Anda di halaman 1dari 114

Overhaul Manual

di 2.2 and se 2.2


TK 8009-3-OM (Rev. 3, 05/01)

Copyright 2000 Thermo King Corp., Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A. Printed in U.S.A.

This manual is published for informational purposes only and the information so provided should not be considered as all-inclusive or covering all contingencies. If further information is required, Thermo King Corporation should be consulted. Sale of product shown in this manual is subject to Thermo Kings terms and conditions including, but not limited to, the Thermo King Limited Express Warranty. Such terms and conditions are available upon request. Thermo Kings warranty will not apply to any equipment which has been so repaired or altered outside the manufacturers plants as, in the manufacturers judgment, to effect its stability. No warranties, express or implied, including warranties of fitness for a particular purpose or merchantability, or warranties arising from course of dealing or usage of trade, are made regarding the information, recommendations, and descriptions contained herein. Manufacturer is not responsible and will not be held liable in contract or in tort (including negligence) for any special, indirect or consequential damages, including injury or damage caused to vehicles, contents or persons, by reason of the installation of any Thermo King product or its mechanical failure.

APA06

Thermo King di 2.2 Diesel Engine This manual covers the overhaul, repair and maintenance procedures for Thermo King di and se 2.2 diesel engines. Design changes and improvements have been made to the di and se 2.2 engines over the years in a continuing effort by Thermo King to provide the latest in diesel engine technology. Before beginning any service to your engine, please review the engine chart on page 108 to determine which version di or se 2.2 engine you have. Doing so will help assist the mechanic with determining special service procedures and interchangeability of components between the various engines. Although the di 2.2 and se 2.2 engines are different versions of the same engine, the following components are not interchangeable: Injection pump, gear case cover, gear case backing plate, oil base, transfer pump, flywheel housing, intake and exhaust manifolds, oil filter and housing, crankcase breather, water pump, thermostat housing and timing gears. Refer to the Parts Interchange Section located in the rear of the manual. All Thermo King 2.2 diesel engines are four cylinder, four stroke, water cooled engines that use a direct injection fuel system. The engines are configured so that all maintenance can be performed from one side of the engine. This heavy duty engine is designed with five main bearings on the crankshaft. Its rugged construction, when combined with a routine preventive maintenance program, will provide many hours of satisfactory service. Eventually, even the best designed engines require an overhaul. This manual provides the proper procedures to restore the engine to a rebuilt condition. A properly rebuilt engine will provide thousands of further hours of satisfactory service. The specifications section lists the sizes and tolerances used in the original assembly of the engine. All tables for oversize and wear limits for particular components are found in the sections dealing with these specific components.

Thermo King se 2.2 Diesel Engine

Table of Contents

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Torque Values for di 2.2 & se 2.2 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Engine Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Inspection and Reconditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Cylinder Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Crankshaft Wear Ring (radial seal only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Timing Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Transfer Pump Cam Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Cylinder Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Valve Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Cylinder Head Valve Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Valve Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Rocker Arm Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Push Rods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Lifters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Pistons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Wrist Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Connecting Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Oil Filter Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Oil Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Water Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Engine Breathing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Engine Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Assembly Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Cam Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Crankshaft Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Rear Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Rear Crankshaft Seals and Seal Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Front Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Idler Gear Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Flywheel Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Pistons and Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Connecting Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Oil Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Cylinder Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Valve Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Oil Filter Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Bellhousing / Oil Pan Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Injection Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

Table of Contentscontinued

Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bleeding the Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hand Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer Pump Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation and Timing of Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Reduction Starter (Hitachi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starter Disassembly and Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glow Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 67 67 70 70 71 75 79 81 82 85 85 88 96

Run In Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Engine Run In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Bleeding Air from the Coolant System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Dynamometer Run In Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Valve Clearance Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Testing Engine Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Parts Interchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Mounting Flange Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flywheel Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil Filter and Oil Filter Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crankcase Breather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermostat Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intake and Exhaust Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 103 103 104 104 104 105 105 106 107 107 107

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications

The following specifications are given for a standard engine. Except where noted, the specifications for both engines are the same. For oversize tables or allowable wear limits, refer to the appropriate section in the text. General Type Number of Cylinders Cylinder Arrangement Bore Stroke Displacement Horsepower Fuel Injection Timing Refer to engine chart on page 108 to determine correct timing. Valve lash: Intake (cold) Exhaust (cold) Firing order Compression ratio Compression pressure High speed (transport units)* Low speed (transport units)* Oil pressure (hot) Nozzle injection pressure Oil base capacity Engine serial number Engine rotation Valve Spring and Guide Valve Spring: Free Length Inclination Set length Tension at set length Valve Guide Inside Diameter: Intake Exhaust Valve Stem Outside Diameter: Intake Exhaust

