. The B-H curve shown is also known as a hysteresis loop. The area inside the loop is related to the core loss. A thinner loop means less core loss. Also note the residual flux density point. In a Unipolar application the flux density, B, would never return to zero value. It would stop at Br when the current (hence also the magnetizing force, H) returns to zero. The applied voltage reversal (by switching action) ensures that the flux density returns to zero. Bipolar utilization permits use of a smaller core than unipolar utilization because it permits a larger change in the cores flux density. Fewer turns are needed to handle the same amount of power. Compare Figure 2B to Figures 3C, 4C, and 5C. Unipolar utilization occurs if the magnetic flux remains in one direction. The value may vary up and down but does not cross zero value. A unipolar application is illustrated in Figures 3A, 3B, and 3C. Some designers may refer to the transformer in Figure 3A as an inverter transformer, but it is not. It is serving as a pulse transformer with a resistive load. If we assume it to be an ideal transformer, then there is no core loss, no leakage inductance, does not store any energy, and the residual flux density is zero. Figure 3B shows the expected output if a rectangular voltage pulse is placed across the transformer (turn switch on, then off). The output will also be a rectangular pulse without any distortion. There will be a change in amplitude because of

the transformers turns ratio. The ideal transformers lack of stored energy eliminates the possibility of an inductive kickback voltage spike. This circuit does not produce an A.C. output, hence no true inverter action.

A non-ideal electronic transformer has finite inductance hence it stores some inductive energy in its magnetic field. A lower inductance results in more stored energy. Consider the non-ideal gapped transformer in the circuit shown in Figure 4A. The gap lowers the inductance of the transformer; consequently more current can flow when the switch is closed (compared to no gap). When the switch is closed the transformer directly couples power to the load plus it stores energy in its magnetic field. The field is created by the magnetizing current. The current flow due to the load does not contribute to the stored energy. When the switch is opened the magnetic field collapses. The collapse creates an inductive kickback voltage of reversed polarity. The induced secondary voltage causes current to flow through the load resistor in the reversed direction. (This is how a flyback transformer functions.) The load sees alternating current although it usually has an asymmetrical waveform. One could claim that the circuits and transformer have inverter action. The energy stored in the electronic transformers magnetic field is dissipated as heat produced by current flowing through the load resistor. Current of declining value will continue to flow until either all of the stored energy is dissipated or the switch is closed again. If completely dissipated, then the output shown in Figure 4B and the generalized hysteresis loop of Figure 4C apply. The transformer is said to be operating in discontinuous mode. The load voltage and load current reach zero value, and the cores flux density

reaches its residual value. Note that the flux density averaged over time is greater than zero. This holds for all unipolar applications. If the switch is closed again before all the energy is dissipated, then the output shown in Figure 5B and the generalized hysteresis curve of Figure 5C applies. The transformer is said to be operating in the continuous mode. The load voltage and load current remain above zero value, and the flux density does not reach its residual value. The output waveform in Figure 5B is more rectangular than that of Figure 4B.

The circuits in Figures 4A and 5A are not very practical inverter transformer circuits. To be useful the transformer must store as much energy as it directly couples to its load. Consequently, the transformer will tend to be lightly loaded and designed to have appreciable magnetizing current. Output filters would be required to produce a more symmetrical output waveform. These circuits find little use as shown here. There are D.C. biased unipolar applications, which function as inverters. They are not discussed here. Saturable Transformers as Inverter Transformers Figure 6A shows a Royer Inverter Circuit schematic that uses saturable transformers. The saturable transformer also functions as the inverter transformer. Figure 6B shows a Jensen Circuit which uses a saturable transformer and a power transformer. The power transformer functions as the inverter transformer. Both of these circuits make use of push-pull switching to achieve the inverter action. The feature of these two circuits is the transistor switching action that is activated by a voltage spike created when the saturable transformer enters saturation. An oscillation develops which maintains the necessary switching action. The theory of operation is not discussed here. It may be available on this website at some future date from the issue date of this website page. Check the available links.

Additional Technical Information This website covers a variety of transformer and inductor applications. Check the available website links to see if your topic of interest is available. If a link is not available or if a link does not provide enough information, please feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for engineering or technical assistance. Select the Contact link for contact information. Buck Boost Transformer - Push Pull Transformer When it comes to power conversion, the buck boost or "push pull" transformer application is well known. The buck boost transformer configuration is widely used in converting direct current (D.C.) voltage into another value of D.C. voltage, and in inverters. Inverters convert direct current into alternating current (A.C.). The push pull transformer is usually the preferred choice in high power switching transformer applications exceeding one kilowatt. It is usually used in a circuit known as a "forward converter" circuit. Be aware that the name for the "forward converter" circuit varies from industry to industry and from person to person. It may also be referred to as an "inverter", "D.C. converter", "buck", "feed forward", and others. A basic "forward converter" transformer circuit is illustrated in Figure 1A. It is not a push pull transformer application. The output inductor reduces ripple voltage. Pulse width modulation is used to control the value of the output voltage A center-tapped buck boost transformer application circuit is illustrated in Figure 2A. Figure 2A only shows one output. Multiple voltage outputs are possible by using either a tapped secondary winding or using multiple secondaries. Some other buck boost transformer versions are discussed further below. They are illustrated in Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6. (These include some push pull transformers without the center-taps.) The core of the transformer in Figure 1A is operated in a unipolar fashion. Unipolar operation is depicted graphically in Figure 1B. The core's magnetic "B-H" loop remains in one quadrant of the "B-H" grid. A loop occurs once every cycle. The flux density "B" and the magnetizing force "H" never cross zero hence always retain the same (or one) polarity. "H" does not have to return to zero value. The core in a push pull transformer has bipolar operation. Both "B" and "H" cross zero value and reverse polarity. Bipolar operation is depicted graphically in Figure 2B. Note that the "dB" value

(change in B) in Figure 2B for the bipolar push pull transformer can be more than twice the "dB" value shown in Figure 1B for the unipolar forward converter (assuming the same core material). Push pull transformer (bipolar) operation permits one to handle the same amount of power in a smaller package than for that of a unipolar operation. There are tradeoffs. The buck boost transformer operation requires more switching elements and its control circuitry is more complicated. Consequently a push pull transformer application is more expensive. The voltage pulses must be adequately controlled to avoid phenomena known as saturation walk. Center tapped push pull transformers have winding capacitance issues at higher frequencies. Winding imbalances can contribute to saturation walk. Power ratings for push pull or buck boost transformer can vary from a fraction of a Watt to Kilowatts. Megawatts is possible, but definitely beyond Butler Winding's capabilities. Size correlates with power hence size (and weight) can vary from a fraction of a cubic centimeter (several grams) to multiple cubic meters (thousands of kilograms). Buck boost transformers can be wound on toroids, bobbins, and tubes. Core materials vary depending on the application. Laminated or tape wound grain oriented silicon steel is common for low frequency inverter buck boost transformers. Ferrite core materials are common for high frequency switching push pull transformers. If minimal size is a requirement, nickel-iron alloys may be chosen for the 1 to 20 kilohertz range. Minimal energy storage is desired so cores have minimal air gaps in their structure. Butler Winding manufactures buck boost transformers in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Winding's capabilities, click on our "capabilities" link.

Push Pull - Buck Boost Transformer Rectification The push pull / buck boost transformer in Figure 3 is the same as the push pull transformer in Figure 2A except for secondary rectification. Figure 2A achieves full wave rectification using a center-tap. It requires two diodes. Figure 3 achieves full wave rectification with a full wave bridge. It requires four diodes. Four diodes result in more power loss, but elimination of the center-tap simplifies transformer construction and reduces winding capacitance. The primary and secondary winding halves as shown in Figure 2A conduct current on alternate half cycles. Their maximum duty cycle is a 0.5 ratio (or 50%). Figure 3 requires approximately half of the secondary turns of Figure 2A, but its secondary winding may see a maximum duty cycle near 1 (or 100%), hence its wire must handle twice the r.m.s. current value. Both transformers are about the same size.

Half Bridge Push-Pull Transformers Compare figure 4 to figure 2A. Figure 4 is a half bridge push pull / buck boost transformer application. This configuration eliminates the primary center-tap and reduces primary winding capacitance. The two series connected capacitors shown in Figure 4 effectively cut the input voltage to the push pull transformer in half. Consequently, for the same power rating, the push pull / buck boost transformer requires one quarter of the total primary turns to support the halved voltage, but it must handle twice the amount of input current.

The primary winding may see a maximum current duty cycle near 1, hence its wire may see 4 times the r.m.s current value as wire used in the primary winding halves of Figure 2A. Both transformers are about the same size. To achieve the same output voltage, the number of secondary turns is about the same as that of figure 2A, but the secondary over primary turns ratio is quadrupled because the primary turns of figure 4 are one quarter of that of figure 2A. The output of figure 4 is a full wave center-tap configuration. Alternately, it could be a full wave bridge configuration with approximately half the number of secondary turns.

Full Bridge Push Pull Transformers Compare figure 5 to figure 4. Figure 5 is a full bridge push pull / buck boost transformer application. Like the half bridge configuration of figure 4, this configuration eliminates the primary center-tap, reduces primary winding capac-itance, & is about the same size. The two series connected capacitors are replaced by two additional transistors as shown in Figure 4. The voltage supplied to the input of the push pull transformer of figure 5 is the same as that for figure 2A. For the same power rating and source voltage, the push pull transformer of figure 5 requires half the primary turns as that of figure 2A and it must handle the same amount of input current. The primary winding of figure 5 may see a max current duty cycle near 1, hence its wire may see 2 times the r.m.s current value as wire used in the primary winding halves of Figure 2A. For the same output voltage, the number of secondary turns is about the same as that of figure 2A, but the secondary over primary turns ratio is doubled because the primary turns (fig. 5) are halved. The output of figure 5 is a full wave center-tap configuration. Alternately, it could be a full wave bridge configuration with approximately half the number of secondary turns.

The Boost Push Pull Transformer Application The prior push pull transformer applications utilize an inductor in the output circuit to reduce output voltage ripple. If there were more than one output, an inductor would be used with each output. An alternate would be to place one inductor in series with the primary center-tap of a push-pull center-tap transformer. This circuit is illustrated in Figure 6. To charge the inductor the two transistors are made to conduct at the same time. Charging current flow through both halves of the primary winding but in opposite directions resulting in magnetic cancellation of each other hence the transformer windings act as a short to ground. Opening one of the transistor switches results in current flow in only one of the primary winding halves. Alternate opening of the transistor switches results in a push-pull transformer action. Control circuitry is more complex.

Need More Technical Information? A push pull transformers is a type of forward converter transformer. More information about the theory of operation for forward converter transformers is available under the category of switch mode (switching) transformers. Click on the available link for switch mode power transformers. Much of the theory for flyback transformers also applies to boost inductors Click on the available link for flyback transformers. There are also links for other types of transformers, inductors, chokes, etc. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Pulse Transformers The magnetic flux in a typical A.C. transformer core alternates between positive and negative values. The magnetic flux in the typical pulse transformer does not. The typical pulse transformer operates in an unipolar mode ( flux density may meet but does not cross zero ). A fixed D.C. current could be used to create a biasing D.C. magnetic field in the transformer core, thereby forcing the field to cross over the zero line. Pulse transformers usually (not always) operate at high frequency necessitating use of low loss cores (usually ferrites). Figure 1A shows the electrical schematic for a pulse transformer. Figure 1B shows an equivalent high frequency circuit representation for a transformer which is applicable to pulse transformers. The circuit treats parasitic elements, leakage inductances

and winding capacitance, as lumped circuit elements, but they are actually distributed elements. Pulse transformers can be divided into two major types, power and signal. An example of a power pulse transformer application would be precise control of a heating element from a fixed D.C. voltage source. The voltage may be stepped up or down as needed by the pulse transformers turns ratio. The power to the pulse transformer is turned on and off using a switch (or switching device) at an operating frequency and a pulse duration that delivers the required amount of power. Consequently, the temperature is also controlled. The transformer provides electrical isolation between the input and output. The transformers used in forward converter power supplies are essentially power type pulse transformers. There exists high-power pulse transformer designs that have exceeded 500 kilowatts of power capacity. The design of signal type of pulse transformer focuses on the delivery of a signal at the output. The transformer delivers a pulse-like signal or a series of pulses. The turns ratio of the pulse transformer can be used to adjust signal amplitude and provide impedance matching between the source and load. Pulse transformers are often used in the transmittal of digital data and in the gate drive circuitry of transistors, F.E.T.s, S.C.R.s, and etc. In the latter application, the pulse transformers may be referred to as gate transformers or gate drive transformers. Signal type of pulse transformers handle relatively low levels of power. For digital data transmission, transformers are designed to minimized signal distortion. The transformers might be operated with a D.C. bias current. Many signal type pulse transformers are also categorized as wideband transformers. Signal type pulse transformers are frequently used in communication systems and digital networks. Pulse transformer designs vary widely in terms of power rating, inductance, voltage level (low to high), operating frequency, size, impedance, bandwidth (frequency response), packaging, winding capacitance, and other parameters. Designers try to minimize parasitic elements such as leakage inductance and winding capacitance by using winding configurations which optimize the coupling between the windings. Butler Winding can make (and has made) pulse transformers in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of core

with bobbin structures ( E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others ), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can ( and have done ) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link.

PULSE TRANSFORMER OPERATING PRINCIPLES Pulse transformer designers usually seek to minimize voltage droop, rise time, and pulse distortion. Droop is the decline of the output pulse voltage over the duration of one pulse. It is cause by the magnetizing current increasing during the time duration of the pulse. To understand how voltage droop and pulse distortion occurs, one needs to understand the magnetizing ( exciting, or no-load ) current effects, load current effects, and the effects of leakage inductance and winding capacitance. The designer also needs to avoid core saturation and therefore needs to understand the voltage-time product.

Magnetizing ( No-Load ) Current, its Effects, and Its Relation to Saturation Consider the simple pulse transformer circuit of Figure 2A and its equivalent circuit of Figure 2B. There is no source impedance, winding capacitances, or secondary leakage inductance to worry about. With both switches open, there cannot be any primary or secondary currents flowing. Now close the primary switch. Since the secondary load is not connected, the pulse transformers primary winding acts like an inductor placed across a voltage source. Primary current begins to flow. This is the magnetizing current ( no secondary current ) and is governed by the differential equation V(t) = L x d(I)/dt + Rp x I(t), with units of volts, henries, amps, and seconds. If the power supply has constant voltage, Rp = zero, & L = Lkp+Lm is constant, the differential equation can be solved for I(t), I(t) = Io + V x t / ( Lkp+Lm ), where Io = the initial current which equals zero. Notice that the current increases at a linear rate over time and that the rate in inversely proportional to the inductance. The current flows through Np turns creating Np x I(t) amount of magnetizing force ( amp-turns ) which in turns creates a magnetic flux density in the pulse transformer core. Eventually the increasing primary magnetizing current would exceed the magnetic flux capacity of the pulse transformer core and will saturate the core. Once saturation occurs the primary current rapidly increases towards infinity ( in theory ). In a real circuit the primary winding resistance ( and source impedance ) would limit the current. See Figure 3A for graphical illustration. For non-zero Rp, I(t) = Io + ( V/Rp ) x ( 1 e to the ( -Rp x t / ( Lkp + Lm )) power ). The effect of Rp is graphically illustrated in Figures 3B and 3C. Rp extends the time it takes for the unloaded transformer ( or an inductor ) to saturate. If Rp is sufficiently large, it prevents the transformer ( or inductor ) from saturating altogether. Regardless of saturation, Rp places an upper limit on the primary current value.

