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Fluid Mechanics lab 02-01

Items 02-01-01 thru item 02-01-20

F1
issue 16

F116 Impact of a jet

F112 Hydrostatic pressure

F110 Hydraulics bench with F1-24 Hydraulic ram

ACCESSORIES COMPRISE F1-11 Dead weight calibrator F1-12 Hydrostatic pressure F1-13 Flow over weirs F1-14 Metacentric height F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorem demonstration F1-16 Impact of a jet F1-17 Orifice & free jet flow F1-17a Orifice discharge F1-18 Energy losses in pipes F1-19 Flow channel F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' demonstration F1-21 Flow meter demonstration F1-22 Energy losses in bends F1-23 Free & forced vortices F1-24 Hydraulic ram F1-25 Demonstration Pelton turbine F1-26 Series/Parallel pumps F1-27 Centrifugal pump characteristics F301 Computer aided learning software C6MkII-10 Fluid friction apparatus

F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench


DESCRIPTION This unit is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the range of accessories described later in this data sheet. The bench is constructed from lightweight corrosion resistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility. The bench top incorporates an open channel with side channels to support the accessory on test. Volumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen in preference to other methods of flow measurement for its ease of use, accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weights for students to drop). The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. A stilling baffle reduces turbulence and a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous indication of water level. A measuring cylinder is included in the supply for measurement of very small flow rates. A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator. Opening the dump valve returns the measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the bench for recycling. An overflow in the volumetric tank avoids flooding. Water is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump and a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow. An easy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the bench top allows for the rapid exchange of accessories without the need for hand tools. Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment needing no additional service items other than the Hydraulics Bench. When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ...................................... centrifugal type max. head 21m H2O max. flow 1.35 litres/sec Motor rating: ............................ 0.37kW Sump tank capacity: ............... 250 litres High flow volumetric tank: ...... 40 litres Low flow volumetric tank: ....... 6 litres Height of working surface: ..... 1 metre above floor level

F1-11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator


This calibrator functions on the same principle adopted in calibrating industrial pressure gauges. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

calibrating a Bourdon type pressure gauge

DESCRIPTION This dead weight pressure gauge calibrator consists of a precision machined piston and cylinder assembly mounted on levelling screws. A Bourdon gauge is supplied for calibration. The weights supplied are added to the upper end of the piston rod which is rotated to minimise friction effects. The gauge is thus subject to known pressures which may be compared with the gauge readings and an error curve drawn. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pressure gauge: ................ Bourdon tube range 0 to 200 KN/m2 (KPa) Area of Piston: ................... 244.8 x 106 m2 Mass of piston: .................. 0.5kg Ancillary masses: .............. 0.5kg, 1.0kg and 2.5kg

120

Calibrated pressure KN/m

100 80 60 40 20 0

20

40

60

80

100
3

120

Indicated pressure KN/m

22 20 18

Head (metres of water)

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Flow (litres S )
Service pump characteristics curve (indicative) F111 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator

-1

F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure


The Hydrostatic Pressure accessory has been designed to determine the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface and allow comparison of the measured magnitude and position of this force with simple theory. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES determining the centre of pressure on both a submerged or partially submerged plane surface and comparison with the theoretical position DESCRIPTION A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed, only the force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges. The balance arm incorporates a balance pan for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance. This assembly is mounted on top of an acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting screwed feet. Correct alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank. An indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank capacity: ....................................................... 5.5 litres Distance between suspended mass and fulcrum: 275mm Cross-sectional area of quadrant (torroid): ... 7.5 x 10 3m2 Total depth of completely immersed quadrant: .... 160mm Height of fulcrum above quadrant: ........................ 100mm

F1-13 Flow over Weirs


Two weir plates of different shape are provided allowing familiarisation and comparison with theory. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a rectangular notch demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a vee notch determining the coefficient of discharge DESCRIPTION The Flow over Weirs consists of five basic elements used in conjunction with the flow channel in the moulded bench top of the Hydraulics Bench. (i) A quick release connector in the base of the channel is unscrewed and a delivery nozzle screwed in its place. (ii) A stilling baffle locates into slots in the walls of the channel. The inlet nozzle and stilling baffle in combination promote smooth flow conditions in the channel. (iii) A Vernier hook and point gauge is mounted on an instrument carrier which is located on the side channels of the moulded top. The carrier may be moved along the channels to the required measurement position. (iv) The rectangular notch weir or (v) vee notch weir to be tested is clamped to the weir carrier in the channel by thumb nuts. The weir plates incorporate captive studs to aid assembly. TECHNICAL DETAILS Overall dimensions of weir plates: .... height 160mm width 230mm thickness 4mm Dimensions of rectangular notch: ..... height 82mm width 30mm Angle of vee notch weir: .................... 90 0 inclusive Hook & point gauge range: ................ 0 to 150mm Accuracy 0.1mm
(x10 -4 m 3/s)
5.0

(x10 -3 m 3/s)
1.5

FLOW RATE

200

FULLY SUBMERGED PLATE ONLY

0 0

H 5/2 (m 5/2)

FLOW RATE
0 0.001 0

H 3/2 (m 3/2)

0.03

r (mm)

Typical results obtained using F113 vee notch weir (left) and rectangular weir

PARTIALLY SUBMERGED BELOW THIS POINT


0 0

MASS (g)

500

Graph plotting r against mass using F1-12 (indicative)

F113 Flow over Weirs - vee notch weir

F1-14 Metacentric Height


This equipment allows a thorough investigation of the factors affecting the stability of a floating body. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES determining the centre of gravity of the pontoon determining the metacentric height and from this the position of the metacentre for the pontoon varying the metacentric height with angle of heel DESCRIPTION On this item the position of the metacentre can be varied to produce stable and unstable equilibrium. The equipment consists of a plastic rectangular floating pontoon, the centre of gravity of which can be varied by an adjustable weight which slides and can be clamped in any position on a vertical mast. A single plumb-bob is suspended from the mast which indicates the angle of heel on a calibrated scale. A weight with lateral adjustment allows the degree of heel to be varied and hence the stability of the pontoon determined. The equipment does not require a separate water tank as it may be used on the Hydraulics Bench by filling the volumetric tank. TECHNICAL DETAILS Max. angle of heel: ........................ 13o Corresponding linear dimension: . 90mm Pontoon dimensions: .................... length 350mm width 200mm overall height

F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration


The Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration accessory illustrates those circumstances to which Bernoulli's Theorem may be applied. Also, separately, why in other circumstances the theorem gives an inadequate description of the fluid behaviour. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES demonstrating Bernoulli's Theorem and its limitations directly measuring the static and total head distribution along a Venturi tube determining the meter coefficient at various flow rates DESCRIPTION The test section consists of a classical Venturi machined in clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The test section is arranged so that the characteristics of flow through both a converging and diverging section can be studied. Water is fed through a hose connector and is controlled by a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section. The Venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge coefficient can be determined. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: ........................ 0 to 300mm Number of manometer tubes: ...... 8 Throat diameter: ........................... 10.0mm Upstream diameter: ...................... 25.00mm Upstream taper: ............................ 14o Downstream taper: ....................... 21o

F114 Metacentric Height

F115 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration

F1-16 Impact of a Jet


This equipment allows the force developed by a jet of water impinging upon a stationary object to be measured. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES measuring the force exerted on different targets and comparison with the forces predicted by momentum theory DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a cylindrical clear acrylic fabrication with provision for levelling. Water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carried on a stem which extends through the cover. A weight carrier is mounted on the upper end of the stem. The dead weight of the moving parts is counter-balanced by a compression spring. The vertical force exerted on the target plate is measured by adding the weights supplied to the weight pan until the mark on the weight pan corresponds with the level gauge. A total of four targets are provided: a flat plate, a 120o cone and a hemispherical cup. TECHNICAL DETAILS Nozzle diameter: ............................................ 8mm Distance between nozzle & target plate: ...... 20mm Diameter of target plate: ................................ 36mm Target plates: .................... 180o hemispherical target 120o target (cone) flat target - 30O target

F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow


This equipment permits calibration of two orifices of differing diameter. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES establishing the coefficient of velocity for a small orifice finding experimentally the coefficient of discharge for a small orifice with flow under constant head and flow under varying head comparing the measured trajectory of a jet with that predicted by simple theory of mechanics DESCRIPTION In the Orifice & Free Jet Flow accessory a constant head tank is fed with water from the Hydraulics Bench. The orifice is installed at the base of this tank by means of a special wall fitting which provides a flush inside surface. The head is maintained at a constant value by an adjustable overflow and is indicated by a level scale. A jet trajectory tracing device allows the path followed by the jet to be ascertained. Adjustable feet permit levelling. TECHNICAL DETAILS Orifice diameters: .............. 3.0mm and 6.0mm Jet trajectory probes: ....... 8 Max. constant head: ......... 410mm

10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10 10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10

F117 Orifice and Free Jet Flow

10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10

Typical results obtained using F116 with hemispherical plate (top), 1200 cone (centre) and flat plate (bottom)

Item 02-01-21

Pipe surge and water hammer are two related but independent phenomena which arise when fluid flowing in a pipe is accelerated or decelerated. The associated pressure transients can be damaging to pipework or components and systems must be designed to avoid or withstand them. The equipment designed by Armfield clearly demonstrates the different effects resulting from gradual or instantaneous changes in fluid velocity (created by slow and fast valve closure). Effect of initial fluid velocity can also be investigated. Pipe surge resulting from a gradual change in fluid velocity is clearly seen as fluctuating changes in head in a surge shaft. Water hammer resulting from a rapid change in fluid velocity is clearly seen as large changes in pressure monitored using a pair of transducers and indicated using an oscilloscope.

DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES
demonstration of pipe surge determination of oscillatory characteristics of the surge shaft demonstration of frictional head loss between reservoir and surge shaft comparison between theoretical and measured pressure profiles produced by water hammer using a dual trace storage oscilloscope to record transient water hammer pressure profiles measuring the pressure profile characteristics determination of the velocity of sound through a fluid in a pipe demonstration of the effects of cavitation on subsequent cycles.
15 20

DESCRIPTION The equipment comprises two stainless steel pipes connected to a constant head tank. A service module provides the water supply to the head tank and also incorporates a volumetric tank for flow rate measurement, sump tank, circulating pump and flow control valve. Water enters the two test pipes via the constant head tank and discharges into the volumetric tank. A dump valve in the volumetric tank returns the water to the sump tank. The pipe surge test section incorporates a clear acrylic surge shaft to enable visualisation of its oscillatory characteristics to be demonstrated. A metric scale on the shaft permits the height of the oscillations to be measured. The test pipe terminates with a lever operated gate valve and separate flow control valve. The water hammer test section uses a unique fast acting valve specifically designed by Armfield.

A moving shuttle within the valve travels with the water flow, thereby enabling a very high closure rate to be obtained. The valve can easily be operated simply by pressing the valve release button, and a spring loaded plunger re-sets it for further use. Straight pipes are used, rather than a coiled arrangement, to reduce the distortion of the pressure wave. Pressure transducers mounted at the fast acting valve itself and at a point along the test pipe provide analogue outputs which are fed into a signal conditioning module. The corresponding output voltage from the signal conditioning module can then be fed into a dual trace oscilloscope (C7-11A). A Centronics printer output is available from the oscilloscope. This allows the stored display to be transferred onto a suitable printer (C7-12) to provide a hard copy of the transient. The pipe surge (C7-10) part of the apparatus may be ordered separately, with the water hammer (C7-11) being added at a later stage if required.

mm Height of water

Pressure

Oscillations superimposed on waveform caused by vibration

Average reading of Amplitude

sec Time
Atmospheric pressure

Timebase 2.0ms Amplitude 20mV/div


Observed oscillations in surge shaft

Time

Graph of pressure head against time following sudden closure of the valve

Pressure

Pressure
Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure Channel 1 Pressure transducer nearest fast acting valve Channel 2 Pressure transducer furthest from the fast acting valve

Atmospheric pressure

Timebase 2.0ms Amplitude 20mV/div Channel 1 only - Pressure transducer nearest fast acting valve

Time

Timebase 2.0ms Amplitude 20mV/div

Time

Pressure-time diagram showing cyclic nature of pressure pulses with decay due to friction

Using pressure-time diagrams to determine velocity of sound in the test pipe

TECHNICAL DETAILS stainless steel 22mm I/D x 3m long Surge shaft : clear acrylic 40mm I/D x 800mm H Service pump: centrifugal type, delivering 1.35 litres/sec at 3m H20 Flow rate measurement: volumetric tank, stepped 0-40 litre high flows 0-6 litre low flows Head tank: capacity 45 litres made from PVC. C7-11: Water hammer test pipe: stainless steel 22mm I/D x 3m long Pressure transducers: 2 off range 1 to 69 bar,
(13.5 bar max operating)
1

C7-10: Pipe surge test pipe:

ORDERING SPECIFICATION C7-10, C7-11, C7-11A


q A self-contained unit designed to demonstrate the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer. q The unit includes two separate test pipes, service module and constant head tank. q Two pressure transducers provide electrical signals for connection to a dual trace storage oscilloscope with an integral printer output. q Straight pipes are used, rather than a coiled arrangement, to reduce distortion of the pressure wave.

ORDERING OPTIONS
C7-10: C7-11: Self-contained pipe surge apparatus only Water hammer apparatus, additional to C7-10 C7-11A: Oscilloscope for C7-11 C7-12: Printer for C7-11A

/4" BSP connections

C7-11A: Oscilloscope C7-12: Printer

dual trace storage oscilloscope with Centronics interface for use with C7-11A

Fast acting valve and pressure transducer

SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: C7-10-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz C7-10-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C7-10-G: 220-240V/1ph/60Hz C7-11-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz C7-11-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C7-11-G: 220-240V/1ph/60Hz C7-11A: 120-240V/1ph/50 or 60Hz C7-12-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz C7-12-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C7-12-G: 220-240V/1PH/60HZ OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Length: Depth: 1.865m 3.875m 0.725m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION C7-10: Volume: Gross weight: C7-11: Volume: Gross weight: C7-11A: Volume: Gross weight: C7-12: Volume: Gross weight: 2.5m3 300kg 0.5m3 20kg 0.1m3 10kg 0.1m3 10kg

F1-17a Orifice Discharge


The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis of the flow through five different orifices over a range of flow rates. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES determining the contraction and velocity coefficients calculating the discharge coefficient DESCRIPTION The Orifice Discharge accessory consists of a cylindrical glass tank which has an orifice fitted in the base. A traverse assembly is provided which enables a pitot tube to be positioned anywhere in the jet. Attached to this pitot tube is a sharp blade which can be traversed across the jet to accurately measure the jet diameter and the vena contracta diameter and so determine the contraction coefficient. The pitot head and the total head across the orifice are shown on manometer tubes adjacent to the tank. In addition to the standard orifice, supply includes four additional orifices. These are supplied in an attractive storage case. A label inside the lid gives dimensional details of each orifice. TECHNICAL DETAILS Standard orifice: ............... sharp-edged 30mm diameter Max. head: ......................... 365mm Traverse mechanism: ........ lead screw with adjusting nut calibrated 0.1mm per division

F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes


This equipment allows the pressure drop of water passing through a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured in detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES investigating the variation of friction head along a circular pipe with the mean flow velocity in the pipe investigating the effects of laminar and turbulent flow regimes DESCRIPTION The Energy Losses in Pipes accessory consists of a test pipe, orientated vertically on the side of the equipment, which may be fed directly from the Hydraulics Bench supply or, alternatively, from the internal constant head tank. These sources provide high or low flow rates which may be controlled by a valve at the discharge end of the test pipe. Head loss between two tapping points in the test pipe is measured using two manometers, a water over mercury manometer for large pressure differentials and a press-urised water manometer for small pressure differentials. Water discharging from the head tank is returned to the sump tank of the Hydraulics Bench. Adjustable feet permit levelling. Mercury not supplied. TECHNICAL DETAILS Diameter of test pipe: .................................... 3.0mm Length of test pipe: ........................................ 560mm Distance between pressure tapping points: . 510mm Range of mercury manometer: ..................... 500mm Range of water manometer: .......................... 500mm Measuring cylinder capacity: ........................ 1000ml

F117a Orifice Discharge

F118 Energy Losses in Pipes

F1-19 Flow Channel


The Flow Channel introduces students to the characteristics of flow in an open channel at an elementary level. DEMONSTRATION & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES demonstrating basic phenomena associated with open channel flow visualisation of flow patterns over or around immersed objects DESCRIPTION The channel consists of a clear acrylic working section of large depth to width ratio incorporating undershot and overshot weirs at the inlet and discharge ends respectively. Water is fed to the streamlined channel entry via a stilling tank to reduce turbulence. Water discharging from the channel is collected in the volumetric tank of the Hydraulics Bench and returned to the sump for recirculation. A dye injection system incorporated at the inlet to the channel permits flow visualisation in conjunction with a graticule on the rear face of the channel. Models supplied with the channel include broad and sharp crested weirs, large and small diameter cylinders and symmetrical and asymmetrical aerofoils which, in conjunction with the inlet and discharge weirs, permit a varied range of open channel and flow visualisation demonstrations. Adjustable feet permit levelling TECHNICAL DETAILS Dye injection needles: ....... Dye reservoir capacity: ..... Width of channel: .............. Length of channel: ............ Depth of channel: .............. Models: .............................. 5 0.45 litres 15mm 615mm 150mm broad crested weir narrow crested weir symmetrical aerofoil asymmetrical aerofoil small cylinder large cylinder

F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration


This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning the nature of laminar and turbulent flow. VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES reproducing the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition observing the laminar, transitional, turbulent flow and velocity profile DESCRIPTION The equipment operates in a vertical mode. A header tank containing stilling media provides a constant head of water through a bellmouth entry to the flow visualisation pipe. Flow through this pipe is regulated using a control valve at the discharge end. The flow rate of water through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric tank (or measuring cylinder) of the Hydraulics Bench. Velocity of the water can therefore be determined to allow calculation of Reynolds' number. The equipment uses a similar dye injection technique to that of Reynolds' original apparatus to enable observation of flow conditions. TECHNICAL DETAILS Test pipe diameter: ................. 10mm Length of test pipe: ................. 700mm Dye reservoir capacity: ........... 0.45 litres

F119 Flow Channel

F120 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration

F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration


This accessory is designed to introduce students to three basic types of flow meter. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings


This accessory permits losses in different bends, a sudden contraction, sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated. DEMONSTRATION & MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

directly comparing flow measurement using a Venturi meter, variable area meter and orifice plate calibrating each flow meter using the volumetric measuring tank of the bench comparing pressure drops across each device

measuring the losses in the devices related to flow rate and calculating loss coefficients related to velocity head comparing the pressure drop across each device

DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The equipment consists of a Venturi meter, variable area meter and orifice plate, installed in a series configuration to permit direct comparison. A flow control valve permits var-iation of the flow rate through the circuit. Pressure tappings are incorporated so that the head loss characteristics of each flow meter may be measured. These tappings are connected to an eight tube manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The circuit and manometer are attached to a support framework which stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench. The bench is used as the source of water supply and for calibrating volumetrically each flow meter. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: ........................ 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: ...... 8 Orifice plate diameter: .................. 20mm Variable area meter: ...................... 2 to 20 litres/min Venturi dimensions: Throat diameter .................... 15mm Upstream pipe diameter ...... 31.75mm Upstream taper ..................... 210 inclusive Downstream taper ................ 140 inclusive TECHNICAL DETAILS Pipe diameter: ......................... 19.48mm Differential pressure gauge: ... 0 to 1.3.5bar Enlargement diameter: ........... 26.2mm Contraction diameter: ............. 19.48mm Fittings: .................................... 450 mitre elbow short bend large bend enlargement contraction Manometer range: .................. 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: 12 Differential manometers: ........ 6 The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework which supports the test pipework and instrumentation. The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: mitre bend, 900 elbow, sweep bends (large and small radius), sudden contraction and sudden enlargement. All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings. These tappings are connected to a bank of twelve water manometer tubes, mounted on the framework. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilititated by a hand pump. A gate valve is used to control the flow rate. A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework. The unit stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench which is also used as the source of water supply.

(x10 -4 m 3/s)

7.0

Flow Rate

0 0
(x10 -4 m 3/s)

/ H12

/ (m 1 2 )
0.7

7.0

Flow Rate

0 0

/ H12

/ (m 1 2 )
0.7
F122 Energy Losses in Bends

Typical results obtained using F121 orifice meter (top) and venturi meter

F1-23 Free and Forced Vortex


This equipment is designed to produce and measure the characteristics of free and forced vortices. MEASUREMENT & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES

F1-24 Hydraulic Ram


If flowing water is suddenly brought to rest in a long pipe, a phenomena known as water hammer occurs, wherein a pressure wave travels along the pipe. This principle is used in the hydraulic ram to pump water. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

understanding the difference between free and forced vortices determining the surface profile of a forced vortex determining the surface profile and total head distribution of a free vortex visualisation of secondary flow in free vortex

establishing flow/pressure characteristics and determining efficiency of the hydraulic ram

DESCRIPTION The Hydraulic Ram comprises an acrylic base incorporating pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir on a stand which is fed by the Hydraulics Bench. An air vessel above the valve chamber smooths cyclic fluctuations from the ram delivery. The weights supplied may be applied to the pulse valve to change the closing pressure and hence the operating characteristics. TECHNICAL DETAILS Supply head: ..................... 300 - 700mm variable Delivery head: .................... 750 - 1500mm variable

DESCRIPTION The apparatus comprises a clear acrylic cylinder on a plinth designed to produce and measure free and forced vortices. The free vortex is generated by water discharging through an interchangeable orifice in the base of the cylinder and the resulting profile is measured using a combined caliper and depth scale. The forced vortex is induced by a paddle in the base of the cylinder which is rotated by jets of water. The profile of the forced vortex is determined using a series of depth gauges. Velocity at any point in the free or forced vortices may be measured using the appropriate pitot tube supplied. Dye crystals (not supplied ) may be used to demonstrate secondary flow at the base of the free vortex. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank diameter: .................. 245mm Height to overflow point: .. 180mm Orifice diameters: .............. 8, 16 and 24mm Forced vortex measuring probes Distance from centre: ....... 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110mm Pitot tubes having measuring point (nose) at: .................. 15, 25 and 30mm radius Inlet tubes: ......................... 9 and 12.5mm diameter

F123 Free and Forced Vortex

F124 Hydraulic Ram

F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine


The Demonstration Pelton Turbine provides a simple low cost introduction to turbine performance. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES determining the operating characteristics, i.e. power, efficiency and torque, of a Pelton turbine at various speeds DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a miniature Pelton wheel with spear valve arrangement mounted on a support frame which locates on the Hydraulics Bench top channel. Mechanical output from the turbine is absorbed using a simple friction dynamometer. Pressure at the spear valve is indicated on a remote gauge. A non-contacting tachometer (not supplied) may be used to determine the speed of the Pelton wheel. Basic principles of the Pelton turbine may be demonstrated and, with appropriate measurements, power produced and efficiency may be determined. TECHNICAL DETAILS Speed range: ........................... 0 to 2000 r.p.m. Brake power: ........................... 10 Watts Pressure gauge range: ............ 0 to 25m H2O Force balance range: .............. 0 to 10N x 0.1N Number of Pelton buckets: ..... 16 Diameter of Pelton wheel: ...... 123mm

F1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps


The introduction of a second pump to the Hydraulic Bench system allows the study of two pump performance, both in series and parallel operation. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Determining the head/flow rate characteristics of: a single centrifugal pump at a single speed two similar pumps operating in a parallel configuration at the same speed two similar pumps operating in a series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a fixed speed pump assembly and independent discharge manifold interconnected by flexible tubing with quick release connectors. This auxiliary pump is intended to be used in conjunction with the basic Hydraulics Bench. The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ...................................... centrifugal type max. head 21m H2O max. flow 1.35 litres/sec Motor rating: ............................ 0.36kW Pressure gauge range: ............ 0 to 45m H2O Compound gauge range: ........ 10 to + 45m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F110 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics.

F126 Series/Parallel Pumps

F125 Demonstration Pelton Turbine

F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics


This accessory offers similar features to those described for the item F1-26 but with enhanced capabilities provided by the inclusion of a variable speed pump rather than a fixed speed pump with inverter drive. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES determining the relationship between head, discharge, speed, power and efficiency for a centrifugal pump at various speeds determining the head/flow rate characteristics of two similar pumps operating in either parallel or series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump, with which it is intended to be used. The pump is driven by an a.c. motor, the speed of which is varied by a compatible inverter drive. The motor speed, output voltage and motor current are easily monitored on the inverter display. A compound pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump inlet and a pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump outlet. When operated independently or in parallel with the bench service pump, the auxiliary pump draws its water direct from the sump tank on the Hydraulics Bench. When operated in series with the bench service pump, the auxiliary pump is connected to the bench supply outlet in the bed of the channel. An independent discharge manifold incorporates a pressure gauge and flow control valve prior to a discharge pipe with diffuser. A quick release connector incorporating a watertight valve permits operation of various other bench accessories when the flow control valve is closed. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ................................ centrifugal type max. head 21.0m H2O max. flow rate 1.35 l/sec Motor: ................................ 0.36kW Speed controller: .............. PWM inverter Speed range: ..................... 0 to 1500 rpm Pressure gauge: ................ 0 to 60 m H2O Compound gauge: ............ -10 to 32m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F110 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics. F1-17a-301 F1-18-301 F1-19-301 F1-20-301 F1-21-301 F1-22-301 F1-23-301 F1-24-301 F1-25-301 F1-26-301 F1-27-301
F127 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

F301 Computer Aided Learning Software


F1-11-301 F1-12-301 F1-13-301 F1-14-301 F1-15-301 F1-16-301 F1-17-301 Windows Program for F1-11 Dead Weight Calibrator Windows Program for F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure Windows Program for F1-13 Flow over Weirs Windows Program for F1-14 Metacentric Height Windows Program for F1-15 Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Windows Program for F1-16 Impact of a Jet Windows Program for F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow Windows Program for F1-17a Orifice Discharge Windows Program for F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes Windows Program for F1-19 Flow Channel Windows Program for F1-20 Osborne Reynolds Demonstration Windows Program for F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration Windows Program for F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends Windows Program for F1-23 Free and Forced Vortices Windows Program for F1-24 Hydraulic Ram Windows Program for F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine Windows Program for F1-26 Series/ Parallel Pumps Windows Program for F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A self-contained mobile service module & accessories Special features: constructed from lightweight, corrosion resistant plastic an open channel incorporated in the bench top volumetric flow measurement for both high and low flow rates. Capacities: high flow 40 litres, low flow 6 litres easy to use quick release pipe connector allows rapid exchange of accessories pump tank capacity 250 litres computer aided learning programs available for selected accessories eighteen accessories: Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator Hydrostatic Pressure Flow over Weirs Metacentric Height Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration Impact of a Jet Orifice and Free Jet Flow Orifice Discharge Energy Losses in Pipes Flow Channel Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration Flow Meter Demonstration Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Free and Forced Vortex Hydraulic Ram Demonstration Pelton Turbine Series/Parallel Pumps Centrifugal Pump Characteristics when coupled to the bench, the accessories are immediately ready for use and require no additional service items A user instruction manual provides installation, commissioning and maintenance data, together with demonstration and measurement exercises.

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Stop watch Vernier caliper Reference pressure gauge SERVICES REQUIRED F110, F126 and F127 Electrical supply Standard: 220/240V, 1ph, 50Hz Alternative: 110V, 1ph, 60Hz available at extra cost OVERALL DIMENSIONS F110 Hydraulics Bench only: Height: 1.00m Width: 1.13m Depth: 0.73m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION F110 Hydraulics Bench only: Volume: 1.5m3 Gross Weight: 160kg Individual accessories on request COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS F301: Computer Aided Learning Software (Windows) The F1-xx-301 Software package comprises: 3.5 High density disks Instruction manual The complete F1 software family is also available on a single CD-ROM (code F301-CD) for customers who use the full range of accessories. F4: Precision Pressure Gauge Calibrator F5: Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration F6: Air Flow Studies F9092: Fluid Properties and Hydrostatics Bench F10: Cavitation Demonstration F12: Particle Drag Coefficients Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System F14: C6MkII-10: Fluid Friction Apparatus

TOXIC MATERIALS Due to international restrictions limiting the transport of toxic materials we do not include mercury in our supply. A Digital Pressure Meter: H12-8 is available as an alternative to Mercury manometers ask for data sheet H12: Manometers and Pressure Meter.

Specifications may change without notice iss16/5k/0502/HH.