Four Stroke, Four Cycle, Water Cooled 4 In-line Vertical, Number 1 at pulley end 3.465 in. (88 mm nominal) 3.622 in. (92 mm nominal) 136.6 cu in. (2238.5 cm3) 34.8 @ 2200 rpm 0.02 in. (0.5 mm) @ 14 BTDC (timed on No. 1 cylinder) 0.02 in. (0.5 mm) @ 6 BTDC (timed on No. 1 cylinder) 0.016 in. (0.40 mm) 0.016 in. (0.40 mm) 1-3-4-2 20:1 More than 427 psi (2942 kPa) @ 250 rpm 2200 rpm (Varies with unit. Check specific unit manual) 1300 to 1350 rpm (Varies with unit. Check specific unit manual) More than 43 psi (294 kPa) @ 1400 rpm More than 64 psi (441 kPa) @ 2200 rpm 2633 to 2704 psi (18142 to 18632 kPa) 16 qts (15.2 liters) Stamped on cylinder block just above oil filter Clockwise (viewed from pulley end)

1.81 in. (46 mm) 0.118 in. (3.0 mm) 1.52 in. (38.6 mm) 43.4 lb (19.7 kg) 0.3150 to 0.3156 in. (8.001 to 8.017 mm) 0.3150 to 0.3156 in. (8.001 to 8.017 mm) 0.3128 to 0.3141 in. (7.946 to 7.978 mm) 0.3119 to 0.3131 in. (7.921 to 7.953 mm)

* Consult the applicable service manual for correct speed settings.

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications (Rev. 05/01)

Valve Spring and Guide (continued) Valve Stem Clearance: Intake 0.0015 to 0.0028 in. (0.039 to 0.071 mm) Exhaust 0.0025 to 0.0034 in. (0.064 to 0.086 mm) Valve Guide set depth (from valve spring seat): Intake 0.475 in. (12.07 mm) Exhaust 0.475 in. (12.07 mm) Valve Depth Intake 0.011 negative to 0.007 in. positive (0.275 to 0.175 mm) Exhaust 0.011 negative to 0.007 in. positive (0.275 to 0.175 mm) Valve Seat angle 45 degrees Valve Face angle 45 degrees Valve Seat contact width: Intake 0.054 to 0.069 in. (1.38 to 1.76 mm) Exhaust 0.048 to 0.063 in. (1.22 to 1.60 mm) Valve margin 0.051 in. (1.3 mm) Valve Train Lifter diameter Lifter clearance to block Push rod length Rocker arm bore Rocker arm shaft diameter Rocker arm to shaft clearance Camshaft Lobe height: Intake Exhaust Cam lift: Intake Exhaust Cam bearing bore Journal diameters Clearance to bearing End play (set by thrust plate) Piston, Piston Rings Piston, type: Diameter Grade A

0.5108 in. (12.97 mm) 0.0004 to 0.0016 in. (0.01 to 0.4 mm) 8.150 in. (207 mm) 0.7484 to 0.7500 in. (19.01 to 19.05 mm) 0.7476 to 0.7480 in. (18.99 to 19.00 mm) 0.0004 to 0.0024 in. (0.01 to 0.06 mm)

1.5913 in. (40.42 mm) 1.5984 in. (40.60 mm) 0.245 in. (6.22 mm) 0.252 in. (6.40 mm) 1.9682 to 1.9710 in.(49.99 to 50.06 mm) 1.9670 to 1.9675 in. (49.96 to 49.97 mm) 0.0010 to 0.0034 in. (0.025 to 0.085 mm) 0.002 to 0.004 in. (0.05 to 0.11 mm)

Cam ground-full float pin 3.4633 to 3.4640 in. (87.967 to 87.986 mm)

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications (Rev. 05/01)