Voltage Droop For Rp = 0 the source voltage divides proportional across Lkp and Lm hence the voltage across Lm = V x Lm / ( Lm+Lkp ) = Vm. The induced secondary voltage becomes equal to Ns x Vm / Np. For Rp > zero a voltage drop occurs across Rp. The value of this drop increases in value as the primary current increases with time, hence Vm decrease over time and consequently the secondary voltage declines over time. Thus Rp and magnetizing current contribute to secondary voltage droop. Lkp does not contribute to the droop in the no-load case but does contribute to a lower secondary starting voltage for both the no load and under load cases. Droop is graphically illustrated in Figure 4B. Compare it against the ideal pulse shown in Figure 4A.

Voltage-time product Pulse transformers, being typically unipolar (D.C.) applications, require the primary switch to be opened ( thereby removing the voltage source ) before saturation occurs, whereas A.C. applications reversed the applied voltage before saturation occurs. Unipolar applications require that sufficient time be allowed to pass to re-set the core before starting the next pulse. This time permits the magnetic field to collapse ( reset ). The field does not completely collapse to zero value ( unless forced to zero, or lower ) because of core material remanence. A slight air gap may be used to bring remanence closer to zero value. The gap lowers the pulse transformer inductance. The flux range between remanence and the maximum flux is referred to as dB, the maximum change in flux density during the pulse duration, dt. The dB of the typical pulse transformer is less than half for that of an A.C. application because flux in A.C. applications can go from positive Bmax to negative Bmax. Operating frequency and maximum expected temperature affect the choice of maximum usable flux density value, Bmax. Saturation can be avoided by applying the following equation; dB x Np x Ac x Sf = V x dt x 100000000, where dt is the maximum time duration of the pulse, Ac is the cores cross-sectional area and Sf is the core stacking factor ratio. Units are gausses, turns, square centimeters, volts and seconds. Be aware that dt does not include reset time, tr. Maximum operating frequency equals 1 / ( dt

+ tr ). The voltage-time product, V x dt is quite useful. The size and cost of a pulse transformer is roughly proportional to this product. Kickback Voltage In the foregoing discussion the primary switch was opened thereby interrupting the current flowing through the transformer primary. The resulting collapse in the magnetic field will induce a voltage reversal in the transformer windings. The more rapid the field collapse is, the higher the induced voltage. The transformer will try to dissipate the energy stored in its collapsing magnetic field. If the transformer was under load, the induced voltage would cause current to flow into the load. In the no-load case of this example, the transformer does not have any readily available place to dissipate the energy. The transformer will generate the voltage necessary to dissipate the stored energy, hence a high voltage kickback ( or flyback or backswing ) voltage will occur in the windings. In a real circuit the transformer will induce eddy currents in its core thereby dissipating the energy as core loss. In a real circuit the high voltages can damage the switching elements ( transistors, F.E.T.s, S.C.R.s, etc. ). Many designs include protective circuitry across the primary winding. Secondary Load Current Effects and Rise Time Consider again the simple pulse transformer circuit of Figure 2A and its equivalent circuit of Figure 2B. Initally, with both switches open, there cannot be any primary or secondary currents flowing. Close the secondary load switch and then close the primary switch. Current flows through the primary winding. The L x dI(t)/dt action induces a voltage in the primary winding which opposes the source voltage. A voltage, Vsi, is also induced in the secondary winding causing secondary current to flow. The ampere-turns created by the secondary current work against the induced voltage that opposes the source voltage. Consequently, the source voltage supplies more current flow through the primary. Currents rapidly increase until either the secondary current or primary current encounters a current limitation. Examples of such limits are the secondary load and winding resistances limiting the secondary current or the source impedance and primary winding resistance and primary leakage inductance limiting the primary current. Once a limit is encountered, an equilibrium is quickly established except for the magnetizing current. The

primary current has two components; Irs, the load current transformed ( reflected ) to the primary winding and Im, the magnetizing current. As in the no-load case, the magnetizing current starts at zero and increases over time. The pulse transformer must be switched off before saturation occurs. In this example the load is resistive, there is no secondary leakage inductance, and there is no secondary winding capacitance; hence a purely resistive load current is reflected to the primary winding. The primary current is larger than it was in the no-load case, hence more voltage drop is expected across the primary winding resistance. Consequently less voltage, Vm, is available across Lm which results in less induced voltage in the secondary winding. Secondary current flow through the secondary winding resistance causes another voltage drop hence lower transformer output voltage. Under load, both the primary and secondary winding resistance contribute to a lower secondary voltage. The secondary winding resistance does not contribute to pulse droop. The reflected load current, Irs, does not flow thorughthe mutual inductance, Lm, but doe flow through the primary leakage inductance, Lkp. Lkp restricts the flow of the primary current ( hence reflected load current also ). Consequently the reflected load current cannot immediately reach its full value ( nor can the secondary current ). It is effectively delayed. Until the reflected load current reaches its full value, a larger voltage drop will occur across Lkp then there was in the no-load case. This larger voltage diminishes in value over time. Consequently Vm exhibits a time delay in reaching peak voltage value. This delay is also seen in the secondary output voltage. This delay is known as rise time. Rise time is graphically illustrated in Figure 4B. Effects of Winding Capacitance, Secondary Leakage Inductance, and Core loss Now consider the equivalent pulse transformer circuit of Figure 5. The circuit has all the components of the circuit in Figure 2B, but also has primary winding capacitance, secondary winding capacitance, core loss, and secondary leakage inductance. Start with both switches open and no capacitive energy and no inductive energy. All currents are initially zero. Close the secondary switch then close the primary switch. The primary leakage inductance, Lkp, restricts the flow of primary current by opposing the source voltage. The opposing voltage is generated by Lkp x d(I)/dt

action. Current flow ( from the source ) finds the uncharged winding capacitance, Cp to be a much easier path, hence a relatively large amount of current flows into the winding capacitance. This large amount of current could be called a surge current because it will diminish over time as the capacitance is charged. The surge causes a relatively large voltage drop across the primary winding resistance, Rp, thereby initially lowering the voltage available to Lkp and Lm. Over time, as the surge current diminishes, the voltage drop across Rp diminishes, and the voltage across Lkp and Lm reaches full ( peak ) value. The surge effectively delays the peak voltage across Lm. This in turn delays peak secondary voltage. The delay contributes to rise time, hence Cp contributes to rise time. As discussed earlier, Lpk restricts flow of the reflected load current and consequently also contributes to rise TIME

A similar consequence occurs with the secondary winding capacitance, Cs. Any current supplied by induced secondary voltage must charge Cs as the secondary voltage tries to rise to peak value. This delays the secondary in reaching peak voltage, hence Cs also contributes to rise time. Secondary leakage inductance, Lks, restricts secondary current flow just like Lkp restricted primary current flow. Lks also delays the secondary peak output voltage, hence it also contributes to rise time.

Core loss resistance, Rc, provides a relatively small current shunt path across Lm just like the reflected secondary load current does. It has the same effect but the effect is much smaller. To summarize, Winding capacitances and leakage inductances act to increase rise time. ( They also generate trailing edges which is discussed later. ) They may also contribute to spurious oscillations. In a typical pulse transformer design, core loss does not have much effect. The Trailing Edge For an ideal pulse transformer, once the primary switch is opened the secondary pulse should immediately end. This does not happen. The pulse transformer tries to dissipate the energy stored in Lm and in the parasitic components Cp, Cs, Lkp, and Lks. The inductance will induce voltages as their magnetic fields collapse. The capacitor charge will drain, but will not drain instantaneously. The capacitances may temporarily supply current to the inductances. As a result, there is a sloped decline of the secondary output voltage after the primary switch is opened. This sloped decline is referred to as the trailing edge. Some combinations of capactiance and inductance could produce spurious oscillations ( known as ringing ). A trailing edge is graphically illustrated in Figure 3B. Pulse Distortion Ideally the output pulse waveform should be identical in shape to the input pulse waveform except for a desired amplitude change due to the step-up or step-down turns ratio. Any other deviation is considered to be distortion. Rise time, droop, trailing edges, and spurious oscillations are all considered to be signal distortions. Figure 3B illustrates all of these distortions. Electronic Transformer - Trigger Transformers There are many types of eletronic transformers. What distinguishes a trigger transformer from other types of electronic transformers? Basically, it is application! As the word trigger implies, a trigger transformer is used in a circuit that initiates some sort of action or event. Once initiated, some applications may no longer require continued presence of a voltage to

complete the action or event. Other applications may need the voltage but for a limited amount of time. Regardless, the application provides a voltage pulse to the trigger transformers primary. The trigger transformers turns ratio steps up or steps down the secondary voltage as needed. The trigger transformers secondary then supplies voltage or current to its load. The load is usually the gate of a semiconductor switch such as a transistor, F.E.T., S.C.R., etc.. The trigger transformer also provides voltage isolation between the primary side circuit and the secondary side circuit. Most circuit designers would refer to the trigger transformer as a type of pulse transformer. This website provides some explanation on pulse transformer operation. Click on the Electronic Transformers button and then select Pulse Transformer. One example of a trigger transformer application is the electronic flash in modern cameras. A basic circuit is shown in Figure 1. A charging circuit takes energy from a battery and charges two electrolytic capacitors ( approx. 300V ). The negative sides are both connected to ground. One capacitor is much larger than the other is. It is connected to the electrodes of a glass tube filled with xenon gas. This capacitor provides the energy needed to produce the flash, but lacks sufficient voltage to initiate the flash. The primary of the trigger transformer is attached to the positive side of the smaller capacitor through a switch. The trigger transformer secondary is connected to a metal plate(s) or grid(s) that partially surrounds the glass tube. The trigger transformer is designed to step up the voltage to high voltage levels. When the switch is closed the trigger transformer places high voltage across the plates. The high voltage ionizes the gas inside the tube. The gas becomes conductive. The large capacitor discharges through the gas thereby producing a bright white flash. The capacitor rapidly discharges its energy and must be recharged to produce another flash. The switch between the trigger transformer and the smaller capacitor is opened. A small drain resistor is placed across the high voltage plates to discharge the voltage on the plates. In this example the trigger transformer aided the initiation ( or triggering ) of the flash by delivering a stepped up voltage pulse. Figure 1 shows the trigger transformer windings grounded together. With proper circuit design the trigger transformer could also provide voltage isolation.

In the preceding example, the trigger transformer ( which is a pulse electronic transformer ) design does not saturate the core and usually employs unipolar core utilization. There are trigger transformer applications that use bipolar core utilization and/or intentionally saturates the core. Bipolar core utilization mean the magnetic flux alternates between positive and negative directions. Unipolar means the flux direction remains either positive or negative. Two examples of this are found in the Royer Inverter Circuit and the closely related Jensen Circuit. These are shown in Figure 2A and 2B. Operating theory will not be discussed in detail here but is briefly summarized; transformer saturation repeatedly occurs in alternating directions which in turn triggers ( switches ) the transistors on and off in alternating fashion, thereby creating an A.C. output voltage. The switching of the transistors forces the current direction to alternate which then forces the alternating direction of core saturation. For more information about saturable transformers click on the Electronic Transformers button, then select Saturable Transformers. Figure 3 is a unipolar application which shows how a trigger transformer can use core saturation can to shorten the time duration of a pulse. The trigger transformer usually has a high impedance load ( lightly loaded ) hence it acts much like a saturated inductor but with voltage step up or step down capability and voltage isolation. The primary winding of the trigger transformer has much higher impedance than the series resistor until saturation occurs. Before saturation most of the circuits voltage drop is across the trigger transformers primary. The trigger transformers turns ratio can adjust the secondary output voltage. There will be voltage droop. After saturation, most of the voltage drop is across the resistor, the secondary output voltage is substantially reduced, and the time duration of the output pulse has been reduced. The pulses time duration can be calculated from the transformers volt-second product. This website provides some explanation of the volt-second product. Click on the Electronic Transformers button and then select Pulse Transformer. Butler Winding can make ( and has made ) pulse and trigger transformers. There are a wide variety of shapes and sizes available. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures ( E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others ), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can ( and

have done ) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link.

Gate Drive Transformers - Electronic Transformer There are many types of transformers. What distinguishes a gate drive transformer from other types of transformers? Basically, it is application! Modern day electronic circuits utilize many gated semiconductor devices such as ordinary transistors, field effect transistors, and S.C.R.s and others. Gate drive transformers are used in some of these circuits. A signal must be supplied to ( or removed from ) the devices gate node to activate ( or deactivate ) the device. When used, gate drive transformers are located within the circuitry driving the gate. Gate drive transformers are used to modify the voltage level to the gate, provide impedance matching, and to provide voltage isolation. Gate drive transformer may be used to deliver voltage to the grids or plates of a vacuum tube or flash tube. Some gate drive transformers simply deliver a voltage pulse or a series of voltage pulses to a semiconductor gate. A gate drive transformer functioning in this manner could also be called a pulse transformer. Most circuit designers would consider these gate drive transformers to be a type of pulse transformer. If the gate drive transformers pulse initiates some action or event, the gate drive transformer could be called a trigger transformer. Some applications require a close reproduction of the pulse. The gate transformer designer will seek to minimize winding capacitance and leakage inductance because these parasitic components distort the signal. This website includes information about trigger transformers and pulse transformers. The latter includes information on the theory of operation. Click on the available links if you want to view them. Some amplifying circuits use a gate drive transformer to deliver a signal to a semiconductor gate. Here the objective is to reproduce the signal, but with

increased power and increased voltage or current. The gate transformer designer will seek to minimize winding capacitance and leakage inductance because these parasitic components distort the signal. In most amplifying circuits the signal is injected into a direct current biased transistor circuit, hence the gate transformer may have to tolerate a D.C. current bias. Even though these gate drive transformers drive a gate, circuit designers will usually refer to them as signal transformers. Gate drive transformers exist in a variety of shapes and sizes. There is also a wide variety of core materials available for use with different applications. If you need more information please contact Butler Winding and ask for Engineering.

Butler Winding can make ( and has made ) gate drive transformers. There are a wide variety of shapes and sizes available. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures ( E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others ), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can ( and have done ) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link.

Current Transformers What is the purpose of a current transformer? It measures alternating current flowing through a conductor. Since it is used to measure current, a current transformer is often classified as a type of instrument transformer. One could measure the voltage drop across a known resistor. This is okay for low current applications but is often impractical for high current applications. The resistor consumes a lot of power (lowering efficiency) unless the resistor is very low in value, in which case there may be very little voltage to measure. The resistor could be excessively large. The resistors heat may affect the resistor value, thereby reducing the accuracy of the measurement. A current transformer can accurately measure the alternating current and put out a reasonable voltage, which is proportional to the current, but without as much heat and size that an appropriate resistor would require. The current transformer can perform its function with very little insertion loss into the conductor current being measured. The current transformer also provides voltage isolation between the conductor and the measuring circuitry. Proper function of a current transformer requires use of a load resistor. The load resistor is often referred to as a burden resistor. The best core structure for a current transformer in terms of electrical performance is a toroidal coil. Many toroidal current transformers have only one winding. This winding is usually a high turns winding which functions as the secondary winding. In application, the toroidal current transformer is slipped over an end of a high current wire or buss bar, which conducts the primary current. Said wire or buss bar constitutes a one turn primary winding. Split core current transformers are designed so that they can be assembled around a buss bar without disconnecting the buss bar. "C"cores and "U" core structures are commonly used for split-core current transformers because they are relatively easy to take apart and put back together around the buss bar. Historically, this has not been practical for toroidal coils, but there are now some flexible toroids, which permit the split-core feature of installing it around a buss bar. They have limited application. Some printed circuit board applications will utilize bobbin wound current transformers with two or more windings. One winding is an integral part of the circuitry, while the other winding acts the secondary.