Item 02-01-22

The Armfield Properties of Fluids and Hydrostatics Bench is designed to demonstrate the properties of fluids and their behaviour under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest). This allows students to develop an understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fundamental principles and techniques, before studying fluids in motion.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES
The provision of practical instruction exercises demonstrating the principles of fluid mechanics, in particular: Understanding the properties of fluids: determining the density, specific gravity and viscosity of different liquids observing the effects of capillarity Understanding the effects of static pressure: demonstrating that the free surface of a static liquid is horizontal studying the effect of flow on a free surface measuring changes in liquid level studying the relationship between intensity of liquid pressure and depths determining the position of the centre of pressure on a plane surface Studying the operation and application of pressure gauges and manometers: using a direct reading Mercury barometer (Mercury not supplied) measuring air and water pressure using manometers comparing results obtained from various devices calibrating a Bourdon-type pressure gauge using a dead weight pressure gauge calibrator Investigating the buoyancy force and stability of floating bodies: verifying Archimedes' principle determining metacentric height

DESCRIPTION
The equipment is mounted on a steel-framed bench fitted with castors. A variety of measuring devices is incorporated, either fastened to the back of the bench or freestanding. Water is stored in a polythene tank situated on the lower shelf of the bench. The water can be transferred by two positive displacement hand pumps either to an elevated open storage tank connected to a number of glass tubes for free surface studies, or to a plastic sink recessed into the working surface so that bench top experiments may be conducted without spillage. All excess water is returned to the storage tank via the sink drain. The following experimental apparatus is included: universal hydrometer and hydrometer jars falling sphere viscometers

free surface tubes hook and point gauge Mercury barometer (Mercury not supplied) Bourdon gauge u-tube manometers deadweight pressure gauge calibrator and weights hydrostatic pressure apparatus Pascal's apparatus parallel plate capillary apparatus capillary tube apparatus lever balance with displacement vessel, bucket and cylinder metacentric height apparatus measuring cylinder thermometer air pump 600ml beaker stop clock

Determining the stability of a floating body

Calibration of a Bourdon guage using a dead weight calibrator

Demonstration of the free surface of a static liquid

Pressurising a manometer

TECHNICAL DETAILS
Universal hydrometer: Falling sphere viscometer: Hydrostatic pressure apparatus: Direct reading barometer: range 0.70 to 2.00 sub-divided in 0.01 intervals 40mm tube diameter comprises counter-balanced precision quadrant pivotted on knife edges at its centre of arc with compensated silvered metal scale range 585 to 790mm subdivided in 1mm intervals includes thermometer range 0 to 200 kN/m2 (kPa) and equivalent head of water in metres with 2 x 1/2 kg, 1kg and 21/2 kg weights 178mm diameter pan, hook for use in buoyancy experiments, anti-parallax cursor, double scale 0 to 0.25kg and 0 to 1.00kg range -100C to +500C.

100mm dial pressure gauge: Dead weight pressure gauge calibrator: Lever balance:

Thermometer:

KN/m3
120
Calibrated pressure

+ + + + + +

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60

80 100 120

KN/m3

Indicated pressure
Demonstration of Archimedes' principle Calibration of a Bourdon gauge

V1 V5
a b c

PRESSURE GAUGE V9 VENT W V8 V10

TANK 2 A B V2

V6

V3 WATER PUMPS V4 SINK TANK 1 V7 U-TUBE MANOMETERS DEAD WEIGHT TESTER AIR PUMP

Pressure and liquid level experiments are conducted using a built-in pipe system shown in outline in this diagram

ORDERING SPECIFICATION q A self-contained and mobile unit for demonstration of the properties of fluids and hydrostatics. q The equipment is mounted on a steelframed bench fitted with castors. q The bench top incorporates a recessed plastic sink. q A variety of measuring devices is incorporated in the unit including a universal hydrometer, range 0.70 to 2.00; falling sphere viscometer; hook and point gauge; hydrostatic pressure apparatus; Pascal's apparatus; double scale lever balance with displacement vessel, bucket and cylinder; metacentric height apparatus; direct reading barometer range 585 to 790mm; dial pressure gauge range 0 to 200 kN/m2 (kPa); dead weight pressure gauge calibrator with weights;thermometer range -100C to +500C. q These devices allow a full range of 16 experiments to be carried out, demonstrating the properties of fluids, the effects of static pressure, the operation and application of pressure gauges and manometers and the investigation of the stability of floating bodies. q A comprehensive manual is included describing how the experiments are performed as well as how to commission the equipment.

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Vernier caliper Reference pressure gauge - Bourdon type Electronic top loading balance OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Consequent to its hazardous nature many technicians prefer not to use Mercury or its use may be prohibited in the laboratory. In any case Armfield is unable to include it in the supply with the purchase of Mercury manometers due to shipping restrictions. With this in mind Armfield offers a hand held, portable, battery operated pressure meter (H12-8) which is capable of measuring pressures of air or water from 0-2000mBar (0-1500mm Hg). A full description and ordering specification is provided in data sheet: H12: Manometers and Pressure Meters COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS F1: Hydraulics Bench & Accessories F1-301: Computer Aided Learning Programs (PC: Windows) F5: Osborne Reynolds Demonstration F6: Air Flow Studies F10: Cavitation Demonstration F12: Particle Drag Coefficients F14: Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1450mm 1830mm 610mm

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross weight: 2.7m3 270kg

Specifications may change without notice iss13/5k/0204/B&S.

Item 02-01-23

PARTICLE DRAG COEFFICIENTS

The apparatus has been designed to introduce students to the fundamental characteristics of the behaviour of particle/fluid systems, in particular the relationship between the drag coefficients of falling particles and their Reynolds number value. Particles covering a range of sizes and densities are supplied. The experiments are conducted by allowing single particles to fall through a number of different liquids contained in vertical glass tubes. Blockage effects are reduced to a minimum as the largest particle used has a projected area of only 1% of the tube cross-section. The rate of fall of the particles is determined by timing their passage between two marks on the walls of the glass tubes. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

measurement of drag coefficients of spheres over several decades of particle Reynolds number exploration of dimensional analysis and dynamic similarity introduction to the effects of boundary layer separation on motion of spheres effect of particle shape on rate of fall and on drag coefficient

DESCRIPTION The equipment consists of two precision glass tubes 1.5m long and 93mm inside diameter fixed vertically on a wall mounted backboard. A guide is provided at the top of each tube to facilitate the introduction of particles with the minimum of disturbance to the liquid. A sliding valve device at the bottom of each tube allows the particles to be removed with minimum loss of liquid. Observation of the particle movement is aided by a shielded fluorescent light mounted on the backboard between the glass tubes, marks on the tubes enable the rate of fall to be timed. In addition to the range of spheres, two streamlined shaped objects are supplied to allow comparison to be made between their drag coefficients and those of the spheres. VELOCITY PROFILES
Streamlines

ORDERING SPECIFICATION Compact, wall mounted apparatus to study the behaviour of particles and shapes within fluids. Two transparent vertical glass tubes, back lit by a fluorescant lamp for ease of viewing. Tube sizes 93mm inside diameter by 1.5m long, with calibration marks for timing. Guide to aid the insertion of particles at the top of the tubes. Sliding valves to aid the removal of particles from the bottom of the tubes. The equipment is supplied with sets of spheres of different sizes and materials, plus two streamlined shapes. ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT (not supplied) Stopwatch or stopclock Glass beaker SERVICES REQUIRED
Velocity profiles

Streamlines for potential flow past a sphere: observer stationary with respect to sphere

Deformation flow around a falling sphere: streamlines and velocity profiles are shown for an observer at rest

Electrical supply: F12-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz F12-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.57m 0.60m 0.16m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.7m3 Gross weight: 120kg

Specifications may change without notice iss11/5k/0402/AB.

Item 02-01-24

CAVITATION APPARATUS

The Armfield Cavitation Apparatus has been designed to demonstrate to students the phenomena of cavitation. It is possible to compare the pressure at which cavitation occurs relative to the vapour pressure of water. Fully comprehensive results can be achieved if used in conjunction with an Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10). Alternatively a laboratory water supply and suitable flow measuring device can be utilised. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES

Observation of the phenomenon of cavitation Comparison of theoretical and actual pressures at cavitation conditions

DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a rectangular venturi section with a window allowing full visualisation. The venturi section is contained between two end fittings, the one on the upstream side incorporating a flow regulating valve. The complete assembly is mounted on a backboard arranged for wall mounting and requires the services of an Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10) or laboratory water supply, flow measurement and drainage system. Pressure tappings are provided at the throat and inlet of the venturi and each is connected to a gauge mounted on the backboard. An instruction manual is supplied with the equipment. ORDERING SPECIFICATION Compact, wall mounted apparatus to demonstrate cavitation phenomena using an Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics Bench or laboratory water supply and drain, as appropriate. The apparatus includes a black acrylic plastic venturi with window, Bourdon pressure gauge 0-3bar, Bourdon vacuum gauge 0-1bar and control valve. An instruction manual includes data sheets for student experiments.

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS AND ACCESSORIES Stopwatch Thermometer

Not supplied by Armfield

SERVICES REQUIRED Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10) or Water supply at least 43 l/min at 14m head Flow measuring Device Laboratory drain OVERALL DIMENSIONS Length: Width: Height: 675mm 165mm 425mm

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.1m3 Gross weight: 30kg

Item 02-01-25 thru 02-01-26

F116 Impact of a jet

F110 Hydraulics bench with F1-24 Hydraulic ram

F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench


DESCRIPTION This unit is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the range of accessories described later in this data sheet. The bench is constructed from lightweight corrosion resistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility. The bench top incorporates an open channel with side channels to support the accessory on test. Volumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen in preference to other methods of flow measurement for its ease of use, accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weights for students to drop). The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. A stilling baffle reduces turbulence and a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous indication of water level. A measuring cylinder is included in the supply for measurement of very small flow rates. A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator. Opening the dump valve returns the measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the bench for recycling. An overflow in the volumetric tank avoids flooding. Water is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump and a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow. An easy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the bench top allows for the rapid exchange of accessories without the need for hand tools. Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment needing no additional service items other than the Hydraulics Bench. When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ...................................... centrifugal type max. head 21m H2O max. flow 1.35 litres/sec Motor rating: ............................ 0.37kW Sump tank capacity: ............... 250 litres High flow volumetric tank: ...... 40 litres Low flow volumetric tank: ....... 6 litres Height of working surface: ..... 1 metre above floor level

F1-11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator


This calibrator functions on the same principle adopted in calibrating industrial pressure gauges. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

calibrating a Bourdon type pressure gauge

DESCRIPTION This dead weight pressure gauge calibrator consists of a precision machined piston and cylinder assembly mounted on levelling screws. A Bourdon gauge is supplied for calibration. The weights supplied are added to the upper end of the piston rod which is rotated to minimise friction effects. The gauge is thus subject to known pressures which may be compared with the gauge readings and an error curve drawn. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pressure gauge: ................ Bourdon tube range 0 to 200 KN/m2 (KPa) Area of Piston: ................... 244.8 x 106 m2 Mass of piston: .................. 0.5kg Ancillary masses: .............. 0.5kg, 1.0kg and 2.5kg

120

Calibrated pressure KN/m

100 80 60 40 20 0

20

40

60

80

100
3

120

Indicated pressure KN/m

22 20 18

Head (metres of water)

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Flow (litres S )
Service pump characteristics curve (indicative) F111 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator

-1

F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure


The Hydrostatic Pressure accessory has been designed to determine the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface and allow comparison of the measured magnitude and position of this force with simple theory. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES determining the centre of pressure on both a submerged or partially submerged plane surface and comparison with the theoretical position DESCRIPTION A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed, only the force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges. The balance arm incorporates a balance pan for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance. This assembly is mounted on top of an acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting screwed feet. Correct alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank. An indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank capacity: ....................................................... 5.5 litres Distance between suspended mass and fulcrum: 275mm Cross-sectional area of quadrant (torroid): ... 7.5 x 10 3m2 Total depth of completely immersed quadrant: .... 160mm Height of fulcrum above quadrant: ........................ 100mm

F1-13 Flow over Weirs


Two weir plates of different shape are provided allowing familiarisation and comparison with theory. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a rectangular notch demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a vee notch determining the coefficient of discharge DESCRIPTION The Flow over Weirs consists of five basic elements used in conjunction with the flow channel in the moulded bench top of the Hydraulics Bench. (i) A quick release connector in the base of the channel is unscrewed and a delivery nozzle screwed in its place. (ii) A stilling baffle locates into slots in the walls of the channel. The inlet nozzle and stilling baffle in combination promote smooth flow conditions in the channel. (iii) A Vernier hook and point gauge is mounted on an instrument carrier which is located on the side channels of the moulded top. The carrier may be moved along the channels to the required measurement position. (iv) The rectangular notch weir or (v) vee notch weir to be tested is clamped to the weir carrier in the channel by thumb nuts. The weir plates incorporate captive studs to aid assembly. TECHNICAL DETAILS Overall dimensions of weir plates: .... height 160mm width 230mm thickness 4mm Dimensions of rectangular notch: ..... height 82mm width 30mm Angle of vee notch weir: .................... 90 0 inclusive Hook & point gauge range: ................ 0 to 150mm Accuracy 0.1mm
(x10 -4 m 3/s)
5.0

(x10 -3 m 3/s)
1.5

FLOW RATE

200

FULLY SUBMERGED PLATE ONLY

0 0

H 5/2 (m 5/2)

FLOW RATE
0 0.001 0

H 3/2 (m 3/2)

0.03

r (mm)

Typical results obtained using F113 vee notch weir (left) and rectangular weir

PARTIALLY SUBMERGED BELOW THIS POINT


0 0

MASS (g)

500

Graph plotting r against mass using F1-12 (indicative)

F113 Flow over Weirs - vee notch weir

F1-14 Metacentric Height


This equipment allows a thorough investigation of the factors affecting the stability of a floating body. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES determining the centre of gravity of the pontoon determining the metacentric height and from this the position of the metacentre for the pontoon varying the metacentric height with angle of heel DESCRIPTION On this item the position of the metacentre can be varied to produce stable and unstable equilibrium. The equipment consists of a plastic rectangular floating pontoon, the centre of gravity of which can be varied by an adjustable weight which slides and can be clamped in any position on a vertical mast. A single plumb-bob is suspended from the mast which indicates the angle of heel on a calibrated scale. A weight with lateral adjustment allows the degree of heel to be varied and hence the stability of the pontoon determined. The equipment does not require a separate water tank as it may be used on the Hydraulics Bench by filling the volumetric tank. TECHNICAL DETAILS Max. angle of heel: ........................ 13o Corresponding linear dimension: . 90mm Pontoon dimensions: .................... length 350mm width 200mm overall height

F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration


The Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration accessory illustrates those circumstances to which Bernoulli's Theorem may be applied. Also, separately, why in other circumstances the theorem gives an inadequate description of the fluid behaviour. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES demonstrating Bernoulli's Theorem and its limitations directly measuring the static and total head distribution along a Venturi tube determining the meter coefficient at various flow rates DESCRIPTION The test section consists of a classical Venturi machined in clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The test section is arranged so that the characteristics of flow through both a converging and diverging section can be studied. Water is fed through a hose connector and is controlled by a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section. The Venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge coefficient can be determined. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: ........................ 0 to 300mm Number of manometer tubes: ...... 8 Throat diameter: ........................... 10.0mm Upstream diameter: ...................... 25.00mm Upstream taper: ............................ 14o Downstream taper: ....................... 21o

F114 Metacentric Height

F115 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration

F1-16 Impact of a Jet


This equipment allows the force developed by a jet of water impinging upon a stationary object to be measured. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES measuring the force exerted on different targets and comparison with the forces predicted by momentum theory DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a cylindrical clear acrylic fabrication with provision for levelling. Water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carried on a stem which extends through the cover. A weight carrier is mounted on the upper end of the stem. The dead weight of the moving parts is counter-balanced by a compression spring. The vertical force exerted on the target plate is measured by adding the weights supplied to the weight pan until the mark on the weight pan corresponds with the level gauge. A total of four targets are provided: a flat plate, a 120o cone and a hemispherical cup. TECHNICAL DETAILS Nozzle diameter: ............................................ 8mm Distance between nozzle & target plate: ...... 20mm Diameter of target plate: ................................ 36mm Target plates: .................... 180o hemispherical target 120o target (cone) flat target - 30O target

F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow


This equipment permits calibration of two orifices of differing diameter. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES establishing the coefficient of velocity for a small orifice finding experimentally the coefficient of discharge for a small orifice with flow under constant head and flow under varying head comparing the measured trajectory of a jet with that predicted by simple theory of mechanics DESCRIPTION In the Orifice & Free Jet Flow accessory a constant head tank is fed with water from the Hydraulics Bench. The orifice is installed at the base of this tank by means of a special wall fitting which provides a flush inside surface. The head is maintained at a constant value by an adjustable overflow and is indicated by a level scale. A jet trajectory tracing device allows the path followed by the jet to be ascertained. Adjustable feet permit levelling. TECHNICAL DETAILS Orifice diameters: .............. 3.0mm and 6.0mm Jet trajectory probes: ....... 8 Max. constant head: ......... 410mm

10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10 10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10

F117 Orifice and Free Jet Flow

10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10

Typical results obtained using F116 with hemispherical plate (top), 1200 cone (centre) and flat plate (bottom)

F1-17a Orifice Discharge


The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis of the flow through five different orifices over a range of flow rates. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES determining the contraction and velocity coefficients calculating the discharge coefficient DESCRIPTION The Orifice Discharge accessory consists of a cylindrical glass tank which has an orifice fitted in the base. A traverse assembly is provided which enables a pitot tube to be positioned anywhere in the jet. Attached to this pitot tube is a sharp blade which can be traversed across the jet to accurately measure the jet diameter and the vena contracta diameter and so determine the contraction coefficient. The pitot head and the total head across the orifice are shown on manometer tubes adjacent to the tank. In addition to the standard orifice, supply includes four additional orifices. These are supplied in an attractive storage case. A label inside the lid gives dimensional details of each orifice. TECHNICAL DETAILS Standard orifice: ............... sharp-edged 30mm diameter Max. head: ......................... 365mm Traverse mechanism: ........ lead screw with adjusting nut calibrated 0.1mm per division

F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes


This equipment allows the pressure drop of water passing through a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured in detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES investigating the variation of friction head along a circular pipe with the mean flow velocity in the pipe investigating the effects of laminar and turbulent flow regimes DESCRIPTION The Energy Losses in Pipes accessory consists of a test pipe, orientated vertically on the side of the equipment, which may be fed directly from the Hydraulics Bench supply or, alternatively, from the internal constant head tank. These sources provide high or low flow rates which may be controlled by a valve at the discharge end of the test pipe. Head loss between two tapping points in the test pipe is measured using two manometers, a water over mercury manometer for large pressure differentials and a press-urised water manometer for small pressure differentials. Water discharging from the head tank is returned to the sump tank of the Hydraulics Bench. Adjustable feet permit levelling. Mercury not supplied. TECHNICAL DETAILS Diameter of test pipe: .................................... 3.0mm Length of test pipe: ........................................ 560mm Distance between pressure tapping points: . 510mm Range of mercury manometer: ..................... 500mm Range of water manometer: .......................... 500mm Measuring cylinder capacity: ........................ 1000ml

F117a Orifice Discharge

F118 Energy Losses in Pipes

F1-19 Flow Channel


The Flow Channel introduces students to the characteristics of flow in an open channel at an elementary level. DEMONSTRATION & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES demonstrating basic phenomena associated with open channel flow visualisation of flow patterns over or around immersed objects DESCRIPTION The channel consists of a clear acrylic working section of large depth to width ratio incorporating undershot and overshot weirs at the inlet and discharge ends respectively. Water is fed to the streamlined channel entry via a stilling tank to reduce turbulence. Water discharging from the channel is collected in the volumetric tank of the Hydraulics Bench and returned to the sump for recirculation. A dye injection system incorporated at the inlet to the channel permits flow visualisation in conjunction with a graticule on the rear face of the channel. Models supplied with the channel include broad and sharp crested weirs, large and small diameter cylinders and symmetrical and asymmetrical aerofoils which, in conjunction with the inlet and discharge weirs, permit a varied range of open channel and flow visualisation demonstrations. Adjustable feet permit levelling TECHNICAL DETAILS Dye injection needles: ....... Dye reservoir capacity: ..... Width of channel: .............. Length of channel: ............ Depth of channel: .............. Models: .............................. 5 0.45 litres 15mm 615mm 150mm broad crested weir narrow crested weir symmetrical aerofoil asymmetrical aerofoil small cylinder large cylinder

F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration


This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning the nature of laminar and turbulent flow. VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES reproducing the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition observing the laminar, transitional, turbulent flow and velocity profile DESCRIPTION The equipment operates in a vertical mode. A header tank containing stilling media provides a constant head of water through a bellmouth entry to the flow visualisation pipe. Flow through this pipe is regulated using a control valve at the discharge end. The flow rate of water through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric tank (or measuring cylinder) of the Hydraulics Bench. Velocity of the water can therefore be determined to allow calculation of Reynolds' number. The equipment uses a similar dye injection technique to that of Reynolds' original apparatus to enable observation of flow conditions. TECHNICAL DETAILS Test pipe diameter: ................. 10mm Length of test pipe: ................. 700mm Dye reservoir capacity: ........... 0.45 litres

F119 Flow Channel

F120 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration

F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration


This accessory is designed to introduce students to three basic types of flow meter. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings


This accessory permits losses in different bends, a sudden contraction, sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated. DEMONSTRATION & MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

directly comparing flow measurement using a Venturi meter, variable area meter and orifice plate calibrating each flow meter using the volumetric measuring tank of the bench comparing pressure drops across each device

measuring the losses in the devices related to flow rate and calculating loss coefficients related to velocity head comparing the pressure drop across each device

DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The equipment consists of a Venturi meter, variable area meter and orifice plate, installed in a series configuration to permit direct comparison. A flow control valve permits var-iation of the flow rate through the circuit. Pressure tappings are incorporated so that the head loss characteristics of each flow meter may be measured. These tappings are connected to an eight tube manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The circuit and manometer are attached to a support framework which stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench. The bench is used as the source of water supply and for calibrating volumetrically each flow meter. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: ........................ 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: ...... 8 Orifice plate diameter: .................. 20mm Variable area meter: ...................... 2 to 20 litres/min Venturi dimensions: Throat diameter .................... 15mm Upstream pipe diameter ...... 31.75mm Upstream taper ..................... 210 inclusive Downstream taper ................ 140 inclusive TECHNICAL DETAILS Pipe diameter: ......................... 19.48mm Differential pressure gauge: ... 0 to 1.3.5bar Enlargement diameter: ........... 26.2mm Contraction diameter: ............. 19.48mm Fittings: .................................... 450 mitre elbow short bend large bend enlargement contraction Manometer range: .................. 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: 12 Differential manometers: ........ 6 The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework which supports the test pipework and instrumentation. The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: mitre bend, 900 elbow, sweep bends (large and small radius), sudden contraction and sudden enlargement. All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings. These tappings are connected to a bank of twelve water manometer tubes, mounted on the framework. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilititated by a hand pump. A gate valve is used to control the flow rate. A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework. The unit stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench which is also used as the source of water supply.

(x10 -4 m 3/s)

7.0

Flow Rate

0 0
(x10 -4 m 3/s)

/ H12

/ (m 1 2 )
0.7

7.0

Flow Rate

0 0

/ H12

/ (m 1 2 )
0.7
F122 Energy Losses in Bends

Typical results obtained using F121 orifice meter (top) and venturi meter

F1-23 Free and Forced Vortex


This equipment is designed to produce and measure the characteristics of free and forced vortices. MEASUREMENT & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES

F1-24 Hydraulic Ram


If flowing water is suddenly brought to rest in a long pipe, a phenomena known as water hammer occurs, wherein a pressure wave travels along the pipe. This principle is used in the hydraulic ram to pump water. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

understanding the difference between free and forced vortices determining the surface profile of a forced vortex determining the surface profile and total head distribution of a free vortex visualisation of secondary flow in free vortex

establishing flow/pressure characteristics and determining efficiency of the hydraulic ram

DESCRIPTION The Hydraulic Ram comprises an acrylic base incorporating pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir on a stand which is fed by the Hydraulics Bench. An air vessel above the valve chamber smooths cyclic fluctuations from the ram delivery. The weights supplied may be applied to the pulse valve to change the closing pressure and hence the operating characteristics. TECHNICAL DETAILS Supply head: ..................... 300 - 700mm variable Delivery head: .................... 750 - 1500mm variable

DESCRIPTION The apparatus comprises a clear acrylic cylinder on a plinth designed to produce and measure free and forced vortices. The free vortex is generated by water discharging through an interchangeable orifice in the base of the cylinder and the resulting profile is measured using a combined caliper and depth scale. The forced vortex is induced by a paddle in the base of the cylinder which is rotated by jets of water. The profile of the forced vortex is determined using a series of depth gauges. Velocity at any point in the free or forced vortices may be measured using the appropriate pitot tube supplied. Dye crystals (not supplied ) may be used to demonstrate secondary flow at the base of the free vortex. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank diameter: .................. 245mm Height to overflow point: .. 180mm Orifice diameters: .............. 8, 16 and 24mm Forced vortex measuring probes Distance from centre: ....... 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110mm Pitot tubes having measuring point (nose) at: .................. 15, 25 and 30mm radius Inlet tubes: ......................... 9 and 12.5mm diameter

F123 Free and Forced Vortex

F124 Hydraulic Ram

F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine


The Demonstration Pelton Turbine provides a simple low cost introduction to turbine performance. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES determining the operating characteristics, i.e. power, efficiency and torque, of a Pelton turbine at various speeds DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a miniature Pelton wheel with spear valve arrangement mounted on a support frame which locates on the Hydraulics Bench top channel. Mechanical output from the turbine is absorbed using a simple friction dynamometer. Pressure at the spear valve is indicated on a remote gauge. A non-contacting tachometer (not supplied) may be used to determine the speed of the Pelton wheel. Basic principles of the Pelton turbine may be demonstrated and, with appropriate measurements, power produced and efficiency may be determined. TECHNICAL DETAILS Speed range: ........................... 0 to 2000 r.p.m. Brake power: ........................... 10 Watts Pressure gauge range: ............ 0 to 25m H2O Force balance range: .............. 0 to 10N x 0.1N Number of Pelton buckets: ..... 16 Diameter of Pelton wheel: ...... 123mm

F1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps


The introduction of a second pump to the Hydraulic Bench system allows the study of two pump performance, both in series and parallel operation. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Determining the head/flow rate characteristics of: a single centrifugal pump at a single speed two similar pumps operating in a parallel configuration at the same speed two similar pumps operating in a series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a fixed speed pump assembly and independent discharge manifold interconnected by flexible tubing with quick release connectors. This auxiliary pump is intended to be used in conjunction with the basic Hydraulics Bench. The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ...................................... centrifugal type max. head 21m H2O max. flow 1.35 litres/sec Motor rating: ............................ 0.36kW Pressure gauge range: ............ 0 to 45m H2O Compound gauge range: ........ 10 to + 45m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F110 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics.

F126 Series/Parallel Pumps

F125 Demonstration Pelton Turbine

F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics


This accessory offers similar features to those described for the item F1-26 but with enhanced capabilities provided by the inclusion of a variable speed pump rather than a fixed speed pump with inverter drive. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES determining the relationship between head, discharge, speed, power and efficiency for a centrifugal pump at various speeds determining the head/flow rate characteristics of two similar pumps operating in either parallel or series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump, with which it is intended to be used. The pump is driven by an a.c. motor, the speed of which is varied by a compatible inverter drive. The motor speed, output voltage and motor current are easily monitored on the inverter display. A compound pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump inlet and a pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump outlet. When operated independently or in parallel with the bench service pump, the auxiliary pump draws its water direct from the sump tank on the Hydraulics Bench. When operated in series with the bench service pump, the auxiliary pump is connected to the bench supply outlet in the bed of the channel. An independent discharge manifold incorporates a pressure gauge and flow control valve prior to a discharge pipe with diffuser. A quick release connector incorporating a watertight valve permits operation of various other bench accessories when the flow control valve is closed. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ................................ centrifugal type max. head 21.0m H2O max. flow rate 1.35 l/sec Motor: ................................ 0.36kW Speed controller: .............. PWM inverter Speed range: ..................... 0 to 1500 rpm Pressure gauge: ................ 0 to 60 m H2O Compound gauge: ............ -10 to 32m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F110 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics. F1-17a-301 F1-18-301 F1-19-301 F1-20-301 F1-21-301 F1-22-301 F1-23-301 F1-24-301 F1-25-301 F1-26-301 F1-27-301
F127 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

F301 Computer Aided Learning Software


F1-11-301 F1-12-301 F1-13-301 F1-14-301 F1-15-301 F1-16-301 F1-17-301 Windows Program for F1-11 Dead Weight Calibrator Windows Program for F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure Windows Program for F1-13 Flow over Weirs Windows Program for F1-14 Metacentric Height Windows Program for F1-15 Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Windows Program for F1-16 Impact of a Jet Windows Program for F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow Windows Program for F1-17a Orifice Discharge Windows Program for F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes Windows Program for F1-19 Flow Channel Windows Program for F1-20 Osborne Reynolds Demonstration Windows Program for F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration Windows Program for F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends Windows Program for F1-23 Free and Forced Vortices Windows Program for F1-24 Hydraulic Ram Windows Program for F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine Windows Program for F1-26 Series/ Parallel Pumps Windows Program for F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A self-contained mobile service module & accessories Special features: constructed from lightweight, corrosion resistant plastic an open channel incorporated in the bench top volumetric flow measurement for both high and low flow rates. Capacities: high flow 40 litres, low flow 6 litres easy to use quick release pipe connector allows rapid exchange of accessories pump tank capacity 250 litres computer aided learning programs available for selected accessories eighteen accessories: Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator Hydrostatic Pressure Flow over Weirs Metacentric Height Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration Impact of a Jet Orifice and Free Jet Flow Orifice Discharge Energy Losses in Pipes Flow Channel Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration Flow Meter Demonstration Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Free and Forced Vortex Hydraulic Ram Demonstration Pelton Turbine Series/Parallel Pumps Centrifugal Pump Characteristics when coupled to the bench, the accessories are immediately ready for use and require no additional service items A user instruction manual provides installation, commissioning and maintenance data, together with demonstration and measurement exercises.