Piston, Piston Rings (continued) Grade B 3.4637 to 3.4644 in. (87.977 to 87.996 mm) Grade C 3.4641 to 3.4648 in. (87.987 to 88.006 mm) Grade D 3.4644 to 3.4652 in. (87.997 to 88.016 mm) Clearance to cylinder wall 0.0020 to 0.0025 in. (0.051 to 0.064 mm) Wrist pin bore 1.2206 to 1.2209 in. (31.002 to 31.010 mm) Projection above block 0.022 to 0.040 in. (0.572 to 1.018 mm) Piston rings Ring to groove clearance (top side): No. 1 compression 0.0017 to 0.0037 in. (0.043 to 0.094 mm) No. 2 compression 0.0017 to 0.0037 in. (0.043 to 0.094 mm) No. 3 compression 0.0017 to 0.0037 in. (0.043 to 0.094 mm) No. 4 oil control 0.0019 to 0.0037 in. (0.048 to 0.094 mm) Ring end gap: No.1 0.004 to 0.014 in. (0.10 to 0.35 mm) No. 2 0.008 to 0.014 in. (0.20 to 0.35 mm) No. 3 0.006 to 0.012 in. (0.15 to 0.30 mm) No. 4 0.004 to 0.014 in. (0.10 to 0.35 mm) Piston Wrist Pin: Length 2.795 in. (71 mm) Outside diameter 1.2205 in. (31 mm) Inside diameter 0.709 in. (18 mm) Clearance to rod bushing 0.0004 to 0.0008 in. (0.01 to 0.02 mm) Connecting Rods Large-end bore 2.205 in. (56 mm) Allowable twist per 4 in. (100 mm) Less than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) Allowable parallelism per 4 in.(100mm)Less than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) Side clearance to journal 0.007 to 0.011 in. (0.175 to 0.290 mm) Width 1.30 in. (33 mm) Crankshaft Main bearing I.D. Main bearing journal diameter Main bearing clearance Rod bearing I.D. Rod bearing journal diameter Rod bearing clearance Rear seal surface diameter Crankshaft end play

2.3608 in. to 2.3622 (59.96 to 60.00 mm) 2.3589 to 2.3595 in. (59.917 to 59.932 mm) 0.0013 to 0.0033 in. (0.035 to 0.083 mm) 2.0859 to 2.0849 (52.98 to 52.96 mm) 2.0832 to 2.0838 in. (52.915 to 52.930 mm) 0.0011 to 0.0027 in. (0.029 to 0.069 mm) 3.937 in. (100 mm) 0.002 to 0.008 in. (0.05 to 0.20 mm)

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications (Rev. 05/01)

Cylinder Block Main bearing bore Lifter bore Cylinder wall finish

2.5197 in. (64 mm) 0.5110 to 0.5125 in. (12.98 to 13.018 mm) 16 micro-inch

Timing Gears (varies with engine model) Gear width: Crank gear 1.024 in. (26 mm) Idler gear, camshaft 1.535 in. (39 mm) Idler gear, injection pump 0.669 in. (17 mm) Injection pump gear 0.669 in. (17 mm) Camshaft gear 1.024 in. (26 mm) Idler gear, crankshaft: Bushing inside diameter 1.7717 to 1.7728 in. (45.000 to 45.030 mm) Support diameter 1.7695 to 1.7707 in. (44.945 to 44.975 mm) Bushing to support clearance 0.0010 to 0.0033 in. (0.025 to 0.085 mm) Timing gear backlash: Crank gear to camshaft idler gear 0.0023 to 0.0035 in. (0.058 to 0.090 mm) Camshaft idler gear to injection 0.0004 to 0.0075 in. (0.010 to 0.189 mm) pump idler gear Injection pump idler gear to 0.0012 to 0.0041 in. (0.030 to 0.105 mm) injection pump gear Camshaft idler gear to camshaft 0.0024 to 0.0035 in. (0.061 to 0.089 mm) gear Cylinder Head Height Valve seat material Valve seat insert bore (intake) Valve seat insert bore (exhaust) Valve seat outside diameter: Intake Exhaust Bore for valve guides Valve guide O.D. Lubrication System Oil pump Type Delivery volume Relief Valve set at Oil filter bypass valve set at

3.62 in. (92 mm) Martensitic heat resisting steel 1.5748 to 1.5760 in. (40 to 40.03 mm) 1.3386 to 1.3398 in. (34 to 34.03 mm) 1.5791 to 1.5799 in. (40.11 to 40.13 mm) 1.3429 to 1.3437 in. (34.11 to 34.13 mm) 0.5512 to 0.5520 in. (14.000 to 14.021 mm) 0.5522 to 0.5528 in. (14.026 to 14.040 mm)