Butler Winding can make (and has made) current transformers in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes toroids, U and C cores for split-core applications; various standard types of "core with bobbin" structures (E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, and others), and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can ( and have done ) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Current Transformer Theory of Operation. In the typical current transformer application, the primary winding consists of one to a few turns of wire. The primary wire size is much larger than the secondary wire size. The number of secondary winding turns is a selected multiple of the primary turns. Figure 1 gives a circuit schematic of a current transformer application. The current transformer shown represents an ideal transformer. The ideal transformer has infinite no-load input impedance, 100% magnetic coupling between transformer windings ( hence no leakage inductance), zero winding resistance, zero core losses, and no capacitance. ( Capacitance, leakage inductance, winding resistance, and core losses are considered to be parasitic components. ) The output voltage is exactly proportional to the primary voltage times the turns' ratio. There is no regulation drop. There are no losses. Since there are no parasitic components the ideal current transformer is 100% accurate. The conservation of energy requires that the output power equals the input power, hence Vp x Ip must equal Vs x Is. Since Vs = Vp x Ns / Np, it can be shown that Is = Ip x Np / Ns. Is = Vs / RL, hence Ip = Ns x Vs / ( RL x Np ). With an ideal current transformer there is no phase shift ( except 180 degrees depending on the choice of output connections ). The ideal transformers secondary resistive load consumes power equal to Is x Is x RL. This same amount of power must be consumed at the primary terminals. The secondary load RL can be replaced ( commonly referred to as

reflected ) with a resistor across the primary terminals, RLr. By applying the conservation of energy, one can show that RLr equals Np x Np x RL / (Ns x Ns), OR RLr equals RL times the turns ratio squared (where turns ratio = Np / Ns). If Np / Ns is small, then the RLr is very small. The primary voltage drop is Ip x RLr. A very small value for RLr means that the current transformer presents a low insertion loss to the primary current and a low primary voltage drop.

The reflected load impedance acts in parallel to the transformers own input impedance. The ideal current transformer has infinite input impedance. This infinite impedance would correlate to an infinite inductance inserted in series into the path of the primary conductor. Without the load (or burden) the current transformer acts like an inductor and would completely block the primary current flow. Any constant value of alternating current would, in theory, produce an infinite primary voltage drop. In reality the current transformers input inductance (hence also impedance) cannot be infinity. The current transformer has an inductance value which acts in parallel to the reflected load. The core has losses that can be represented as a resistor in parallel with the reflected load and the transformers self-inductance (no load inductance). Without the load resistor the inductance and core loss will place an upper limit on the primary voltage, but this voltage could still be substantial. Core saturation is also a possibility. A turns ratio step-up would result in even higher secondary voltage. Any circuitry beyond the secondary

load resistor could be subjected to high voltage, possibly resulting in circuit damage. Because of this potential high voltage, the load resistor should never be removed from the secondary when the current transformer is being powered. Figure 2A shows an equivalent circuit schematic for a current transformer with load RL. The ideal (induced) secondary voltage is now denoted as Vsi and Vs now denotes the voltage at the secondary terminals. Notice that the schematic contains the ideal current transformer and load as before plus transformer mutual inductance Lm, secondary winding resistance Rs, core loss resistor Rc, secondary leakage inductance Lks, and primary leakage inductance Lkp. Just like for the load resistor, the other secondary circuit components can be reflected to the primary side of the transformer. This is illustrated in Figure 2C. The parasitic components, Rs, Lkp, and Lks, all act to lower the output voltage across RL, hence the output voltage, Vout, will not equal the induced secondary voltage Vsi. Rs and Lks act in series with RL and are reflected to the primary side along with Rs. Their presence presents added impedance to the primary current hence an increase in primary voltage in proportion to the impedance. Consequently, RL still has the same voltage drop and current flow as it did without Lks and Rs even though Vs does not equal Vout. The phase shift associated with Lks will cause some slight deviation from the ideal current ratio (which equals the turns ratio). The current transformers self (no-load) inductance Lm and the core loss Rc shunt current away from the reflected load and reflected parasitic components. Their impedances act in parallel to the reflected impedances, consequently lowering the impedance seen by the primary current and the resulting primary voltage. Less primary voltage means less output voltage and less secondary current. Consequently Lm and Rc also cause deviation from the ideal current ratio. As long as Rc, Lm, Lkp, Lks, and Rs are constant in value, The actual current ratio will be some fixed ratio times the ideal (or desired) current ratio. One can compensate for the deviation from the desired current ratio by appropriate choice of secondary turns. The number of turns will be a little lower than that for the associated ideal turns ratio. For constant values accuracy could be 100% except for any turn resolution limitations (full turns versus fractional turns).

Accuracy concerns arise from non-constant values for Rc, Lm, and to a lesser degree from Lkp and Lks. These values usually vary with core induction levels; hence they vary over the range of primary current being measured. (Air core transformers are stable but magnetic coupling is relatively poor hence relatively large leakage inductances.) Since Rc and Lm impedances act in parallel to the reflected load, higher Rc and Lm values have a smaller effect and consequently increase accuracy. Cores materials with high permeability and low core loss are preferred for high accuracy applications. At higher frequencies winding capacitance becomes a concern. Figure 3 gives an equivalent circuit schematic, which includes winding capacitance. Leakage inductance and winding capacitance are actually distributed components, but are shown as lumped approximate equivalent components. Like Lm, winding capacitances shunt current around the reflected load. The inductances and capacitances can interact and consequently may produce spurious oscillations. It is also possible to develop parallel resonance. High frequency coil designs seek to minimize winding capacitances. If you need assistance with your current transformer design, please contact Butler Winding and ask for Engineering.

Toroidal Current Transformers Like other types of current transformers, the toroidal current transformer measures alternating current flowing through a conductor. Since they are used to measure current, current transformers are often classified as a type of instrument transformer. One way of distinguishing types of current transformers is by the type of cores used in their construction. The term toroidal refers to the shape of the core that the winding of a toroidal current transformer is wound on. The core is circular. Its cross-section may be rectangular or round. The round cross-section gives better electrical performance. The cores are often called ring cores. In contrast, the term split-core in split-core current transformers is used because the transformer core is split into two pieces which allow it to be assembled and disassembled around a buss bar without disconnecting either end of the buss bar. It is possible to make a split-core toroidal current transformer. Historically, it has been impractical to do so, but there are now some flexible toroids, which permit the split-core feature of installing it around a buss bar. They have limited application. Toroidal current transformers give better electrical performance than other types of current transformers. Their shape minimizes the magnetic path length, minimizes the winding turn length, produces less stray magnetic flux, and optimizes magnetic coupling, and minimizes leakage inductance.

The toroidal current transformer is the most common way to measuring large amounts of alternating (or even pulsing) current. It is preferred over the measurement of the voltage drop across a known resistor and over split-core transformers. The resistor is usually impractical for high current applications. The toroidal current transformer can accurately measure the alternating current and put out a reasonable voltage, which is proportional to the current. The toroidal current transformer does so with very little insertion loss, while an appropriate resistor would produce lots of heat and consequently produce considerable insertion loss. Like other current transformers, the toroidal current transformer also provides voltage isolation between the conductor and the measuring circuitry. Measurement over a resistor does not. Proper function of the toroidal current transformer requires use of a load resistor. The load resistor is often referred to as a burden resistor. Presence of the load resistor enables a current transformer to perform its function with little insertion loss. Without the load resistor the core could saturate and no longer have the desired current ratio, or the no-load inductance could limit primary current flow. Core materials with high permeability and low core losses give better electrical performance. Further explanation and theory about the operation of current transformers is given further below. Current transformers, including the toroidal current transformer, may have multiple windings. The typical toroidal current transformers have only one winding. This winding is usually a high turns winding which functions as the secondary winding. In application, the toroidal current transformer is slipped over an end of a high current wire or buss bar, which conducts the primary current. Said wire or buss bar constitutes a one turn primary winding. Butler Winding can make (and has made) toroidal current transformers in a wide variety of sizes and in a variety of core materials. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and some limited perfect layering. Butler Winding can (and has done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of toroid winding machines. That includes toroid-taping machines. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two

programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Current Transformer Design Specifications The designer must either determine or be supplied with the information needed to design the current transformer. The needed information is listed below along with a brief description if needed. Add any additional items required by your particular application. Describe Primary Current State maximum current value and type of measurement (r.m.s. average, peak, etc.), Give type of waveform (sine wave, square wave, triangular, etc.). State either continuous current or describe the applicable duty cycle. Give Number of Primary Turns This is the number of times the primary conductor (buss bar) passes through the core window. The Desired Current Ratio This is simply the desired secondary current value (at a specified value of primary current) divided by the primary current value that generates said value of secondary current. Alternatively, a turns ratio could be specified. but dont expect the current ratio to exactly equal the turns ratio. Define the Output Burden ( Load Resistor ) Specify the value and type of the intended secondary load. The type of load is usually resistive ( a resistor ), but could be inductive or capacitive ( which complicates things ). Alternatively, the desired output voltage per unit of primary current can be specified. The value of the load resistor can then be calculated. Required Accuracy This is usually expressed as either a maximum percentage or maximum absolute change over the entire primary current range. It includes both measurement tolerances and variations over the operating range(s). It may be expressed over a portion of the operating range or at specific operating points. Minimum Inside Window Dimensions This is the primary conductor ( buss bar ) dimensions plus any additional distance needed to clear any obstacles encountered during installation of the current transformer..

Dimensional

Constraints

Overall

width,

length,

thickness.

Termination Describe how you want the secondary terminated. Some possible examples are: terminal block, lead wires ( with or without terminal lugs), or header ( with p.c.b. pins or pads ). If leads, what length, insulation type, voltage rating, etc.. Mounting - Describe how you expect it to be mounted. Will it be supported by the primary conductor ( hang on the buss bar ), or will the current transformer support the primary conductor. Voltage Isolation Requirements In many applications, the current transformers secondary winding rests on the primary conductor ( buss bar ), hence it must be adequately insulated according the expected conductor voltage potential and/or the required equipment voltage classification for the intended application. Corona Requirements, if applicable Give test criteria: maximum test voltage, minimum voltage ramping time, minimum voltage inception value, minimum voltage extinguish value. Maximum Temperatures Specify the maximum ambient temperature and the maximum expected temperature of the primary ( buss bar ) conductor. If applicable, state the maximum allowed temperature rise. Application Standards -- Application standards may exclude use of some materials and require use of some materials . Some examples of such standards are minimum temperature ratings ( regardless if actual is less ), flame retardancy, vibration, out-gassing, and required labeling. Environmental Restrictions Examples are: poor cooling due to confined space, corrosive environment, water spray, ultra-violet light, and vibration.

Current Transformer Theory of Operation. In the typical current transformer application, the primary winding consists of one to a few turns of wire. The primary wire size is much larger than the secondary wire size. The number of secondary winding turns is a selected

multiple of the primary turns. Figure 1 gives a circuit schematic of a current transformer application. The current transformer shown represents an ideal transformer. The ideal transformer has infinite no-load input impedance, 100% magnetic coupling between transformer windings ( hence no leakage inductance), zero winding resistance, zero core losses, and no capacitance. ( Capacitance, leakage inductance, winding resistance, and core losses are considered to be parasitic components. ) The output voltage is exactly proportional to the primary voltage times the turns' ratio. There is no regulation drop. There are no losses. Since there are no parasitic components the ideal current transformer is 100% accurate. The conservation of energy requires that the output power equals the input power, hence Vp x Ip must equal Vs x Is. Since Vs = Vp x Ns / Np, it can be shown that Is = Ip x Np / Ns. Is = Vs / RL, hence Ip = Ns x Vs / ( RL x Np ). With an ideal current transformer there is no phase shift ( except 180 degrees depending on the choice of output connections ). The ideal transformers secondary resistive load consumes power equal to Is x Is x RL. This same amount of power must be consumed at the primary terminals. The secondary load RL can be replaced ( commonly referred to as reflected ) with a resistor across the primary terminals, RLr. By applying the conservation of energy, one can show that RLr equals Np x Np x RL / ( Ns x Ns ), OR RLr equals RL times the turns ratio squared ( where turns ratio = Np / Ns ). If Np / Ns is small, then the RLr is very small. The primary voltage drop is Ip x RLr. A very small value for RLr means that the current transformer presents a low insertion loss to the primary current and a low primary voltage drop.

The reflected load impedance acts in parallel to the transformers own input impedance. The ideal current transformer has infinite input impedance. This infinite impedance would correlate to an infinite inductance inserted in series into the path of the primary conductor. Without the load (or burden) the current transformer acts like an inductor and would completely block the primary current flow. Any constant value of alternating current would, in theory, produce an infinite primary voltage drop. In reality the current transformers input inductance (hence also impedance) cannot be infinity. The current transformer has an inductance value which acts in parallel to the reflected load. The core has losses, which can be represented as a resistor in parallel with the reflected load and the transformers self-inductance (no load inductance). Without the load resistor the inductance and core loss will place an upper limit on the primary voltage, but this voltage could still be substantial. Core saturation is also a possibility. A turns ratio step-up would result in even higher secondary voltage. Any circuitry beyond the secondary load resistor could be subjected to high voltage, possibly resulting in circuit damage. Because of this potential high voltage, the load resistor should never be removed from the secondary when the current transformer is being powered. Figure 2A shows an equivalent circuit schematic for a current transformer with load RL. The ideal (induced) secondary voltage is now denoted as Vsi and Vs now denotes the voltage at the secondary terminals. Notice that the schematic contains the ideal current transformer and load as before plus transformer mutual inductance Lm, secondary winding resistance Rs, core loss resistor Rc, secondary leakage inductance Lks, and primary leakage inductance Lkp. Just like for the load resistor, the other secondary circuit components can be reflected to the primary side of the transformer. This is illustrated in Figure 2C. The parasitic components, Rs, Lkp, and Lks, all act to lower the output voltage across RL, hence the output voltage, Vout, will not equal the induced secondary voltage Vsi. Rs and Lks act in series with RL and are reflected to the primary side along with Rs. Their presence presents added impedance to the primary current hence an increase in primary voltage in proportion to the impedance. Consequently, RL still has the same voltage drop and current flow as it did without Lks and Rs even though Vs does not equal Vout. The phase shift associated with Lks will cause some slight deviation from the ideal current ratio (which equals the turns ratio).