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Stop watch Vernier caliper Reference pressure gauge SERVICES REQUIRED F110, F126 and F127 Electrical supply Standard: 220/240V, 1ph, 50Hz Alternative: 110V, 1ph, 60Hz available at extra cost OVERALL DIMENSIONS F110 Hydraulics Bench only: Height: 1.00m Width: 1.13m Depth: 0.73m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION F110 Hydraulics Bench only: Volume: 1.5m3 Gross Weight: 160kg Individual accessories on request COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS F301: Computer Aided Learning Software (Windows) The F1-xx-301 Software package comprises: 3.5 High density disks Instruction manual The complete F1 software family is also available on a single CD-ROM (code F301-CD) for customers who use the full range of accessories. F4: Precision Pressure Gauge Calibrator F5: Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration F6: Air Flow Studies F9092: Fluid Properties and Hydrostatics Bench F10: Cavitation Demonstration F12: Particle Drag Coefficients Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System F14: C6MkII-10: Fluid Friction Apparatus

TOXIC MATERIALS Due to international restrictions limiting the transport of toxic materials we do not include mercury in our supply. A Digital Pressure Meter: H12-8 is available as an alternative to Mercury manometers ask for data sheet H12: Manometers and Pressure Meter.

Specifications may change without notice iss16/5k/0502/HH.

Items 02-01-27 thru 01-01-36

MULTI-PURPOSE TEACHING FLUME

XX

armfield
C4
issue 10

The Armfield Multi-purpose Teaching Flume has been specifically designed to demonstrate the principles of fluid mechanics when applied to engineering structures in open channel flow. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES Use of hook and point gauges to measure water level Use of a Pitot-static tube to measure flowrate Learning how to apply force-momentum and steady flow energy equations to simple flow situations Understanding the relationship between water level above the crest of a weir and flowrate over the weir Using hydraulic structures to control level, e.g. syphon spillways Understanding sub-and super-critical flow and the underlying characteristics of waves Hydraulic jump Using hydraulic structures for control of flow e.g. sluice gate Applying and understanding Mannings formula Measurement of velocity profiles
15 20

DESCRIPTION
A small open channel comprising a clear acrylic working section with GRP inlet and disharge tanks mounted on a rigid framework. The flume can be tilted by use of a calibrated screwjack which allows accurate slope adjustment of the channel. Bed pressure tappings and fixing points for models are provided. A longitudinal scale positioned at the top of the channel allows depth gauges and Pitot-static tubes to be positioned along the channel length. The flume is available in two standard lengths of 2.5m and 5.0m. The water supply and flow measuring system is provided from a service module. Water is drawn from a sump tank by a submersible pump and delivered via a shunt type flowmeter and flow control valve into the inlet tank. A suitable stilling arrangement diffuses the water flow prior to entry into the channel, ensuring smooth, uniform flow. The level in the working section of the flume may be controlled by an overshot weir arrangement. Flowrates can be measured either by using the volumetric tank (maximum flowrate 1.2 l/sec), a set of notched weirs or by the direct reading flowmeter. Basic models supplied are: Venturi flume Sharp and broad crested weirs 3 vernier level gauges Crump weir Adjustable undershot weir
Crump Weir

Sharp Crested Weir

Broad Crested Weir

Venturi Flume

Adjustable Undershot Weir

Optional models available: C4 - 61: C4 - 62: C4 - 63: C4 - 64: Pitot tube and manometer board Culvert fitting, one edge square, one rounded Flow splitters; central wall with various nose pieces Free overflow spillway section complete with ski jump, sloping apron and blended reverse curvature attachments Syphon spillway and air regulated syphon Model radial gate Wave generator and wave absorbing beach False floor sections for gradually varied profiles Artificially roughened bed 2.5m long section (2 required for a 5m flume)
Air-Regulated Syphon

Syphon Spillway

C4 - 65: C4 - 66: C4 - 67: C4 - 68: C4 - 69:

Hydraulic Jump

Radial Gate

TECHNICAL DETAILS
Acrylic channel: 2.5 or 5m L x 76mm W x 250mm H Service module: made from glass rein forced plastic (GRP) Sump tank capacity:250 litres Volumetric tank capacity:40 litres Pump: Submersible type Motor: 0.55kW split capacitor start with built in overload protection. Speed 2800rpm. Class B insulation. Continuous duty. Flowmeter: Shunt orifice type, range 0.5 to 2.5 litres/sec Vernier level 1 x 150mm resolution 0.1mm gauges: 2 x 300mm resolution 0.1mm SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: C4 - 2.5m - A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz C4 - 2.5m - B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C4 - 2.5m - G: 220V/1ph/60Hz C4 - 5m - A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz C4 - 5m - B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C4 - 5m - G: 220V/1ph/60Hz C4 - 67 - A: C4 - 67 - B: C4 - 67 - G: Water supply: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz 120V/1ph/60Hz 220V/1ph/60Hz Initial fill

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small self-contained open channel with inlet and discharge tanks, which is supported on rigid pedestals. A jacking arrangement permits the slope of the channel bed to be adjusted between -1 and +3%. A moulded GRP service unit contains a submersible pump which supplies water to the inlet tank via a flowmeter and control valve, a stilling arrangement and profiled inlet ensures even flow through the working section. Several types of weir, flow measuring devices and hydraulic structures associated with open channel flow are included. A range of optional models are available that extend the capabilities. Typical subjects which can be studied are super- and subcritical velocity flow, hydraulic jump, flow under a sluice gate, syphon spillways, and water waves. 2.5 or 5m long versions are available with a working section of 76 x 250mm. An instruction booklet describing how to perform the flow measurements and to interpret the results, as well as how to install, commission and maintain the equipment, is included. OVERALL DIMENSIONS C4 - 2.5m Length: 3.40m Width: 0.8m Height: 1.54m C4 - 5.0m Length: 5.90m Width: 0.8m Height: 1.54m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION C4 - 2.5m Gross weight: 370kg Volume: 3.5m3 C4 - 5.0m Gross weight: 520kg Volume: 4.4m3

Item 02-01-37 thru 02-01-51

LABORATORY FLUMES AND CHANNELS FOR HYDRAULIC TEACHING/RESEARCH STUDIES


Standard Flumes Special Flumes, Tanks and Basins Ancillary Equipment Sediment Transport Facilities Mono and Random Wave Makers Instrumentation

Introduction Armfield has been designing and supplying open channel facilities to hydraulic laboratories throughout the world for over 40 years. This brochure describes the range of channel designs available from Armfield, from which research/teaching personnel may wish to request specific quotations depending on their field of interest. Usually channels are of rectangular prismatic section. The dimensions of the working cross-section and length are the principal features which determine both the functional suitability and the cost of a channel. Depending on customer requirements, channels can be designed to incorporate the following alternative features: fixed bed or variable slope self-contained or laboratory supplied water open circuit or re-circulating sediment load choice of working section materials (glass, metal, wood) inclusion of a wave generator and beach instrumentation systems for flow, velocity, level, etc. sediment sampling

The Key Features of an Open Channel Facility Because of the physical size and the general heavy nature of the construction, it is easy to forget that a flume is an instrument and in many instances required to have a high level of integrity regarding both its working dimensions and ability to achieve repeatable results. Armfield acknowledge the necessity for accuracy, precision and repeatability. These are cornerstones of the design, manufacture and final installation. Dimensions The critical dimensions of a flume are the working length and cross-section (width and depth). Working length also means usable length. All too often the turbulent entry conditions require a substantial portion of what would be described as the working section before suitable flow conditions prevail. Armfield flumes are designed such that the working length is maximised. The overall dimensions of the flume are also minimised through careful design of the inlet and outlet conditions and sensible use of the space underneath the flume and immediately adjacent. For example, wherever possible floor standing reservoir tanks run parallel to the flume and are covered, thus providing an access walkway to the working section.

S6MkII flow channel complete with its own service system

Materials of Construction The materials of construction are of paramount importance, not only for the durability and longevity required of an expensive piece of equipment, but also suitability for purpose. Many flumes are used for sediment transport studies and therefore the materials in contact with the sediment must have abrasion resistance. In such instances it is standard practice for Armfield to incorporate stainless steel on the bed of flumes. Clarity of flow visualisation is an essential ingredient, particularly if laser doppler anemometry or sophisticated photography is involved. Even potable water will abrade a surface but water containing harsh particles, such as sediment, will quickly damage any soft material. This is why all Armfield flumes are constructed with toughened glass viewing panels, whether these be small portholes or full length working sections. Toughened glass is also used as a safety feature. In the unlikely event that a glass panel shatters, it will not break into dangerous sharp shards but into small relatively harmless cubes. Wherever possible the more basic components in contact with water are made of non-corroding materials, such as plastic or GRP. Pumps are usually steel but where sediment is involved we recommend the use of special pumps, typically glass lined. Where wood or a composite material is chosen for the base and/or sides of the flume, these are carefully treated to protect against water ingress. Set-up and Assembly Armfield flumes, whether a standard product or customised, are built on a modular principle. This allows them to be delivered to site in pre-fabricated, manageable sections. The designs are such that in most cases with help from the instruction manual, clients are able to assemble and commission the equipment without the need for our skilled staff. However this is always an option, and Armfield are happy to submit a quotation for installation, commissioning and, where appropriate, basic training. Ease of Use Experimentation can be a time-consuming and tedious business. Quite often long periods are required in order to gather sufficient meaningful data. It is at these times that the user appreciates equipment that has been carefully designed from an ergonomic viewpoint. Armfield incorporates many features to ease the life of the operator. All controls on a single floor mounted console. Electrical options for driving valves, jacking systems and weirs. Direct reading flow meter instrumentation, with digital readout at the control console. Powered instrument carriages offering three way axes. A sensible working height that provides comfortable access to the working section.
S6MkII control console

Hydraulics: Performance and Systems Design Uniform Flow Within the limited confines of a laboratory flume it is critical that the best possible working conditions are achieved as quickly as possible after the flow enters the working section. Much hinges on the entry conditions and particularly the means used to settle and direct the flow as it enters the inlet tank and is re-directed into the working section. Inlet Tank Design The inlet tank design generally adopted as standard by Armfield is the consequence of 40 years of experience coupled with comprehensive model test work. The result is a carefully shaped tank, with profiling to both the side walls and base, whilst remaining compact in its length, an essential ingredient to minimise the waste of laboratory space. Within the tank various stilling devices are incorporated. Level Control - The Outlet Weir Of equal importance is the method of controlling the level within the flume. This is usually done through a weir at the discharge end. Many options exist but most frequently Armfield utilise either an adjustable overshot tilting weir or, for more complex flow conditions, a venetian blind weir with either vertical or horizontal slats. Water Supply Traditionally hydraulic laboratories were constructed with underfloor sumps and elevated header tanks linked with a ring main. Modern laboratories rarely enjoy these facilities. Armfield are, however, able to supply flumes either in a non self-contained configuration, where they can be serviced from an existing header tank and discharge to a laboratory sump, or as fully selfcontained facilities, where floor mounted reservoirs, pumps, pipework, valves and flow meters are incorporated, including, where appropriate, re-circulating loops for sediment transport. Occasionally flumes are required that meet both requirements. These can also be supplied. 5

Major Design Features There are numerous design features associated with Armfield channel facilities, many are unique. The following list is not exhaustive. Not all features are appropriate to every channel. Accurate for education and research Extremely stable design, no user adjustments required to the flume bed Floor space requirements reduced to a minimum Fabricated high precision stainless steel channel bed (optional extra) Can be readily converted to closed-loop recirculation for sediment transport studies Precision screw jacks provide accurate slope adjustment with minimum effort (powered jacks available as an option) Designed for ease of visibility:- toughened glass sides; slimline side supports; comfortable viewing height. etc. Adjustable instrument rails with positioning scales are fitted over the whole working length Fully profiled inlet tank fitted with stilling and smoothing devices Discharge tank with adjustable overshot weir and draft tube to avoid splashing and reduce noise Modular construction - supplied in pre-glazed sections for rapid and easy assembly on site Wave generation options, both regular and random - the end tanks acting as basins extending the working length Standard flumes have a comprehensive range of accessories, instruments and models available Standard flumes have non-corroding durable GRP tanks throughout Transverse members have been eliminated throughout the working length Transparent sides are of toughened glass, which is extremely strong, abrasion resistant, dimensionally stable, does not discolour or scratch and is inherently safe Working section is fully adjustable, enabling extremely accurate setting Substantial underframes reduce load deflections to a minimum Close tolerances specified and achieved.
S6MkII Detail showing side support with instrument rail and side wall adjustment system

S6MkII Slope adjustment

Standard Flumes Armfield offer a design, manufacture and installation service for special channel facilities of all types and sizes. Their reputation and expertise has developed through the evolution of standard products. By this we mean high quality flumes offered to a standard design. History and experience has shown that there is an optimum cross-section that will fill a great majority of educational and research needs. Those dimensions are a width of 300mm and a depth of 450mm (these are internal working dimensions). The length of a flume is dictated by many factors. Common amongst them are experimental requirements, space availability and cost. Standard Armfield flumes are therefore available as modular units.

S6 MK II Glass Sided Tilting Flumes Description A glass sided tilting flume with fabricated all stainless steel bed. A working crosssection of 300mm wide by 450mm deep and available in standard working lengths of 5m, 7.5m, 10m and 12.5m. Longer lengths are available to special order in increments of 2.5m. Completely self-contained and comprising the working section, moulded inlet and discharge tanks, a series of sump tanks, a pump, an electronic flow meter, a jacking system and a control console. The channel section is fully glazed with large clear panels of toughened glass. This is coupled with careful design of the side support profiles to provide excellent visibility and allow flow visualisation of the full working height of the flume. The glass panels are sealed using a rubber U section compressed by an aluminium alloy clamping strip. The flume bed is manufactured to high tolerances and designed with an integral web support frame to give the flume a high degree of rigidity and stability. Rigid dowelled joints are used to connect the sections. The overall strength and rigidity of the design allows excellent stability figures to be achieved and eliminates the need to provide adjusting screws or to perform periodic setting up of the flume to maintain its specification. No underframe or support structure other than jacks is necessary. Instrument rails are provided along the entire working length of the flume and a continuous scale calibrated in millimetres is provided along the length of one of the rails. Adjustable screws allow the track to be set level and true. Excellent velocity profiles are achieved in the working section by careful shaping of the inlet tank and by the incorporation of stilling and smoothing devices. Operating water levels are maintained by an overshot tilting weir located in the discharge tank. Both end tanks are made from tough non-corroding GRP. Water circulation is by a centrifugal pump mounted beneath the flume channel, drawing water from a series of interconnected non-corroding sump tanks mounted on the floor and running alongside the flow channel. All interconnecting pipes and fittings are made of non-corroding materials. The flow is regulated using a manually adjusted valve. Flow rate is measured using an electro-magnetic flow meter and displayed on a digital readout located on the control console. An isolation valve is included. The control console is mounted on a pedestal and located in a convenient position for the installation, such that it is easily accessible and the flow rate can be read whilst adjusting the valve. Also located on the console the emergency stop button and the pump controls. An additional emergency stop button is provided on longer flumes.

The flume is tilted using a jacking system - a single jacking station on 5m flumes. Flumes up to 12.5m have two jacks interconnected by a geared drive. A slope indicator is provided. Electrical jacking is available as an optional extra, including a control box with up/down inch buttons plus an additional emergency stop button. Electronic limit switches disable the electrical device at the maximum and minimum extent of travel. Technical Details Width Depth Length Walls Bed End Tanks Sump Tanks and Pipework Pump Isolation Valve Flow Regulation Valve +ve Slope -ve Slope Flow Meter Bed Stability Side Wall Stability 300mm 450mm As ordered (multiples of 2.5m) Note: length overall is 3.25m longer than the working section defined Toughened glass Exclusively fabricated from stainless steel GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic) PVC (Polyvinylchloride) Close-coupled centrifugal Lever-operated butterfly Hand wheel operated wedge 1:40 max (1.4) 1:200 max (0.28) Electro-magnetic <0.8mm (typical) at 400mm water depth <0.5mm (typical) at 400mm water depth

Ordering Specification S6 Flume A self-contained glass sided tilting flume for fluid mechanics laboratory experiments, project work and research activities. The flume working channel is assembled from modular sections of 2.5m length. A wide choice of standard lengths are available from 5m upwards. The flume cross-section is 300mm wide by 450mm deep. A fabricated high precision stainless steel bed provides excellent strength and rigidity, eliminating the need for a separate underframe. No adjustments other than the jacking stations are necessary in order to set up and maintain the equipment, achieving typical bed deformations better than 1mm. Each flume incorporates a discharge tank fitted with an adjustable overshot weir and draught tube to avoid splashing and noise. An electro-magnetic flow meter is incorporated as standard. A comprehensive range of optional accessories and instruments is available to supplement the capabilities of the basic flume. Closed-loop recirculation is available as an option for sediment transport studies. See back page for ordering options.

10

Experimental Models & Instrumentation A comprehensive range of experimental models and measuring instruments is available for selection. These provide the basis for a large number of practical experiments in open channel flow including the use and operation of regulating and gauging structures. Wherever possible non-corroding materials have been used to reduce maintenance time and increase the working life of the models. S6-20: Plate Weirs - (Stainless steel) screw operated adjustable undershot weir rectangular overshot weir plate `V notch weir

S6-21: Broad Crested Weirs - (GRP) rectangular sharp cornered weir rectangular streamlined weir

Aerated nappe Aeration pipe open

Stable conditions are obtained for the rectangular weir by exposing both upper and lower surfaces of the nappe to atmosphere, air being admitted below and immediately downstream of the weir crest. Vent pipes are utilised to replenish lost air through entrainment with the falling water (Fig. 1)

Clinging nappe

Aeration pipe blocked

Should air loss occur then a vacuum will be created causing the nappe to adhere to the downstream face of the weir. This condition is associated with an increase in discharge, instability of flow behaviour and is incompatible with accurate flow measurement (Fig. 2)

S6-20: Rectangular overshot weir - in operation (above) and theory (right)

Broad Crested Weir


Q=1.704CdbH3/2 Cw 0.85 to 0.9 hd ha
S6-21: Broad crested weir - in operation (above) and theory (right)

This type of weir is commonly used in the gauging of discharge in open channels, particularly where accuracy and reliability are required to be combined with ease of construction and maintenance. Shown is a traditional streamlined hump in operation, which may be compared with the crump weir.

0.67 hu 0.40 hu

11

S6-20: V notch weir

S6-22 Venturi Flume - (GRP) A set of GRP mouldings for installation in the channel section to form a venturi flume. S6-23: Ogee Weir & Manometer Board - (GRP) Eight pressure tappings (2 upstream, 5 downstream, 1 at apex) complete with multi-tube piezometer board. S6-24: Dam Spillway Models - (GRP) Complete with the following interchangeable downstream sections: spillway toe roller bucket toe apron with removeable energy dissipator

S6-26: Self-regulating Syphon (Acrylic) S6-27: Roughened Beds - (GRP) Two sections of different roughness. Each consists of three modules arranged to cover a 2.5m length. S6-28: Vibrating Pile For the study of vortex shedding by piles and tall structures. S6-29: Lift & Drag Balance & Models - (GRP) Three models - large and small diameter cylinders and an aerofoil section. S6-30: Pitot Tube & Manometer Board - (GRP) Complete with traversing carriage and vernier height adjustment, and an inverted paraffin water manometer for magnification of small pressure differences.

S6-25: Syphon Spillway - (Acrylic) Complete with adjustable breather tube.

12

S6-23: Ogee weir

S6-25: Syphon spillway

S6-31: Crump Weir - (GRP) Single pressure tapping at apex, complete with piezometer tube. S6-32: Parshall Flume - (GRP) One of the most widely used standing wave flumes; allows comparison of headflow characteristics with those published in the literature. S6-33: WSC Flume - (GRP) Developed by Washington State College, this trapezoidal flume conforms more closely to natural channel sections and passes sediment even more freely than the Parshall Flume. S6-35: Wave Generator Simple, regular, flap-type generator designed to be mounted on the flume discharge tank. S6-36: Beach S6-37: Zagni Flow Monitoring System Consists of a free standing manometer board and instrument carriage fitted with Pitot tube and interconnecting tubing.

This system may be used to establish the basic parameters of fluid flow in the channel including, invert slope, surface profiles, pressure profiles and velocity profiles. S6-40: Instrument Carrier Both longitudinal and transverse movement and position lock. S6-42: Velocity Meter and Mountings Velocity probe and analogue meter, complete with mounting attachments to channel. Range 0.6 to 3m/sec. H-1: Hook & Point Gauge Designed to be mounted on S6-40.

13

S6-45 Random Wave Maker

This machine utilises the base hinge weir in the discharge tank of the Armfield S6 Flume as the paddle. Additional hardware comprises a control box, a filter box and a 50 way ribbon connector. There are two cards for insertion into a PC. Wave generation software Regular waves Irregular waves - filtered white noise Irregular waves - Fourier series User defined wave generation techniques

This is an advanced software package designed to simulate long crested sea conditions. It can generate Regular, Irregular and Solitary waves. It is capable of running on any Windows compatible-PC fitted with the two interface cards supplied with the software. Installation is by means of an installation program. Following installation it allows all the relevant dimensional details of the paddle to be entered and saved in a file. The experimental transfer function can be entered and saved for a range of water depths. Wave height and period requirements are entered at full (prototype) scale together with the model scale being used. When it is running, the parameters of the generated sea state and a real time graphical display of the paddle movement are shown on screen. For more information on S6-45 request data sheet S6-45 provisional

14

Special Tilting Flumes Many areas of study require or are enhanced by using flumes with a tilting capability. This mostly translates into positive slope but sometimes there is the requirement for negative slope. The most important aspect of a tilting flume is retaining the integrity of the working section, i.e., maintaining tolerances. To achieve this requires an extremely rigid design which ensures almost no deflection regardless of load or tilt. Design of the jacking system is crucial in guaranteeing this. The general construction of such flumes is similar to the tilting flume described at S6 MKII. Dimensions can be modified to suit requirements. Jacking Systems Tilting flumes need jacks to raise and lower them. The need for stability and the size and weight of the installation make this element of crucial importance. Various options are available, including chain drive and hydraulic lift. None, however, give the degree of repeatable accuracy achievable with screw jacks driven through shafting and gear boxes. The Armfield choice. Long flumes need a series of jack stations carefully linked to avoid distortion of the main frame. On larger flumes, or where exceptional degrees of slope are involved, a pivot mechanism at each station ensures a vertical aspect to the jacks at all times. Other features include indicators for setting slope, soft bearings to limit noise, electric drives (optional) and detection systems permitting operation only if all jacks move together.

15

Fixed Bed Flumes, Wave Tanks and Basins

Not all applications require a flume to be tilting. In many cases it is sufficient for the unit to have a fixed horizontal position. In such cases the options for construction are increased. The most flexible arrangement being a wood/composite and glass panelled knock-down form. Wood/Composite and Glass Panelled Construction Flumes of this type are invariably fixed bed, as the structure does not lend itself to the rigidity required for tilting. The knock-down format is particularly suited for research facilities where future projects may require flow channels of different proportions. The knock-down design provides for optimum flexibility in the assembly of the flume, inlet and outlet tanks, service pumps and pipework. The walls are made of varnished plywood or composite materials and glass panels which are interchangeable. A special jointing compound, which remains plastic, is watertight and bonds itself to the glass or wood/composite, seals the panels which are themselves supported by mild steel channel sections. These sections are spaced at regular intervals and support the flume bed and side walls through adjustable jacking studs. It is therefore possible to level and align the flume with the utmost accuracy. Steel Bed and Glass Wall Construction Similar in construction to the tilting flume described at S6 Mk II, these flumes do not require the sophisticated underframe or jacking system of a tilting flow channel. Instead, they sit on simple A frames, whilst the accuracy of the working section continues to be maintained at the same high levels prescribed for all other flow channels.

16

Sediment Transport Studies involving bed movement are increasingly relevant, frequently based around environmental issues. A topic notoriously difficult to study in the field lends itself to detailed study using a flow channel in the controlled environment of a laboratory. Recirculating Sediment Systems Frequently in experimentation there is the need for erosion and/or deposition. This requires the circulation of sediment. For this configuration a flow channel requires a recirculating loop enabling the water containing sediment in suspension to be recirculated. Armfield flow channels can be designed to incorporate such loops, the pipework being designed to ensure the sediment stays in suspension and does not settle out within the system. Sediment is abrasive and this makes the selection of materials of particular importance. Pumps are usually lined with glass, valves are reduced to a minimum and flow metering is via electro-magnetic flow meters that do not require any components within the flow. Flow visualisation areas must be of toughened glass and stainless steel is essential on the base and in tanks. Non-Recirculating Systems These tend to be more complex and require that sediment be collected after discharge, either through a settling tank or hydro-cyclones. Ancillary Hardware These typically include sediment feeders and sediment samplers. Armfield have in-depth experience of all these options and are happy to advise on supply.

17

Wave Generators Wave generation and the effects of waves are significant areas of study. Wave generators themselves can range from simple mechanical systems for regular waves through multi-paddle random generating systems that may be computer controlled. For many applications, particularly coastal models and flume studies, long crested and directional random waves are sufficient to model the sea state. For offshore studies and some shallow water problems multi-directional components are required. In flumes or open channels, such as described in this brochure, there are a number of different types of wave maker that are appropriate. For small scale laboratory installations electrically driven piston machines are available. Where larger flumes are involved hydraulic powered piston machines and for deeper water, wedge type wave makers. Flumes may be used to study breakwaters, sea walls and beach behaviour, or for fundamental research. Multi-element wave makers recreate complex short crested waves. Many wave makers of this type have hinge-flap type paddles and are used, for example, in offshore sea basins where models of oil and gas rigs are tested. For shallow water piston mechanism is the preferred mechanical option. Whatever the application Armfield can supply a complete system designed to suit your particular requirements.

18

Instrumentation A selection of instruments is available for use in flumes, channels and basins:H1-1 to H1-11 H12-1 to H12-7 H12-8 to H12-9 H30-1H to H30-3H H32 H33 to H33-8 H40-1-1 to H40-2-3 Vernier Hook & Point Gauges Manometers including water, pressurised, water-mercury Portable Pressure Meters Pitot Tubes Turbulence/Velocity Meter Velocity Probes, Indicators and Recorders Wave Probe Systems

Individual detailed catalogues available on request.

Ordering options S6MkII S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII 5.0m 7.5m 10m 12.5m C D E F Basic Basic Basic Basic self self self self contained contained contained contained flume flume flume flume (no (no (no (no electrics) electrics) electrics) electrics)

415V/3ph/50Hz - Basic electrics comprising control console & pump 208V/3ph/60Hz - Basic electrics comprising control console & pump 380V/3ph/50Hz - Basic electrics comprising control console & pump 220V/3ph/60Hz - Basic electrics comprising control console & pump Sediment loop for any of the above flumes Powered jacks for 5.0m or 7.5m flumes Powered jacks for 10m or 12.5m flumes

S6 MkII - SL S6 MkII - 14 - 1 S6 MkII - 14 - 2

Shipping Specifications S6MkII Available on request

19

Item 02-01-52

MODEL SEDIMENTATION TANK

This unit has been designed to demonstrate the hydraulic characteristics and settling efciencies of a model settling basin. Although scale-up to industrial size sedimentation tanks is difcult, relevant deductions can be made as to how non-uniform ows occur and how these interact with the settling characteristics of particular suspensions. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES measuring ow short-circuiting and dead space using a tracer comparison of real ow regimes with idealised ow models (g. 1) effect of ow rate and bafe position on dispersion measuring sediment removal efciencies and relating these to the hydraulic characteristics.