Gear pump 4.15 gal/min. (15.7 liters) @ 1,000 pump rpm 40 to 65 psi (275 to 448 kPa) 11 to 17 psi (78 to 118 kPa)

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications (Rev. 05/01)

Gear to body clearance Gear to cover clearance Oil type Oil change interval Oil filter full flow: Large capacity Standard capacity Dual element Fuel System Nozzle type Injection Pressure Tightening torque Injection lines, O.D. Injection lines, I.D. Injection timed at: First Generation engines Second Generation engines Third Generation engines Transfer pump lobe lift Injection pump rotation Electrical System Glow plug type Thread size Rated voltage Rated current Resistance Starter motor (Hitachi): Voltage Rotation (viewed from pinion end) Clutch Method of engagement Pull-in current of solenoid Hold-in current of solenoid Brush tension No Load: Voltage Current RPM Loaded:

0.0020 to 0.0032 in (0.050 to 0.082 mm) 0.0020 to 0.0045 in. (0.050 to 0.114 mm) CD or CG-4 grade 20, 30, 40, 50, 20W or 10W30 Consult applicable service manual for oil change interval Thermo King P/N 11-9100 Thermo King P/N 11-9099 Thermo King P/N 11-7382

NP-DLLA154P 2633 to 2704 psi (18142 to 18632 kPa) 27.5 ft-lb (37 N.m) 0.236 in. (6 mm) 0.055 in. (1.4 mm) 14 BTDC 0.020 in. (0.5 mm) 14 BTDC 0.020 in. (0.5 mm) 6 BTDC 0.020 in. (0.5 mm) 0.197 in. (5.0 mm) Counterclockwise (viewed from gear end)

Sheathed 12 mm x 1.25 mm 11 volts 7.1 amperes 1.55 ohms 12 V dc Clockwise Over-running clutch Magnetically-engaged sliding pinion 57 amps 20 amps 716 oz (3.2 kg) 11 volts Less than 140 amperes More than 3,900 rpm

di 2.2 & se 2.2 Diesel Engine Specifications (Rev. 05/01)

Voltage Current Torque Horsepower RPM Locked rotor

8.76 volts 300 amperes More than 6.1 ft-lb (8.3 N.m) 1.8 hp (1.3 kw) 1500 rpm 3V at less than 880 amps with more than 18.8 ft-lb (25.5 N.m) of torque

Torque Values for di 2.2 & se 2.2 Engines

Torque Part No. Bellhousing Reamer Bolt Bellhousing to Block Mtg Bolt Bellhousing to Block Mtg Bolt Bellhousing to Block Mtg Bolt Bellhousing to Oil Pan Mtg Bolt Camshaft Gear Mtg Camshaft Idler Gear Hollow Bolt Camshaft Idler Gear Mtg Bolt Camshaft Rear Bearing Cover Bolt Camshaft Thrust Plate Mtg Bolt Connecting Rod Bolt Crankcase Breather Assy Bolt Crankcase Breather Assy Bolt Crankcase Breather Assy Bolt Crankcase Breather Assy Nut Crankcase Breather Assy Stud Crankcase Bolt (front) Cylinder Head Mtg Bolt Exhaust Manifold Flange Mtg Bolt Exhaust Manifold Mtg Bolt Exhaust Manifold Mtg Studs Exhaust Manifold Mtg Studs Flywheel Housing Reamer Nut Flywheel Rear Plate to Block Bolt Flywheel Rear Plate to Block Bolt Flywheel Mtg Bolt Front Plate Mtg Bolt Fuel Leak Off Line Glow Plug (base thread) Injection line Injection Nozzle Retaining Nut Injection Nozzle Retaining Stud Injection Pump Bleeder Screw Injection Pump Fuel Feed Hollow Screw 55-2443 55-2435 55-5467 55-5513 55-5512 55-5468 55-5466 55-5490 55-5451 55-0139 55-5507 55-5454 55-5454 55-5465 555464 55-5465 55-4513 55-5456 55-2467 44-6601 11-589 55-2430 55-5452 55-2024 55-2034 55-5463 55-5476 55-5478 55-5477 55-5429 55-3454 55-5499 55-5559 Dia. mm (in.) 10 10 8 10 12 12 8 8 8 8 11 10 10 10 8 8 16 11 (5/16) 8 8 8 10 10 8 14 8 8 12 12 10 10 6 14 Pitch mm (tpi) 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.75 1.5 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.5 (18) 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.25 1.25 1.0 1.5 75 10 29 40 35 35 20 18 28 40 122 (1.00) 30 40 60 Length mm (in.) 70 55 55 135 40 47 23 70 20 16 56 25 30 28 N.m 41 41 19 41 76 110 19 19 19 19 84 41 41 41 19 19 218 85 19 19 19 19 41 41 19 117 19 15 22 30 37 37 5 28 ft-lbs. 30 30 14 30 56 74 14 14 14 14 62 30 30 30 14 14 161 63 14 14 14 14 30 30 14 86 14 11 16 22 27 27 4 21