The current transformers self (no-load) inductance Lm and the core loss Rc shunt current away from the reflected load and reflected parasitic components. Their impedances act in parallel to the reflected impedances, consequently lowering the impedance seen by the primary current and the resulting primary voltage. Less primary voltage means less output voltage and less secondary current. Consequently Lm and Rc also cause deviation from the ideal current ratio. As long as Rc, Lm, Lkp, Lks, and Rs are constant in value, The actual current ratio will be some fixed ratio times the ideal (or desired) current ratio. One can compensate for the deviation from the desired current ratio by appropriate choice of secondary turns. The number of turns will be a little lower than that for the associated ideal turns ratio. For constant values accuracy could be 100% except for any turn resolution limitations (full turns versus fractional turns). Accuracy concerns arise from non-constant values for Rc, Lm, and to a lesser degree from Lkp and Lks. These values usually vary with core induction levels; hence they vary over the range of primary current being measured. (Air core transformers are stable but magnetic coupling is relatively poor hence relatively large leakage inductances.) Since Rc and Lm impedances act in parallel to the reflected load, higher Rc and Lm values have a smaller effect and consequently increase accuracy. Cores materials with high permeability and low core loss are preferred for high accuracy applications. At higher frequencies winding capacitance becomes a concern. Figure 3 gives an equivalent circuit schematic, which includes winding capacitance. Leakage inductance and winding capacitance are actually distributed components, but are shown as lumped approximate equivalent components. Like Lm, winding capacitances shunt current around the reflected load. The inductances and capacitances can interact and consequently may produce spurious oscillations. It is also possible to develop parallel resonance. High frequency coil designs seek to minimize winding capacitances. If you need assistance with your current transformer design, please contact Butler Winding and ask for Engineering.

Split Core Current Transformers What is a split-core current transformer? More specifically how does a splitcore current transformer differ from the typical current transformer? Just like the typical current transformer, the split-core current transformer measures

alternating current flowing through a conductor. The distinguishing feature of the split core current transformers is that their design permits them to be assembled around a buss bar without disconnecting the buss bar. The typical current transformer is usually a toroidal coil, which is slipped over the end of a buss bar, hence requires disconnecting the buss bar. "C" - cores and "U" core structures are commonly used for split-core current transformers because they are relatively easy to take apart and put back together around the buss bar. Some sort of bracketry or band clamps and holds the assembled pieces of the split-core current transformer together. Historically, this has not been as practical ( but is possible ) for toroidal coils. The bracketry is more complicated. Typically, the coil(s) must be sector wound on the toroid before cutting the core in half, whereas the U and C core structure of the typical split-core current transformer permit use of bobbin wound coils which can be wound independently of the core. There are now some flexible toroids, which permit the split-core feature of installing it around a buss bar. The electrical performance of split-core current transformers is not as good as that of the continuous toroidal coil. The circle like ( or ring like ) shape of the toroid usually offers a shorter magnetic path length than other cores. Since the toroids are continuous, they do not add any air gap to the core structure. Split-core current transformers ( including toroidal splitcores ) add some air gap to the core structure. Consequently, the split-core current transformers will draw more magnetizing ( exciting ) current than a continuous toroidal current transformer made of the same core material ( assuming comparable size and/or weight. ). The toroidal shape provides better magnetic coupling and less leakage inductance than the C and U core structures commonly used in splitcore current transformers. Split-core current transformers for lower frequency applications ( power frequencies ) typically use grain oriented silicon steel or nickel alloys for the core material. There are some more exotic materials available. The material is cut into strips and then wound on an arbor ( mandrel ) to form a core. The core is then cut in half. These are known as tape-wound cores because their construction resembles a roll of tape. Strip thickness varies from 0.025 down to 0.0005. The thinner strips have less core loss at higher frequencies hence they are used in higher frequency applications up to about 10

kilohertz. High accuracy current transformers require low core losses hence they either utilize the thinner strip thickness, the lower core loss materials such as the nickel alloys, or both. Ferrite materials are usually used for very high frequency designs, up to several megahertz. Some very specialized applications may require a core-less ( air-core ) coil. Some theory of current transformer operation is given further below Butler Winding can make ( and has made ) split-core current transformers in a variety of shapes and sizes. The "U" and "C" cores structures are the most typical, but Butler Winding is capable of producing a variety of other custom designs. Butler Winding already works with various standard types of "core with bobbin" structures ( E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, and others ), and does some custom bobbin wound designs. Usually, we can readily adapt our bobbin winding equipment to wind the split-core current transformer coils you need. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can ( and have done ) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Winding's capabilities, click on our "capabilities" link. Current Transformer Design Specifications The designer must either determine or be supplied with the information needed to design the current transformer. The needed information is listed below along with a brief description if needed. Add any additional items required by your particular application. Describe Primary Current State maximum current value and type of measurement ( r.m.s., average, peak, etc. ), Give type of waveform ( sine wave, square wave, triangular, etc. ). State either continuous current or describe the applicable duty cycle. Give Number of Primary Turns This is the number of times the primary conductor ( buss bar ) passes through the core window.

The Desired Current Ratio This is simply the desired secondary current value ( at a specified value of primary current ) divided by the primary current value that generates said value of secondary current. Alternatively, a turns ratio could be specified. but dont expect the current ratio to exactly equal the turns ratio. Define the Output Burden ( Load Resistor ) Specify the value and type of the intended secondary load. The type of load is usually resistive ( a resistor ), but could be inductive or capacitive ( which complicates things ). Alternatively, the desired output voltage per unit of primary current can be specified. The value of the load resistor can then be calculated. Required Accuracy This is usually expressed as either a maximum percentage or maximum absolute change over the entire primary current range. It includes both measurement tolerances and variations over the operating range(s). It may be expressed over a portion of the operating range or at specific operating points. Minimum Inside Window Dimensions This is the primary conductor ( buss bar ) dimensions plus any additional distance needed to clear any obstacles encountered during installation of the current transformer.. Dimensional Constraints Overall width, length, thickness. Termination Describe how you want the secondary terminated. Some possible examples are: terminal block, lead wires ( with or without terminal lugs), or header ( with p.c.b. pins or pads ). If leads, what length, insulation type, voltage rating, etc.. Mounting -- Describe how you expect it to be mounted. Will it be supported by the primary conductor ( hang on the buss bar ), or will the current transformer support the primary conductor. Voltage Isolation Requirements In many applications, the current transformers secondary winding rests on the primary conductor ( buss bar ), hence it must be adequately insulated according the expected conductor voltage potential and/or the required equipment voltage classification for the intended application.

Corona Requirements, if applicable Give test criteria: maximum test voltage, minimum voltage ramping time, minimum voltage inception value, minimum voltage extinguish value. Maximum Temperatures Specify the maximum ambient temperature and the maximum expected temperature of the primary ( buss bar ) conductor. If applicable, state the maximum allowed temperature rise. Application Standards -- Application standards may exclude use of some materials and require use of some materials . Some examples of such standards are minimum temperature ratings ( regardless if actual is less ), flame retardancy, vibration, out-gassing, and required labeling. Environmental Restrictions Examples are: poor cooling due to confined space, corrosive environment, water spray, ultra-violet light, and vibration. Current Transformer Theory of Operation. In the typical current transformer application, the primary winding consists of one to a few turns of wire. The primary wire size is much larger than the secondary wire size. The number of secondary winding turns is a selected multiple of the primary turns. Figure 1 gives a circuit schematic of a current transformer application. The current transformer shown represents an ideal transformer. The ideal transformer has infinite no-load input impedance, 100% magnetic coupling between transformer windings ( hence no leakage inductance), zero winding resistance, zero core losses, and no capacitance. ( Capacitance, leakage inductance, winding resistance, and core losses are considered to be parasitic components. ) The output voltage is exactly proportional to the primary voltage times the turns' ratio. There is no regulation drop. There are no losses. Since there are no parasitic components the ideal current transformer is 100% accurate. The conservation of energy requires that the output power equals the input power, hence Vp x Ip must equal Vs x Is. Since Vs = Vp x Ns / Np, it can be shown that Is = Ip x Np / Ns. Is = Vs / RL, hence Ip = Ns x Vs / ( RL x Np ). With an ideal current transformer there is no phase shift ( except 180 degrees depending on the choice of output connections ). The ideal transformers secondary resistive load consumes power equal to Is x Is x RL. This same amount of power must be consumed at the primary terminals. The secondary load RL can be replaced ( commonly referred to as

reflected ) with a resistor across the primary terminals, RLr. By applying the conservation of energy, one can show that RLr equals Np x Np x RL / ( Ns x Ns ), OR RLr equals RL times the turns ratio squared ( where turns ratio = Np / Ns ). If Np / Ns is small, then the RLr is very small. The primary voltage drop is Ip x RLr. A very small value for RLr means that the current transformer presents a low insertion loss to the primary current and a low primary voltage drop.

The reflected load impedance acts in parallel to the transformers own input impedance. The ideal current transformer has infinite input impedance. This infinite impedance would correlate to an infinite inductance inserted in series into the path of the primary conductor. Without the load ( or burden ) the current transformer acts like an inductor and would completely block the primary current flow. Any constant value of alternating current would, in theory, produce an infinite primary voltage drop. In reality the current transformers input inductance ( hence also impedance ) cannot be infinity. The current transformer has an inductance value which acts in parallel to the reflected load. The core has losses which can be represented as a resistor in parallel with the reflected load and the transformers self inductance ( no load inductance ). Without the load resistor the inductance and core loss will place an upper

limit on the primary voltage, but this voltage could still be substantial. Core saturation is also a possibility. A turns ratio step-up would result in even higher secondary voltage. Any circuitry beyond the secondary load resistor could be subjected to high voltage, possibly resulting in circuit damage. Because of this potential high voltage, the load resistor should never be removed from the secondary when the current transformer is being powered. Figure 2A shows an equivalent circuit schematic for a current transformer with load RL. The ideal ( induced ) secondary voltage is now denoted as Vsi and Vs now denotes the voltage at the secondary terminals. Notice that the schematic contains the ideal current transformer and load as before plus transformer mutual inductance Lm, secondary winding resistance Rs, core loss resistor Rc, secondary leakage inductance Lks, and primary leakage inductance Lkp. Just like for the load resistor, the other secondary circuit components can be reflected to the primary side of the transformer. This is illustrated in Figure 2C. The parasitic components, Rs, Lkp, and Lks, all act to lower the output voltage across RL, hence the output voltage, Vout, will not equal the induced secondary voltage Vsi. Rs and Lks act in series with RL and are reflected to the primary side along with Rs. Their presence presents added impedance to the primary current hence an increase in primary voltage in proportion to the impedance. Consequently, RL still has the same voltage drop and current flow as it did without Lks and Rs even though Vs does not equal Vout. The phase shift associated with Lks will cause some slight deviation from the ideal current ratio ( equals the turns ratio ). The current transformers self ( no-load ) inductance Lm and the core loss Rc shunt current away from the reflected load and reflected parasitic components. Their impedances act in parallel to the reflected impedances, consequently lowering the impedance seen by the primary current and the resulting primary voltage. Less primary voltage means less output voltage and less secondary current. Consequently Lm and Rc also cause deviation from the ideal current ratio. As long as Rc, Lm, Lkp, Lks, and Rs are constant in value, The actual current ratio will be some fixed ratio times the ideal ( or desired ) current ratio. One can compensate for the deviation from the desired current ratio by appropriate choice of secondary turns. The number of turns will be a little

lower than that for the associated ideal turns ratio. For constant values accuracy could be 100% except for any turn resolution limitations ( full turns versus fractional turns ). Accuracy concerns arise from non-constant values for Rc, Lm, and to a lesser degree from Lkp and Lks. These values usually vary with core induction levels, hence they vary over the range of primary current being measured. ( Air core transformers are stable but magnetic coupling is relatively poor hence relatively large leakage inductances. ) Since Rc and Lm impedances act in parallel to the reflected load, higher Rc and Lm values have a smaller effect and consequently increase accuracy. Cores materials with high permeability and low core loss are preferred for high accuracy applications. At higher frequencies winding capacitance becomes a concern. Figure 3 gives an equivalent circuit schematic, which includes winding capacitance. Leakage inductance and winding capacitance are actually distributed components, but are shown as lumped approximate equivalent components. Like Lm, winding capacitances shunt current around the reflected load. The inductances and capacitances can interact and consequently may produce spurious oscillations. it is also possible to develop parallel resonance. High frequency coil designs seek to minimize winding capacitances. If you need assistance with your current transformer design, please contact Butler Winding and ask for Engineering.

Surface Mount Electronic Transformer Transformers (and inductors) can be classified in several ways: by power rating, by type of application, by type of construction, by industry, and others. Surface mount electronic transformers refer to a type of construction that permits attachment of surface mount transformers to a printed circuit board (PCB). Historically, transformers and other circuit devices have been mounted on PCBs using pin-thru technology. Transformer wires are terminated to pin type terminals. Holes are drilled in the PCBs copper circuitry to accommodate the transformer pins. The transformer pins are inserted through these holes and then soldered to the copper circuitry. Engineers have developed solder pastes, adhesives, and assembly processes that permit attaching transformer terminals to PCBs

without using holes. Flat areas (known as pads) on the transformer terminals are soldered directly to copper circuitry surfaces hence the term surface mount transformer. This process eliminates the need to drill holes for the pins, thereby reducing the cost to manufacture a PCB. Surface mount electronic transformers (and inductors) are usually wound on surface mount bobbins, but are also available as toroidal coils. The toroidal coil is mounted on a header equipped with surface mount terminals. The bobbins (or headers), used with surface mount transformers, come in a variety of materials: plastics, phenolic, glass, Teflon and others. Most of these are molded. Some are fabricated. Some bobbins and headers are self leading. The winding wire is also used to form the surface mount terminal by looping the wire under a pre-formed flat edge thereby forming a reasonably flat terminal area. Surface mount electronic transformers (and inductors) are available in a variety of shapes. Surface mount electronic transformers shapes include pot cores (round), RM (square pot cores), EP, E, EI, EEM, EFD, U, UI, ER, and some others including custom shapes. Surface mount transformers in these shapes are usually only available in the smaller sizes. Designers are adapting more shapes and larger sizes to surface mount transformer applications. Designers have mechanical concerns about the larger sizes. The weight of the larger sizes may exceed the weight that soldered surface mount pads can safely handle under vibration. Over time, designers hope to develop surface mount transformers (and inductors) in larger sizes. Like other electronic transformers, surface mount electronic transformers (and inductors) can use a variety of core materials: laminated or taped wound silicon steel alloys, nickel-iron alloys, cobalt alloys; powdered irons and nickels; ferrite; air core; and/or core materials processed for square loop or round loop properties; and others. Butler Winding can make (and has made) surface mount electronic transformers (and inductors) in a wide variety of materials and sizes. Butler Winding can also do a variety of custom transformers. Butler Windings upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of

winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Need More Technical Information about Electronic Transformers in general More information is available on other web pages included in this web site. Saturation and the volt-second product are discussed in the pulse transformer web page. An equivalent circuit for a transformer is included in the power transformers web page. The inverter transformer and push pull web pages include some discussion about magnetic bipolar and unipolar operating modes. There are web pages for various types (applications) of electronic transformers (and inductors). Click on one of the available links. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Electronic Transformers | Bobbin Wound Electronic transformers can be classified in several ways: by power rating, by type of application, by type of construction, by industry, and others. Bobbin wound electronic transformers refers to a type (or method) of construction. Toroidal coils are wound directly onto a toroidal core. The core may be coated or boxed to insulate it form the coil windings. In contrast, bobbin wound electronic transformer coils are wound independently of the core. The coil must hold its shape (or form) until the coil is assembled onto the transformer core. One common method of doing this is to wind the coil onto a bobbin (also referred to as a spool), hence the term bobbin wound transformer. The bobbin is a pre-formed reasonably rigid part. The bobbin material is usually (but not always) an insulating material, hence it can provide electrical isolation between the coil and the adjoining core material provided suitable creepage distance is used. Multi-section bobbins are available to provide increased electrical isolation between coil windings.