DESCRIPTION Water is taken from the laboratory mains supply and is fed to the settling tank via a ow meter. For studies of sedimentation, a slurry is prepared in a sump tank and pumped via a specially designed ow meter to join the fresh water stream just before entry to the settling tank. A well-mixed slurry of known concentration and ow enters the tank uniformly under an inlet weir. This may be comparatively analysed by the Imhoff cone technique or more accurately by drying and weighing. The sump tank is continually agitated by a ow sparge device to prevent settling of solids during an experiment. For hydraulic tracer and visualisation studies, an accurate dye injection system is provided. A known volume of dye solution is injected just before the entry to the settling tank. TECHNICAL DETAILS Settling tank: Sediment sump tank capacity: Water ow meter range: Sediment suspension ow meter range: Pump ow rate: Motor: 1000 x 400 x 200mm 120 litres 0.5-5 l/min 0-2 l/min 25 l/min at 5m head 0.1kW
Relative concentration

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5


C B

A = completely mixed model F = ideal plug ow

Typical curves for real tanks:


B: C: D: E: unbafed tank wide shallow tank long narrow tank bafed, long tank

0.5

Time (Q/V)

1.0

1.5

Fig. 1 Typical dispersion curves

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A rigid acrylic settling tank of 80L capacity can be fed by a mains water or a slurry supply. Slurry is pumped from a 120L sump tank via a centrifugal pump. A sparging device in the sump tank keeps the slurry in suspension. Both supplies are tted with a ow meter. Mains water ow meter range 0.5 - 5.0 litres/ min; slurry ow meter range 0 - 2 litres/min. A dye injection system is incorporated to allow hydraulic tracer and ow visualisation studies. Measuring ow regimes using a dye tracer and comparison of these with idealised ow models. Effect of variables such as ow rate and bafe position on ow regimes. Measurement of sediment removal efciencies. RECOMMENDED ACCESSORIES Armeld Sedimentation Studies Apparatus (W2) to characterise settling regimes of selected suspension Precipitated calcium carbonate Balances Colorimeter - 7 narrow band-pass lters covering wavelengths 450 to 700mm OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.55m 1.90m 0.60m

SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: W7-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz W7-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz W7-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz Water supply: 5 litres/min @ 1 bar

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 2.9m3 Gross weight: 310kg


Specications may change without notice iss8/5k/0404/RG.

Item 02-01-58

SEDIMENTATION STUDIES APPARATUS

Clarified zone Discrete particle settling

Hindered settling

Transition zone

Compression h

Fig 1: Settling regimes

The Armfield Sedimentation Studies Apparatus provides a facility for studying the basic physical processes involved in sedimentation. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

effect of initial concentration on sedimentation rates construction of settling rate curves from a single batch test effect of initial suspension height on sedimentation rates effect of particle size distribution use of flocculating additives.

DESCRIPTION
Sedimentation is a process used widely in the clarification of water and wastewater. Particles settle from suspension in different ways, depending on the concentration of the suspension and the characteristics of the particles. The simplest type of sedimentation is the settling of a dilute suspension of particles which have little or no tendency to flocculate. In these circumstances, the prediction of clarification rates and their scale-up to plant design is relatively straightforward. For higher concentrations where inter-particle effects become significant and where agglomeration may take place, different regimes of settling rate occur, known as zone settling (fig 1). Information from batch tests for such systems forms a vital part of the search for the optimum design and operation of industrial sedimentation tanks. The Armfield Sedimentation Studies Apparatus allows demonstration of these different characteristics for any chosen sediment/water system. Five equal sized glass cylinders are mounted vertically on a backboard incorporating measuring scales. Each of the cylinders may be removed from the board for washing, filling and mixing of the solid particles. Solutions containing different amounts of suspension can be placed in the cylinders and the differences in sedimentation rate observed by measuring the changes in height of the various solid/liquid interfaces with respect to time (e.g. fig 2). The equipment includes the following accessories necessary for a self-contained facility: stop clock, three plastic beakers of 2 litre capacity, specific gravity bottle. An accurate balance (not supplied) is required for weighing the solids. The whole apparatus is bench-mounted and provided with back lighting. 110 90

Sedimentation curves
Top interface liquid/solid

Height of interface (cm)

80 70 60 50 40 30 Sediment 20 layer thickness 10 0 15% 12.5% 10% 7.5% 5%

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Time (mins)


Fig 2: Typical sedimentation curves

ORDERING SPECIFICATION
q Five graduated, 1m long x 51mm bore cylinders mounted vertically on a backboard. q Cylinders are illuminated from behind and removable for cleaning. q Supply includes stopclock, three 2 litre capacity plastic beakers and a specific gravity bottle. q Demonstration capabilities: effect of initial concentration on sedimentation rates construction of settling rate curves from a single batch test effect of initial suspension height on sedimentation rates effect of particle size distribution use of flocculating additives.

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS
Triple Beam Top Loading Balance Capacity: 2610g Sensitivity: 0.1g Tare: 225g

Armfield Limited Bridge House West Street Ringwood Hampshire England BH24 1DY Tel: +44 (0)1425 478781 Fax: +44 (0)1425 470916 E mail: sales@armfield.co.uk URL: http://www.armfield.co.uk USA Office: Armfield Inc. 436 West Commodore Blvd (#2) Jackson NJ 08527 Tel: (732) 928-3332 Fax: (732) 928-3542 E mail: armfield@optonline.net

SERVICES REQUIRED
Electrical supply: W2-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz W2-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz

OVERALL DIMENSIONS
Height: Width: Depth: 1.14m 0.70m 0.43m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION
Volume: Gross weight: 0.80m3 90kg

Specifications may change without notice iss6/5k/0503/San.

Item 02-01-59

ADVANCED HYDROLOGY STUDY SYSTEM

S12 MkII

This apparatus demonstrates some of the major physical processes found in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology, including: rainfall hydrographs for catchment areas of varying permeability; the abstraction of ground water by wells, both with and without surface recharge from rainfall; the formation of river features and effects of sediment transport. Realistic results can be obtained from this small scale, floor standing apparatus, which can be conveniently located and requires no special services. INVESTIGATION CAPABILITIES Determination of run-off hydrographs from model catchments including multiple storms, moving storms, effect of reservoir storage and land drains Construction of draw-down curves for one or two well systems in a sand bed Hydraulic gradients in ground water flow Investigation of model stream flow in alluvial material Formation of river features and development over time Sediment transport, bedload motion, scour and erosion

FEATURES Stilled inlet tank provides developed river flow conditions, allowing the full length of the tank to be used for river simulations Novel outlet tank design for water flow and sediment flow measurement Stainless steel sand tank Dual jacks provide adjustable tilt Adjustable spray nozzle height Use of fine grade sand allows detailed feature development Single grade of sand for all defined demonstrations, no need to change the sand Control and measurement of inlet flows Flexible configuration allows a wide range of simulations Flexible configuration allows a wide range of simulations Computer data logging option for sediment and water outlet flow measurement

DESCRIPTION The unit comprises a sand tank, made of stainless steel, measuring 2 metres by 1 metre. Water may be input to the sand tank from spray nozzles located above the tank (simulating rainfall), from an inlet tank simulating a river flow or from two french drains buried in the sand at either end of the tank. The water is output either from an outlet tank and flow measurement system located at the end of the main sand tank, from one or both of the two wells located in the tank, or from one or both of the French drains. A large plastic sump tank is located under the sand tank. Ground water table levels (phreatic surface) are measured using twenty tapping points in the sand tank, configured in a cruciform pattern, and displayed on a manometer bank. Eight stainless steel spray nozzles are mounted on a gantry above the sand tank, positioned to give an even distribution across the tank surface. The height of the gantry can be easily adjusted. Each nozzle has an associated on/off valve, allowing a wide variety of moving rainfall patterns to be simulated. The river inlet tank uses glass balls to still the flow, and a shaped channel section to provide formed flow conditions into the sand tank. The subsurface flow inputs are via two French drains, buried in the sand at either end of the tank. These French drains extend the full width of the tank. Each drain can be configured as an inlet or an outlet to permit a wide variety of hydrological demonstrations. Two variable area flowmeters with integral adjusting valves are used to control and measure the various flows into the tank. The use of self-sealing quick release fittings allows the system to be configured in a variety of different ways, enabling a wide range of demonstrations. The two flowmeters have different ranges, further enhancing the flexibility of the overall system. Pressure regulators and filters are incorporated in the water supply lines, minimising system disturbances. The outlet tank is located at the end of the sand tank, and is used for hydrographs, runoff and river formation demonstrations. A stepped height weir is used to adjust the outlet conditions. (When performing water table demonstrations this stepped weir is replaced with a sealing plate.) The outlet tank comprises a sand trap, a water stilling system and a flow measurement device. The flow measurement is performed by measuring the height of the water flowing over the outlet weir, using a direct reading inclined manometer. The sand trap is configured to allow the sediment to be collected in a sieve. In this way the amount of sediment collected over a period of time can be measured.

The S12MkII-50 version includes additional instrumentation and a data logging system that is used to measure both the water flow and the sediment flow. This system works by measuring the weight of the sand and water collected in the outlet tank, and calculating the sediment flow rate from the rate of change of the weight. It comes complete with educational software, help texts, graph plotting, etc., and requires a user provided PC. An optional accessory is a set of shapes and models for use when investigating surface flow effects and run-off effects.

Cone of depression for a single well

Longitude Transverse

Tapping points array

Elevation Equation of THIEM 600

400

200

200

400

600

Radial distance from well

Use of well points to de-water an excavation

75

Excavation site Ground surface

Elevation (mm)

Well B 20 0 400

Well A 800 1200 1600 Longitude distance (mm) 2000


Example of a braided channel planform

Well abstraction from a circular island

110 Island profile Elevation (mm)


Rainfall only Well flows only Rainfall + wells

Well B

Well A

30

400

800

1200

1600

2000
Example of scour in open channel flow

Longitude distance (mm)

ORDERING SPECIFICATION 1. A self contained floor standing apparatus for hydrology and fluvial geomorphology demonstrations, comprising: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) A 2m x 1m stainless steel tank, tiltable using a dual linked jacking system 8 stainless steel spray nozzles mounted on an adjustable height gantry A stilled tank providing a formed flow river inlet Two flowmeters (3L/min & 5L/min) to measure and adjust the inlet flows An outlet tank allowing both water and sediment flow to be measured Two French drains, two well points and 20 manometer tapping points linked to a manometer bank (g) A large plastic sump tank plus a recirculating pump 2. Experimental capabilities include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Run-off hydrographs from model catchments Draw-down curves for one well and two well systems Ground water flow and hydraulic gradients Model stream flow in alluvial material Formation and development of river features over time Sediment transport, bedload motion, scour and erosion

3. A version is available with instrumentation to measure both water and sediment run-off in real time. The package included data logging and educational software, (requires a customer provided PC). ORDERING INFORMATION S12-MKII-A S12-MKII-B S12-MKII-G S12-MKII-50-A S12-MKII-50-B S12-MKII-50-G S12-MODELS Advanced hydrology study system Advanced hydrology study system Advanced hydrology study system Hydrology system c/w instrumentation Hydrology system c/w instrumentation Hydrology system c/w instrumentation Surface models for use with S12-MkII 220/240V, 50Hz 110/120V, 60Hz 220V, 60Hz 220/240V, 50Hz 110/120V, 60Hz 220V, 60Hz

OVERALL DIMENSIONS Length Width Depth 2700mm 1300mm 1700mm

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Packed Volume: Gross Weight: 7.5m3 600Kg

Item 02-01-62

FM3SU TURBINE SERVICE UNIT


The Armfield FM3 range of smallscale hydropower units consists of four prototypes of industrial machines, designed to demonstrate the principles of design and operation of impulse and reaction turbines in both axial and radial flow situations. Three of the machines (shown opposite) may be separately mounted on the common Turbine Service Unit (FM3SU) for self-contained operation, whilst the fourth - the low head propeller turbine unit FM33 - has a specially designed service system of its own to accommodate the necessary larger water flows.

The FM3SU shown with an FM32 Pelton Turbine installed

ORDERING SPECIFICATION
A self-contained, bench top service module designed to accommodate three different water turbines: - FM30 Axial Flow Impulse Turbine - FM31 Radial Flow Reaction Turbine - FM32 Pelton Turbine Equipped with electronic measurement sensor for orifice differential pressure (flow-rate). Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console. Requires a single phase electrical supply. Software is supplied with the equipment providing full instructions for setting up, operating, calibrating and performing the teaching exercises. Facilities are provided for logging, processing and displaying data graphically. Full theoretical back-up is included together with a student questions and answers session.

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
The FM3SU Service Unit is an essential accessory designed to allow self-contained operation of the three Armfield turbines, FM30, FM31 and FM32. The unit consists of a clear acrylic reservoir, a circulating pump and associated pipework on a supporting base, which is bench-mounted. The flow of water is measured using an orifice plate (installed in the pump inlet line). The pump discharge pipework incorporates a throttle valve to allow adjustment of the water flow/pressure supplied to a turbine mounted on the unit. Water circulation is provided by a single stage centrifugal pump, which has a maximum flow of 0.33 litres/sec at a head of 29m. The unit requires a single phase electrical supply. A measurement sensor is included to monitor differential pressure across the orifice ( hence flow rate) The FM3SU includes program disks for the three associated turbine accessories.

SERVICES REQUIRED
Single phase electrical supply: FM3SU-A 220/240V/1ph/50Hz FM3SU-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz

OVERALL DIMENSIONS
Height: Length: Width: 800mm 850mm 450mm 60Kg 0.50m 3

SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS
Gross Weight: Volume:

Item 02-01-64

FM31 RADIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINE DEMONSTRATION UNIT

TECHNICAL DETAILS The turbine rotor has an external diameter of 45mm. Water enters the rotor through an adjustable PTFE/graphite face seal and is discharged tangentially through two passages, each having an area of approximately 8 square mm. The rotor is mounted on a stainless steel shaft running in corrosion resistant bearings with double shields to provide lifetime lubrication. The turbine develops approximately 32W at 6000rpm when supplied with 18 litres per minute of water at 270kPa. ORDERING SPECIFICATION
A small scale hydropower unit designed to demonstrate the principles of design and operation of a radial flow reaction turbine. One of a family of three turbines each capable of being mounted interchangeably on a common selfcontained service unit, available as an essential accessory. Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for inlet pressure, rotational speed and brake force. Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an accessory). 45mm external diameter rotor.

In accepted turbine practice, an impulse machine has stationary nozzles whilst the reaction type has moving nozzles. Consequently, reaction turbines are associated with considerable changes in pressure energy but little change in kinetic energy, whilst the impulse turbine has the opposite characteristic.

EESENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES FM3SU Turbine Service Unit (page 24) IFD6 Interface Console (page 35) OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 300mm Length: 650mm Width: 550mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 30Kg Volume: 0.40m 3

Item 02-01-65

FM32 PELTON TURBINE DEMONSTRATION UNIT


The industrially used Pelton turbine is the most visually obvious example of an impulse machine. The kinetic energy of a jet leaving a high pressure nozzle is converted on impact with the turbine blades to rotational mechanical energy. The Pelton turbine can be demonstrated to be the optimal choice for power generation where high inlet pressure heads are available.

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION The rotor carries 10 divided buckets on a pitch circle of 70mm diameter. The rotor is mounted on a horizontal stainless steel shaft carried in corrosion resistant ball bearings with double shields, to provide life-time lubrication. The spear valve has a nozzle of 4.5mm diameter, fitted with an adjustable valve stem to vary the jet diameter with minimum friction loss. This allows the flow rate to be varied with a constant exit jet velocity. The pressure sensor is installed in the pipework upstream of the spear valve. The inclusion of a spear valve allows comparison of turbine control using this device with that using a normal throttle valve. A robust clear acrylic casing houses the rotor and spear valve. The turbine develops approximately 33W at 2100rpm when supplied with 20 litres per minute of water at 270kPa, no line feed required.

ORDERING SPECIFICATION
A small-scale hydropower unit designed to demonstrate the principles of design and operation of a Pelton turbine. One of a family of three turbines each capable of being mounted interchangeably on a common self-contained service unit available as an essential accessory. Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for inlet pressure, rotational speed and brake force. Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an accessory). 70mm diameter, 10 bucket rotor. 4.5mm diameter nozzle. Adjustable spear valve.

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES FM3SU Turbine Service Unit (page 24) IFD6 Interface Console (page 35) OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 300mm Length: 650mm Width: 550mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 30Kg Volume: 0.40m 3

Item 02-01-66

FM20 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP DEMONSTRATION UNIT


The centrifugal pump is the machine most commonly used to move liquids from one place to another. As such, it is a particularly instructive unit with which to introduce students to the whole subject of rotodynamic fluid machines. Discovering the relationship between head, flow, rotational speed and power, provides a framework of general applicability. For example, matching the required duty point to the conditions of maximum energy efficiency may be explored as a creative student project.

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION This bench-top unit is self-contained. A reservoir and pipework for continuous water circulation is included. Manually operated valves at the pump inlet and outlet allow control of the flow and also facilitate study of suction effects. Flow rate is monitored by an orifice plate. The pump is single-stage and is driven by a close coupled 180W ac induction motor. Maximum pressure is 10mWG, and maximum flow is l litre/s (at 50Hz). Measurement sensors are included in the supply. They monitor: pressure head across the pump P across the orifice plate (hence flow rate) water temperature at the inlet rotational speed of the impeller A CD-ROM with data logging educational software is included in the supply of this Unit.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES Demonstration of a single-stage centrifugal water pump in operation Measurement of inherent-speed pump performance, including production of characteristic curves of flow rate against: - pump total head - motor input power - impeller speed - overall total efficiency Introduction to pump speed laws Comparison of student calculations with computer results ORDERING SPECIFICATION
A small-scale centrifugal pump demonstration unit. Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for pump differential pressure, orifice differential pressure (flow-rate), temperature and rotational speed. Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an essential accessory). Powered via the SWA1 power measurement unit (available as an essential accessory). Self-contained, bench-top machine. Supplied with software providing full instructions for setting up, operating, calibrating and performing the teaching exercises. Facilities are provided for logging, processing and displaying data graphically. Full theoretical back-up is included together with a student questions and answers session.

ORDERING INFORMATION FM20-50 for 50Hz mains supply FM20-60 for 60Hz mains supply (Note: Voltage compensation takes place in the IFD6, see page 35). OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 670mm Length: 850mm Width: 450mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 36Kg Volume: 0.50m 3

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD6 Interface Device (page 35) SWA1 Integrating Wattmeter (page 35)

Item 02-01-67

FM21 SERIES AND PARALLEL PUMPS DEMONSTRATION UNIT


Centrifugal pumps are often used together to enhance either the flow rate or the delivery pressure beyond that available from a single pump. The unit is designed to demonstrate the operational advantages of parallel or series operation, depending on the required duty.

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION This bench-top unit is self-contained and includes a reservoir and pipework for continuous water circulation. Ball valves at the pump inlets and outlets allow the configuration to be selected. A manually operated valve controls the flow, which is monitored by a single orifice plate. The two single-stage pumps are driven by close-coupled 180W ac induction motors. Maximum head (each pump) is 10mWG, and maximum flow (each pump) is 1 litre/s (at 50Hz). Measurement sensors are included in the supply. They monitor: pressure head across each of the pumps P across the orifice plates (hence flow-rate) water temperature at the inlet rotational speed of the impellers A CD-ROM with data logging educational software is included in the supply of this unit. Optional power measurement sensors are available, to measure the consumption of each pump. Note: If at least one power measurement sensor is ordered, all the practical exercise capabilities of the Single Centrifugal Pump Demonstration Unit FM20 can be performed.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES Demonstration of either series, parallel or single pump operation Comparison of head-flow characteristics with single pump operation, at inherent speed Comparative measurement of power and overall efficiency at different speeds (with 2 SWA1) Comparison of student calculations with computer results

ORDERING INFORMATION FM21-50 for 50Hz mains supply FM21-60 for 60Hz mains supply (Note: Voltage compensation takes place in the IFD6, see page 35). OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 780mm Length: 850mm Width: 450mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 50Kg Volume: 0.50m 3

ORDERING SPECIFICATION
A small-scale series/parallel pump demonstration unit. Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for pump differential pressure, orifice differential pressure (flow-rate), temperature and rotational speed. Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an essential accessory). Powered via the SWA1 power measurement unit (available as an essential accessory). Self-contained, bench-top machine. Supplied with software providing full instructions for setting up, operating, calibrating and performing the teaching exercises. Facilities are provided for logging, processing and displaying data graphically. Full theoretical back-up is included together with a student questions and answers session.

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD6 Interface Device (page 35) Two SWA1 Integrating Wattmeters (page 35)

Thermodynamics lab 02-02

T RMSOF ATEST A L TH THE OW WI L SOFTWARE N IONA EDUCAT GGER DATA LO & USB

Item 02-02-01

HEAT TRANSFER TEACHING EQUIPMENT

HT10X service unit shown with the HT11 Linear Heat Conduction Accessory installed

q q q q

Modular Accurate Fast settling Computer compatible

The Armfield range of heat transfer laboratory teaching equipment comprises seven small scale accessories which demonstrate the three basic modes of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) which result from differences in temperature. The accessories may be individually connected to a common bench top service unit (HT10X) which provides the necessary electrical supplies and measurement facilities for investigation and comparison of the different heat transfer characteristics. FEATURES Small inexpensive bench top equipment Common service unit avoids unnecessary repeat costs for control and instrumentation Additional accessories and/or service units can be added later Investigates Conduction, Convection and Radiation including combined effects, non-steady state and measurement errors Accurate quantitative results can be taken Fast settling times Optional data logging facility allows recording and analysis of the results on a personal computer Educational software included with data logging package Results can be directly related to the theory provided

HT10X HEAT TRANSFER SERVICE UNIT Technical Details The service unit, housed in a robust steel enclosure and designed for bench mounting, is essential equipment designed to allow operation of the seven Armfield small scale heat transfer accessories HT11, HT12, HT13, HT14, HT15, HT16 and HT17 which may be purchased singly. Each of the heat transfer accessories may be separately connected to the common service unit which incorporates the following features:q All electrical/electronic components mounted in a robust steel enclosure and designed for bench mounting. Standard connections on the enclosure for any of the seven interchangeable heat transfer accessories. q Electrical circuits protected by RCD and appropriate circuit breakers. q Regulated low voltage DC power supply to provide safe, variable but constant power to the heating elements on the various accessories and the circulating pump on the HT17. Variable over the range 0-24VDC and providing immunity from fluctuations in the mains electrical supply. q Temperature measurement of up to twelve type K thermocouples installed on the appropriate accessory. Temperature readings indicated on a digital panel meter via selector switch: Temperature: T1 - T9 Temperature: T10 - T12 range: 4.0-200.0 C range: 4 - 600OC
O

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A bench top service unit designed to accommodate seven different heat transfer accessories: Linear heat conduction Radial heat conduction Laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange Combined convection and radiation Extended surface heat transfer Radiation errors in temperature measurement Unsteady state heat transfer

A user provided heat transfer model may be accommodated in place of the above allowing student project work involving design, construction and testing of alternative heat transfer experiments. The service unit provides a stabilised, variable low voltage DC supply to the heat transfer accessory under evaluation. It incorporates the necessary instrumentation to measure the variables associated with heat transfer, namely: temperatures heater power (voltage and current) heat radiated light radiated air velocity cooling water flowrate

q Other measurements indicated on digital panel meter via selector switch: Voltage: V range 0-24.00 VDC Current: I range 0-9.00 A Radiation: R range 0-333 W/m2 Light: L range 0-234 Lux Air velocity: Ua range 0-10.00 m/sec Cooling water flow rate: Fw range 0-1.50 l/min q Banana sockets provided on HT10X for any temperature measurement signal to be exported to a suitable chart recorder. Multiway socket for all measured signals to be logged using a PC via an optional Data Logging Accessory. q Sockets provided on HT10X for mains supply to accessory (where appropriate) and variable low voltage DC supply to accessory (where appropriate).

and is capable of being linked to a proprietary microcomputer via an optional interface device. A comprehensive instruction manual is included. The unit requires a single phase electrical supply. A cold water supply is also required for several of the accessories (connected directly to the appropriate accessory). SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply: HT10X-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 6 Amps HT10X-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 10 Amps OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.24 m 0.32 m 0.39 m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Volume: Gross Weight: 0.05 m3 15 kg

Item 02-02-01

HT11 LINEAR HEAT CONDUCTION


Heater T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

Specimen position Filter Regulator Valve Cooling water inlet Cooling water outlet

Thermocouples

Insulation

The Armfield Linear Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steadystate conduction in one dimension. The unit can be configured as a simple plane wall of uniform material and constant cross sectional area or composite plane walls with different materials or changes in cross sectional area to allow the principles of heat flow by linear conduction to be investigated. Measurement of the heat flow and temperature gradient allows the thermal conductivity of the material to be calculated. The design allows the conductivity of thin samples of insulating material to be determined. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory comprises a heating section and cooling section which can be simply clamped together or clamped with interchangeable intermediate sections between them, as required. The temperature difference created by the application of heat to one end of the resulting wall and cooling at the other end results in the flow of heat linearly through the wall by conduction. The heating section is manufactured from 25mm diameter cylindrical brass bar with a cartridge type electric heating element installed at one end. The heating element is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety and is protected by a thermostat to prevent damage by overheating. The heating element is rated to produce 60 Watts nominally at 24VDC. The power supplied to the heating element can be varied and measured using the HT10X. Three thermocouples are positioned along the heated section at uniform intervals of 15mm to measure the temperature gradient along the section. The cooling section is manufactured from 25mm cylindrical brass bar to match the heating section and cooled at one end by water passing through galleries in the section. Three thermocouples are positioned along the cooling section at uniform intervals of 15mm to measure the temperature gradient along the section.

Schematic diagram showing construction of HT11

Quick-release connections allow rapid connection to a cold water supply. A pressure regulator is incorporated to minimise the effect of fluctuations in the supply pressure. A manual control valve allows the flow of cooling water to be varied, if required, over the operating range of 0-1.5 litres/min. Measurement of the cooling water flowrate is not essential to the teaching exercises but an optional turbine type flow sensor can be fitted if required using the quick-release fittings. The optional flow sensor (Order code SFT2) connects directly to the HT10X to provide readings of cooling water flowrate directly in litres/min. Four intermediate sections are supplied as follows: 30mm long brass section of the same diameter as the heating and cooling sections and fitted with two thermocouples at the same intervals. When this section is clamped between the heating and cooling sections a long plane wall of uniform material and cross section is created with temperatures measured at eight positions. Stainless steel section of the same dimensions as the brass section to demonstrate the effect of a change in thermal conductivity. Aluminium section of the same dimensions as the brass section to demonstrate the effect of a change in thermal conductivity. 30mm long brass section reduced in diameter to 13mm to demonstrate the effect of a change in cross sectional area. The heat conducting properties of insulators may be found by simply inserting the paper or cork specimens supplied between the heating and cooling sections. A tube of thermal paste is provided to demonstrate the difference between good and poor thermal contact between the sections.

The heating section, cooling section and all intermediate sections are located co-axially inside plastic housings which provide an air gap and insulate the section to minimise heat loss to the surroundings and prevent burns to the operator. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples, each fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. Eight thermocouples in total are installed along the heated, intermediate and cooling sections. The linear heat conduction accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which stands on the bench top alongside the HT10X. The intermediate sections and samples of insulators are stored on the baseplate when not in use. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Understanding the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow through solid materials q Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through a uniform plane wall and a composite plane wall q Determining the constant of proportionality (thermal conductivity k) of different materials (conductors and insulators) q Measuring the temperature drop at the contact face between adjacent layers in a composite plane wall (contact resistance) q Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through a plane wall of reduced cross-sectional area q Understanding the application of poor conductors (insulators) q Observing unsteady-state conduction (qualitative only) ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to introduce students to the basic principles of linear heat conduction and to allow the thermal conductivity of various solid conductors and insulators to be determined. Consists of a heated section with 60W element (operating at 24VDC maximum) and water cooled section with pressure regulator. Four intermediate sections containing conductors and two samples of insulators are supplied. A plane brass section can be created with eight thermocouples to measure the temperature gradient. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out a range of laboratory teaching exercises in linear heat conduction and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included.

110 90 Temperature OC 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermocouple position 25W stainless steel specimen

Temperature distribution for conduction through a composite wall

90 Temperature OC 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermocouple position Temperature distribution for conduction though a plane wall (with and without thermal paste) 30W with paste 25W without paste

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT11-304 Educational Software for HT11 FT61 Chilled Water Circulating Unit (Required where a continuous source of cold water less than 20OC is not available) SERVICES REQUIRED Cold water supply: 1.5 litres/min @ 1 Barg OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.29 m 0.43 m 0.21 m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume Gross weight: :0.04 m3 5 kg

Item 02-02-02

HT12 RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION

The optional flow sensor (Order code SFT2) connects directly to the HT10X to provide readings of cooling water flowrate directly in litres/min. The entire radial specimen is located inside a plastic enclosure which provides an air gap and insulates the section to minimise heat loss to the surroundings and prevent burns to the operator. The radial heat conduction accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which stands on the bench top alongside the HT10X. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Understanding the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow through solid materials q Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through the wall of a cylinder (radial energy flow) q Determining the constant of proportionality (thermal conductivity k) of the disk material ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to introduce students to the basic principles of radial heat conduction and to allow the thermal conductivity of the solid metal disk to be determined. Consists of a thin brass disk with 100W heating element (operating at 24VDC maximum) mounted at the centre and cooling water tube attached to the periphery. Six type K thermocouples measure the temperature gradient between the heated centre and cooled periphery. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercise in radial heat conduction and the analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included.
Cooling Water Outlet

The Armfield Radial Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steady-state conduction radially through the wall of a tube. The arrangement, using a solid metal disk with temperature measurements at different radii and heat flow radially outwards from the centre to the periphery, allows the temperature distribution and flow of heat by radial conduction to be investigated. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory comprises a solid disk of material which is heated at the centre and cooled at the periphery to create a radial temperature difference with corresponding radial flow of heat by conduction. The disk is manufactured from brass 3.2 mm thick and 110 mm diameter with a central copper core 14 mm diameter. The central core is heated by a cartridge type electric heating element which is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety and is protected by a thermostat to prevent damage from overheating. The heating element is rated to produce 100 Watts nominally at 24 VDC. The power supplied to the heating element can be varied and measured using the HT10X. The periphery of the disk is cooled by cold water flowing through a copper tube which is attached to the circumference of the disk. Six type K thermocouples are positioned at different radii in the heated disk to indicate the temperature gradient from the central heated core to the periphery of the disk. The radial distance between each thermocouple in the disk is 10 mm. Each thermocouple is fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. Quickrelease connections allow rapid connection of the cooling tube to a cold water supply. A pressure regulator is incorporated to minimise the effect of fluctuations in the supply pressure. A manual control valve allows the flow of cooling water to be varied, if required, over the operating range of 0 1.5 litres/min. Measurement of cooling water flowrate is not essential to the teaching exercise but an optional turbine type flow sensor can be fitted if required using the quick-release fittings.