Torque Values for di 2.2 & se 2.2 Engines (Rev. 05/01)

Torque Part No. Injection Pump Idler Gear Mtg Bolt Injection Pump Mtg Bolt, brkt to brkt Injection Pump Mtg Bolt, brkt to block Intake Manifold Mtg Bolt Intake Manifold Mtg Studs Intake Manifold Nut Main Bearing Bolt Oil Fill Tube Mtg Bolt Oil Filter Assy Mtg Bolt Oil Filter Assy Mtg Bolt Oil Pan Mtg Bolt Oil Pan Mtg Bolt Oil Pipe Clip Bolt Oil Pump Mtg Bolt Rocker Arm Baffle Access Panel Screw Rocker Arm Cover Cap Nut (special) Rocker Arm Cover Mtg Bolt Starter Bolt Starter Bolt Nut Thermostat Adapter Mtg Bolt Timing Gear Cover Mtg Bolt Timing Gear Cover Mtg Bolt Timing Gear Cover Mtg Bolt Timing Gear Cover Mtg Bolt Timing Gear Cover Mtg Stud Transfer Pump Mtg Bolt Transfer Pump Mtg Bolt Nut Water Pump Mtg Bolt Water Pump Mtg Nut 55-5470 55-5468 55-5491 55-5521 55-5523 55-5506 55-5453 55-5468 55-2411 55-3531 55-5417 55-5498 55-5485 55-5486 55-2462 55-5488 55-5457 55-5458 55-5495 55-5515 55-5516 55-5455 55-5473 55-5471 55-5470 55-5472 55-5453 Dia. mm (in.) 12 8 8 8 8 8 12 6 10 10 8 8 8 8 4 8 10 12 12 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 8 8 Pitch mm (tpi) 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.0 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 .7 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.0 1.0 1.25 1.25 30 18 60 45 30 75 40 18 65 65 80 45 25 40 12 30 10 25 32 1 in. 97 Length mm (in.) 67 N.m 103 19 19 19 19 22 170 11 41 41 19 19 19 19 2 12 54 61 61 19 19 19 19 19 19 8 8 19 19 ft-lbs. 76 14 14 14 14 16 125 8 30 30 14 14 14 14 1.5 9 40 45 45 14 14 14 14 14 14 6 6 14 14

Engine Disassembly

NOTE: Before disassembling the engine, drain the engine oil and coolant, disconnect the battery cables, and remove the engine from the unit. 1. 2. 3. Remove the starter. Remove the fuel injection nozzle-to-pump return lines. Remove the fuel injection lines. Cover all injection lines and fuel lines with plastic covers or tape. The smallest amount of dirt can damage the fuel system. Remove the intake manifold assembly, but leave the mounting studs in. Remove the glow plug bus bar. Remove the glow plugs using a deep well socket. Remove the exhaust manifold (and the exhaust restriction on early engines that are so equipped). Remove the exhaust manifold heat shield. Remove the crankcase breather assembly NOTE: The retainer cannot be removed without also removing the nozzle. If the nozzle is stuck in the cylinder head and does not come out, continued prying could damage the threads. If the nozzle is stuck, make a special tool from an old injection line box nut. Use the special tool to remove the nozzle. 1 2 1. Retainer 2. Special Tool 1 2

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Removing Injection Nozzles

10. Remove the fuel injection nozzle return lines (short lengths of black hose). 11. Remove the injection nozzles. Remove the retainer nut and special washer. Then using a pry bar, carefully pry up on the retainer. The nozzle and the retainer should come out together. Follow the instructions in the note below for handling the copper sealing washer. NOTE: Unlike the C201 nozzles, the di and se 2.2 nozzles have only one sealing washer. It is a heavy, thick, tapered copper washer (tapered side down). Replace the washer each time the nozzle is removed. If the copper washer does not come off easily, slowly warm it to ease removal.