Bobbin wound electronic transformers are used in a variety of applications, hence bobbins are made from a variety of materials: plastics, phenolic, glass, Teflon and others. Most bobbins are molded. Some are fabricated. Bobbin designs for bobbin wound transformers often provide terminals, pins, and/or surface mount pads to ease wire termination and to facilitate printed circuit board mounting. Bobbin wound transformers (and inductors) are available in a variety of shapes. Bobbin wound transformers shapes include pot cores (round), RM (square pot cores), RS (round slab pot cores) and DS (double slab pot cores), EP, PQ, E, EI, EEM, EFD, U, UI, EC, ETD, ER, EER, and some others including custom shapes. Bobbin wound transformers in these shapes are available in several different sizes. Bobbin wound electronic transformers (and inductors) can also use a variety of core materials: laminated or taped wound silicon steel alloys, nickel-iron alloys, cobalt alloys; powdered irons and nickels; ferrite; air core; core materials processed for square loop or round loop properties; and others. Butler Winding can make (and has made) bobbin wound transformers (and inductors) in a wide variety of materials and sizes with pin-thru, surface mount, and/or flying leads terminations. Butler Winding also does tube wound transformers (and inductors) and air core coils. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Need More Technical Information about Electronic Transformers in general? More information is available on other web pages included in this web site. Saturation and the volt-second product are discussed in the pulse

transformer web page. An equivalent circuit for a transformer is included in the power transformers web page. The inverter transformer and push pull web pages include some discussion about magnetic bipolar and unipolar operating modes. There are web pages for various types (applications) of transformers (and inductors). Click on one of the available links. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Mag-Amp Magnetic Amplifiers Magnetic amplifiers, also called mag amps for short, provide an electromagnetic method of amplification. Mag amps were quite common prior to the development of solid state transistors. As advances in semiconductor technology progressed, magnetic amplifiers because a relatively expensive component. Consequently the use of mag amps declined. A properly made mag amp is highly reliable, hence they are still used in some applications with demand the reliability performance criteria that a mag amp can meet. Another feature of mag amps is the high isolation voltages that can be achieved between windings with proper design. Mag amps may still be preferred over semiconductor devices in safety critical applications. A typical simple mag amp contains two identical coils, each having identical high permeability square loop magnetic cores and each wound with an identical winding not shared with the other coil. An alternating voltage source is connected to one end of these windings and a load is connected to the other end. The windings are either connected in series or in parallel such that the cores magnetic flux generated by the alternating voltage are out of phase (in opposite directions). Alternating current (A.C.) will flow through these windings. Either a shared second winding is wound on both coils or each coil is wound with a second identical winding. In the latter case the windings are series connected such that a direct current (D.C.) flowing through these windings generate magnetic flux in the cores, which are in phase (in the same direction). These windings are connected to a variable D.C. current source (which might consist of series connected D.C. voltage source and a variable resistor). The D.C. winding(s) is (are) referred to as the control winding(s). Schematic representations of two typical mag amps are given in Figures 1

and 2 further below. The mag amps shown may also be referred to in literature as a type of saturable reactor. A mag amp may also be referred to in literature as a type of transductor. Air gaps within a mag amps core structure are detrimental to mag amp performance. Proper mag amp performance requires nearly identical symmetry in core flux excursions; hence leakage flux should be minimized. Toroidal cores have essentially zero air gaps and the toroidal geometry maximizes magnetic coupling and minimizes leakage flux. Consequently, toroids are the core shape of choice. Other variations of mag amps exist, including a single core version that has three core legs. The middle leg has a D.C. control winding. The outer legs have identical A.C. windings. In theory D.C. flux generated in the center leg divides equally and flows through both outer legs. The A.C. windings are connected such that their phases do not permit any A.C. flux flow through the center leg (in theory). There are practical difficulties (in the form of magnetic tolerances) with this type of mag amp design. More advanced mag amp circuits use rectifying elements to isolate the load from the mag amp during core reset. Core reset refers to the volt-second transition from saturation flux (top flat portion of the B-H loop) to the flux value at the opposite side of the B-H loop (bottom flat portion of the loop). Butler winding can make (and has made) mag amps. Butler winding has several types of toroid winding machines that can be used to wind a variety of mag amp core sizes. This includes toroid-taping machines. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding also has other types of winding machines. That includes two programmable automated machines. We can wind and assemble various standard types of core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others), and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. Butler winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link.

Mag Amp Theory The following discussion is not intended to give a detailed understanding of mag amp operation. It is not intended to describe all the variations of mag amp designs or applications. It is intended to give a basic insight to how a typical simple mag amp functions. Rectifier aided mag amp circuits are not discussed. Butler Winding has some but limited experience with mag amps. If you require more information than the following discussion supplies, please contact Butler Winding and ask to speak to an engineer about mag amps. Butler Winding will provide whatever help we reasonably can. Refer to the schematic of Figure 1 bearing in mind (in theory) that the two coils have identical windings and identical cores. Because of transformer action, the A.C. voltage impressed across the mag amps A.C. windings will induce a voltage across each control winding. Because of the opposite phasing of the A.C. windings, the induced voltages in the D.C. windings will buck each other and exactly cancel each other (in theory) resulting in zero A.C. voltage induced across the D.C. source. Consequently, low impedance D.C. source will not load down the A.C. windings. Consider the impedance of the A.C. windings with no D.C. current supplied. The core and windings are designed such that; 1) the core does not saturate at the maximum intended A.C. voltage, and 2) each A.C. winding has a relatively much higher impedance than the intended load. Because of the high impedance, very little A.C. current flows. Consequently, there is very little voltage drop across the load. Now consider the impedance of the A.C. windings with a D.C. current flowing through the control winding. Both cores have a D.C. biasing flux of equal value and the same phasing. The A.C. windings of Figure 1 are connected in parallel but with opposite phasing. The total flux in a core is the sum of the D.C. flux and the A.C. flux. Because of the opposite A.C. winding phasing, the A.C. voltage increases the core flux of one core while decreasing the core flux of the other core until saturation occurs. Eventually the alternating fashion of the A.C. voltage causes the changing flux to reverse the direction of flux change of both cores. Now apply enough D.C. current to cause one core to enter saturation. The cores flux reaches its maximum values and does not change (ideal theory) while in saturation;

hence no induced voltage will oppose the applied A.C. voltage. The impedance of that cores A.C. winding drops to near zero value. There can be very little voltage drop across that A.C. winding. The other A.C. winding is connected in parallel to this A.C. winding. This A.C. winding shunts the current around the other A.C. winding hence the other A.C. winding also sees very little voltage impressed across it. Consequently the flux of the other core changes very little (essentially stays where it is). While a core is saturated there is very little impedance between the A.C. voltage source and the load impedance. Consequently significant load current flows during saturation and produces a relatively large voltage drop across the load. Because of the eventual A.C. voltage reversal, the saturated core will eventually come out of saturation, high A.C. winding impedance will occur again, and the load current will again drop to near zero value. Eventually the other core saturates resulting in high load current until the core leaves saturation. The mag amp has seen a complete A.C. cycle and will proceed to the next cycle. For mag amps, entering saturation is like closing a switch. The time spent in saturation is the turn-on time of the mag amp switch. The amount of time spent in saturation is determined by the amount of D.C. biasing current. A larger D.C. bias current causes the cores to enter saturation earlier and exit saturation later, thereby increasing the length of time current is delivered to the load, thereby increasing the average amount of current delivered to the load in a given period of time. Once a steady state condition is reached in an idealized mag amp, it can be shown that the averaged ampere-turns of the load current are proportional to the ampereturns of the control current. With appropriate choices of turns ratio, windings, and cores, one can achieve significant power amplification gain. The schematic in Figure 2 shows the A.C. windings connected in series. When one core saturates both of its winding have relatively very low impedance and can be ignored. The cores A.C. winding does not shunt the other A.C. winding, but the other A.C. winding will not maintain its high impedance level if the D.C. source has a sufficiently low impedance. With one core saturated the low impedance D.C. source becomes a transformercoupled load to the unsaturated A.C. winding. The impedance on the unsaturated A.C. winding drops to the transformer coupled reflected value of

the low impedance D.C. source. A load current flows which produces a significant load voltage.

Electronic Transformer - Power Transformers The most common purpose of a power electronic transformer is to convert alternating current (A.C.) power from one A.C. voltage (or current) to another A.C. voltage (or current). Another common purpose is to provide electrical isolation between electrical circuits. Power is the product of voltage times current. Power transformers do not change power levels except for parasitic losses. Input power minus parasitic power losses equals output power. Ideal power transformers have no losses, hence output power equals input power. Increasing the output voltage will decrease the output current. Electric utilities prefer to transmit electricity at low current values to reduce resistive losses in the power transmission lines. Lower currents also permit smaller size transmission cables. A power transformer is used between the generating equipment and the power line(s) to step-up (increase) the transmission voltage (to high voltage) and decrease the transmission current. Distribution transformers, which are power transformers, are used to step-down (decrease) the voltage to voltage levels needed for industrial and household use. Limited discussion on the theory of power transformer operation is given further below.

Power electronic transformers may be classified by their power ratings (fractional VA to mega-VA), their type of construction, and/or by their intended application. The same basic power transformer may be suitable for multiple applications hence the same power transformer may be classified under several overlapping category types. The common person associates power transformers with the electric utilities, hence they think of pole transformer and distribution transformers. The power transformers used inside their appliances and electronic devices do not readily come to mind. The two broadest categories of power transformers are the electric utility power transformers and electronic power transformers (1 & 3 phase). Utility transformers are almost entirely A.C. sinewave transformers. An electronic power transformer is essentially any electronic transformer supplying power to electronic circuits. There are many sub-categories: pulse, inverting, switching (flyback, forward converter), toroidal, square wave, isolation, and others. Instrument transformers (example current transformers) are not considered to be power transformers. They measure voltage or current instead of supplying power. Electronic transformers / power transformers range in size from a cubic centimeter to multiple cubic meters. The weight can range from a fraction of an ounce to multiple tons. The size and weight of a power transformer is dependent on several factors. A non-exhaustive list includes; desired power rating, maximum ambient temperature, allowable temperature rise, cooling method (air or liquid cooled, natural convection or forced), transformer shape, voltage dielectric requirements, required voltage regulation, operating frequency, operating waveform, and core material. Of these, the two most limiting parameters are allowed temperature rise and required voltage regulation. Operating frequency is a major parameter in selecting core material. Low frequency applications usually utilize either tape wound or laminated silicon steel cores. Moderate frequency applications utilize tape wound or laminated nickel iron cores. High frequency applications usually use ferrite cores. Power transformers are produced in a variety of shapes. Toroidal power transformers are the high performers. They offer the smallest size (by volume and weight), less leakage inductance, and lower electromagnetic interference (EMI). Their windings cool better because of the proportionally larger surface area. Bobbin or tube wound transformers are usually more

economical to build. Long thin cores are more suitable for low frequency high Q transformers. Some shapes, pot cores for example, are self shielding (reduces EMI). Butler Winding can make (and has made) electronic transformers and power transformers in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures ( E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others ), toroids, and some custom designs. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Power Transformers Overview of Operating Theory Power transformer design involves many interdependent parameters. It becomes very difficult to optimize a power transformer design. Most power transformer designers use an electrical model that allows them to approximate a transformer design. The preliminary approximate design will be evaluated, then adjusted as needed to achieve desired objectives. An electrical model is given further below. The Ideal Transformer To better understand power transformers one should become familiar with the concept of and ideal transformer. An ideal transformer has no parasitic losses (no core loss, no winding resistance, and no leakage inductance). Ideal transformers are 100% efficient. An ideal transformer has infinite input impedance hence the ideal transformer does not draw any current for itself. Primary current equals zero. Figure 1A shows the schematic on an ideal transformer with primary turns Np and secondary turns Ns.

In the ideal (and the typical) electronic transformer, the primary and secondary windings share the same core and see the same amount of magnetic flux. Due to the applied alternating voltage, the magnetic flux is repeatedly changing value and the direction (polarity) of flux change is repeatedly reversing its direction. This change in flux induces a voltage in each of the transformer winding turns equal to the primary voltage, Vp, divided by the number of primary turns, Np. The total induced primary voltage equals and opposes the applied primary voltage. The induced primary voltage limits the flow of primary current. In the ideal transformer the current value is zero. In non-ideal transformers this current is greater than zero. This current is known as the magnetizing or exciting current. The induced secondary voltage, Vs equals the number of secondary turns times the induced voltage per turn. or equivalently, Vs = Ns x Vp / Np. Figure 1B shows the schematic of the ideal transformer with a resistive load placed across its secondary terminals. Since there are no transformer losses, power in equals power out. The induced secondary voltage, Vs causes current, Is, to flow through the resistive load and secondary winding. The direction of current Is acts to lower the induced primary voltage which opposes the applied input primary voltage. Consequently more primary current flows. The value of the primary current increases until it causes the

opposing induced primary voltage to equal the applied input primary voltage. Conservation of energy requires that power out to equal power in hence Ip x Vp = Vs x Is, or Ip = Vs x Is / Vp. Since Vs = Ns x Vp / Np, Ip can be rewritten as Ip = ( Ns x Vp / Np ) x Is / Vp, or equivalently, Ip = Ns x Is / Np, or Ns x Is = Np x Ip. In an ideal transformer, Ip is the secondary windings load current reflected (transformed) to the primary winding. The effective primary impedance, Zp = Vp / Ip. It can be shown that Zp = Np x Np x Zs / ( Ns x Ns ), where Zs = the secondary load impedance. This equation also holds for inductive and/or capacitive loads. The Non-Ideal Transformer Figure 2 shows an equivalent circuit schematic (electrical model) of a nonideal power transformer. Leakage inductance and winding capacitance are actually distributed circuit elements. The schematic represents leakage inductance and capacitance as lumped circuit components. In effect, the distributed elements are transformer coupled into equivalent collective lump sum values. Bear in mind that the lumped values will only approximate real life conditions. At sufficiently low frequencies, the impedance of the capacitors become sufficiently high to permit ignoring their effect. The capacitors can be removed for low frequency designs.