Insulation

Thermocouples T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Heater Metal disk Valve Regulator Filter

Cooling water inlet

Schematic diagram showing construction of HT12

TOC

T1 Increasing Q T1

T6 T6 Log n R Temperature distribution for radial conduction through the wall of a cylinder Educational software displaying Mimic diagram of HT12

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT12-304 Educational Software for HT12 FT61 Chilled Water Circulating Unit. (Required where a continuous source of cold water less than 20OC is not available) SERVICES REQUIRED Cold water supply 1.5 litres/min @ 1 barg OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.19 m 0.35 m 0.18 m

HT12 graphical analysis

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.03 m3 5 kg

Item 02-02-03

HT13 LAWS OF RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER AND RADIANT HEAT EXCHANGE

This Armfield accessory has been designed to demonstrate the laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange using light radiation to complement the heat demonstrations where the use of thermal radiation would be impractical. The equipment supplied comprises an arrangement of energy sources, measuring instruments, aperture plates, filter plates and target plates which are mounted on a linear track, in different combinations, to suit the particular laboratory teaching exercise chosen. TECHNICAL DETAILS The track consists of a rigid aluminium frame with twin horizontal rails which incorporates sliding carriages to allow the positions of the instrumentation, filters and plates to be varied. The position of the carriages relative to the energy source can be measured using a graduated scale attached to the side of the track. The track is designed to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit. The heat source consists of a flat copper plate which is heated from the rear by an insulated electric heating element which operates at low voltage for increased operator safety. The front of the plate is coated with a heat resistant matt black paint which provides a consistent emissivity close to unity. The surface temperature of the plate is measured by a thermocouple which is attached to the front of the plate.

The heating element is rated to produce 216 watts nominally at 24VDC into the plate which is 100mm in diameter. The power supplied to the heated plate can be varied and measured using the HT10X. The heated plate is mounted at one end of the calibrated track inside a protective cage which prevents inadvertent contact with the hot surface. Radiation from the heated plate is measured using a heat radiation detector (radiometer) which can be positioned along the graduated track on a carriage. The radiometer is connected to the HT10X to provide readings calibrated directly in units of W/m2. Metal plates with different surface finishes are supplied to demonstrate the effect of emissivity on radiation emitted and received. Two black plates, one grey plate and one polished plate are supplied together with a track mounted carrier which positions the plates in front of the heat source. Each plate incorporates a thermocouple to indicate the surface temperature of the plate. Surface temperatures of the heat source and metal plates are all measured using type K thermocouples, each fitted with a plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. Two cork-coated metal plates are supplied that allow a vertical slot aperture of adjustable width to be created between the source and detector to demonstrate area factors. The light source consists of a lamp in a housing with a glass diffuser and operates at low voltage for increased operator safety. The source may be rotated through 180O and the angle measured using an integral scale. The lamp is rated to produce 40 Watts nominally at 24 VDC. The power supplied to the lamp can be varied and measured on the HT10X. The light source is mounted at one end of the calibrated track. Radiation from the light source is measured using a light meter which can be positioned along the graduated track on a carriage. The light meter is connected to the HT10X to provide readings of illumination calibrated directly in units of Lux. Filter plates of varying opacity and thickness are supplied to demonstrate the laws of absorption. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Inverse square law using the heat source and radiometer or light source and lightmeter q Stefan Boltzmann Law using the heat source and radiometer q Emissivity using the heat source, metal plates and radiometer q Kirchoff Law using the heat source, metal plates and radiometer q Area factors using the heat source, aperture and radiometer q Lamberts Cosine Law using the light source (rotated) and lightmeter q Lamberts Law of Absorption using the light source, filter plates and lightmeter

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to introduce students to the basic laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange. A heat source with radiometer and a light source with lightmeter are used where appropriate to demonstrate the principles. The heat source consiste of a flat circular plate 100mm in diameter which incorporates a 216 Watt electric heating element (operating at at 24VDC maximum). The light source consists of a 40 Watt light bulb (operating at 24VDC maximum) mounted inside a housing with a glass diffuser. The heat and light sources, instruments, filters and plates are mounted on an aluminium track with graduated scale which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in radiant heat transfer/exchange and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit
log10 (radiometer measurement)
Light Plastic filter Light meter

Scale

Schematic diagram showing HT13 set up for exercises using light

Heat

Metal plate

Aperture Radiometer T7

T10

Schematic diagram showing HT13 set up for exercises using heat

OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT13-304 Educational Software for HT13 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.44 m 1.23 m 0.30 m

2.8 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 2.0 Average slope = -2

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.3 m3 12kg

2.2 2.4 2.6 log10 (distance)

2.8

3.0

Typical result showing the inverse square law using the heat source and radiometer

light meter reading (lux)

Experimental Theoretical

Angle (O) HT13 accessories Typical result showing Lamberts cosine law using the light source and lightmeter

Item 02-02-04

HT14 COMBINED CONVECTION AND RADIATION

T10 Heated zone

Anemometer T9

Throttle plate

Schematic diagram showing construction of HT14

A hot surface loses heat (heat is transferred) to its surroundings by the combined modes of convection and radiation. In practice these modes are difficult to isolate and therefore an analysis of the combined effects at varying surface temperature and air velocity past the surface provides a meaningful teaching exercise. The heated surface studied is a horizontal cylinder which can be operated in free convection or forced convection when located in the stream of moving air. Measurement of the surface temperature of the uniformly heated cylinder and the electrical power supplied to it allows the combined effects of radiation and convection to be compared with theoretical values. The dominance of convection at lower surface temperatures and the dominance of radiation at higher surface temperatures can be demonstrated as can the increase in heat transfer due to forced convection. TECHNICAL DETAILS The equipment consists of a centrifugal fan with vertical outlet duct at the top of which is mounted a heated cylinder. The heated cylinder has an outside diameter of 10 mm, a heated length of 70 mm and is internally heated throughout its length by an electric heating element which is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety.

The heating element is rated to produce 100 Watts nominally at 24 VDC into the cylinder. The power supplied to the heated cylinder can be varied and measured on the HT10X. Electrical connections to the cylinder incorporate temperature resistant insulation with plug connection to the variable 24 Volt DC supply socket on HT10X. The mounting arrangement for the cylinder in the duct is designed to minimise loss of heat by conduction to the wall of the duct. The surface of the cylinder is coated with heat resistant paint which provides a consistent emissivity close to unity. A type K thermocouple attached to the wall of the cylinder, at mid position, allows the surface temperature to be measured under the varying operating conditions. The thermocouple is fitted with a standard plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. A variable throttle plate at the inlet to the fan allows the velocity of the air through the outlet duct to be varied and a vane type anemometer within the fan outlet duct allows the air velocity in the duct to be measured over the range 0-7 metres/sec. The inside diameter of the outlet duct is 70 mm. A type K thermocouple located in the outlet duct allows the ambient air temperature to be measured upstream of the heated cylinder. The thermocouple is fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to allow it to stand on the bench alongside the HT10X.

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Determining the combined heat transfer (Qradiation + Qconvection ) from a horizontal cylinder in natural convection over a wide range of power inputs and corresponding surface temperatures. q Measuring the domination of the convective heat transfer coefficient Hc at low surface temperatures and the domination of the radiation heat transfer coefficient Hr at high surface temperatures q Determining the effect of forced convection on the heat transfer from the cylinder at varying air velocities

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to demonstrate combined convection (free and forced) and radiation from a horizontal heated cylinder. It consists of a centrifugal fan with vertical outlet duct at the top of which is mounted the heated cylinder. Air velocity can be varied by rotating a throttle plate at the inlet to the fan and measured by a vane type anemometer in the outlet duct. Type K thermocouples measure the air temperature upstream and the surface temperature of the cylinder. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in combined radiation and convection (free and forced) and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included. SERVICES REQUIRED HT14-A: HT14-B: 220/240 V /1ph/50Hz @ 1.5 Amp 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 3 Amps

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit


Typical result showing the effect of changing the air velocity obtained using Armfield educational software.

OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT14-304 Educational Software for HT14 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.20 m 0.35 m 0.30 m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.1 m3 9 kg

Item 02-02-05

HT15 EXTENDED SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER

The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X.
Insulation

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T9 (Ambient)

T6 T7 T8 Thermocouples

Heater

A long horizontal rod, which is heated at one end, provides an extended surface (pin) for heat transfer measurements. Thermocouples at regular intervals along the rod allow the surface temperature profile to be measured. By making the diameter of the rod small in relation to its length, thermal conduction along the rod can be assumed to be one-dimensional and heat loss from the tip can be ignored. The measurements obtained can be compared with a theoretical analysis of thermal conduction along the bar combined with heat loss (heat transferred) to the surroundings by the modes of free convection and radiation simultaneously. TECHNICAL DETAILS The rod is manufactured from a solid cylindrical brass bar with a constant diameter of 10 mm. The rod is mounted horizontally with support at both ends and positioned to avoid the influence of adjacent surfaces. The rod is heated by a cartridge type electric heating element which operates at low voltage for increased operator safety and is protected by a thermostat to prevent damage from overheating. The heating element is inserted coaxially into the end of the rod and is rated to produce 20 Watts nominally at 24 VDC into the rod. The power supplied to the heated rod can be varied and measured on the HT10X. Eight thermocouples are attached to the surface of rod at equal intervals of 50 mm giving an overall instrumented length of 350 mm. Each thermocouple is wrapped around the rod to minimise errors by conduction. One thermocouple is mounted adjacent to the heated rod to measure the ambient air temperature. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples, each fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. The rod is coated with a heat resistant matt black paint which provides a consistent emissivity close to unity The heated end of the rod is mounted co-axially inside a plastic housing which provides an air gap and insulates the area occupied by the heater to minimise heat loss and prevent burns to the operator.

Schematic diagram of HT15 construction

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Measuring the temperature distribution along an extended surface (pin) and comparing the result with a theoretical analysis q Calculating the heat transfer from an extended surface resulting from the combined modes of free convection and radiation heat transfer and comparing the result with a theoretical analysis. ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to demonstrate the temperature profiles and heat transfer characteristics for an extended surface (cylindrical pin) when heat flows along the rod by conduction and heat is lost along the rod by combined convection and radiation to the surroundings. The extended surface comprises a long solid rod mounted horizontally and heated at one end with thermocouples at eight positions along the rod to provide the temperature distribution. Temperature of the ambient air is measured by an independent thermocouple. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercise in combined radiation and free convection from an extended surface and analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included.

90 Temperature OC 70 50 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermocouple position Typical Help window showing description of apparatus

Typical result showing temperature profile along the extended surface

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT15-304 Educational Software for HT15 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.15 m 0.50 m 0.15 m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.01 m3 5 kg

HT16 RADIATION ERRORS IN TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

Item 02-02-06

T10 Shield T7 T8 T9

Heater

Anemometer T6

Throttle plate

Schematic diagram showing construction of HT16

TECHNICAL DETAILS The equipment comprises a tubular metal duct through which air, at ambient temperature, is blown vertically upwards by an electric fan. A section of the duct wall is heated from the outside by an electric band heater and provides the source of radiation to the test thermocouples which are located on the centreline of the duct adjacent to the heated section. The heater is insulated on the outside and operates at low voltage for increased operator safety. The power output from the heater is 216 Watts nominally at 24 VDC. The temperature of the heated wall can be changed by varying the power supplied to the heater using the power control on the HT10X. The actual temperature of the heated surface is measured using a type K thermocouple which is attached to it. The effect of the duct wall temperature on the measurement thermocouples can be demonstrated. The effect of air velocity past the test thermocouples can be demonstrated by rotating a throttle plate at the inlet to the fan. A vane type anemometer within the fan outlet duct allows the air velocity through the heated section to be measured over the operating range 0 - 7 m/s. Three thermocouples with different styles of bead are installed in the duct to demonstrate the differences in readings obtained. A radiation shield, which remains close to the gas temperature, can be raised or lowered over the thermocouples to demonstrate the change in readings when a radiation shield is used. A thermocouple is installed upstream of the heated section to measure the temperature of the ambient air passing over the thermocouples at the core of the duct. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples, each fitted with a plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X.

Radiative heat transfer between a thermometer and its surroundings may significantly affect the temperature reading obtained from the thermometer, especially when the temperature of a gas is to be measured while the thermometer sees surrounding surfaces at a higher or lower temperature than the gas. The error in the reading from the thermometer is also affected by other factors such as the gas velocity past the thermometer, the physical size of the thermometer and the emissivity of the thermometer body. In this equipment a group of thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of a stream of air, at ambient temperature, passing through the centre of a duct while the wall of the duct is elevated in temperature to subject the thermocouples to a source of thermal radiation. Each thermocouple gains heat by radiation from the heated wall and loses heat by convection to the air stream and conduction along the wire. The net result is an increase in the temperature of the thermocouple above the temperature of the air stream which it is supposed to measure. The result is an error in the reading from the thermocouple. The HT16 provides a means of demonstrating these sources of error and suitable methods by which the errors can be reduced or eliminated.

The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X.
Shield

Test thermocouple

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Errors associated with radiative heat transfer: - Effect of wall temperature on measurement error - Effect of air velocity on measurement error - Effect of thermocouple style on measurement error q Methods for reducing errors due to radiation: - Design of a radiation resistant thermometer - Use of a radiation shield to surround the thermometer ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to demonstrate how temperature measurements can be influenced by sources of thermal radiation which can see the temperature sensor. It consists of a centrifugal fan with vertical outlet duct incorporating a heated section of duct wall. Air velocity can be varied by rotating a throttle plate at the inlet to the fan and measured by a vane type anemometer in the outlet duct. A type K thermocouple measures the air temperature upstream of the heated section. Three type K thermocouples with different styles of bead are mounted on the centreline of the duct adjacent to the heated section of wall. Measurement of the air temperature using the thermocouples demonstrates the errors due to radiation from the heated wall. A radiation shield can be lowered over the thermocouples to demonstrate the improvement in reading accuracy when the thermocouples are shielded from the source of radiation. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises concerning radiation errors in temperature measurement and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included. SERVICES REQUIRED HT16-A: HT16-B: 220/240 V /1ph/50Hz @ 1.5 Amp 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 3 Amps

Shield

Heater

Ambient air

Ambient air

Schematic diagram showing function of the radiation shield

Tabulated results from HT16

ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT16-304 Educational Software for HT16 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.22 m 0.30 m 0.35 m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.1 m3 Gross Weight: 9 kg

Item 02-02-07

HT17 UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER

Analytical solutions are available for temperature distribution and heat flow as a function of time and position for simple solid shapes which are suddenly subjected to convection with a fluid at a constant temperature. Simple shapes are provided together with appropriate classical transient-temperature/heat flow charts which allow a fast analysis of the response from actual transient measurements. Each shape is allowed to stabilise at room temperature then suddenly immersed in a bath of hot water at a steady temperature. Monitoring of the temperature at the centre of the shape allows analysis of heat flow using the appropriate transient-temperature/heat flow charts provided. An independent thermocouple mounted alongside the shape indicates the temperature of the water adjacent to the shape and provides an accurate datum for measurement of the time since immersion in the hot water. TECHNICAL DETAILS The equipment consists of a heated water bath together with set of instrumented shapes. Three simple shapes are supplied, namely, a rectangular slab, a long solid cylinder and a solid sphere. Each of the shapes incorporates a thermocouple to measure the temperature at the centre of the shape. Each of the shapes is duplicated in brass and stainless steel which have different thermal conductivities. Measurements taken on a shape in one material can be used to confirm the conductivity of a similar shape constructed from a different material. Transienttemperature/heat flow charts are supplied for each of the shapes. The water heating bath has a capacity of 30 litres and is heated by an electric heating element having a rating of 3.0 kW. A thermostat allows the water to be heated to a predetermined temperature before taking measurements. The large volume of water in the bath ensures that any change in the temperature of the water, as the measurements are taken, is minimal.

The electrical supply to the heating element is protected by a combined RCD/circuit breaker for operator safety. A circulating pump mounted alongside the water bath draws water from the bath and returns it at the base of a vertical cylindrical duct which is located inside the water bath at the centre. A holder ensures that each of the shapes is quickly and correctly positioned within the vertical duct for measurements to be taken. The upward flow of water at constant velocity past the shape ensures that the heat transfer characteristic remains constant and also ensures that the water surrounding the shape remains at a constant temperature. The circulating pump operates from the variable 24 VDC supply on the HT10X. The velocity of the water can be varied by adjusting the voltage supplied to the pump. A thermocouple located in the water bath allows the temperature of the water to be monitored and adjusted to the required temperature before immersing the shapes. Each of the shapes can be attached to a holder which eliminates the need to touch the shape when its temperature has stabilised in air and accurately positions the shape inside the water bath while transient measurements are taken. A thermocouple mounted on the shape holder contacts the hot water at the same instant as the solid shape and provides an accurate datum for temperature/time measurements. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples, each fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X.

Carrier

Water bath

Shape

Circulating pump

Drain

Heating element

Schematic diagram showing operation of the HT17

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Bodies of different size, shape and material are allowed to stabilise at room temperature then dropped into the hot water bath. The change in temperature of each body is monitored using HT17-304 Educational Software or suitable chart recorder connected to the HT10X q Using analytical temperature/heat flow charts to analyse the results obtained from different solid shapes q Using the results obtained from one shape to determine the conductivity of a similar shape constructed from a different material q Investigating the effect of shape, size and material properties on unsteady heat flow

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to allow exercises to be performed in unsteady state heat transfer. A set of solid shapes are supplied comprising a rectangular slab, long cylinder and sphere, each shape manufactured from brass and stainless steel and instrumented with a thermocouple to monitor the temperature at the centre of the shape. A heated water bath with integral flow duct and external circulating pump ensures that hot water flows past the solid shape under evaluation at constant velocity and constant temperature. Supplied complete with analytical transient-temperature/heat flow charts for each of the shapes. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in non-steady state heat transfer and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included.

SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply HT17-A: 220/240 V /1ph/50Hz @ 13 Amps HT17-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 26 Amps ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT
Typical Mimic diagram showing spherical shape immersed in the hot water bath

HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT17-304 Educational Software for HT17 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.67 m 0.60 m 0.40 m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.17 m3 14 kg

Shape holder and solid shapes supplied with HT17

Educational Software and Data Logging Accessory

Mimic diagram showing temperature distribution with the HT15

HT15 graphical analysis showing temperature profiles with varying heater power

Educational and Data Logging Software is available for all the HT10X range of Heat Transfer equipment. Used in conjunction with the Armfield IFD5 USB interface device, this provides a comprehensive educational software environment within which the heat transfer investigations can be performed. It offers a complete teaching package of coursework and laboratory investigation. The familiar Windows environment allows the students to explore the principles of each Heat Transfer accessory quickly and easily, providing them with a good understanding of the principles involved. The Software runs under the Windows 98 or Windows 2000 operating systems, and has been designed for maximum flexibility and ease of use. Comprehensive Help screens guide the student through both the theoretical background and the practical investigation of the topic being studied. Suggested laboratory investigations and further questions for the student to answer are included in the Software, together with all the information required to set up and run the experiment. q Reduces Lecturer and Technician support time in the laboratory, by leading the student logically through the use of the equipment and the experimental procedures q Can be used outside the laboratory to familiarise the student with the equipment and procedures, prior to performing the practical training exercise. q Reinforces understanding of practical concepts such as taking readings, experimental errors, units of measurement, etc. q Reinforces understanding of the theoretical concepts involved q Eliminates the need for repetitive calculations, but still requires the student to demonstrate an understanding of the mathematical background concepts q Allows the student to process all his results during the laboratory session, thus giving immediate feedback on the success or otherwise of the investigation whilst he still has access to the equipment.

Typical question presented

HT15 tabular analysis

SOFTWARE CAPABILITIES This software includes a range of functions and capabilities designed to make the operation of the equipment and processing of the results more straightforward, and also to enhance student understanding of the subjects being covered. It includes: q Diagrammatic representation of the equipment, complete with real time display of the various sensor outputs q Presentation screens, giving an overview of the software, the equipment, the procedure and associated theory q Detailed Help facilities giving in depth guidance q Automatic data logging of sensor values into a spreadsheet format q Control over sampling intervals q Student questions and answers, including a layered Hint facility q Processing of sampled values (this may be linked to the questions and answers to ensure student understanding) q Sophisticated graph plotting facilities of both measured and calculated values, including comparisons taken under different conditions q Export of data to Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheets q Links to user defined word processor q Calibration facility for sensors q Real time bar graph display of sensor outputs q Recent history graphical display

The IFD5 USB Interface

TECHNICAL DETAILS The system uses the Armfield IFD5 interface device, which digitises the analogue output data from the HT10X and transfers the data to a computer. The computer interface uses the standard USB (Universal Serial Bus) for communication, which allows any standard modern Windows computer to be used, including Notebooks, and does not require any internal access to the computer. The equipment is supplied complete with a USB lead for connection to the computer. Also included is a Software driver that allows the outputs from the HT10X to be read in other software programs, such as Labview. ORDERING INFORMATION HT10X-304IFD

ESSENTIAL ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to a computer with an unused USB port, running Windows 98 or Windows 2000. (Note, an alternative data logger is available for Windows 3.1 and Windows 95. This data logger uses the parallel (printer) port on the computer. Order code HT10X-303IFD) This computer does not form part of the Armfield supplied equipment

Educational Software for HT11 to HT17 on a single CDROM, complete with data logger. This is a complete package, containing the Software for all seven Heat Transfer accessories, the IFD5 interface, and all cables required to link to a PC. Educational Educational Educational Educational Educational Educational Educational Software Software Software Software Software Software Software for for for for for for for HT11 HT12 HT13 HT14 HT15 HT16 HT17 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 required) required) required) required) required) required) required)

HT11-304 HT12-304 HT13-304 HT14-304 HT15-304 HT16-304 HT17-304 IFD5

USB Interface Device, including all cables required to link an HT10X to a Personal Computer. (appropriate - 304 software required)

Note: All Software is provided on CDROM unless Floppy Disks are specifically requested.

Items 02-02-08 thru 02-02-12

COMPUTER CONTROLLED HEAT EXCHANGER SERVICE MODULE

HT30XC Service Unit fitted with HT37 Plate Heat Exchanger

A range of small scale heat exchangers, designed to illustrate the principles and techniques of indirect heat transfer between uid streams. Different types of heat exchanger can be mounted on a common bench-top service unit. Small scale versions of commonly used industrial heat exchangers are available (including plate, tubular and shell and tube) for analysis and comparison. The equipment is controlled by a user supplied personal computer, which serves as the operator interface. Full data logging, control and educational software is supplied with the equipment. In addition, the equipment has been tted with failsafe systems, including a watchdog circuit, which allows for safe operation from a remote computer. KEY FEATURES Small scale, bench top equipment Fast response times allow in depth investigations in a short time Representative of industrial heat exchangers Multiple, industrially representative heat exchangers available All functions computer controlled, including reversing of one of the uid streams for co-current and counter-current investigations Standard USB interface Safety functions implemented to allow for remote operation by computer Full educational software with data logging, control, graph plotting, and detailed Help Suitable for project work. The service bench provides facilities for evaluating in-house heat exchanger designs

HT30XC Service Unit

DESCRIPTION The HT30XC is a service unit, to allow the operation of one of the Armeld range of small scale heat exchanger systems. It provides controlled cold water ow, bi-directional hot water ow and the instrumentation required to do a series of in-depth investigations into heat exchanger performance. The individual heat exchangers can be quickly changed over, to allow comparisons between different types of heat exchanger to be made. The HT30XC requires a user supplied personal computer for the operator interface. The interface to this computer is USB, allowing for simple interfacing and setting up. Once the appropriate heat exchanger has been installed and setup, all other functions can be performed under computer control. Appropriate measures have been implemented so that in the case of a computer failure or communications breakdown, the system shuts itself down in a safe manner. Hardware Description The service unit provides two uid streams to the heat exchanger, a hot water stream and a cold water stream. The hot water stream is heated in a vessel tted with an electric heater. The heater is switched on and off by a solid state relay (SSR) which is under software control. A thermostat limits the maximum water temperature to 850C for operator

safety. A gear pump circulates water from the vessel, through the heat exchanger and back into the heater vessel. Both the pump speed and direction are under software control, allowing for co-current and counter-current investigations over a wide range of ow rates. The cold water stream is generated from a mains water supply. The ow through the heat exchanger is adjusted by a variable ow valve, again under software control. A manually adjustable pressure regulator is used to minimise the effect of mains pressure uctuations. Conditioning circuits for up to 10 K-type thermocouples are included, (the thermocouples themselves are supplied with the heat exchangers). The instrumentation also includes owmeters to measure the ow rates of the two uid streams. Switching on the unit puts it into Standby mode. From this mode it is necessary for a regular series of pulses to be received from the software (via the built in USB interface) to fully power up the unit. This ensures that unless the control software is running, the heaters, the pump and the cold water control valve cannot be switched on. The unit also includes an emergency stop switch. All electrical circuits are located in a bench mounted ABS supporting base, and protected by a Residual Current Device for operator safety. The ABS base includes a drip tray and drain tap in case of water spillage or leakage.

Software Description Full educational software is provided with the HT30XC for all the Armeld heat exchangers. Separate programs are provided for each exchanger, and each program contains a selection of separate exercises that can be performed. The actual details are exercise specic, but typically the following interfaces are available: All the temperatures and ow rates are displayed on a diagrammatic representation of the equipment. A software button switches the equipment from standby mode to fully on. The cold water ow control valve is operated by using up/down arrows or typing in a value between 0 and 100%. The actual ow rate can be read directly in L/min. The hot water ow rate is set by entering a required set point into a PID control function. This use of PID control ensures the ow is stable despite changes in the viscosity of the water due to heating. The heater is again controlled in a PID loop, by setting a required temperature set point. Data from the sensors is logged into a spreadsheet format, under operator control. Sophisticated graph plotting facilities are provided. Comparisons between data taken on different runs can be displayed. Student questions and answers, including a layered Hint facility. Processing of measured values to obtain calculated values (this can be linked to the questions and answers to ensure student understanding). The data samples (measured and calculated) can be saved, or exported directly in Microsoft Excel format.

Typical co-current results from HT36

Typical counter-current results from HT36

Data from the sensors can be displayed independently from the data logging. This can be in bar graph format, or a recent history graphical display (useful to check for temperature stability prior to taking a sample). Presentation screens are available, giving an overview of the software, the equipment, the procedure and the associated theory. This is backed up by a detailed Help facility giving in-depth guidance and background information.

User Dened Software and/or Remote Operation Included separately on the software CD are the drivers required to allow other software applications to communicate with the HT30XC via the USB interface. This allows users to write their own software instead of using the Armeld provided software. This software can be written in many different systems. Typically LabView, MatLab, C, C++, Visual Basic, Delphi, and any other software environment which allows calls to external drivers can be used. In this way the user can write software to suit their specic requirements, in an environment which they are fully familiar with and which is compatible with their other equipment. An extension of this methodology allows the equipment to be operated remotely, such as over a Local Area Network (LAN) or even over the internet. The HT30XC is ideal for this remote operation as it has been designed to ensure that the unit shuts down safely in the event of a communications failure. It has also been designed so that once the heat exchanger has been installed and congured, all the controls to perform a series of investigations are under software control, and so the student does not need to be present with the equipment. In a typical installation, the HT30XC would be connected to a local PC via the USB bus. The local PC would be connected to the users PCs via the LAN. The operator interface software would be run on the remote (users) PC and communicate to the control software on the local PC. (Armeld do not provide the software to implement this type of system). For remote use, the appropriate heat exchanger would be installed onto the service unit, and the cold water pressure regulator adjusted to match the heat exchanger to the cold water supply. The unit is then switched on and remains in Standby mode until appropriate software is run requesting the unit to power up fully. With the HT31, HT32 and HT33, Heat Exchangers, all functions can

then be operated remotely. The HT34, HT36 and HT37 Heat Exchangers can be congured in different ways, and so the required conguration has to be manually implemented locally. However once this has been done, a full set of investigations can be performed for that conguration, including co-current and counter-current ows.