1. Brazed Stop Nut 3. Straightened Injection Line 2. Sliding Weight 4. Box Nut

Special Tool for Stuck Nozzles

Engine Disassembly (Rev. 5/01)

12. Remove the rocker arm cover by removing the three cap nuts. Inspect the rubber washers under the cap nuts and replace if necessary during assembly. 13. Remove the rocker arm support mounting bolts by alternately turning each bolt one turn at a time. This evenly releases the valve spring pressure on the rocker arm assembly. Remove the rocker arm assembly. 14. Remove the push rods. Keep them in order if they are to be reused. 15. Remove the hose between the thermostat housing and the water pump. Remove the thermostat housing. Remove the water pump. 16. Remove the oil filter assembly. 17. Remove the fuel transfer pump. 18. Remove the front crankshaft bolt. A breaker bar may be needed. 19. Remove the crankshaft pulley boss. The boss is a slip fit, but it may require the use of a puller. 20. Remove the timing gear cover. 21. Place three of the timing gear cover bolts in the injection pump and tighten. Check the timing gear lash at this point. If the lash is within specifications, there is a good possibility that the gears are reusable. If the lash is excessive, replace the gears.

1. Reinstall 3 Bolts Checking Timing Gear Lash 22. Remove the timing gear cover bolts from the injection pump. If necessary, remove the two block-to-bracket bolts on the lower injection pump mounting bracket. Not all engines are equipped with the lower bracket. Remove the injection pump. 23. Remove the transfer pump cam oil feed line. 24. Remove the injection pump idler gear. 25. Remove the camshaft idler gear. 26. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in the sequence shown. This requires removing all injection nozzles. Remove the cylinder head bolts and remove the cylinder head. Pry slots are provided in case the head should stick. NOTE: Do not set the head face down with the glow plugs installed or the glow plug tips will be damaged.

10

Engine Disassembly (Rev. 5/01)

1 2 3 4 10 11

9 17

16 15

8 7

18

14 6

NOTE: Refer to engine chart on page 108 to determine which oil pan you have. Late style engines are manufactured with a two piece oil pan which should NOT be disassembled. The separate halves CAN NOT BE SPLIT while on the engine. DO NOT DISASSEMBLE the oil pan - only remove as one assembly. If the pan should accidentally be disassembled, coat the sealing surfaces with silicone sealer and torque the socket head screws (8 mm or 10 mm) as shown.

12

13

Cylinder Head Bolt Removal 27. Remove the bell housing. 28. Carefully mark the flywheel so it can be reinstalled in its original position and remove the flywheel. 29. Remove the rear plate. Note that two oil pan bolts beneath the plate must be removed to free the plate. NOTE: The oil pan has small slots on the mounting face to assist in removal.

10 mm Mounting Bolts 36.0 ft-lbs. (6.9 Nm)

8 mm Mounting Bolts 24.5 ft-lbs.(4.9 Nm)

Two Piece Oil Pan 32. Remove the oil pump and the oil supply pipe. 33. Remove the connecting rod bearing caps. Remove the pistons and connecting rods up through the top of the cylinder bore after removing the ring ridge, if necessary. Mark each piston with its cylinder number. 34. Arrange the connecting rods, bearings caps and pistons in order if they are to be reused. The connecting rods and caps are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 by the manufacturer. Marking is not normally needed. 35. Alternately loosen the main bearing cap bolts and remove the bolts and caps. The main bearing caps are factory marked so they need not be marked.

APA122

Rear Plate Removal 30. Remove the front plate. 31. Make sure that all oil is drained from the oil pan.

11

Engine Disassembly (Rev. 5/01)

NOTE: The cast-in arrows on the main bearings caps point to the rear of the engine (flywheel end). The main bearing caps are also numbered, with No. 1 being the rear (flywheel end) main cap. 4

38. Remove the cam bearings. NOTE: Cam bearings can be damaged by the solvents used to clean the block. New cam bearings should always be installed when an engine is overhauled. The cam bearings supplied by Service Parts are semi-finished and will need to be line bored by a machine shop. Always check the bearings against the cam shaft before installing. 39. With a valve lapping tool, remove the lifters after removing the camshaft. NOTE: Remove the rear camshaft bearing cover before cleaning the engine block with solvents. The cap is aluminum and may be damaged by certain cleaners.