The voltage drop Vm across the mutual inductance, Lm, represents the induced primary voltage. Voltage drops occur over parasitic components Rp and Lkp when current flows through them. Consequently the induced primary voltage, Vm, is less than the voltage Vp applied to the primary terminals. The secondary induced voltage, Vsi, becomes less than that of an ideal transformer. In similar fashion, voltage drops occur over parasitic components Rs and Lks when current flows through them. The secondary terminal voltage, Vs, becomes less than the secondary induced voltage, Vsi. These voltage drops are known as regulation drops. The decline in secondary output voltage from its no load voltage with increasing load current is known as transformer regulation. Percent voltage regulation equals 100% x ( no load Vs full load Vs ) / full load Vs. Magnetizing Current and Saturation Transformer designs must avoid core saturation. Saturation occurs when the applied ampere turns (Np x Im in Figure 2) generates more magnetic flux than the core can handle. The reflected secondary load current, Irs in figure 2, does not contribute to saturation. Nor does Icp or Irc. The magnetizing current, Im, must be held below the value where Np x Im causes saturation. Np x Im is also known as the magnetizing force. Saturation can be avoided by applying the following formulae V = 4 x F x Bm x N x Ac x Sf x f where; V = r.m.s voltage in volts, F = form factor for the voltage waveform (unitless), Bm = maximum allowed flux density in Telsa, N = the number of turns, Ac = the cores cross sectional area seen be the winding in square meters, Sf is the stacking factor of the core (unitless ratio < or = to 1), and f = the operating frequency in hertz. The value of Bm depends on the saturation valve of the particular type of core material that will be used, and on the maximum heat the core can be permitted to generate. The latter is dependent on operating frequency. The theory of saturation is not discussed on this particular web page, but there is some discussion within the pulse transformer web page included with this web site. Click on the available link. Bipolar Operation The cores in A.C. power transformers are usually operated in bipolar mode, but could be operated in unipolar mode by using a D.C. biasing current through a transformer winding. Bipolar and unipolar operation is not

discussed on this particular web page, but there is some discussion within the push pull transformer, inverter transformer and pulse transformers web page included with this web site. Click on the available links. Need More Technical Information about Transformers in general? More information about various types of transformers is available on this web site. Check out the available list of links that can connect you other web pages within this web site. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance.

Power Inductors, Chokes and Reactors Power inductors can be classified in several ways: by inductance value, by power or current rating, by type of application, by type of construction, by industry, by material and others. Choke and reactor are other names for power inductors. Inductors inhibit the flow of electrical current in A.C. or transient applications. Inductors are used in some A.C. circuits to reduce the voltage reaching the intended load. Inductors may be used to limit the amount of A.C. current flow. Since an inductors impedance increases with frequency, they are good for blocking (suppression) of high frequency electrical noise. Inductors are frequently used for electrical/electronic filtering purposes. You can find inductors in tuning and most types of bandwidth filters. Saturable inductors can be used in signaling circuits to create time delays. Boost inductors, flyback inductors, and buck inductors are inductors used in some switching power supplies. Inductors are also used in switching power supplies to smooth out ripple voltage and ripple current. Inductors store energy. Transformers are not intended to store energy (but do store some). Coupled inductors are used in some multi-output switching power supply designs to improve voltage regulation. In this case, the inductor is also acting as a transformer because there is transformer coupling occurring between the multiple outputs. In contrast, a flyback transformer is technically an inductor. A coil winding is used to create a magnetic field

thereby storing energy in the field. The stored energy is then released to the output. There is no direct (simultaneous) coupling of energy. Types or inductor construction include bobbin wound, toroidal, air core (no core), tube wound, foil wound, wound with litz wire, encapsulated (potted), laminated, powdered core, and others. An Inductors core material is heavily influenced by the applications frequency range. Line frequency applications usually use a laminated or tape wound silicon steel core stack. Low frequency audio applications may use laminated nickel-iron core stack or possibly powdered core materials. High frequency applications generally use a ferrite material. Inductors are available in a variety of shapes. Bobbin wound inductor shapes include pot cores (round), RM (square pot cores), RS (round slab pot cores) and DS (double slab pot cores), EP, PQ, E, EI, EEM, EFD, U, UI, EC, ETD, ER, EER, and some others including custom shapes. Bobbins often provide a convenient method of mounting; pin-through, surface mount, or chassis mount. Toroids are well known. Toroids are usually preferred when high efficiency and optimum performance are desired. Tube based construction tends to be more customized hence a variety of inductor shapes are possible.

Butler Winding can makes power inductors and custom transformers in a wide variety of materials and sizes with pin-thru, surface mount, and/or flying leads terminations. Butler Winding also does tube wound inductors and air core coils. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz

wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we provide sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Common Mode Choke Common mode chokes are used because many electrical devices may be connected to the same power lines (or power supply lines), substantial electrical noise can exist on these lines. Switching mode power supplies can generate a lot of high frequency noise which can travel over the power lines and interfere with the operation of computers and other electronic devices connected to the power lines. Electro-magnetic interference in the environment can induce or couple electrical noise into the power lines. Electrical noise which comes in one power line wire and returns to the noise source through the other power line wire is differential noise. Electrical noise which comes through one power line and returns to the noise source through some type of ground path is common mode noise. The two types of electrical noise are illustrated in Figure 2 further below. Differential and common mode chokes (or inductors) are often placed between electrical (or electronic) equipment and the power lines supplying power to the electrical equipment. This is illustrated in Figure 1. The differential choke shown could be replaced by two separate single winding chokes or by one single winding choke in one line. The chokes reduce electrical noise both entering and leaving a piece of electrical equipment. A common mode choke (or filter) is used to reduce common mode (electrical) noise. Figure 3 (further below) illustrates a common mode choke inserted into the schematic of Figure 2. Common mode chokes can be designed to include some differential filtering thereby eliminating the need for a separate

differential choke (or inductor) in some applications. Some theory behind common mode chokes is discussed further below. Toroids are the preferred core shape to use in common mode chokes. The continuous unbroken circular path maximizes magnetic coupling between windings thereby minimizing leakage inductance. "E" cores are the second most preferred core shapes for common mode chokes. The toroids are less costly than the "E" cores, but "E" core bobbins are easier and less costly to wind. Toroidal coils are usually more costly to mount into an assembly. An air gap can be easily placed between "E" core halves. A gapped core has more leakage inductance; hence "E" core structures are usually preferred when some differential filtering is desired from the common mode choke. Common mode chokes can be made from other core shapes but usually at higher cost. Their use occurs when a special characteristic is needed. For example, an "EFD" core may be used when a low profile is desired. Selecting the optimum core material for common mode chokes is not easy. The frequency range of the electrical noise is the major factor. If only power frequency noise is expected (i.e. 60 Hz. harmonics), then laminated silicon steel may suffice. Laminated nickel iron or powdered iron or "sendust" type powder will do for lower audio range noise frequencies. Perhaps molypermalloy powders for the upper audio range (depending on noise levels). Ferrite materials are needed for noise frequencies above 20 kHz. Although the inductive value of ferrites diminishes rapidly above 1 megahertz, some ferrite materials are still suitable for common mode chokes because the resistive component helps maintain a sufficiently high impedance value. Butler Winding makes common mode chokes in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of "core with bobbin" structures (E, EP, EFD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. For more information on Butler Winding's capabilities, click on our "capabilities" link Common Mode Choke Theory A common mode choke may be used to reduce a type of electrical noise known as common mode noise. Electro-magnetic interference (E.M.I.) in the circuit's environment is one source of electrical noise. E.M.I. induces or couples unwanted electrical signals into the circuit. It is desirable to filter out the unwanted noise signals without significantly affecting the desired signal.

Environmental sources of E.M.I. often create an independent return path (ground path) for the electrical noise signals. The return path of the desired signal is a different path. Because there are two different return paths, a common mode choke can be used to significantly block (hence reduce) the unwanted noise signal (at the load) without significant reduction in the desired signal. A.C. power lines provide a good example. They are known to carry significant levels of electrical noise. Their long length gives environmental E.M.I. ample opportunity to generate unwanted electrical noise into the power lines. Figure 2 illustrates an application without a common mode choke. The power line voltage, "Vs", causes current, "Iz", to flow through the load, "Z". At any non-zero instance, Current "Iz" flows into "Z" through one power line wire and returns through the other power line wire. E.M.I. voltage, "Vnc1", causes current "Inc1", to flow through the load "Z". Similarly, E.M.I. voltage, Vnc2 causes current "Inc2" to flow through the load "Z". Because the E.M.I is generating both "Vnc1" and "Vnc2" the two voltages tend to be in phase. There is very little current flow between them. Current "Inc1" does not flow through both power line wires. It flows through one power line wire and through the ground path. Similarly, current "Inc2" does not flow through both power line wires. It flows through one power line wire and through the ground path. In this example only "Vnc1" produces electrical noise across load "Z" because the "Vnc2" end of "Z" is grounded. In practice, the effective ground point could occur somewhere between the two ends of load "Z".

Figure 3 illustrates the same application with a common mode choke. The common mode choke has two windings. Each winding of the common mode choke is inserted between the end of a power line wire and the load. As in Figure 1, current "Iz" flows through both power line wires and currents "Inc1" and "Inc2" each flow through one power line wire and return through the ground path. Observe that current "Iz" flows through both windings but in opposing winding directions, while currents "Inc1" and Inc2" each flow through only one winding and in the same winding direction. The ground path does not flow through a winding.

The inductance of winding A restricts (reduces) the flow of current "Inc1" (when compared to Figure 1), thereby reducing the noise voltage across "Z". Similarly the inductance of winding B restricts (hence reduces) the flow of current "Inc2". Windings A and B have the same number of turns. The ampere-turns created by Current "Iz" (but excluding any "Inc1" current component) flowing through winding A is cancelled by the opposing ampere-turns created by current "Iz" flowing through winding B. Ideally, the cancellation results in zero inductance and no restriction (no reduction) of current "Iz". "Iz" produces the same voltage across load "Z" as it does in Figure 1. In practice this will not be true. The common mode choke will have some leakage flux between windings A and B hence incomplete cancellation. Windings A and B will have some winding resistance. Both of these will have some effect on "Iz" (reduces "Iz").

In contrast, the load current "Iz" flowing through both windings A and B of the differential choke shown in Figure 1 do not cancel, hence "Iz" will be restricted (reduced). Differential chokes are useful when the electrical noise frequencies are much higher than the operating frequencies. The higher choke impedance at the high frequencies block the electrical noise while having a tolerable effect at the operating frequencies. Some common mode chokes are intentionally designed to have significant leakage inductance. The leakage inductance acts in series with the load hence the leakage inductance provides differential noise filtering. One common mode choke functions like the combined chokes shown in Figure 1 but may differ in levels. Toroidal Inductors Toroidal inductors / transformers are the high performers among inductors. They offer the smallest size (by volume and weight) and lower electromagnetic interference (EMI). Their windings cool better because of the proportionally larger surface area. A 360 degree wound toroidal transformer has a high degree of symmetry. Its geometry leads to near complete magnetic field cancellation outside of its coil, hence the toroidal inductor has less EMI when compared against other inductors of equal power rating. Windings that are less than 360 degrees exhibit more EMI. Toroidal inductors with a round core cross section are better performers than toroidal inductors with a rectangular cross section. The cancellation is more complete for the round cross section. The round cross section also gives a shorter turn length per unit of cross sectional area, hence lower winding resistances. Good turn-to-turn coupling is dependent

on the winding being wound a full 360 degrees around the core. As winding turns are positioned further away from the core less complete turn-to-turn coupling will occur. Turns on the outer layers see a core cross sectional area that includes some non-magnetic area (air, insulation, copper). This added area generates some leakage inductance that adds to the inductance expected from the core. Toroidal inductors can be used in any inductor application that can accommodate its shape. Although usable, toroidal inductors are not always practical for some applications. Gapped toroidal inductors usually require that the gap be filled with some type of insulating material to facilitate the winding process. This is an extra expense. Powdered cores have an effective distributed gap. These are usually preferred over a filled gap because of lower cost and reduced gap losses. Some printed circuit boards are space critical. Mounting a toroidal inductor flat on the board may take up too much precious board area. Some applications also have restricted height so the toroidal inductor cannot be mounted vertically. Generally speaking toroidal inductors are more expensive than bobbin or tube wound inductors. Sufficient winding wire must first be wound (loaded) onto the winding shuttle, then wound onto the toroidal transformers core. (For bobbin/ tube wound wire is continuously de-reeled from a spool of wire.) After that, the best situation, from a cost perspective, is no insulation required over the winding. If the winding must be insulated, then it must either be insulated (taped) by hand or the toroidal inductor must be removed and taken to a separate taping machine. Some inductors have more than one winding. If additional windings are required, then the toroidal inductor is placed back on a toroid winding machine after taping. The shuttle must then be loaded with the wire size and type for the toroidal inductors next winding, thereby adding most cost to the inductor. Toroidal inductors with a single winding wound on a coated core may be cost competitive with an equivalent bobbin or tube wound inductor since the toroidal inductor will not require a bobbin or tube. The cost differential will then depend on the method and cost of mounting the inductors. Toroidal inductor cores are available in many materials: silicon steel, nickel iron, moly-permalloy powder, iron powdered, amorphous, ferrites, and others. Silicon steel and nickel iron are available as tape wound cores or

laminated pieces. Non-magnetic toroids are also available to make air core toroidal inductors. Butler Winding can make (and has made) toroidal inductors (and transformers) in a wide variety of materials and sizes. Butler Winding also does bobbin wound and tube wound inductors. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Windings capabilities, click on our capabilities link. Need More Technical Information about Inductors Chokes and Reactors? More information is available on other web pages included in this web site. For more information on a particular type of inductor simply click from the dfollowing list: Common Mode Choke, Surface Mount Inductors, Bobbin Wound Inductors. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Surface Mount Inductors Surface mount inductors (and surface mount transformers) can be classified in several ways: by power rating, by type of application, by type of construction, by industry, and others. "Surface mount inductors" refer to a type of construction that permits attachment of surface mount inductors to a printed circuit board (PCB). Historically, inductors and other circuit devices have been mounted on PCBs using "pin-thru" technology. Inductor wires are terminated to pin type terminals. Holes are drilled in the PCB's copper circuitry to accommodate the transformer pins. The inductor pins are inserted through these holes and then soldered to the copper circuitry. Engineers have developed solder pastes, adhesives, and assembly processes

that permit attaching inductor terminals to PCBs without using holes. Flat areas (known as pads) on the inductor terminals are soldered directly to copper circuitry surfaces hence the term surface mount inductor (or transformer). This process eliminates the need to drill holes for the pins, thereby reducing the cost to manufacture a PCB. Surface mount inductors (and transformers) are usually wound on surface mount bobbins, but are also available as toroidal coils. The toroidal coil is mounted on a "header" equipped with surface mount terminals. The bobbins (or headers), used with surface mount inductors, come in a variety of materials: plastics, phenolic, glass, Teflon and others. Most of these are molded. Some are fabricated. Some bobbins and headers are "self leading". The winding wire is also used to form the surface mount terminal by looping the wire under a pre-formed flat edge thereby forming a reasonably flat terminal area. Surface mount inductors (and transformers) are available in a variety of shapes. Surface mount inductor shapes include pot cores (round), "RM" (square pot cores), "EP", "E", "EI", "EEM", "EFD", "U", "UI", "ER", and some others including custom shapes. Surface mount inductors in these shapes are usually only available in the smaller sizes. Designers are adapting more shapes and larger sizes to surface mount inductor applications. Designers have mechanical concerns about the larger sizes. The weight of the larger sizes may exceed the weight that soldered surface mount pads can safely handle under vibration. Over time, designers hope to develop surface mount inductors (and transformers) in larger sizes. Like other inductors, surface mount inductors (and transformers) can use a variety of core materials: laminated or taped wound silicon steel alloys, nickel-iron alloys, cobalt alloys; powdered irons and nickels; ferrite; air core; and/or core materials processed for square loop or round loop properties; and others. Butler Winding can make (and has made) surface mount inductors (and transformers) in a wide variety of materials and sizes. Butler Winding can also do a variety of custom applications. Butler Winding's upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding

machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. Butler Winding has vacuum chamber(s) for vacuum impregnation and can also encapsulate. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Winding's capabilities, click on our "capabilities" link. Need More Technical Information about Inductors Chokes and Reactors? More information is available on other web pages included in this web site. Saturation and the volt-second product are discussed in the "pulse transformer" web page. An equivalent circuit for a transformer is included in the "power transformers" web page. The "inverter transformer" and "push pull" web pages include some discussion about magnetic "bipolar" and "unipolar" operating modes. There are web pages for various types (applications) of transformers (and inductors). Click on one of the available links. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance. Bobbin Wound Inductors Bobbin wound inductors refers to a type or method of construction of winding inductors chokes and reactors. Toroidal coils are wound directly onto a toroidal core. The core may be coated or boxed to insulate it form the coil windings. In contrast, bobbin wound inductor coils are wound independently of the core. The coil must hold its shape or form until the coil is assembled onto the inductor core. One common method of doing this is to wind the coil onto a bobbin (also referred to as a spool), hence the term "bobbin wound winding inductor". The bobbin is a pre-formed reasonably rigid part. The bobbin material is usually (but not always) an insulating material, hence it can provide electrical isolation between the coil and the adjoining core material provided suitable creepage distance is used. Multisection bobbins are available to provide increased electrical isolation between coil windings. Bobbin wound inductors are used in a variety of applications, hence bobbins are made from a variety of materials: plastics, phenolic, glass, Teflon and others. Most bobbins are molded. Some are fabricated. Bobbin designs for

bobbin wound inductors often provide terminals, pins, and/or surface mount pads to ease wire termination and to facilitate printed circuit board mounting. Bobbin winding inductors (and transformers) are available in a variety of shapes. Bobbin wound inductor shapes include pot cores (round), "RM" (square pot cores), "RS" (round slab pot cores) and "DS" (double slab pot cores), "EP", "PQ", "E", "EI", "EEM", "EFD", "U", "UI", "EC", "ETD", "ER", "EER", and some others including custom shapes. Bobbin wound inductors in these shapes are available in several different sizes. Bobbin wound inductors (and transformers) can also use a variety of core materials: laminated or taped wound silicon steel alloys, nickel-iron alloys, cobalt alloys; powdered irons and nickels; ferrite; air core; core materials processed for square loop or round loop properties; and others. Butler Winding makes bobbin wound winding inductors chokes and reactors in a wide variety of materials and sizes with pin-thru, surface mount, and/or flying leads terminations. Butler Winding also does "tube wound" inductors and air core coils. Our upper limits are 40 pounds of weight and 2 kilowatts of power. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on Butler Winding's capabilities, click on our "capabilities" link. Need More Technical Information about Inductors Chokes and Reactors? More information is available on other web pages included in this web site. Saturation and the volt-second product are discussed in the "pulse transformer" web page. An equivalent circuit for a transformer is included in the "power transformers" web page. Additional inductor choke and reactor links include common mode choke, toroidal inductors, surface mount inductors and Inductors chokes and reactors. Also, feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask for technical or engineering assistance.

Custom Wound Coils and Custom Transformers First question. Why do our customers buy custom wound coils? Most of our customers would prefer to buy standard catalog parts, preferably parts available from multiple sources and kept in stock. Second question. What distinguishes a custom wound coil, a custom transformer, or a custom inductor from a standard coil, transformer, or inductor? An answer to the first question is the diversity of required parameters. The answer requires some further explanation. Consider the following scenario. There are eight product designers, each from a different company. They all need a five-volt D.C. output power supply. Designers 1 and 2 need 1 amp of current from their power supply output. Designers 3 and 4 need 2.5 amps. Designers 5 & 6 need 5 amps. Designers 7 & 8 need 10 amps. Lets figure what magnetic components this group of designers need. The group needs four different switching transformers and four different output inductors. Is that correct? Well, no! Designers 1, 3, and 5 will draw power from a 12-volt battery while designer 7 will draw power from a 24-volt battery. Designers 2, 4, 6, and 8 will draw rectified power from the A.C. line, but designer 8 wants to be able to draw from either 120 or 240 volts. Of course they all want the smallest transformer that will do the job. They will all need different transformers. Oh, I almost forgot. Designers 1, 3, 5 and 7 are switching at 50 kilohertz. Designers 2, 4, 6 and 8 are concerned about high frequency E.M.I in their applications. They decide to limit the switching frequency to 25 kilohertz. Now all the output inductors are different. What other parameters could be different? Dielectric (hipot) requirements? Voltage regulation specifications? Boy, what a diversity of required parts! Do all these needed parts exist in catalogs? Doubtful! Do the manufacturers keep them all in stock? Doubtful! Custom wound coils, custom wound transformers, and custom wound inductors can simply mean making coils, transformers, and inductors per the customers drawing and/or specifications. There may be several reasons why the customer has custom designs. Perhaps the customer could not find a suitable catalog part. Perhaps the customer is guarding against vendor obsoleteness, perhaps against a vendor going out of business. Alternatively, the custom coil, custom transformer, or custom inductor design may have unique features. If so, it is doubtful that it would be listed in catalogs or be

available off the shelf. Another consideration is that a custom wound coil, custom wound transformer, or custom wound inductor may involve construction processes that require specialized material, equipment or handling. High voltage coils may be one example. Because of corona concerns, coils may have to have void free vacuum impregnation with epoxy, silastic, or another suitable material. A vacuum chamber (or perhaps vacuum oven) will be required. Butler winding can make (and has made) custom wound coils, transformers, and inductors in a variety of shapes and sizes. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, EC, ETD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. We have constructed mag amps and some sensing coils. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. Butler Winding has a corona-testing chamber for testing high voltage coils. Butler Winding has a temperature chamber. It can be use to temperature cycle parts. Whatever your custom coil requirements, here is a high likelihood that Butler Winding can handle it. Need design assistance for your custom wound coil, transformer and inductor requirements? Please feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask to talk to Engineering. For more information on our capabilities, click o Custom Winding - Transformers - Inductors Services and Capabilities Winding Transformers Inductor Services and Capabilities Butler Winding manufactures coils, transformers, and inductors. Most of our business is from custom orders. Custom orders being orders built to customer drawings and/or to customer specifications; or orders requiring specialized handling, material and/or equipment. The coils, transformers, and inductors our customers ask us to build are not readily available as off the shelf parts.

What kind of services and capabilities can Butler Winding offer its customers?

Transformer and inductor manufacturing Inductor and transformer design Prototyping Customer service Quality control

Manufacturing ( Manufacturer of Inductors - Transformers - Coils) After receiving a customer order Butler Winding will purchases the cores, bobbins, winding tubes, terminals, magnet wire, lead wire, and/or insulation needed to build the customers parts. Then Butler Winding winds the coils; terminates the coil windings to pins, pads, terminals, or lead wires as required (including soldering and/or crimping); assembles (or stacks) the core(s) into the coils; tests the parts; bakes the parts if required; varnishes or encapsulates the parts; labels the parts; and then ships the parts. Yes, Butler Winding also sends a bill for the parts to the customer. Manufacturing can do any of the above processes as a value added process. One of our customers sends transformers to Butler Winding to encapsulate (pot) in epoxy. Manufacturing makes every reasonable effort to meet the customers delivery dates. Manufacturing can vacuum impregnate varnishes and encapsulate (potting) under vacuum. Manufacturing also has the capability to temperature cycle parts if needed. Butler Winding has one coil winder capable of winding with single digit wire gauges. For toroids #12 A.W.G. is the largest single conductor wire size our machines can handle. Manufacturing equipment available for use includes:

Tanac AX3 automated (programmable) winding machine. Tanac AX10 automated (programmable) winding machine. Bobifil ER-900 MP winding machine (can handle single digit wire gauges). Seven hand winders.

Two directional motors with a turns counter, speed controlled with a foot pedal. Anacoil Meteor M10 coil winder. Bachi Model 115 E/C SCR coil winder Jovil Model 200 and Jovil Universal SMC-1 toroid winder. Jovil model 200 toroid winder equipped with a taping header. Gorman Productor B and model 920A toroid winders. Universal model 63 and model 6LS toroid winders. Various size shuttles for each of the toroid winders. Two toroid hook winders. Carpenter Manufacturing Co. Model 88E mechanical wire stripper. Several handheld mechanical wire strippers, rotating knife edge type. Banding Machine, compressed air type, for banding C cores. Brady Model 3481 label maker Two Voltech Instruments AT3600 automated (programmable) transformer testers Two Baking Oven. Vacuum Chamber and a Vacuum Oven Chamber. Varnish tanks Small machine shop drill press, band saw, sander, and grinder. Tenney Temperature Chamber EFD Model 1500 XL precision dispensing machine. Air compressor.

Transformer - Inductor Design Services Butler Winding has an engineer on staff who is experienced in transformer and inductor design. If customer personnel need technical advice, they can telephone Butler Winding and ask to speak to engineering. Schedules permitting, our engineer may design transformers for our customer. As of present date, simple design work is usually done (not always) at no charge as a courtesy to our customers. A more extensive effort may warrant and incur a charge to the customer for the service. Schedules permitting, our engineering may be available for an hourly or daily fee contracted through Butler Winding.

Prototyping Butler Winding will make prototypes for customers if requested. A prototype sample is recommended for parts new to Butler Winding. Small inexpensive prototypes might be supplied to the customer at no charge as a courtesy to the customer. There will be a charge for larger more expensive prototypes. Typically, our engineer will produce a parts list, a coil sheet, and perhaps an assembly drawing. These will be submitted to production (manufacturing) for quoting (if applicable) and/or production. If the necessary materials are on hand production will insert the prototype work into its schedule after receipt of the purchase order (if applicable). If materials are not on hand, then material will be procured. Butler Winding tries to produce prototypes within two weeks, but this is not always possible.

Customer Service Butler Winding strives to provide good customer service. Butler winding recognizes that good customer service entails on time deliveries, polite friendly personnel, quick response times, monitoring of customer order status, and attention to detail. Butler winding will accommodate customer schedule changes and cancellations when practical, but Butler Winding cannot be expected to suffer monetary loss due to customer changes.

Quality Control Quality is important to our customers therefore it is important to Butler Winding. Bad parts cost the customer money and cost the vendor money. The cost occurs in lost time troubleshooting, communicating, and shipping return and replacement parts. Tracking the quality of thousands of parts is not an easy task. To help ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two automated programmable transformer testers. Both testers are the Voltech Insturments model AT3600. Butler Winding does nearly 100% testing of the parts it produces. Where warranted, inspection steps are added to our manufacturing process to help ensure a quality part. Also, there are procedures in place that help catch paperwork mistakes thereby reducing late deliveries.

Butler Winding personnel are willing to work with customer personnel to resolve any quality problems that may come up. Electronic Transformers & Inductor Core Types,
Quick Select Core Type

Magnetics cores can be divided into many types of categories. This discussion will divide magnetic cores into two major categories, structure (shape) and material. These major core categories will then be sub-divided into additional categories. Further below are a list of core structures and a list of magnetically "soft" core materials. The lists are not intended to be exhaustive lists. The associated discussions are intended to be general information, not detailed information. Butler Winding uses magnetic cores in its production of transformers and inductors, but does not manufacture any cores other than stacking laminations to form core stacks. Some additional information can be obtained from other web pages within Butler Windings website. Also feel free to contact Butler Winding and ask to talk to our engineering personnel. You can also contact core manufacturers for more detailed core information. Butler winding can make (and has made) transformers and inductors in a wide variety of core shapes, sizes, and materials. This includes; various standard types of core with bobbin structures (E, EP, EFD, EC, ETD, PQ, POT, U and others), toroids, and some custom designs. We have experience with foil windings, litz wire windings, and perfect layering. For toroids, we can (and have done) sector winding, progressive winding, bank winding, and progressive bank winding. Butler winding has a variety of winding machines, bobbin/tube and toroid. That includes two programmable automated machines and a taping machine for toroids. To ensure quality, Butler Winding purchased two programmable automated testing machines. Most of our production is 100% tested on these machines. For more information on our capabilities, click on our capabilities link.

Core Structures Toroids (rings)

Toroids are the core type geometry of choice for optimizing performance. A toroid of round cross-section offers better performance than one of rectangular cross-section, but for practical and economic reasons toroids of rectangular cross-section are much more prevalent. The symmetry of their circular geometry minimizes the amount of external magnetic flux produced. Consequently they produce much lower amounts of unwanted electromagnetic interference. Unlike other core types, turns can be wound along the entire length of the core thereby allowing more turns per layer. The mean turn length will be shorter than that of other core types of equal power capability hence lower winding resistance and lower winding losses. Compared against other core types, a toroidal coil has a lot of surface area from which it can dissipate heat hence it cools much better than other core types. Cooler windings result in higher efficiency and may allow more utilization of the cores capability. Because of its circular nature, the magnetic path of a toroid is an unbroken continuous path unless intentionally broken. There is no air gap in the magnetic path (unless intentionally added) hence optimal use can be made of high permeability materials. Ferrite toroids and stacks of stamped lamination rings are examples of this. A tape wound core is the next closest example. The flux in each layer wound on the core can make a full revolution and then continues onto the next layer, but the magnetic flux must eventually pass from layer to layer encountering an air gap between layers in the process. The gap occurs because the tape strip is not perfectly flat. The layer to layer passage is distributed the surface area of an entire revolution, hence the magnetic reluctance of the gap becomes very small and usually can be ignored. A tape wound core can utilize the advantage of grain oriented materials (such as grain oriented silicon steel) while stamped rings cannot. In some applications it is desirable to have an air gap in the core path. For mechanical reasons, it is cumbersome to add air gap to a toroid. Large air gaps produce undesirable flux fringing. Powdered cores combined the magnetic material with a non-magnetic binder material. Magnetically, the binding material acts like an air gap, but this gap is distributed throughout the entire core. Because of this distribution there are no flux fringing effects. The binder(s) also reduce eddy currents. Toroids are manufactured in practically all soft magnetic materials. Toroid Cores can be coated with insulation to provide electrical isolation

between the core and the winding(s). Some toroid cores are boxed to provide isolation. Some toroid cores are boxed because the core material is sensitive to stresses produced by the winding processes. Bar, Slab, or Rod Soft magnetic metal alloys are available in Bar, Rod, or Slab shapes. These core shapes find use in D.C. applications such as D.C. powered solenoids and D.C. relays. They can be used in very low frequency (below 50 Hz) A.C. applications. They do have some limited use at A.C. line frequencies. For a solid core, A.C. core losses per unit weight (or unit volume) become more pronounced as the cross sectional area increases. This is why silicon steel, nickel-iron, and cobalt alloy cores use a stack of laminations. The laminations divide the cross-section into a stack of much smaller cross-sections. D.C. applications are subject to far less core losses. They only experience A.C. core losses (and the heat produced) during transitional events. Powder Cores extend the useful A.C. frequency range of the materials listed in the previous paragraph. A non-magnetic binding material is used to bind the small magnetic powder particles together. The binding material also serves to insulate the particles from one another thereby reducing eddy current flow in the core. This extends the useful frequency range, but there is a trade-off. The binding material adds a distributed air gap to the core. The distributed air gap reduces the permeability of the core. The core requires more magnetizing VA. Bars, slabs, and rods can be purchased in powder iron materials. The selection of sizes is somewhat limited. Larger sizes can be assembled from smaller sizes. Ferrites are a magnetic form of ceramics. Ferrite has very high electrical resistivity. Even at high frequencies the eddy currents remain low. With suitable gauss de-rating, some types of ferrite cores can use above 1 megahertz. Bar, slabs, and rods can be purchased in ferrite materials, but the selection of sizes is limited. Larger sizes can be assembled from smaller sizes.