Mimic diagram of HT31

Mimic diagram of HT32

Mimic diagram of HT37

HEAT EXCHANGER OPTIONS

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITY Training exercises which are common to each of the heat exchangers when used with the HT30XC: Demonstration of indirect heating/ cooling by transfer of heat from one uid stream to another when separated by a solid wall. Energy balance determination (heat balance) and calculation of efciencies by measuring the ow rates and temperature changes in the hot and cold uid streams. Introduction to different styles of heat exchanger and comparison of the differences in operation and performance. Using the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) in heat transfer calculations. Denition and measurement of Overall Heat Transfer Coefcient (U). Demonstration of the differences between counter-current and co-current operation, (not relevant for some HT34 congurations). Demonstration of the transition from linear to turbulent ow. Effect of hot and cold uid ow rate on the heat transfer coefcient. Effect of driving force (temperature differential) on the heat transfer coefcient. Investigation of heat loss and reduction in heat transfer coefcient due to fouling of the heat transfer surfaces (suitable student project using user induced. fouling).

HT36 connections

A wide selection of heat exchanger options are available for use with the HT30XC, ranging from simple exchangers to demonstrate co-current and countercurrent ow, to recongurable systems with interim temperature measurements, capable of being used for in-depth heat exchanger analysis. The heat exchangers are easily interchanged, with quick release ttings on the exible interconnecting tubes, and a simple location system using thumbscews to secure the exchangers onto the service unit.

Mimic diagram of HT36

Additional training exercises using the HT36 Extended Tubular Heat Exchanger: Demonstration of temperature overlaps between uid streams in countercurrent operation. Temperature proles along the effective length of the heat exchanger in both counter-current and co-current operation Comparing the effect of different heat transfer areas.

Additional training exercises using the HT34 Jacketed Vessel: Introduction to heat exchange in a batch or continuously fed stirred vessel and comparison of the differences in operation and performance when using a heating jacket or heating coil. Effects of stirring and vessel contents (volume) on the heat transfer characteristics.

Additional training exercises using the HT37 Extended Recongurable Plate Heat Exchanger: Temperature proles along the effective length of the heat exchanger in both counter-current and co-current operation. Demonstration of temperature overlaps between uid streams in counter-current operation. Use of LMTD correction factor when calculating the Overall Heat Transfer Coefcient. Comparing the effect of different heat transfer areas. The use of a regeneration stage for energy efciency, when heating and subsequently cooling a product stream. Project work to implement a wide variety of plate congurations, giving series, parallel and combined uid passes.

Additional training exercises using a user provided heat exchanger: Any of the above exercises can be performed, where appropriate, using a user provided heat exchanger having appropriate characteristics, dimensions and ttings. The service unit will support evaluation of experimental heat exchangers constructed as design exercises by students.

ORDERING SPECIFICATION - HT30XC Bench top service unit, designed to accommodate a range of different small scale heat exchangers. Comprises hot water vessel, hot water recirculation pump, cold water control system, computer interface and all necessary instrumentation. The hot water vessel is made from clear acrylic (for visibility) and includes a 2kW heater with thermostatic over-temperature cut-out and low water level detection. The hot water pump is bi-directional (to allow co-current and countercurrent investigations without re-conguring the hardware) and the ow rate is under computer control. The cold water system includes a manually adjustable pressure regulator and a ow control valve which is under computer control. Flow rates for both uid streams in excess of 4L/min are achievable, but this may be restricted by some designs of heat exchanger (e.g. HT32 & HT36 Plate Heat Exchangers). Up to 10 temperatures (K-type thermocouples) can be monitored using the service unit. Range, 0-1330C, resolution 0.10C. Two ow meters are included, calibrated from 0.2 to 5 L/min All data is available to a (user supplied) Windows PC, via a USB interface. This computer is also used to control the ow rates, hot water temperature, and hot water direction. Full software for educational use is included. A comprehensive instruction manual describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in combined radiation and convection (free and forced) and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included.

SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase electricity supply: HT30XC-A: 230V, 50Hz, 10Amp HT30XC-B: 115V, 60Hz, 20Amp HT30XC-G: 230V, 60Hz, 10Amp Cold water supply and drain: 4.5 Litres/minute at 1bar Gauge OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.45m (service unit only) 1.0m 0.5m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.33m3 Gross Weight: 33kg ESSENTIAL/OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to a PC with a free USB port, running Windows 98, 2000, ME or XP. At least one heat exchanger module is required, additional heat exchangers are optional.

HT31/HT36 TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS


HT31 - Tubular Heat Exchanger HT36 - Extended Tubular Heat Exchanger The tubular heat exchanger is the simplest form of heat exchanger and consists of two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the hot and cold uids. In these miniature versions the tubes are separated into sections to reduce the overall length and to allow the temperature at points along both uid streams to be measured. Two versions are available, the HT31 is a basic version with two sections and a single interim temperature measurement point. The HT36 is a more sophisticated unit with four longer tube sections, giving four times the overall heat transfer area and three interim temperature measurement points in each uid stream. The HT36 has sufcient heat transfer area to demonstrate the classic counter current ow conditions where the outlet of the heated stream is hotter than the outlet of the cooled stream. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION On both heat exchangers the inner tube is used for the hot uid and the outer annulus for cold uid. This minimises heat loss from the exchanger without the need for additional insulation. The inner tubes are constructed from stainless steel and the outer annulus from clear acrylic, providing visualisation of the heat exchanger construction and minimising thermal losses. The tubes can be dismantled for cleaning. HT31
Temperature measurement points 6 off: Hot uid inlet

ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS A small scale Tubular Heat Exchanger system for use with an Armeld Heat Exchange Service Unit to teach the fundamental concepts of heat exchangers. Comprises a number of sections of concentric tubes, the outer section constructed from clear acrylic for visibility and the inner tube from stainless steel. The tubes are easily dismantled for cleaning. A comprehensive instruction manual is included. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT36 requires the Armeld HT30XC, Computer Controlled Heat Exchanger Service Unit. HT31 can be used with either the HT30XC or the HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. OVERALL DIMENSIONS HT31: Height: 0.16m Width: 0.51m Depth: 0.39m HT36: Height: 0.2m Width: 0.95m Depth: 0.4m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION HT31: Volume: 0.05m3 Gross weight: 4kg HT36: Volume: 0.1m3 Gross Weight: 10kg

HT36
10 off: Hot uid inlet Hot uid interim positions (3) Hot uid outlet Cold uid inlet Cold uid interim positions (3) Cold uid outlet 4
(can also be congured for 1, 2 or 3 sections)

Hot uid mid-position Hot uid outlet Cold uid inlet Cold uid mid-position Cold uid outlet Number of tube sections Heat transfer area 2 0.02m2

0.08m2 max

HT32/HT37 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS


HT32 - Plate Heat Exchanger HT37 - Extended Recongurable Plate Heat Exchanger The plate heat exchanger is extremely versatile and commonly used in the food and chemical processing industries where different combinations of plates and gaskets can be arranged to suit a particular application. The miniature exchanger supplied consists of a pack of plates with sealing gaskets held together in a frame between end plates. Hot and cold uids ow between channels on alternate sides of the plates to promote heat transfer. The HT37 is designed to be recongurable by the student, and can accommodate up to four sections of heating, each section providing an additional temperature measurement point for each uid stream. In order to make the unit easy to recongure, these sections are supplied as preassembled groups of plates complete with an intermediate plate (containing the temperature measurement points). Using the four heating sections provided, students can compare heat exchangers of different heat transfer area and different numbers of passes. A quick release clamp system allows the different arrangements to be changed quickly and easily without using tools. Also supplied is a pre-assembled regeneration section to demonstrate this important energy efcient method of heating. The regeneration section can be used in conjunction with one, two or three of the standard heating sections in different congurations. Plate heat exchangers can be implemented in a wide variety of congurations, with parallel passes, serial passes, or combinations of both. For more advanced investigations into these effects, (e.g. for project work) a further twelve loose plates are supplied

HT32 Plate Heat Exchanger

HT37 with four heating sections installed

with the HT37. These can be used in conjunction with the plates from the preassembled modules to investigate these other congurations. The HT32 has a single heating section congured for multi-pass operation with passes in series. It comprises seven individual plates, which are clamped together using two stainless steel threaded bars and nuts. It is possible to dismantle and reassemble the heat exchanger using only three plates to demonstrate a single pass.

TECHNICAL DETAILS The plates used in these heat exchangers have been specically developed by Armeld for use in miniature heat exchanger systems. They are fabricated from 316 stainless steel, with a pressed chevron pattern to promote turbulence and provide multiple support points. Silicone rubber gaskets are used on each plate to seal the adjacent ow channels from each other. Plate details: Plate overall dimensions: 75mm x 115mm Effective diameter: 3.0mm Plate thickness: 0.5mm Wetted perimeter: 153.0mm Projected heat 0.008m2 per transmission area: plate The plates are mounted in a frame incorporating xed and moving end plates with connections for hot and cold uids. The exchangers are easily dismantled for inspection of the heat transfer surfaces.

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale plate heat exchanger system for use with an Armeld Heat Exchange Service Unit to teach the fundamental concepts of heat exchangers. Comprises a number of stainless steel plates, each with a pressed chevron pattern and a food grade silicon rubber sealing gasket, mounted in a frame. Easily dismantled for cleaning. A comprehensive instruction manual is included. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT37 requires the Armeld HT30XC, Computer Controlled Heat Exchanger Service Unit. HT32 can be used with either the HT30XC or the HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. OVERALL DIMENSIONS HT32: Height: 0.17m Width: 0.18m Depth: 0.39m HT37: Height: 0.17m Width: 0.18m Depth: 0.39m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION HT32: Volume: 0.03m3 Gross weight: 6kg HT32


Number of plates Heat transfer area Heat exchanger conguration Temperature measurement points 4 off: Hot uid inlet Hot uid outlet Cold uid inlet Cold uid outlet 7 (5 effective plates) 0.04m2 Single heating stage

HT37: Volume: 0.03m3 Gross Weight: 9.5kg

HT37
Recongurable up to 20 plates (12 effective plates) 0.096m2 (max) Congurable sections, with a separate regeneration section Up to 10 off: Hot uid inlet Hot uid interim positions (up to 3) Hot uid outlet Cold uid inlet Cold uid interim positions (up to 3) Cold uid outlet

Clamping mechanism Project work

Dual screw threads with nuts

Quick release, hand operated, no tools required 12 additional plates (supplied loose) give the option of exploring many different congurations

HT33 - SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


The shell and tube heat exchanger is commonly used in the food and chemical process industries. This type of exchanger consists of a number of tubes in parallel enclosed in a cylindrical shell. Heat is transferred between one uid owing through the tubes and another uid owing through the cylindrical shell around the tubes. The miniature exchanger supplied is designed to demonstrate liquid to liquid heat transfer in a 1-7 shell and tube heat exchanger (one shell and 7 tubes with two transverse bafes in the shell). TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory consists of a miniature shell and tube heat exchanger with the following features: Hot uid in the inner tubes and cold uid in outer shell to minimise heat loss from the exchanger without the need for additional insulation. Seven stainless steel tubes, 6.35mm OD. The outer annulus, end caps and bafes constructed from clear acrylic to allow visualisation of the heat exchanger construction and minimise thermal losses. Nominal combined heat transfer area of 20,000mm2, (equivalent to that of the HT31 Tubular Heat Exchanger for direct comparison). Cold uid (cold water) enters one end of the shell at the bottom and exits at the opposite end at the top having owed over and under two transverse bafes inside the shell. Thermocouples are installed at the following 4 locations: Hot uid Hot uid outlet Cold uid inlet Cold uid

ORDERING SPECIFICATION A miniature shell and tube heat exchanger for use with an Armeld Heat Exchanger Service Unit. Comprises an outer shell and 7 internal tubes. There are two transverse bafes inside the shell. Four temperature sensors are supplied in tappings at uid inlets and outlets. The heat exchanger is constructed from stainless steel tube and clear acrylic. It is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to be installed on the plinth of the Heat Exchanger Service Unit without the need for tools. The stainless steel tubes can be removed from the heat exchanger for cleaning. A comprehensive instruction manual is included. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT30XC or HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.19m 0.43m 0.39m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.06m3 Gross Weight: 5kg

HT34 - JACKETED VESSEL WITH COIL & STIRRER


Vessel Heating or cooling of a process liquid in a tank, either batchwise or with continuous product feed, is common practice throughout industry. The characteristics of the heat transfer using an external jacket or internal coil can be demonstrated together with the effect of stirring the vessel contents. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory consists of a jacketed vessel with the following features: The vessel consists of a stainless steel wall with PVC base and clear acrylic top. A glass outer jacket allows the wall of the vessel to be surrounded with hot uid for indirect heating from the outside. Alternatively, a stainless steel coil inside the vessel allows the cold uid contained within the vessel to be indirectly heated from inside. The vessel incorporates a variable speed stirrer and bafe arrangement to allow thorough mixing of the vessel contents when required. An adjustable overow allows the volume of liquid inside the vessel to be varied with a maximum capacity of 2 litres and a minimum of 1 litre. The vessel can be operated batchwise by simply lling to the overow or with continuous feed of cold liquid to the base of the vessel, the excess liquid owing from the overow to drain.

Thermocouples are installed at the following six locations: Vessel contents (cold uid) Hot uid inlet to jacket Hot uid outlet from jacket Hot uid inlet to coil Hot uid outlet from coil Cold uid inlet to vessel Quick release hot and cold uid connections allow rapid connection to HT30X and conversion from heating jacket to heating coil. ORDERING SPECIFICATION Miniature jacketed vessel heat exchanger system for use with an Armeld Heat Exchanger Service unit Comprises processing vessel with outer jacket, inner coil, variable speed stirrer and bafe. K-Type thermocouples measure the vessel contents and the inlet and outlet temperature of both uid streams (6 in total). The Heat Exchanger is designed to be installed on the service unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction manual describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in combined radiation and convection (free and forced) and their analysis as well as assembly, installation and commissioning is included. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT30XC or HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.40m 0.18m 0.39m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.10m3 Gross Weight: 9kg


Specifications may change without notice. iss1/5k/0804/B&S.

Item 02-02-13

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND CALIBRATION

The Armfield Temperature Measurement and Calibration unit is designed to introduce students to temperature and how different techniques can be employed to measure this variable. The thermometric properties and characteristics of temperature measuring devices can be investigated and the devices calibrated using precisely generated fixed points and an accurate reference thermometer. INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES

Concepts of measurement and temperature scales Thermometric properties and characteristic behaviour of different sensors Structure of the International Temperature Scale (ITS90) Calibration and the use of fixed points Sources of error in measurement and calibration

KEY FEATURES

Thermometric properties (physical changes due to temperature) of different sensors are investigated Condensing vapour (using a hypsometer) provides an accurate fixed point for calibration Stirred hot water bath provides variable temperatures Reference PRT with NAMAS calibration supplied All electrical sensors can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available)

DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics: Concepts of measurement and calibration: Celsius (Fahrenheit) and absolute temperature scales conversion of arbitrary scale into engineering units - correlating equations zero error scale error non-linearity Properties and characteristic behaviour of different sensors: thermoelectric properties of platinum resistance thermometer (PRT), thermocouple and thermistor pressure thermometer (vapour pressure) expansion (liquid in glass) speed of response and the effect of a sheath Structure of the International Temperature Scale (ITS90): the reference PRT equation and the standard temperatures correction equations Calibration: boiling point/condensation point - use of saturation temperature tables establishment of accurate fixed points ice point or triple point primary calibration of a PRT using fixed points and ITS90 secondary calibration of a thermocouple or other sensor against a PRT at several water bath temperatures Sources of error: static and dynamic errors thermal linking and the effects of the sensor on the target temperature conduction error connecting lead effects self heating effects manufacturing tolerances signal conditioning display accuracy and resolution cold junction compensation (for thermocouples) Project work: calibration of alternative temperature sensors/thermometers properties of alternative temperature sensors ageing and drift DESCRIPTION A bench top unit designed to introduce students to temperature, temperature scales and commonly available devices to measure temperature. The equpment comprises a hypsometer/hot water bath and ice flask to generate accurate fixed points (the condensation point and triple point of water) and variable temperatures. Temperature sensors having different thermometric principles and characteristics are supplied. An accurate platinum resistance thermometer (PT100) with five point NAMAS calibration certificate and temperature indicated directly in OC, is included for reference.

The temperature of the condensing water vapour in the hypsometer can be determined accurately using steam tables (included in the teaching manual and educational software), provided that an accurate barometer (not supplied) is available. The water level is simply raised to change the hypsometer into a variable temperature water bath. The unit is designed for safe operation with insulation surrounding the vessel and a protected steam vent. A radiation shield surrounds the sensors to be calibrated to minimise measurement errors. A common carrier allows all sensors to be transferred simultaneously from ice flask to the hypsometer/water bath. All power supplies, signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained in an electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. All thermometric properties and temperatures measured are displayed on a digital meter with selector switch and all corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional interface device with educational software package (TH-304IFD). The following sensors/signal conditioning circuits are included: Accurate reference PRT with linearised output in OC Industrial PRT with a bridge circuit to measure the resistance in Ohms. Higher current can be passed through the sensor to show the effect of self-heating Type K thermocouple using a precision preamplifier to measure the

thermoelectric voltage with cold junction compensation or a second thermocouple in ice as required. Additional thermocouples allow errors due to response and conduction to be demonstrated. An additional conditioning circuit with user adjustable zero and span controls allows the output to be displayed as a direct reading thermometer calibrated in OC Thermistor with constant current through the sensor to measure the resistance in Ohms In addition to the thermoelectric sensors a liquid in glass and vapour pressure thermometer are also supplied.

Filler/vent Temperature sensors Stirrer Water level: heated bath Vapour pressure thermometer

Insulation

Level gauge Radiation shield

Heating element

TH1: Schematic diagram of hypsometer/heated water bath

Sensor output

Time
TH1: Response curves for different temperature sensors

ORDERING SPECIFICATION

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Barometer: (to determine absolute pressure) Stop clock: (when not using the optional interface device/educational software) DC calibrator/thermocouple simulator: (to demonstrate calibration of instrumentation) Resistance box/PRT simulator: (to demonstrate calibration of instrumentation/ lead errors) SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase electrical supply: TH1-A: 220v/1ph/50Hz @ 13A TH1-B: 120v/1ph/60Hz @ 20A TH1-G: 220v/1ph/60Hz @ 13A Fill with pure water: Hypsometer: 1 litre Water bath: 4 litres Source of ice shavings made from pure water OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.680m 0.700m 0.325m

q A bench top unit comprising a


hypsometer/hot water bath and ice flask which generate accurate fixed points and variable temperatures. An accurate platinum resistance thermometer (PT100) with five point NAMAS calibration certificate and temperature indicated directly in OC is included for reference.

q Other temperature sensors include:


Platinum resistance sensor, type K thermocouple, thermistor, vapour pressure and liquid in glass thermometers.

q The hypsometer is heated by a pair of 1kW


electric heating elements with variable power control and over-temperature protection. q The electrical console houses all the necessary electronics with appropriate protection devices and an RCD. A digital meter with selector switch displays all thermometric properties and temperatures measured. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using the Windows operating system, via an interface device.

q An optional interface device and


educational software package is available.

q A comprehensive instruction manual with


a range of fully detailed laboratory teaching exercises is included in the supply.

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION

Volume: Gross weight:

0.2m3 15kg

The TH range for the study of thermodynamics


TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas

Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S.

Item 02-02-14

SATURATION PRESSURE

TH3
issue 3

The Armfield Saturation Pressure Apparatus has been designed to introduce students to how the temperature of water behaves at its boiling point with variation in the absolute pressure. Saturation curves can be obtained by the student and compared with published steam tables. The quality of steam exiting the apparatus can be determined using a throttling calorimeter connected at the point of discharge.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES

Understanding saturation curves and the characteristics of a two phase fluid Understanding the origin and use of steam tables Using a throttling calorimeter to determine the quality of wet steam

KEY FEATURES

Measurement of the relationship between temperature and pressure of the saturated vapour in the loop Convenient control of heat input to the boiler using variable power control Sight glass in the boiler allows observation of the boiling patterns in the water Safe operation with pressure relief valve and permanent indication of system pressure Pressure and temperatures measured can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available)

DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES


Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics: Saturation Loop: observation of the patterns of boiling at the surface of the water measurement of the temperature of saturated steam over the range of pressures 0 to 7 bar gauge and comparison of the saturation curves obtained with those published in steam tables. the concept of a saturation line the describing equation and linearisation gauge and absolute pressures temperature scales the characteristic behaviour of a two phase fluid the effect of rate of response on the accuracy of measurement Throttling Calorimeter: determination of the condition of the wet steam (quality of the steam) produced by the Saturation Pressure Apparatus at different operating pressures. use of the steady flow energy equation the two property rule use of steam tables the difference in enthalpy between phases - enthalpy of vaporisation

DESCRIPTION
A bench top unit designed to introduce students to the characteristics of saturated water vapour. The apparatus consists of a rectangular pipe loop incorporating a cylindrical boiler in one vertical limb. Pure water in the boiler is heated to its boiling point using a pair of cartridge heaters with variable power control. A sight glass on the front of the boiler allows the internal processes to be observed, namely boiling patterns at the surface of the water, and also allows the water level in the boiler to be monitored. Saturated steam leaving the top of the boiler passes around the pipe loop before condensing and returning to the base of the boiler for re-heating. The operating range of the boiler and loop is 0 to 7 bar gauge. The top limb of the pipe loop incorporates a PRT temperature sensor and an electronic pressure sensor to measure the properties of the saturated steam. A filling point on the top limb allows the loop to be filled with pure water and allows all air to be vented safely before sealing the loop for pressurised measurements. A vapour offtake, with isolating valve, allows steam from within the loop to be passed through a throttling calorimeter, the purpose of which is to demonstrate how the dryness fraction of the saturated steam in the loop can be determined. The steam expands to atmospheric pressure as it is throttled and a second PRT temperature sensor measures the temperature of the steam following expansion. The apparatus is designed for safe operation with a pressure relief valve set to operate if the pressure rises above the working pressure and a Bourdon gauge that remains operational when power is disconnected from the electrical console. All power supplies, signal conditioning, circuitry etc are contained in an electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. Readings from the sensors are displayed on a common digital meter with selector switch and all corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional parallel interface/

educational software package (TH-304IFD).

Pressure relief valve

ORDERING SPECIFICATION

q A bench top unit comprising a boiler


T1 Filling point

Saturated vapour P Viewing port Boiler Throttling calorimeter

vessel and pipe loop with a pressure relief valve to limit the operating pressure to 8 bar gauge. A sight glass on the front of the boiler allows the boiling patterns to be observed and a Bourdon type gauge indicates the pressure in the apparatus at all times for safe operation.

q A throttling calorimeter mounted


T2

Heating elements

TH3: Schematic diagram of apparatus

adjacent to the pipe loop allows the condition of the saturated steam to be determined by measuring the temperature of the steam following throttling to atmospheric pressure. Temperatures in the pipe loop and inside the throttling calorimeter are measured using PRT sensors and pressure in the loop is measured using an electronic pressure sensor.

OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger

q An electrical console houses the


necessary electronics with current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. A digital meter with selector switch displays all sensor measurements. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC. An optional interface device and educational software package is available.

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Accurate barometer: (to determine the absolute pressure)

q The boiler is heated by a pair of 500 W


electric heating elements with variable power control and over-temperature protection.

q A comprehensive instruction manual is


included with a range of fully detailed laboratory teaching exercises.

SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply: TH3-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 10A TH3-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 15A TH3-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 10A Initial fill with pure water (3 litres) and replenish as consumed

OVERALL DIMENSIONS Saturation Loop/Throttling Calorimeter Height: 0.580m Width: 0.670m Depth: 0.290m Electrical Console Height: Width: Depth: 0.215m 0.225m 0.290m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.26m3 20kg

The TH range for the study of thermodynamics


TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas

Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S.

Item 02-02-15

RECYCLE LOOPS

TH4
issue 3

Recycle is a simple phenomenon which occurs in many aspects of everyday life but a concept that can lead to confusion in engineering applications when combined with other principles such as mass and energy balances and the use of the steady flow energy equation. The Armfield Recycle Loops apparatus has been designed to demonstrate clearly, both visually and experimentally, what recyle is and to allow mass and energy balances to be performed under steady state and unsteady state conditions. The application modelled is typical of a heating arrangement in the chemical, food or pharmaceutical industries whereby the temperature of a product is raised or lowered offline by recirculating some of the product through a heat exchanger. The practical training exercises are appropriate to heat transfer and thermodynamics courses and the training of technicians and engineers in those disciplines.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES

Understanding the meaning of recycle Steady state heat and mass balances Unsteady state responses to step changes in through flow rate, heat input to the loop or recycle rate The effect of residence time can be demonstrated by changing the volume of the loop

KEY FEATURES

The small scale of the loop ensures that responses can be fully evaluated in a normal laboratory session Water is used as the working fluid for safety and ease of use All electrical sensors can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available)

DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES


Teaching exercises are included to enable students to become familiar with the following topics: Understanding the meaning of recycle. Steady state mass balances: demonstrating that whatever the recycle rate, the inlet flow rate always equals the outlet flow rate Steady state heat balances: with the heater switched on and at fixed input water flow rate the outlet temperature is independent of the recycle rate with the heater switched on the temperature rise between inlet and outlet can be used to determine the combined heat input of the heater and pump at different input water flow rates Unsteady state heat balances: determining the response when the heater is switched on at different through flow rates determining the response when the heater is switched off at different through flow rates determining the effect of a step change in the input flow determining the effect of recycle with no through flow Use of the steady flow energy equation: for the overall system

for the mixing process

Effects on response rates to parameter changes: in heater power in through flow in recycle flow in loop volume Comparison of test results with simulations: using analytical methods

using finite difference simulations

DESCRIPTION A bench top unit designed to introduce students to the characteristics of a recyle loop and the typical responses under steady state and unsteady state conditions. The apparatus consists of a through pipe conveying water from a cold water supply to a suitable drain with a loop of pipework connected between the supply and drain connections. This recycle loop incorporates a circulating pump and a heater to raise the temperature of the water in the loop. The heater can be switched on or off to generate step changes when investigating the transient responses of the recycle loop. A pair of self-sealing fittings allows a short length of pipe or a reservoir to be connected in series with the recyle loop to change the volume of the loop and demonstrate the effect of residence time. The arrangement also allows different lengths of flexible tubing to be connected in series with the loop if it is required to create further changes in residence time. Water temperatures at the inlet, outlet and within the recycle loop are measured using type K thermocouples. Water flowrates at the corresponding locations are measured using miniature turbine type flow sensors. Flow sensors are included at

the outlet as well as the inlet to show that these two flow rates are always equal (a simple principle that is often confusing when water is flowing through the recycle loop). All power supplies, signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained inside the moulded ABS support and integral console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. Readings from the sensors are displayed on a digital meter with selector switch and all corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional interface device with educational software package (TH-304IFD).

OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES


TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger
Pressure regulator Cold water supply To drain

Water heater

Gear pump

T2 F1
w w

Additional volume

F2
v
w

F3

T1

T3

TH4: schematic diagram of the loop

30 25
Temperature

T2

20 15 10 5 0
Elapsed time

T3

T1

TH4: Typical response when the heater in the recycle loop is switched on

ORDERING SPECIFICATION

q A comprehensive instruction manual is


included with a range of fully detailed laboratory teaching exercises.

q A bench top unit comprising a vacuum


formed ABS plastic plinth with integral electrical console on to which is mounted a through pipe with a recycle loop which incorporates a circulating pump and heater.

SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply: TH4-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 13A TH4-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 20A TH4-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 13A Mains cold water supply 3 litres/min @ 2 bar gauge Drain connection for hot water at 3 litres/min maximum OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.400m 1.000m 0.500m

q A pressure regulator with filter at the


inlet to the apparatus minimises the effect of fluctuations in the cold water supply pressure. Water in the recycle loop is heated by a 2 kW electric heater with over-temperature protection. Flow in the loop can be varied from 0 (no recycle) to 3 litres/min. The through flow of water can be varied from 0 to 1.5 litres/min.

q Temperatures at the entry to the system,


at the exit from the system and inside the recycle loop are measured using type K thermocouples. Flow rates at corresponding locations are measured using turbine type flow sensors. A reservoir with self-sealing fittings allows the volume of the loop to be changed.

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.32m3 30kg

q All electrical circuits are protected by


appropriate protection devices.

q The console incorporates a digital meter


with selector switch, which displays the temperatures and flowrates measured. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC.

q An optional interface device and


educational software package is available.

The TH range for the study of thermodynamics


TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas

Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S.