1 1. Front 2. Middle

3 3. Rear Flywheel End 4. Embossed C

Main Bearing Position 36. Remove the crankshaft. Note the orientation of the thrust bearings for proper installation of the bearings during assembly. Remove the thrust bearings and the upper main bearing inserts. 37. Remove the bolts from the camshaft thrust plate and remove the camshaft.

1 1. Lifter 2. Valve Lapping Tool

Lifter Removal

1 1. Thrust Plate Bolts

Camshaft Thrust Plate Bolts

12

Inspection and Reconditioning

NOTE: Refer to the Specifications Chapter for specific dimensions that are not given in this chapter. This chapter covers the cleaning, inspection, overhaul, and assembly of individual engine components. The next section of this manual describes the assembly of the engine. After disassembling the engine, check the components and discard unusable parts such as gaskets, O-rings, burned valves, and broken rings. Check the items that may need machine shop work first so this work can be completed by the time the rest of the engine is ready to assemble.

Cylinder Block
1. Inspect the cylinder block for cracks, damage, and distortion. Using a straight edge and a feeler gauge, check the block-to-head mating surface. If there is more than 0.003 in (0.07 mm) distortion, resurface the block. Do not remove more than 0.010 in. (0.25 mm) from the block surface.

1. 2. 3.

Head Mating Surface Cylinder Bore Pan Mating Surface

4. 5. 6.

Main Bearing Bore Cam Bearing Bore Lifter Bore

Block Measurements

13

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

2.

Check the cylinder bores for taper, out-of-round, pocketing or any other problems that would indicate the need to bore the block. The bores should be no more than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) out-of-round, or have more than 0.003 in. (0.07 mm) taper. If the bores are in good condition, deglaze the cylinders with a glaze breaker.

Cylinder Bore Deglazing 3. If boring is required, determine the proper oversize piston. Pistons are available in 0.010, 0.020, 0.030 and 0.040 in. (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mm) oversizes. Measure each of the four pistons. Bore and hone the cylinder to obtain 0.0020 to 0.0025in. (0.051 to 0.064 mm) piston- to-wall clearance. The use of a taper gauge will help maintain a straight bore. NOTE: Pistons will vary in diameter. Each piston must be measured and the cylinder bored accordingly. All di and se 2.2 pistons have a letter stamped in the top of the piston between the valve relief areas.

Piston Size Identification NOTE: Measure the piston 2.75 in. (70 mm) from the top at the right angle to the wrist pin. The letter will be A, B, C or D. All engine manufacturers have a tolerance range for their pistons and a marking system to determine where the piston is located in the tolerance range. The engine bore sizes are also graded, and when the engine is originally assembled, the larger pistons are put into the larger bores. The tolerance range is small, usually measured in ten thousandths of an inch, but a quality manufacturer will go through this extra work to ensure the best possible fit between piston and bore.

14

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

In di and se 2.2 engines, A pistons are the smallest, and D pistons are the largest; however, only two grades of Service Part replacement pistons are offered; A and C. Because of this small variance in piston diameters and the close piston to wall clearances in this engine, it is vitally important to measure each piston and bore and hone accordingly. A and C pistons use the same part number and are treated as the same part. Note the letter on top of the piston (see page 14) and measure the piston to make sure of the size. If the pistons are reused, make sure they are placed in the same cylinders they were removed from. If a D piston was placed in an A size bore, it would be too tight. If an A piston was placed in a D size bore, it would be too loose. Nominal Piston Sizes (standard bore) Grade A 3.4633 to 3.4640 in. (87.967 to 87.986 mm) Grade C 3.4641 to 3.4648 in. (87.987 to 88.006 mm) Piston Wear Limit 0. 002 in. (0.05 mm) Finished Bore Size = Piston diameter + piston to cylinder wall clearance. Finish hone the cylinders to a 16 micro-inch finish. 4. Obtain long 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) and 0.0015 in. (0.0375 mm) feeler gauges. Lay a feeler gauge against the piston vertically at a position 90 degrees from the wrist pin holes. This is the widest part of the piston. Now carefully try to install the piston along with the feeler gauge into the proper cylinder bore. The piston and proper size feeler gauge should require 1 to 3 lb. (0.45 to 1.3 kg) of force to be moved while in the cylin-

der bore. Check the top and bottom of the cylinder bore to be sure that there is no taper.

Piston Fit Measurement 5. After the block is deglazed or bored, remove the water distributor tube from the block. The tube should be checked or replaced during a major overhaul. To remove the tube, locate the core plug at the back of the block. Pry out the plug. This exposes the water tube anchor pin. Drive this pin forward out of the block.