C Cores

C Cores are similar to tape wound toroids in that they are made by winding a long strip of electrical steels of desired width and thickness onto a mandrel. They differ from tape wound toroids in two characteristics: it is rectangular with rounded corners, and the wound core is cut in half to form two C shaped mating pieces. (One could argue that two U shapes are formed.) The mating surfaces are polished to minimize air gap between the two halves. Further reduction in the gap may be achieved by cutting the core at an angle. One C core set (or 2 C core halves) can replace a UU or U-I laminated structure. Two sets of C cores (or 4 C core halves) can replace a E-E or a E-I laminated structure. C cores can take full advantage of grain orientation while their laminated counterparts only take about 60% to 80%. Because of this, C cores performance is better than that of laminated stacks. The rounded corners also reduce the weight. E Type Cores: E-E, E-I, EFD, EEM, ER, and ETD Powdered and Ferrite Cores did not exist In the early development of transformers and inductors. Cores consisted of stacks of laminations; patterns cut or stamped out of thin sheets of electrical steels. Most applications required a lamination pattern (or patterns) that would form a closed magnetic loop when assembled together. Early patterns included rings for toroids, L shapes, U shapes, E shapes and I shapes (used with the E and the U). Patterns were sought that were easy to assemble, could be interleave to minimize gap effects, and would minimize waste. E shapes used in E-E and E-I combinations became popular choices. Scrapless E-I patterns were developed. The electrical steel stamped out of two adjacent E laminations (placed leg end to leg end) to form the winding window area became the two I laminations to be placed across the leg ends of the E laminations. In the typical E lamination, the center leg (one of three legs) is twice the width of either outer leg. In theory, magnetic flux flowing out of the center leg divides equally and flows into the outer two E core legs. Since the outer legs handle half the flux they only need to have half the cross-section that the center leg has. An E core structure occupies two outer sides of the coil. This constitutes a shell type core structure (not explained in detail here). In contrast, a U core or C core structure (which has two core legs) only occupies one side of a coil placed over one of its legs. The E core structure provides better self-shielding than the U core structure (but

neither provides good shielding). E type cores are easily gapped. For the typical E laminations this requires a butt stacked core. There is no interleaving of laminations. Since E cores have two open coil sides, they provide substantial room to bring high current lead wires out from the coil. This also permits good heat dissipation but not as good as a toroid. In contrast, the standard pot core has a much more restricted space in which to bring out lead wires and restricts heat flow. It is easier to achieve high voltage electrical isolation with an E core than with a pot core. Because the core stack is a stack of laminations the typical stack has core legs of rectangular cross-section. Typically the inductor or transformer coil is placed over the center core leg. To minimize winding resistance (hence also minimize winding losses) it is desirable to have a round center leg. A round center leg also eliminates the sharp bend encountered when winding wire around a rectangular leg; consequently a round center leg permits use of larger wire. Achieving round center legs with laminations is possible but very impractical. With the development of powdered cores and ferrite cores it became practical to have a round center leg. EC and ETD are examples of type E cores with round center legs. The combined cross section of the two outer legs should equal or exceed that of the center leg. EC, EER, and ETD type ferrite cores were developed for higher power higher frequency switching transformers.

EFD, EEM, and ER ferrite cores are low profile (low height) designs. EP Cores The EP core design combines the self-shielding feature of a pot core with the coil lead accessibility of E cores in a small package. The core wraps around the coil on the top, bottom, and three sides of the coil; but leaves one side of the coil open to bring out wires. Although the one side is open, the coil is completely recessed into the core. Because of the one open side, The amount of self-shielding of the EP core (by itself) is less than that of the pot core. However, the self-shielding improves when a ground plane is placed over the open side. EP cores are usually mounted on a printed circuit board with the open side against the printed circuit board. If good

shielding is required, a grounded section of copper is provided on the printed circuit board under the EP core and coil. Mounted in this way, the EP shielding comes very close to that of a Pot core. Once mounted the coils becomes completely enclosed. Consequently, heat dissipation is poor. The EP core has a round center leg to minimize winding losses. F Lamination Cores F shape laminations are similar in function to E laminations. One notable difference is that the F lamination can be interleaved at the corners of the stack and have a butt stack in the center leg. An air gap can be provided in the center leg during stamping of the lamination. The typical F lamination has a hole near each stack corner. A screw is passed through these holes to secure the stack. If the holes are over-sized a bit, there is some play available. This play can be used as a way to provide some gap adjustment in the center leg by sliding the stacked interleaved lamination a bit. The F shape is not typically found in cores other than lamination stacks. Pot Cores --- Round, round slab (RS & DS), and Square (RM) Pot cores are known for their excellent shielding capability. This occurs because the core completely surrounds the coil except for two narrow slots which leads are brought through. Pot cores have round center leg and two nearly semicircle outer legs. The center leg is usually hollow but may be solid. Solid ones run cooler because it permits a lower flux density. The center legs may be ground to provide a gapped core. An insert may be placed in a hollow gapped core to provide a means to adjust the inductance of the core (and its windings). There are popular in tuned circuits. The adjustment allows one to compensate for core tolerances and tuning capacitor tolerance. The round slab Pot cores are similar to the standard round Pot core but differs because a portion of the core has been removed from the standard round core design. Consequently, the round slab pot cores have better heat dissipation and have more room for wire leads. Double slab (DS) Pot cores have two portions of the core removed. In essence the slab Pot cores

are a compromise design between a standard Pot core design and a E-E core design. Square Pot core designs differ from standard round Pot core at the outer legs. The outer legs have a more corner-like appearance to them. This shape permits tighter packing of the cores on a printed circuit board, achieving about a 40% saving in mounting area. The coil is more open hence heat dissipation and lead wire space is better that of the standard round Pot cores, but shielding capability is less. Pot cores are made almost exclusively in ferrite materials.

Planar Cores Planar cores are low profile cores. The core material is almost exclusively ferrite material. The core design is intended for use with windings etched on a printed circuit board, thereby eliminating the winding of a separate coil. Etching of the windings puts a limit on the number of available turns hence the operating frequency must be high to avoid core saturation. If the turns requirement is sufficiently high, some designers might cement a thin coil to the board under the core. Since the typical planar core user does not need a coil, Butler Winding has little experience with planar cores. PQ Cores PQ cores were specifically designed for use in switching mode power supply circuits. The geometry is optimized to provide power with minimal size (including mounting area) and weight. Otherwise, its features are the same as an E-E core design. See section above discussing E type cores. U and U-I Cores These shapes are available in lamination materials (for stacking), powdered material (typically powdered iron), and ferrite materials. In laminated form, their features are similar to that of the C core discussed in a prior section. Heat dissipation is excellent. There is lots of room available for lead wires. Self-shielding is poor. U cores have two core legs. Coils can be placed over either or both legs. Using coils on separate legs is great for high voltage isolation between coils. The mean turn length of two coils on

separate legs (sharing the whole winding window) is smaller than 1 coil on one leg (occupying the whole winding window), hence the two coils connected in series has less winding resistance. U (and C) cores may be used for split-core current transformers.

Magnetically Soft Core Materials Silicon Steel laminations or tape wound Iron has a very high saturation level. It saturates above 20 kilogauss, but requires a lot of magnetizing force above 17 kilogauss. Cobalt has a higher saturation level, but is very expensive. Silicon is added to iron to improve the irons electrical resistivity. Processes have been developed with which promote grain orientation in the metal. The grain orientation lowers the losses and extends the boundaries of useful operation. The high saturation level permits the building of smaller transformers. Silicon steel must be used in thin strips to minimize its eddy currents; hence it is used for laminated core stacks or for tape wound cores. Eddy current become excessive as the operating frequency climbs. Eleven to fourteen mil thick strips are used for 50 & 60 hertz and at 100 hertz with some gauss de-rating. Six to seven mils is used for 400 hertz applications. Two to four mils is used near 1000 hertz. Use above 1000 hertz is possible but requires strip thickness below 1 mil and requires operating at lower gauss levels. Silicon steel is very economical within its useful frequency range. Silicon steels can be process to optimize square loop type properties. Nickel Iron -- laminations or tape wound Nickel is a higher permeability lower loss magnetic material when compared to silicon steel. It is usually used in combination with iron. Saturation for a fifty-fifty percent combination is around 15 kilogauss. Saturation for an 80% nickel combination is around 8 kilogauss. For the same power rating, a transformer made with Nickel iron will be larger than a silicon steel transformer provided they are operated in the silicon steels useful frequency range. At higher frequencies Nickel iron is preferred over silicon steel. Nickel iron is more expensive than silicon steel. Nickel iron, because of its higher permeability and lower losses it preferred over silicon steel for high fidelity applications even at the lower frequencies suitable for silicon steel.

Nickel iron can be operated beyond 10 kilohertz with proper choice of strip thickness and kilogauss level. Ferrites can match the lower losses of Nickel iron but cannot match the saturation level or the high permeability. Nickel iron can be processed to optimize either round loop or square loop properties Cobalt Alloys laminations or tape wound Because of its expense, cobalt is used only in size and/or weight critical applications. It finds frequent use in the aviation industry. Powdered Iron Cores Iron alloys are ground and thoroughly mixed with a binding material, then pressed in a press to form a core. The binding material is an insulator; hence it reduces the eddy currents. This extends the useful frequency range of the iron. It can be used up to about five kilohertz depending on the A.C. kilogauss level, above 10 kilohertz at low A.C. gauss levels. The binding material also provides a distributed air gap in the core structure. The distributed gap is useful in D.C. applications. Powder iron is frequently used as ripple filter inductors in D.C. power supplies. The D.C. flux can be high as long as the A.C. flux is sufficiently small. There are many types of powdered iron materials. Saturation can range from to 14 kilogauss depending on type. Powdered iron cores are available in E, E-I, U and U-I shapes. Ferrous Alloy(s) Powdered Cores Ferrous Alloy materials are similar to the Sendust material originally develop by Arnold Engineering, but with improvements. Saturation level is 10.5 kilogauss. Like powdered iron, the ferrous alloy is thoroughly mixed with a binding material, then pressed in a press to form a core. It has lower core losses than the powdered iron. It is also used for ripple filter inductors in D.C. power supplies. It becomes the preferred choice over powdered iron at higher A.C. flux levels.

Molybdenum Permalloy Powdered Cores These cores are composed of a powdered alloy of about 79% nickel, 4% molybdenum, and 17% iron. Saturation is about 7.5 kilogauss. Their high nickel content makes them very expensive. These powdered cores have the lowest losses of all the powdered cores. It has the best A.C. characteristics under heavy D.C. biasing. Because of its expense, its use is limited to the more critical applications that demand its superior properties. D.C. biased High Q coils operating at high frequency in tuned circuits is one example. Nickel-Iron Powdered Cores These cores are composed of a powdered alloy of about 50% nickel and 50% iron alloy. It has the highest saturation level of the powdered cores mentioned above. Saturation level is 15 kilogauss. Core loss is significantly lower than the core loss of powdered iron cores. Its high saturation level permit the smallest D.C biased inductors (assuming sufficiently small A.C. flux). Ferrites (ceramic structures) Modern electronic designs demand magnetic devices to operate at ever increasing high frequencies. Higher frequencies permit smaller magnetic devices up to a point; that point being excessive heat loss and its associated temperature rise. Of course sufficiently high temperatures will cause imminent failures. Even mildly excessive temperatures will shorten insulation life and eventually cause the magnetic device to fail prematurely. This can cause a real problem for product manufacturers and especially for their customers if the manufacturers products fail within a year or two after delivery. Winding losses are one source of heat. The other source is core loss. Core loss is caused by magnetic hysterisis. The hysterisis produces eddy currents. Eddy currents flow through the resistance of the core material and produce heat. Core materials with high electrical resistivity can be operated at higher frequencies and/or higher flux density levels. Consequently designers sought to discover or develop core materials with high resistivity. Ferrite core materials were a resulting viable solution. Ferrites exhibit high permeability and high resistivity. Ferrites are also reasonably stable (repeatable properties) over time and temperature. Three basic categories of ferrites are discussed below. The manganese zinc

and manganese nicker categories can be divided into various grades of ferrites. Manganese Zinc (MnZn) Ferrites This general type of ferrite can be manufactured in several different vastly different grades by altering its composition and processing. Initial relative permeability (at 25 degrees Centigrade) can range from several hundred to twenty thousand. Saturation (at 25C) ranges from 3.5 to 5 kilogauss. The curie temperature can range from 100 to 300 degrees Centigrade. Material grades have been developed for particular groups of applications such as power, broadband, E.M.I./R.F.I. filtering, ripple filtering, tuning, and others. The useful frequency range for most of these materials is 1 megahertz and less (with suitable flux density de-rating), but some types approach 9 megahertz. Manganese Zinc ferrites have very low porosity. Nickel Zinc Ferrites (ceramic structure) This general type of ferrite can also be manufactured in several vastly different grades by altering its composition and processing. Initial relative permeability (at 25C) can range from about 15 to about 1200. Saturation ranges from 2 to 3.5 kilogauss. The curie temperature ranges from 125C to 500C. Material grades have been developed for particular groups of applications. High frequency E.M.I. suppression is one example. Generally speaking, nickel zinc ferrites grades have significantly lower permeability than the manganese zinc grades. Nickel Zinc ferrites are typically used at frequencies above one megahertz. Manganese zinc ferrites are more economical below one megahertz. The upper frequency limit for nickel zinc ferrites ranges from 30 to 1000 megahertz depending on the grade. Nickel zinc ferrites vary in porosity. Manganese (Mn) Ferrites This ferrite material has a unique combination of properties. It is stable with temperature (repeatable properties), it is dense, and it exhibits some square loop properties. It is a good choice for high frequency magnetic amplifiers and other high frequency square loop applications. Its upper frequency limit is 150 kilohertz.

Non-magnetic Cores: There exist some applications where it is more economical to produce a coil without a magnetic core. A low inductance but high current inductor could be one example. Coil turns are wound on a supporting mandrel and bonded together into a rigid coil or wound on an insulated form which gives the coil support such as a bobbin (or spool), a tube, or a non-magnetic toroidal form. Such coils may be referred to as air core coils. The relative permeability of air and most insulators is one. The permeability of air is constant. It does not change with temperature, unless conditions induce formation of corona and/or plasma. Coils wound on insulating forms may have slight inductance changes due to polarization effects on the molecules of the coil form. Welcome to the Butler Winding Quote Request Page We at Butler Winding invite your quotation requests and ask that you select the type of transformer you would like a quote request for from the list below. We respect your online privacy while on our web site and invite your to browse our Internet Privacy Policy by clicking here .