Item 02-02-16

KEY FEATURES

DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of two floorstanding interconnected rigid vessels, one equipped for operation under pressure and the second under vacuum. An electrically operate air pump mounted on top of the vessels, together with valves and tappings allows the appropriate vessel to be pressurised or evacuated as required to suit the teaching exercise. The vessels can be used independently or together to allow different thermodynamic processes to be evaluated. A pressure sensor connected to each vessel and a temperature sensor inside each vessel allow the changes in the properties of the air contained within the vessels to be monitored continuously. Both vessels are constructed from clear rigid plastic which affords light insulation between the air inside the vessel and the surroundings to reduce heating/cooling but allows each vessel and its contents to return to ambient temperature reasonably quickly. The capacity of the pressurised vessel is approximately 23 litres. The capacity of the evacuated vessel is approximately 11 litres. Each vessel incorporates the following features:

interconnected vessels operating under pressure and under vacuum are supplied complete with electric air pump and appropriate instrumentation ready for use. this modern version of a classic experiment (attributed to Clment and Dsormes) allows pressure and temperature changes to be monitored continuously using a PC. (optional teaching software available) the vessels can be operated singly or in combination allowing processes whereby air flows from a pressurised vessel to atmosphere, from atmosphere to an evacuated vessel or from a pressurised vessel to an evacuated vessel.

DETAILED CAPABILITIES Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics:

the non-flow energy equation the behaviour of a perfect gas and its describing equations an adiabatic reversible process (isentropic expansion) a constant volume process an adiabatic irreversible process conversion of pressure units a constant internal energy process polytropic processes, with the limiting case of n = conversion of pressure units gauge and absolute pressures the unsteady-flow energy equation (in vacuum mode)

connection to the air pump via an isolating valve to allow the vessel to be pressurised/evacuated connection to a piezo-resistive sensor to measure the pressure/ vacuum inside the vessel (range of both sensors 34.5kN/m2 connection to a large bore pipe and valve to allow depressurisation/ pressurisation of the vessel to/from the atmosphere (the valve is rapidly opened and closed to provide a small step change in pressure) interconnection between the two vessels via a large bore pipe and valve (fast change) and small bore pipe and needle valve (gradual change).

fast response thermistor to monitor air temperature inside the vessel relief valve to prevent over-pressurisation

All power supplies, signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained in a simple electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. The console is designed to stand on a bench top above the pressure and vacuum vessels and incorporates electrical connections for the air pump and sensors.

Readings from the pressure sensors and thermistors are displayed on a common digital meter with selector switch on the front of the console. All signals are simultaneously connected to an I/O Port for connection to a PC with USB port using an optional interface device and educational software package (TH-304IFD) or a user supplied chart recorder as required. As the teaching exercises require the transient pressure and temperature responses to be observed and recorded one of these recording options is necessary.

qqqqqqqqqqqq

qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qq qq q q q vvvvvvvvvvv v v v vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv v v v

PRESSURE (kNm -2) TEMPERATURE ( 0C) (from thermistor resistance)

v v v v

Elapsed time
Response of the pressurised vessel following a brief depressurisation

qqqqqqqqqqqq

q q q qqqqq q q q q q q

qq q q q

q q qqqq q qqqqqq

qq q q

q q qqqqqqqqq qq q q q

PRESSURE (kNm -2)

Elapsed time
Response of the pressurised vessel following stepwise depressurisation

ORDERING SPECIFICATION q A small scale unit designed to introduce students to the properties of a perfect gas using air to demonstrate basic thermodynamic processes. q The hardware consists of two floorstanding interconnected rigid vessels, one equipped for operation under pressure and the second under vacuum. Appropriate valves and tappings are fitted to allow different thermodynamic processes to be evaluated. An electric air pump is supplied to allow pressurisation or evacuation of the vessels as required for the different exercises. Each vessel incorporates a fast response thermistor sensor to monitor the temperature of the air and connection to a piezo electric pressure sensor. q All power supplies, signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained in a simple electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. Readings from the pressure sensors and thermistors are displayed on a common digital meter with selector switch and corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional interface device/educational software package or a user supplied chart recorder as required.

q A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises is included. OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES
TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger

RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply:TH5-A: TH5-B: TH5-G: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 3 Amps 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 5 Amps 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 3 Amps

OVERALL DIMENSIONS Vessel Assembly: Height: Width: Depth: 800mm 460mm 280mm

Electrical Console: Height: 220mm Width: 220mm Depth: 300mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.34m 3 Gross Weight: 22kg

The TH range for the study of thermodynamics


TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas

Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S.

Items 02-02-17 thru 02-02-20

GASOLINE ENGINE

CM11
issue 1

The Armfield CM11 Gasoline Engine provides a self contained engine test rig which allows students to investigate a range of engine performance characteristics. The unit is designed to be linked to a computer, and is supplied with sophisticated educational data acquisition software. FEATURES Four cylinder automotive engine Eddy current dynamometer to vary engine load Plotting of characteristic torque and power curves against engine speed Full software control of system, including load and throttle settings Closed loop software control of brake loading to maintain constant engine speed during measurements Secondary water cooling by heat exchanger, with measurement of temperature change and flow rate Engine manufacturers diagnostic software, also displays ignition timing and injection characteristics Measurement of exhaust oxygen content by Lambda sensor Remote emergency stop, and facility for safety interlocks Optional operation on LPG as well as gasoline Optional mea surement of cylinder pressure, and plotting this on a p-v diagram Option to allow ignition and injection characteristics to be varied

DESCRIPTION CM11 is a self-contained integrated multi-cylinder engine, dynamometer and instrumentation system. It is based on a 1-litre 4-cylinder automotive engine as used in the Volkswagen Polo car. This engine is a modern design, with electronic engine management of ignition and fuel injection settings. An eddy current dynamometer provides a variable load on the engine, allowing the characteristic power and torque curves to be reproduced in the laboratory. The system comes complete with extensive instrumentation, including rpm measurement, torque (from which power can be calculated), plus various temperatures, pressures and flows (see Technical Specification). The whole system is designed to be linked to a computer using the software provided. This provides real time monitoring of the various sensors, with a wide range of data logging and graphical display options. The dynamometer and throttle can both be controlled electronically from the software, which makes installation into a closed test cell very straightforward, and allows for remote computer operation. A safety watchdog facility ensures the system shuts down safely in the event of computer failure or software lock-ups. The interfaces are compatible with packages such as LabView and MatLab for users who wish to provide their own control and monitoring software. A further advantage of the computer control is that stable rpm readings can be easily achieved using the closed loop control function on the dynamometer drive. A closed loop primary water-cooling system is incorporated, complete with a heat exchanger for connecting into a secondary cold water supply. Also included in the supply is the Volkswagen diagnostic software. This communicates to a PC, and gives the user direct access to view the current parameters used by the engine control unit (ECU), such as ignition timing, injector opening times, and many more. In particular the injector opening times can be used to calculate an accurate fuel consumption figure for the engine. The ECU also records any engine faults and these are accessible by this software. (Note if the CM11-14 option is specified, the engine manufacturers software is replaced by alternative software that does not include the diagnostic function). The ECU software can either be run on the same computer as is used for control and data logging, or can be run on a separate computer, according to user preference. TECHNICAL DATA Engine Data Engine model: Volkswagen AER Displacement: 999cc Bore: 67.1 mm Stroke: 70.6 mm Cylinders: 4 Nominal power: 37kW @ 5000 rpm (running on gasoline with the engine manufacturers ECU) Nominal torque: 86Nm @ 3400 rpm (running on gasoline with the engine manufacturers ECU) Dynamometer data Dynamometer type: Eddy current Cooling: Air cooled Max Power: 55kW for 20 minutes
CM11 - Software Mimic diagram

Instrumentation and Sensors Engine speed counter Load cell to measure torque Inlet air flow measured by orifice plate Inlet air temperature Secondary cooling water flow and temperatures (inlet and outlet) Lambda sensor Also the VW diagnostic software can be used to monitor a wide variety of internal engine functions, in particular the ignition timing and fuel injector opening times. The injection characteristics can be used to establish the gasoline consumption rate. OPTIONS

CM11 - Software graphical display

The CM11 can be ordered with a number of optional accessories. These must be ordered with the CM11. They cannot be fitted retrospectively. CM11-12 Engine Indicator Set The engine indicator set comprises a high temperature pressure sensor integrated into a spark plug. A separate charge amplifier provides signal conditioning to generate a voltage which can be logged on the computer. A special routine in the Armfield software allows for high speed data acquisition of this signal, and automatically plots the results on a p-v diagram. Note: The spark plug used in this arrangement is not identical to the other sparkplugs. This sensor is a high precision unit and is physically delicate. CM11-13 LPG Fuel System The LPG option includes the pipework, solenoid valves, injectors and an LPG control unit to allow the engine to be run on Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) as well as gasoline. The engine is started on gasoline, and when hot enough, can be switched to run under LPG by software request. The equipment is supplied with a flexible feed pipe terminating in a 6mm OD copper tube and a self sealing quick release connector suitable for fitting to the LPG bottles available in many countries. The user must supply a liquid offtake LPG bottle, and if necessary a suitable fitting to the feed pipe. CM11-14 Ignition and Injection Control (Cannot be fitted together with CM11-13) The CM11-14 option replaces the VW ECU with an aftermarket unit which allows the ignition timing and the fuel injection characteristics of the engine to be changed by the user. The students can produce their own characteristic maps and compare the engine performance with the manufacturers data. INSTALLATION AND SERVICES The CM11 should be installed in a well ventilated area with exhaust gas extraction facilities. The unit is supplied on wheels for ease of movement, these can be removed and the unit bolted to the floor for permanent installation. Apart from the master on/off switch, and the cooling water, everything can be controlled by computer, allowing the engine to be installed in a dedicated test cell, and operated from outside the cell. It is supplied with a 5 metre USB lead, giving a maximum distance between the unit and the controlling computer of approx 4m. The following services are required: Electricity: 220-240V, single phase, 10 Amp Cooling water: 6 L/min at 3 bar pressure, <200C

ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to one or two PCs (according to preference). One free USB port is required to run the Armfield data logging and control software, and one serial COM port is required to run the VW diagnostic software or the alternative ECU software as appropriate. The operating system requirements are Windows 98, 2000, ME or XP. ORDERING SPECIFICATION A four cylinder, 1.0 litre, water cooled, normally aspirated engine complete with all services and ancillaries required to run the engine in a laboratory environment. Variable load, eddy current dynamometer which acts as a brake, allowing direct measurement of engine torque. Supported on strong tubular steel framework via flexible mounts. Frame houses fuel tanks, battery, electrical enclosures, etc. Protected by guards around all moving parts, and around key hot surfaces. Safety interlock switches are incorporated to prevent operation with guards removed. Throttle and brake load can be controlled from a computer. Standard instrumentation includes sensors for: Engine speed Torque Air flow Cooling water temperature (inlet and outlet of heat exchanger) Cooling water flow Exhaust gas Lambda sensor Sensor variables are logged in real time on a customer supplied computer via a USB interface, using sophisticated educational software. The software includes full data logging and analysis functions, and incorporates detailed teaching material. Optional Engine Indicator set allows production of real time P-V diagram. Optional LPG System allows engine to run on LPG fuel. Optional Ignition and Injection Control system allows user to investigate the effects of alterations to fuel injection and ignition timing.

OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.50m 1.50m 1.00m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 3.00m3 Weight: 500kg

Specifications may change without notice. iss1/5k/0404/San.

Item 02-02-21

DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEM

The Armfield CM2 is a diesel fuelled, three cylinder, water cooled internal combustion engine system specifically developed for engineering education purposes. It is equipped with an eddy current dynamometer, can be linked to a computer, and is supplied with sophisticated, data logging educational software. While small enough to be easily accommodated in a teaching laboratory, it is a true multi-cylinder water cooled engine with a characteristic and representative performance. EDUCATIONAL CAPABILITIES Multiple Cylinder Engine Training System, generating characteristic torque, power and fuel consumption curves under different conditions Thermodynamic investigations of internal combustion engines, with an option to measure real time cylinder pressure FEATURES Computer linkable for data capture and analysis Water cooled three cylinder engine Variable load dynamometer Comprehensive instrumentation Easy to install, portable unit

DESCRIPTION

The system is based on a three cylinder water cooled engine, mounted on a painted steel frame. The engine assembly includes a radiator, fan and water pump for cooling purposes. An electric starter motor, battery and alternator are also included. The engine is loaded by the electrical dynamometer, which is mounted on the same frame as the engine and directly coupled to it. The dynamometer is capable of providing a completely variable load on the engine. The torque produced is measured by a load cell connected to the dynamometer. From the torque measurement and the engine speed the power produced by the engine can be calculated and displayed on a computer. An operator control box contains the controls required to start the engine and to enable and vary the load. The engine throttle is cable driven with a Vernier control located adjacent to the control box. The fuel tanks are installed under the frame with a diesel fuel tank. Also located under the frame are enclosures for the electrical and electronics systems. The complete engine and dynamometer are enclosed underneath a safety cover which protects the users, while still providing a view of the components. The cover is safety interlocked with the engine electrical system. The system includes a USB computer interface and software for displaying and logging the data on a Windows PC (computer not supplied). A comprehensive range of instrumentation is provided as standard including: engine speed, torque, cooling water flow, exhaust back pressure. Multiple thermocouples are provided to measure the temperature of the cooling water, inlet and exhaust manifolds, oil, engine block, etc. All the relevant sensor information is displayed on the computer screen in a mimic diagram format. The educational software supplied with the equipment provides a fully flexible data logging and graph plotting facility. It includes presentation screens describing how the software works, how to do the demonstrations and the theory required for the demonstrations. This is backed up by comprehensive and detailed Help facilities in all areas. The software includes facilities for the calibration of sensors. The package also includes a software driver to allow the equipment to be interfaced to software produced by the user, e.g. in Labview or C. SERVICES AND INSTALLATION The equipment should be installed in a well ventilated area. The engine exhaust may be connected to a duct pipe and vented external to the building. For exhaust ducts of greater than 6m (20ft),a fan assisted duct is recommended. (The engine incorporates an adjustable exhaust back pressure valve and sensor to allow variations in installations to be compensated for). The following services are required: CM2-A: 230V, 50Hz, single phase electricity supply CM2-G: 220V, 60Hz, single phase electricity supply

ENGINE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION No of Cylinders: 3 Bore x Stroke: 68mm x 64mm Displacement: 697cc Gross Power (nominal): 13.5kW (18.0HP) Gross Torque (nominal): 44Nm (32.5 ft.lbs) Electric Starter: 1.0kW Alternator: 40A OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES CM2-12: Engine Indicator Set for CM2. This option provides a real time electrical output related to cylinder pressure. NOTE: This option must be ordered at the same time as CM2. CM3: Exhaust Gas Analyser. A Lambda sensor is available to measure the oxygen content of the exhaust gasses. NOTE: This option must be ordered at the same time as CM2. ORDERING SPECIFICATION A water-cooled, three-cylinder, diesel-fuelled internal combustion engine, complete with all services and instrumentation to allow the engine to be evaluated in a laboratory environment. The unit includes a variable load dynamometer, which directly measures the power and torque produced by the engine. The engine, dynamometer, fuel tank, battery etc. are all mounted on a selfcontained steel frame of painted and welded construction. The frame is designed to be easily moved. The standard instrumentation package monitors: inlet air flow and temperature, exhaust back pressure and temperature, torque, rotational speed, cooling water inlet and outlet temperature and cooling water flow rate. The parameters are displayed in real time on a (customer supplied) personal computer. The software supplied includes extensive data logging, analysis and graph plotting facilities, plus full instructions on operating the equipment and performing the investigations. An optional engine indicator set allows cylinder pressure to be displayed in real time against crank position. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.5m 1.4m 0.8m

SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 3.5m3 Gross Weight: 350kg

ESSENTIAL ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to a PC running Windows 98 or Windows 2000 or XP with an unused USB port. RECOMMENDED ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT It is recommended that the user has access to a barometer for measuring air pressure. INSTRUMENTATION INCLUDED Inlet manifold temperatures (x3) Exhaust manifold temperatures (x3) Cooling water inlet temperature Cooling water outlet temperature Cooling water flow Oil pressure Oil temperature Measured torque - From which the power is calculated Engine speed - From which the power is calculated Fuel fuel flow rate Inlet manifold pressure for estimating the air flow Exhaust back pressure (not available for data logging) Real time cylinder pressure display (with CM2-12) CONTROLS Throttle: Cable controlled Exhaust back pressure valve: Manually controlled Brake load: On/Off controls at the control box. Braking load then controlled from computer NOTE: Two methods of brake load control are available via the computer, a manual control which applies a percentage of full load, and a closed loop control which varies the load in order to maintain a pre-set speed. In closed loop control the operator has full access to the PID control parameters.

Specifications may change without notice. prov/0404/AL.

Welding 02-04

XMT Series
Heavy Industrial Applications

Item 02-04-01

Issued June 2004 Index No. DC/18.8

Multiprocess Welding Power Source


Input Power Output Power Weight
304/350: Requires 3- or 1-Phase Power 456: Requires 3-Phase Power 304: 10 35 V, 5 400 A 350: 10 38 V, 5 425 A 456: 10 38 V, 5 600 A

Processes
MIG (GMAW)/Pulsed MIG (GMAW-P)* Stick (SMAW) TIG (GTAW)/Pulsed TIG (GTAW-P)* Flux Cored (FCAW) Air Carbon Arc Cutting and Gouging (CAC-A) *With optional controls only not available with XMT 350 VS model.

Quick Specs

Construction Shipbuilding Railroad Truck/Trailer Manufacturing Fabrication Repair Shops Rental Fleets

304: Net: 79.5 lb (36.1 kg) Ship: 88.6 lb (40.2 kg) 350: Net: 80 lb (36.3 kg) Ship: 89.1 lb (40.4 kg) 456: Net: 118 lb (53.5 kg) Ship: 129 lb (58.5 kg)

The Power of Blue .

XMT 304 CC/CV with Auto-Link

XMT 456 CC/CV with Manual Link

XMT 350 CC/CV with Wind Tunnel Technology protects electrical components and PC boards from contamination. Fan-On-Demand cooling system operates only when needed, reducing noise, energy use and the amount of contaminants pulled through machine. Lift-Arc allows TIG starting without the use of high-frequency. Starts the arc without contaminating the weld with tungsten. Adaptive Hot Start increases the output amperage at the start of a weld if necessary, eliminating electrode sticking. 115 VAC auxiliary power provides 10 amps of circuit-breaker-protected power for water circulators, etc. Standard on XMT 456, optional on XMT 304 and XMT 350 CC/CV models only.

Lightweight, aerospace-grade aluminum case offers protection with the benefit of reduced weight. Inverter arc control technology provides greater puddle control for superior 6010 Stick electrode performance.

NEW! XMT 350 provides more welding output with superior electrical efficiency and an amazing .95 power factor! See page 3 for details and additional features of the XMT 350. Please see: page 2 for additional XMT 304 features. page 4 for additional XMT 456 features.

Line voltage compensation keeps power constant even if power input varies by 10%. Process selector switch reduces the number of control setup combinations without reducing any features. Large, dual digital meters are easy to view and are presettable to ease setting weld output. Pulsed MIG capabilities with optional Optima control reduces spatter and distortion, allows better out-of-position puddle control, and provides potential reduction of fume particle emission.

Power source is warranted for 3 years, parts and labor. Original main power rectified parts are warranted for 5 years.

XMT 304 CC/CV Specifications

(Subject to change without notice.)


Amps Input at Rated Load Output, 60 Hz, 208 V 230 V 400 V 460 V 575 V KVA KW 33.7 30.5 17 18.9 15.2 12.2 11.6

Input Power ThreePhase SinglePhase

Rated Output at 60% Duty Cycle 300 A at 32 VDC 225 A at 29 VDC

Voltage Range in CV Mode 10 35 V

Amperage Range in CC Mode 5 400 A

Max. OpenCircuit Voltage 90 VDC

Dimensions H: 17 in (432 mm) W: 12-1/2 in (318 mm) D: 24 in (610 mm)

Weight 79.5 lb (36.1 kg)

10 35 V

5 400 A

90 VDC

52.4

47.4

24.5

11.3 7.6

Certified to both the Canadian and U.S. Standards for welding equipment.

XMT 304 CC/CV Control Panel

5 6

Additional Features
Auto-Link circuit automatically links the power source to primary voltage being applied (230/460 or 460/575 VAC, single- or three-phase). Ultra-tough, polycarbonate-blended cover for control panel protects front controls from damage. International-style weld disconnects provide high-quality weld cable connections. (Two connectors supplied with each unit.)

3 4

1. Voltmeter 2. Power On/Off Switch 3. Inductance/Dig Control 4. Process Selector Switch (Rotary Switch) 5. Ammeter 6. Voltage/Amperage Adjustment Control 7. Voltage/Amperage Control Switch

XMT 304 CC/CV Performance Data

DUTY CYCLE CHART


500 400
3-PHASE AND 460 VAC 1-PHASE OPERATION

CC VOLT/AMP CURVE
100 80
SMAW-MAX

CV VOLT/AMP CURVE
100 80 60 40 20
MAX

WELDING AMPERES

300

VOLTS

250 225 200 150

230 VAC 1-PHASE OPERATION

GTAW-MAX

40 20 0

GTAW-MIN SMAW-MIN 0% 25% 50% 75% 100%

VOLTS

60

MIN

100

0 400 500

10

15

20

25 30

40

50 60 70 80 90 100

100

200

300

100

200

300

400

500

DUTY CYCLE

AMPS

AMPS

60M Series
Processes
MIG (GMAW) and Pulsed MIG (GMAW-P) Welding Flux Cored (FCAW) Welding (Gas and Self-shielded)

Item 02-04-05

Index No. M/2.4 Issued Oct. 2000

Single and Dual, Programmable, Constant-Speed Wire Feeders


The 60M Series of semiautomatic wire feeders offers the ultimate in versatility and performance. Designed for pulse MIG and semiautomatic welding, all 60M models are equipped with eight synergic pulse programs. The dual models can perform the same process on both sides, or one can be used for conventional MIG, and the other used for pulsed MIG welding.

Applications
S-60M Model

Metal fabrication Heavy manufacturing Construction Light manufacturing

D-60M Model

Features
New! New!
SharpArc Technology Start/Crater Ramp

Benefits
An arc control that offers a simple way to tailor factory weld programs to accommodate a variety of welding applications. Allows the output power to be tapered from start to weld and from weld to crater. Flexible system with many standard features that can be customized for a variety of applications. Offers precise control and regulation of the welding arc not found in conventional systems. One simple and easy control for setting weld parameters. Easy-to-set and view all welding parameters and selectable features. Quick and easy selection of the right pulse program based on your wire and gas. Eight programs each for the Invision 456P and XMT 304. No setup card required for the Invision 456P or XMT 304. 16 programs are stored in the software. Just select either power source and do a system reset. Allows easy field modification of pulse programs to meet your specific application. You can select and adjust any parameter within the weld sequence preflow, run-in, weld time, crater, burnback and postflow, as required.

Microprocessor-based design Digital control User-friendly front panel Two back-lit liquid crystal displays 16 built-in synergic pulse programs

New!

Power source selectable

Teach mode for pulse programs Full-featured, adjustable weld sequence control

See page 2 for additional features and benefits.


Specifications (Subject to change without notice.)
Model S-60M (Single) Input Power 24 VAC 50/60 Hz Electrode Wire Diameter Capacity .0231/8 in (0.63.2 mm) Wire Speed 50780 IPM (1.319.8 m/min.) Peak Voltage Range* 099.9 V Peak Current Range* 100600 A Background Pulses per Current Range* Second* 0200 A 20400 PPS

Heavy Industrial
Pulse Width* 1.05.0 Milliseconds Dimensions

(Use with CC/CV Power Sources.)

Net Weight 58 lb (26 kg)

H: 14 in (356 mm) W: 14 in (356 mm) D: 26-1/2 in (673 mm) H: 14-3/4 in (375 mm) W: 18 in (457 mm) D: 32 in (813 mm)

D-60M (Dual)

82 lb (37 kg)

*Applies only when 60M feeders are used with the Invision 456 and Phoenix 456 power sources.

Additional Features
Programmable security system Dual schedule capabilities Arc time totalizer and cycle counter Electronic trigger hold control Gas purge and wire jog control Quick-change drive rolls Rotatable wire drive assembly Sealed ball bearing, all-gear driven system Posifeed wire drive system

Benefits
Consistent results are possible by programming limits to the range of parameter adjustments. Eliminates inadvertent changes of preset parameters. Allows two separate welding conditions to be programmed for one wire. Handy feature for conducting job studies and maintenance schedules. Allows the operator to make long extended welds without holding gun trigger. Purge gas line and feed wire without energizing system. Gear-driven drive rolls are easy to change. No tools required. Eliminates sharp bends in the gun cable, thus improving wire feed performance and extending the service life of the gun liner. (Bench models only.) Smooth, positive and accurate wire feed offers long, uninterrupted service life. Four drive roll provides excellent feeding of welding wire.

Control Panels
60M Series Side Panel 1. Mode Displays.
5

4 5 1

6 2 3

2. Mode Select Button. Provides choice of four modes: Process Mode. (Pulse, adaptive pulse, or MIG.) Also used to teach customized pulse programs. Sequence Mode. Allows variety of sequences in weld program. (Refer to Sequence Chart.) Dual Schedule Mode. Links two weld programs when two different welding conditions are required for one wire. Card Mode. Writes programs to optional Data Card or reads programs from the Data Card. 3. Parameter Select Button. Selects parameter to be changed. 4. Parameter Display 5. Parameter Increase Button 6. Parameter Decrease Button

7 3 4

60M Series Front Panel 1. Parameter Select. Controls the selection of voltage or arc length, wire feed speed, program number, and also SharpArc. 2. Purge Button. Purges gas line and gun without energizing feeder. 3. Gun Trigger Receptacle. Prewired for single- and dual-schedule operation. Receptacle will accommodate a variety of dual schedule switches. 4. Trigger Hold Button and Light. System remains energized when operator releases gun triggerideal when making extended welds. 5. Digital Display 6. Jog Button. Feeds wire without energizing the power source contactor and gas valve. (Independent control) 7. Display Control. Single-knob control for setting all adjustable, displayed parameters.
Sequence Preflow Run-in Start Weld* Crater Burnback Postflow Time 09.9 sec. not active during run-in 02.5 sec. 025 sec. 02.5 sec. 00.25 sec. 09.9 sec.

Sequence Chart
Wire Feed Speed not active during preflow adjustable adjustable adjustable adjustable not active during burnback not active during postflow Voltage or Trim not active during preflow not active during run-in adjustable adjustable adjustable adjustable (voltage only) not active during postflow

*Inductance is adjustable in the MIG process mode only when using the Invision or Phoenix 456 power source.

Description of Pulsed MIG Welding Process


When pulsed MIG welding, the power source rapidly switches the output from high peak current to low background current in precisely regulated intervals. The peak current pinches off a spray-transfer droplet while the low background current cools the arc with little or no metal transfer. With proper adjustment of the pulse parameters, the pulsed MIG welding process can produce high-quality welds when using a broad range of material types, thicknesses, and joint configurations. Requires use of a Miller inverter power source. Advantages of Pulsed MIG Process over MIG Spray Transfer and Short Arc Welding Can use larger, more economical wire diameters Reduces or eliminates spatter Lower heat input; therefore, reduced distortion Better out-of-position puddle control Optimum bead shape and penetration Potential reduction in fume particulate emission
Note: For additional pulsed MIG information, order Miller Electrics GMAW-P Pulsed Spray Transfer Process Guide (#168 336). A 4-volume video training package (#175 773) is also available.
Peak Amperage (Current)

Pulses Per Second

Amperage

Pulse Width (milliseconds)

What is Pulsed MIG Welding? Pulsed MIG Process Variables Pulsed MIG Equipment and Set-Up Pulsed MIG Operator Techniques

Time

Includes Pulsed Spray Transfer Process Guide (#168 336)


Background Amperage (Current)

Pulsed MIG Wave Form

60M Design Features


Can be used with a variety of Miller power sources : For pulsed MIG/conventional MIG welding use the 60M with the Invision 456, Phoenix 456 CC/CV, or the XMT 304 CC/CV inverter power source. For conventional MIG welding only, the 60M can also be used with the Deltaweld or Dimension Series power source.

Programming Features
Eight Synergic Pulsed MIG Programs factory-set for use with the XMT 304 welding power source: Mild steel wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (1) .030 in (0.8 mm) (2) .035 in (0.9 mm) (3) .045 in (1.1 mm) Stainless steel wire with Argon/Helium/CO2 shielding gas (4) .030 in (0.8 mm) (5) .035 in (0.9 mm) (6) .045 in (1.2 mm) Nickel alloy wire with Argon/Helium shielding gas (7) .035 in (0.9 mm) Metal core wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (8) .045 in (1.2 mm) Eight Synergic Pulsed MIG Programs factoryset for use with the Invision 456 welding power source: Mild steel wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (1) .035 in (0.9 mm) (2) .045 in (1.2 mm) (3) .052 in (1.3 mm) (4) .062 in (1.6 mm) Stainless steel wire with Argon/Helium/CO2 shielding gas (5) .035 in (0.9 mm) (6) .045 in (1.2 mm) Metal core wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (7) .045 in (1.2 mm) (8) .052 in (1.3 mm) On-Board Programming and Diagnostics: All factory-set synergic pulse programs can be modified to meet specific welding applications Feeder can be manually programmed for the voltage and/or amperage range of the power source being used Automatic shutdown if arc voltage is not detected when gun trigger is depressed Automatic shutdown if no wire feed speed is present when the gun trigger is pressed Drops out contactor and gas valve if arc is not sensed after 3 seconds Selectable Operating Features: Feeder will compensate for variations in tip-to-work distance and provide a constant arc length (in Adaptive Pulse mode) Arc voltage can be regulated at the power source output studs or at the welding gun Gun trigger can be used to make program selection Arc time counter accumulates and displays actual arc time (up to 9,999.99 hours) and weld cycles (up to 999,999 cycles). Counter can be reset to 0 (zero) as required. Ideal for job time studies, shift output, maintenance, etc. Security Capabilities: Feeder can be programmed to limit the range of parameter control, the number of programs available, and the selectable parameters that are available to the operator A three-digit code can be programmed to restrict unauthorized access to the set-up screen

ITEM 02-04-16

HF-251D-1 High-Frequency Arc Starter and Stabilizer Portable 115 Volt, 250 amp unit , 60% duty cycle unit adds high-frequency to the welding circuit to help start the arc when using the TIG process. (requires Secondary Contactor and RMLS-14 Switch).

ITEM 02-04-17

Item 02-04-22

HF-251 and HF-20


HF-20

Index No. AY/5.0 Issued June 1996

High-Frequency Arc Starters and Stabilizers


Increase the flexibility and performance of most AC, DC or AC/DC constant current welding machines with these portable high-frequency arc starters and stabilizers. The unit impresses high frequency on the welding circuit and provides the arc control needed for TIG welding. With the addition of an HF unit, your constant current power source can handle welds on aluminum, magnesium, thin stainless steel, brass, copper and a wide variety of both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. The HF unit expands the capability of existing equipment and offers the stamina to handle tough industrial usage. An excellent performer in general manufacturing, tool and die, repair shops and for all-purpose maintenance. Four versions meet most single-phase power configurations, and all are rated at 60% duty cycle. Start, off and continuous control Gas solenoid valve High frequency intensity control Built-in postflow eliminates contamination Protected secondary terminal Convenient, portable design 14-pin receptacle on front panel for remote controls

HF-251

HF-20 Features
The HF-20 is for use with welding power sources having 50 to 100 Volts OCV (open-circuit voltage).

Process
Gas Tungsten Arc (TIG) Welding

Description

HF-251 Features
The HF-251 is compatible with power sources made by other manufacturers.

Ordering Information
HF-251D-1 115 V 50/60/100 Hz HF-251-2 230 V 50/60 Hz HF-20-1WG 115 V 50/60 Hz HF-20-2WG 230 V 50/60 Hz #042 388 #042 387 #900 356 #900 359

250 A output at 60% duty cycle For use with power source with 14-socket receptacle (5-socket adapter available) Power on/off switch with pilot light

1000 A output at 60% duty cycle Power on/off switch AC/DC process selector switch High frequency intensity control Start selector switchin Touch position, gas flow, water flow and high frequency are initiated when the electrode makes contact with the workpiece. In High Frequency position, initiation takes place via a remote switch Adjustable time delaywhen the arc is broken, the gas, water and high frequency are shut off after an adjustable time delay. Gas and water valves RHS-11A remote hand switch with 20 ft (6 m) cord Lt. Industrial, Industrial
Dimensions H: 13 in (330 mm) W: 9-1/4 in (235 mm) D: 16 in (406 mm) H: 13 in (330 mm) W: 9-1/4 in (235 mm) D: 16 in (406 mm) H: 13-1/2 in (343 mm) W: 19-3/4 in (502 mm) D: 16-1/2 in (419 mm) H: 13-1/2 in (343 mm) W: 19-3/4 in (502 mm) D: 16-1/2 in (419 mm) Net Weight 34 lb (15 kg) 36 lb (16 kg) 92 lb (42 kg) 98 lb (44 kg)

Specifications
Model HF-251D-1

(Subject to change without notice.) Rated Output at 60% Duty Cycle 250 A

Input Volts 115 VAC, 50/60/100 Hz

HF-251-2

230 VAC, 50/60 Hz

250 A

HF-20-1WG

115 VAC, 50/60 Hz

1000 A

HF-20-2WG

230 VAC, 50/60 Hz

1000 A

HF-251 Control Panel


1

3 5 1. Pilot Light 2. Power Switch 3. High Frequency Switch 4. High Frequency Selector Switch 5. High Frequency Intensity Control

Options and Accessories


Remote Controls and Switches
Controls listed below are for use with Miller constant current power sources with solid-state output control. The controls are used when remote current control is desired. The HF-251 is equipped with a 14-pin plug on a 6 ft (1.8 m) cord for direct connection to new Miller CC power sources. An adapter cord will be required for older Miller equipment with 5-socket receptacles.

Adapter Cord #129 341 1 ft (305 mm) cord with 5-pin and 14-pin plugs for use between 5-socket receptacle power source and HF-251. Adapter Cord #041 947 1 ft (305 mm) cord with 14-pin plug and 5-socket receptacle for use between HF-251 and 5-pin remote controls.

RMLS-14 #129 337 Momentary- and maintained-contact rocker switch. 20 ft (6 m) cord with 14-pin plug. RCC-14 #151 086 Attachs to the TIG torch handle to provide contactor and current control. Includes 28 ft (8.5 m) cord and 14-pin plug prewired. RHC-14 #129 340 Miniature remote hand current and contactor control. Includes 20 ft (6 m) cord and 14-pin plug. RFC-14 #129 339 Remote foot current and contactor control. Includes 20 ft (6 m) cord and 14-pin plug. Extension Cords #122 973 25 ft (7.6 m) #122 974 50 ft (15 m) #122 975 75 ft (23 m) Extends HF-251 farther from power source or extends remote control farther from HF-251.

Water Coolant Systems


Watermate 1A

Secondary Contactor Kit For HF-251D-1 model #041 969 Field only For HF-251-2 model #041 906 Field only Mounts inside HF-251 cabinet. For use with a power source that does not have its own contactor.

Coolmate 3

Coolmate 4

Coolmate 3 #043 007 115 VAC Coolmate 3 #043 008 230 VAC Watermate 1A #042 495 115 VAC Coolmate 4 #042 288 115 VAC For use with water-cooled guns. Refer to Literature Index No. AY/7.2 for additional coolant system information.

Typical Connections
1 ft (305 mm) Adapter Cord (#129 341) Optional Extension Cords (See Options and Accessories for Lengths Available.) 6 ft (1.8 m) Cord Supplied with HF-251 (not installed) Remote TIG Torch Electrode Cable Work Cable To 115 Volt Supply (10 ft/3 m) Miller Power Source Remote TIG Torch Electrode Cable Work Cable To 115 Volt Supply (10 ft/3 m) Denotes Plug (Threaded Collar) Denotes Receptacle (External Threads) TIG Torch Electrode Cable

Miller Power Source with 5-Socket Receptacle

HF-251
Work Work Cable

HF-20

Optional Extension Cords (See Options and Accessories for Lengths Available.) Miller Power Source with 14-Socket Receptacle

6 ft (1.8 m) Cord Supplied with HF-251 (not installed)

Work

HF-251
Work

AC Input Power Cord

Remote

Gas In

Coolant In

HF-251

HF-20

Litho in USA

Item 04-02-25

Spectrum 1250

Index No. PC/11.0 Issued April 1999

Heavy Industrial Air Plasma Cutting and Gouging Systems

Processes
Air Plasma Cutting Air Plasma Gouging

Cutting Capability
MILD STEEL

(Thickness to scale.)

Sever Quality

Description

Rated

1-1/4 in (32 mm)* Rated Cutting Capacity 10 inches per minute (minimum speed at which an operator achieves a smooth, steady cut using a hand-held torch).

1-1/2 in (38 mm)* Maximum Quality Cutting Capacity Good-quality cut achieved at lower speeds.

1-3/4 in (44 mm)* Sever Cut Capacity Maximum cut achieved in ideal conditions.
*Using shielded consumables.

Features
Gouging and piercing ICE-100 Torch Postflow cooling circuit Millers True Blue Warranty

Benefits
The 1250 offers a long powerful gouging arc for those heavy duty metal displacement jobs plus piercing capabilities up to 1 in steel. Millers rugged ICE torches include an epoxy cup that outlives typical ceramic parts and is virtually unbreakable. Hand-held and machine-held torch models available. A postflow circuit cools the consumables and torch with postflow air after you release the trigger. This feature extends life of torch and consumables. No other manufacturer offers a better warranty than Miller. Power source is warranted for three years, parts and labor. Original rectifier parts have a five-year warranty and the ICE torches have a one-year parts and labor warranty.

Ordering Information
Spectrum 1250 with 100 Amp Torch Voltage 200/230/460 230/460/575 220/380/415 With 30 ft (9 m) Hand-Held Torch #903 450* #903 451* #903 452 With 50 ft (15 m) Hand-Held Torch #903 450-01-1* #903 451-01-1* #903 452-01-1** With 50 ft (15 m) Machine Torch #903 450-01-2* #903 451-01-2* #903 452-01-2

Specifications
Input Power 3-Phase, 200/230/460 V, 50/60 Hz 3-Phase, 230/460/575 V, 50/60 Hz 3-Phase, 220/380/415 V, 50/60 Hz

(Subject to change without notice.)


Max. OpenCircuit Voltage 270 VDC Amps Input at Rated Output, 50/60 Hz 200 V 220 V 230 V 380 V 415 V 460 V 575 V 85 77 74 74 45 41 37 37 30

Heavy Industrial
KVA/KW 30/16 Plasma Gas Flow/Pressure 7.0 CFM (170 L/min) at 70 PSI (442 kPa) Dimensions H: 38 in (965 mm) W: 22-1/2 in (571 mm) D: 20 in (508 mm) Net Weight 410 lb (185 kg) Ship Weight 470 lb (212 kg)

Rated Output 100 A at 120 VDC, 80% Duty Cycle

Control Panel
1. Pilot Arc Control Switch 2. Trigger Hold Switch 3. Trouble Lights 4. Ready Light 5. Set/Run Switch 6. Output Control 7. Power Switch 8. Pilot Light 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Cutting Performance
To determine the maximum rated cutting thickness, follow the dashed line from the 10 IPM (inches per minute) point on the cutting chart. The point at which this line intersects the cutting curve determines the maximum recommended production cutting thickness of the unit.
CUTOFF SPEED VS. MATERIAL THICKNESS MATERIAL: MILD STEEL
90 (2.3)

Cutting Speed, in/min (m/min)

SPECTRUM 1250

Note: The rating is based on 10 IPM because this is the minimum speed at which the operator achieves a smooth, steady cut when using a hand-held torch.

60 (1.5)

30 (0.8)

1/4

3/4

1-1/4

1-1/2

.25 (6.4) .75 (19.0) 1.25 (31.7) 1.5 (36.7) Plate Thickness, in (mm)

Additional Features
Drag shield

Benefits
The ICE torch includes a drag shield that attaches to the cup and holds the tip 1/8 in (3.2 mm) off of the workpiece. This permits the operator to drag the torch on the workpiece while cutting at full output, which increases operator comfort and makes template cutting easier. Spectrum units are easy to use because the control panels are easy to understand. Spectrums also include diagnostic lights to help troubleshoot for quick setup. The Spectrum Series has its regulator housed inside the power source to protect it from transportation damage. A standard air connection is also provided on the back panel for easy gas or air hookup. Order the optional running gear for in-shop portability. Allows operator to control cutting arc without triggering. Provides convenience and comfort by enabling operator to keep clear of extremely hot areas while gouging or cutting for long periods of time. The expanded metal mode allows operator to cut grates, chain link fence, and other perforated metals without retriggering the gun.

User-friendly control panel Built-in gas/air filter/regulator Portability Trigger hold switch Pilot arc switch

Replacement Torches

ICE-100M Machine-held Torch* #169 247 50 ft (15.2 m) ICE-100 Hand-held Torch #169 207 30 ft (9 m) #169 246 50 ft (15.2 m) ICE-70/100 Machine-held Torch* #174 572 75 ft (22.5 m)

*If hand-held torch is being replaced by machine-held, optional remote pendant control (#042 585) must be ordered.

Torch Consumables

Torch Consumable Kits


#169 235 For ICE-70 Includes four electrodes, four tips for shielded, two tips for non-shielded, one swirl ring, one retaining cup, one drag shield, one deflector, one gouging electrode, one gouging tip, one gouging shield, one O-ring, one wrench and silicone grease.

Shielded Hand/Machine-Held Cutting O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #169 217

Non-Shielded Cutting O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #169 217 Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #169 220 (70 A) #169 227 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223

Extended Cutting O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #173 816 Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #173 815 (70 A) #173 814 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223

Gouging O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #169 218 (70 A) #169 217 (100 A) Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #169 221 (70 A) #169 228 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223

Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #169 219 (70 A) #169 226 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223

#169 236 For ICE-100 Includes four electrodes, four tips for shielded, two tips for non-shielded, one swirl ring, one retaining cup, one drag shield, one deflector, one gouging tip, one O-ring, one wrench and silicone grease. #170 559 For ICE-70M #170 560 For ICE-100M Kits include five electrodes (70 and 100 amp), five tips for shielded, two swirl rings (70 and 100 amp), one retaining cup, two machine shields, one Oring, one wrench and silicone grease.

Shield Drag #169 224

Machine Shield #169 230

Deflector #169 225

Deflector #169 225

Deflector (100 A) #169 225

Gouge Shield (70 A) #170 995

Options and Accessories


Silicone Grease #169 231 Cable Covers #118 677 15 ft (4.5 m) torch #118 678 30 ft (9 m) torch Protect hose and cables. Feature nonconductive zipper and are easily removed if necessary. Replacement Filter Element #042 312 Carton of four filters for use with motor guard air filter #042 306. Running Gear #042 989 Includes two rubber tires, and two swivel casters. Pendant Control #042 585 For ICE-70M or ICE-100M torch. Provides remote start and stop control of the arc and remote amperage control. Extractor Dryer #171 517 Two-stage filter/dryer drains excess water out of air supply to extend consumable and torch life.

Circle Cutting Guide #173 404 Attaches to torch to cut even circles. Adjusts to over 18 in (457 mm) diameter. Standoff Guide #132 657 Attaches to torch cup while using non-shielded or extended electrode to create 1/8 in (3 mm) standoff.

Motor Guard Air Filter #042 306 This filter is equipped with a mounting bracket that allows installation on the top, side, or rear panel of most plasma cutters. The filter is equipped with a 1/4 in NPT port to match the fittings on most plasma systems; it has a rated airflow of over 45 SCFM.

Item 02-04-28

Dimension Series

Issued April 2003 Index No. DC/19.2

Multiprocess Welding Power Source


Input Power Rated Output
3-Phase Power on all models 302: 300 A at 32 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle 452/562: 450 A at 38 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle 652/812: 650 A at 44 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle 1000: 1000 A at 44 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle 1250: 900 A at 44 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle 302: 361 lb (164 kg) 452/562: 424 lb (192 kg) 652/812: 545 lb (247 kg) 1000/1250: 644 lb (292 kg)

Heavy Industrial Applications

Processes
MIG (GMAW) Stick (SMAW) TIG (GTAW) Flux Cored (FCAW) Air Carbon Arc (CAC-A) Cutting and Gouging Submerged Arc (SAW)

Quick Specs

Fabrication and Construction Heavy Manufacturing MRO Maintenance/Repair Pressure Tank/Vessel Fabrication Pipe Welding Shipbuilding Refineries and Foundries Railcar Manufacturing Earth-Moving Equipment Manufacturing

Weight

The Power of Blue .


DC multiprocess capability provides versatility and outstanding arc performance in CV (MIG) and CC (Stick, TIG). Internal digital voltage control (DVC) enables operator to preset weld voltage in the CV mode before striking an arc. Built-in arc control lets you get in tight without sticking the electrode. An electrode compensation circuit ensures consistent arc control performance regardless of the electrode size. Hot Start makes it easier to start difficult-to-start Stick electrodes such as E-6010 and E-7018. Line voltage compensation ensures consistent weld performance by keeping output power constant even if primary input power varies by 10%. Simple control panel features single range amperage/voltage adjustment. Provides easy, efficient operation. Digital voltmeter and ammeter are easy to read, even at 30 ft (9.2 m).

14-pin receptacle provides quick, direct connection to Miller 14-pin wire feeders and accessories. 115 V duplex receptacle provides 15 amps of auxiliary power. Remote on/off capabilities allow operator to turn power source on/off from a distance. Remote voltage control allows operator to change voltage from feeder. Power efficient for exceptional value and return on your investment. Fan-On-Demand operates only when needed reducing noise, power consumption, and the amount of airborne contaminants pulled through the machine. Enclosed circuit boards provide additional protection from contaminants resulting in longer service life. PC board protection prevents the wire feeder power or other stray voltages (less than 115 VAC) from harming the power source PC board. Power cord strain relief provided for your convenience at installation.

Dimension 452/562

Thermal overload protection light indicates power shutdown. Helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked.

Power source is warranted for 3 years, parts and labor. Original main power rectified parts are warranted for 5 years.

Dimension 652/812 Specifications

(Subject to change without notice.)

Rated Output 650 A at 44 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle

Amperage/Voltage Range 50815 A in CC mode 1065 V in CV mode

Max. OpenCircuit Voltage* 72 VDC

Amps Input at Rated Output, 50/60 Hz 230 V 380 V 400 V 440 V 460 V 520 V 575 V KVA KW 126 77 73 66 63 54 50.4 50 34.8

Dimensions H: 30 in (762 mm) including lift eye W: 23 in (585 mm) D: 38 in (966 mm) including strain relief

Net Weight 545 lb (247 kg)

*Open-circuit voltages in CV mode are factory set at values less than indicated for CC.

NRTL/C

Dimension 652 and 812 (without CE) certified by Canadian Standards Association to both Canadian and U.S. Standards. 50/60 Hz models with CE Specifications are manufactured according to the Standards IEC-974-1 and EN-60974-1.

Control Panel
4 1 5 6 7 8

2 3

1. Arc Force (DIG) Control 2. Remote Amperage/Voltage Control Switch 3. Output Switch (Contactor) 4. Process Selector Switch

5. Digital Meters 6. Amperage/Voltage Adjustment Control 7. High Temperature Shutdown Light 8. Power Switch with Indicator Light

Performance Data
DUTY CYCLE CHART
1000 800 RATED OUTPUT 80 70
MAX.

VOLT/AMP CURVE CV
80
GMAW FCAW

VOLT/AMP CURVE CC
70 60
SMAW

60

WELDING AMPS

DC VOLTS

600

40 30 20 10

MED.

DC VOLTS

50

50 40 30 20
SMAW ARC FORCE SMAW ARC FORCE

400

MIN.

10 0
MIN. MAX. MIN. MAX.

300 40

0 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

% DUTY CYCLE

DC AMPS

DC AMPS

Dimension 1000/1250 Specifications

(Subject to change without notice.)

Model 1000 A 1250 A

Rated Output 1000 A at 44 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle 900 A at 44 VDC, 100% Duty Cycle

Amperage/ Voltage Range 100 1250 A in CC mode 10 60 A in CV mode

Max. OpenCircuit Voltage* 66 VDC

Amps Input at Rated Output, 50/60 Hz 230 V 380 V 400 V 440 V 460 V 575 V KVA KW 180 111 105 96 90 72 73 53 5.8** 4.9** 4.7** 4.2** 2.9** 2.4** 3.2** 0.5** 101 96 87 5.2** 5.0** 4.5** 66.3 48.4 3.4** 0.56**

Dimensions H: 30 in (762 mm) including lift eye W: 23 in (585 mm) D: 38 in (966 mm) including strain relief

Net Weight 644 lb (292 kg)

*Open-circuit voltages in CV mode are factory set at values less than indicated for CC. **While idling.

NRTL/C

Dimension 1000 and 1250 (without CE) certified by Canadian Standards Association to both Canadian and U.S. Standards. 50/60 Hz models with CE Specifications are manufactured according to the Standards IEC-974-1 and EN-60974-1.

Control Panel
4
SMAW DIG

V VOLTS
CV
SUB-ARC

A AMPS

1
GTAW

600 500

700 800 900

CC

400

100

FCAW (For SUB-ARCwire 1/16" dia. or smaller)

CV

1000 300 1100 200

ARC FORCE

PROCESS
PANEL
100 MIN

2 3

5 6
HIGH TEMP SHUTDOWN

ON

V A

1200 MAX

7
ON

REMOTE

REMOTE

8
A/V ADJUST POWER
OFF

OUTPUT

CONTROL

1. Arc Force (DIG) Control 2. Remote Amperage/Voltage Control Switch 3. Output Switch (Contactor) 4. Process Selector Switch

5. Digital Meters 6. Amperage/Voltage Adjustment Control 7. High Temperature Shutdown Light 8. Power Switch with Indicator Light

Performance Data
DUTY CYCLE CHART
2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 80
DIMENSION 1000

VOLT/AMP CURVE CV
Dimension 1000-CV 190 973 70 MAX. 60 60

VOLT/AMP CURVE CC

70

MAX 50

WELDING AMPS

DIMENSION 1250

50

VOLTS

VOLTS

40 30 20 10 0

700 600

40 30 20 10 MIN.

MIN MAX DIG MAX DIG 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

% DUTY CYCLE

AMPS

AMPS

ARC & GAS WELDING TABLES


Continuous welded construction of heavy 11 gauge steel. Work surface height: 34 Grouted firebrick work surface includes grounding rails. 3/8 steel top is reinforced to prevent warping. All models include floor anchor pads. Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray.

Table Size (W X D) 30 X 25 50 X 25

Grouted Firebrick Part Number GT-2 GT-4

3/8 Steel Top Part Number GT-2.STL GT-4.STL

SMALL ARC WELDING TABLES


All welded construction of heavy 11 gauge steel with a one piece replaceable steel grate top. Overall height: 34 All models include a slag tray, floor anchor pads & 11 gauge support rails. Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray.
Item 02-04-32

Table Size (W X D) 30 X 24 36 X 24 48 X 24

Steel Grate Top Part Number GT-774 GT-776 GT-778

WALL MOUNTED ARC & GAS TABLES


Constructed of heavy 7 & 11 gauge steel with a one piece replaceable steel grate top. Tables can be bolted together at the sides to form a row. Add removable side shields for multiple table installation. Tables come standard with an arc spatter shield. Torch clips available* Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray.

Hose Guard

Table Size (W X D) 36 X 24 48 X 24

Part Number GT-673 GT-673.A

Shield Size (D X H) 25 X 24 25 X 24

Description Side shield Side shield with hose guard

Part Number GT-673.SS GT-674.SSHG

*For optional torch clips add the suffix .TC (Ex: GT-673.A.TC) 6

Item 02-04-33

WINDOW FRONT BOOTHS


Constructed of heavy gauge tubular steel with nonconducting, asbestos-free, fire resistant panels. Overall Height: 76 Available with steel reinforcement sheets inserted between the fire resistant panels.* A #10 shade observation window on front panel allows safe viewing from outside the booth. Booths come in either starter or add-on units. One starter unit per row. Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray. Booth Size (W X D) 48 X 48 48 X 60 60 X 60 60 X 72 72 X 72 Door Size (W) 32 32 26 26 39 Window Size (W X H) 12 X 24 12 X 24 30 X 24 30 X 24 30 X 24 Wall Mounted Part Number GB-74.S GB-74.A GB-724.02.S GB-724.02.A GB-725.02.S GB-725.02.A GB-7256.02.S GB-7256.02.A GB-7266.02.S GB-7266.02.A Free Standing Part Number GB-74.04.S GB-74.04.A GB-724.S GB-724.A GB-725.S GB-725.A GB-7256.S GB-7256.A GB-7266.S GB-7266.A

Type Starter Add-On Starter Add-On Starter Add-On Starter Add-On Starter Add-On

*For steel reinforced panels add the suffix .STL (Ex: GB-74.S.STL)

OPEN FRONT BOOTHS


Constructed of heavy gauge tubular steel with nonconductive, asbestos-free, fire resistant panels. Overall height: 76 Available with steel reinforcement sheets inserted between the fire resistant panels.* Booths come in either starter or add-on units. One starter unit per row. Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray. Booth Size (W X D) 48 X 48 Door Size (W) 43 Type Starter Add-On Free Standing Part Number GB-73.S GB-73.A Starter Add-On

*For steel reinforced panels add the suffix .STL (Ex: GB-73.S.STL)

DEMONSTRATION BOOTHS
Constructed of heavy gauge tubular steel with nonconductive, asbestos-free, fire resistant panels. Overall height: 76 Booths measure 60W x 60D with a 26W door opening. Observation windows on front & side allow safe viewing from outside the booth. Portable units include 3 swivel locking casters. Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray. 4

Wall Mounted GB-1075.02

Free Standing GB-1075

Portable GB-1075.C

ITEM 02-04-46

Type 400BT Electrode Oven


Digital electronic indicating temperature controls High temperature limit device (see specifications for models) High capacity centrifugal, recirculating blower with balanced airflow / heat inputs provide even heat throughout chamber (blowers are OSHA safe) Fresh air intake with adjustable exhaust Vertical airflow Spring loaded door latches, explosion-venting type Resilient door gaskets prevent heat loss Structurally reinforced 14, 16, & 18 gauge steel construction Aluminumized steel interior chamber Baked enamel, chemical-resistant exterior coating

Shipped Completely Assembled Following Thorough Factory Testing Including:


Air circulation adjustment Temperature control adjustment Operation at maximum temperature

Specifications
Electrode Capacity Temperature Range Chamber Size / Volume Shelves Exterior (Welded) Aluminumized Steel Chamber Heating Elements Insulation Voltage - Three Phase Only Wiring Manual Controls Recirculating System Centrifugal Blower Motor Exterior Dimensions Net Weight Shipping Weight Dimensions

Type 400BT (2-NM)


18" (45.7cm) max. - 400lbs (181 Kg) 100 to 800F (38 to 427C) 21.5" dia x 20" deep / 3.7 cu. ft. (54.6cm dia x 50.8cm deep / .104m3 7 metal compartments #16 gauge #18 Gauge 6.0 KW - sheathed elements 5" (12.7 cm) avg., thermafiber 3/60/240 or 3/60/480 Volt AC (convertible) Wired for 480V (factory) - convertible to 240V in field Digital Electronic Indicating Controller with High Temp Limit Device Calculated, 150 CFM (4.2 m3 / M) 1/2 H.P. 31."5 W x 43.5" D x 43" H (90.1 W x 110.5 D x 109.2 H cm) 430 lbs (195 Kg) 580 lbs (263 Kg) 43"W x 49"D x 51"H (109.2 W x 124.5 D x 129.5 H cm)

ARC WELDING CENTER


All welded construction of heavy 11 gauge steel with a 26 X 30 fire resistant non-asbestos fiber back shield. Overall size: 30W X 25D X 64H. Work surface height: 34 One piece, replaceable steel grate top measures 29W X 24D. Drawer measures 4H X 12W X 18D. A removable/adjustable curtain hanger holds 2 fire resistant, transparent, smoke gray curtains. Includes floor anchor pads & slag pan. Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray.

Part Number GT-9

FOUR STATION WELDING TABLE

Item 02-04-51

All welded construction of heavy 7 gauge steel. Work surface height: 34 Gas distribution tower meets safety regulations & includes two each: 1/2 ball valves and one way check valves on inlet. All models have a grouted firebrick work surface, four torch holders & floor anchor pads. Optional welding package includes four each: oxygen and acetylene regulators, hoses, welding torches, goggles, strikers, cutting tips, cutting attachment, #0, #2, & #4 welding tips. Optional drawers measure 3H X 12W X 16D* Available in Safety Green, Safety Blue & Steel Gray. Table Size (W X D) 50 X 50 60 X 60 Standard Table Part Number GOA-4 GOA-5

OPTIONS & ACCESSORIES

Table Size (W X D) 50 X 50 60 X 60

Table with Welding Package GOA-4.WP GOA-5.WP

Table with Regulators GOA-4.VR N/A

*For drawers add the suffix .D to any table (Ex: GOA-4.WPD) 8

Roughneck V Style ITEM 02-04-52


The Roughneck is a complete heavy duty outfit with all the necessary components for industrial and commercial applications including cutting, brazing, heating and welding. RV Series regulators incorporate a durable stainless steel diaphragm, an easily accessible seat assembly, and easy to read single scale brass cased 2-" gauges. Our CA780 Cutting Attachment with its unique one piece copper mixer sets the industry standard for all fuel gases 3 PSIG and above with the proper tip. The WH360 Welding Handle has O-ring sealed tube within a tube construction for long life and easy maintenance. Capacity: Cutting range, As Supplied: 3/4", With Optional Tips: 8" Capacity: Welding range, As Supplied: ", With Optional Tips: 3" Capacity: Heating range, As Supplied: 0/80 CFH acet., 118,000 BTU/HR With Optional Tips: 90/220 CFH acet. 324,000 BTU/HR. *Dual scale gauges and other regulator connections available upon request.

Torch Handle Instructions Included

Cutting Attachments

Cutting Tip

Weld/Braze Type 4 Sizes 1,3,5

Heating Tip

Oxygen* Regulator 5-125 PSIG

Acetylene* Regulator 2-15 PSIG

Twin Hose 25' - 1/4"

"B"

Lighter

Goggles