Removal of Water Tube

15

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

6.

Measure the camshaft bearings in the block. The standard dimension is 1.9682 to 1.9710 in. (49.99 to 50.06 mm). If the bearings have more than 0.004 in. (0.10 mm) wear, nicked or damaged surfaces, or if the block is to be boiled out, remove the bearings and all core plugs. Install the main bearing caps in their proper positions. Torque the bearing caps to 125 ft-lb (170 Nm) Check the main bearing saddle alignment and main bearing bore for out of round. NOTE: The cast-in arrows on the main bearings caps point to the rear of the engine (flywheel end). The main bearing caps are also numbered, with No. 1 being the rear (flywheel end) bearing . 1

9.

Check or replace all core plugs.

7.

Checking Main Bearing Saddle Alignment

4 1. Embossed C

3 3. Middle

2. Rear Flywheel End 4. Front Main Bearing Position If the main bearing bores are more than 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) out-of-round, the block must be align bored. To check saddle alignment, use a straight edge and a 0.0015 in. (0.0381 mm) feeler gauge. Lay the straight edge in the bores. The feeler strip should drag under the straight edge at each main bore. 8. Measure the lifter bores in the block. The bores should be 0.5110 to 0.5125 in. (12.981 to 13.018 mm). Very little, if any, wear is associated with these bores. Clean up small scratches or nicks with a brake cylinder hone.

Main Bearing Bore

16

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Crankshaft
1. Check the crankshaft journals, crank pins and oil seal surface for evidence of wear, damage or clogging of oil ports. Measure the crankshaft main journals. The standard dimension is 2.3589 to 2.3595 in. (59.917 to 59.932 mm). The crankshaft must be ground undersize if the journal shows any of the following conditions: Out-of-round more than 0.001 in (0.0254 mm) Taper greater than 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Wear greater than 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm)

Outside Diameter of Finished Main Journals


Journal Undersize in Millimeters* Diameter in Millimeters Diameter in Inches

0.75 mm 1.0 mm

59.167-59.182 2.3294-2.3300 58.917-58.932 2.3196-2.3202

2.

Consult the grind chart for main journals shown below.

*NOTE: Service Parts main bearings are furnished in metric undersizes of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 millimeters. The conversion from millimeters is not exact (1 mm = 0.03937007 in.). Therefore, the inch column of undersizes loses approximately 0.0102 in. per undersize rather than exactly 0.010 in. per undersize. 0.25 mm undersize is roughly equivalent to 0.010 in. undersize, 0.50 mm to 0.020 in. undersize, 0.75 mm to 0.030 in. undersize, and 1.00 mm to 0.040 in. undersize. The most accurate method of determining the correct journal undersize diameter is to assemble and torque a main bearing cap on the block with the proper undersize bearing in the block. Measure the bearing inside diameter. Subtracting the clearance desired from that figure results in the correct journal undersize diameter. 3. Measure the rod journals. The standard dimension is 2.0832-2.0838 in. (52.915-52.930 mm). The crank pins must be ground undersize if the rod journal shows any of the following conditions: Out-of-round more than 0.001 in (0.0254 mm) Taper greater than 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm)

AGA40

Measuring Crankshaft Main Journals

Wear greater than 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) Consult the grind chart for rod journals shown below. Outside Diameter of Finished Rod Journals Outside Diameter of Finished Main Journals
Journal Undersize in Millimeters* Diameter in Millimeters Diameter in Inches Journal Undersize in Millimeters** Diameter in Millimeters Diameter in Inches

Standard 0.25 mm 0.50 mm 0.75 mm 1.0 mm

52.915-52.930 2.0832-2.0838 52.665-52.680 2.0734-2.0740 52.415-52.430 2.0636-2.0642 52.165-52.180 2.0537-2.0543 51.915-51.930 2.0439-2.0445

Standard 0.25 mm 0.50 mm

59.917-59.932 2.3589-2.3595 59.667-59.682 2.3491-2.3497 59.417-59.432 2.3392-2.3398

17

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

**NOTE: Service Parts rod bearings are furnished in metric undersizes of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 millimeters. The conversion from millimeters is not exact (1 mm = 0.03937007 in.). Therefore, the inch column of undersizes loses approximately 0.0102 in. per undersize rather than exactly 0.010 in. per undersize. 0.25 mm undersize is roughly equivalent to 0.010 in. undersize, 0.50 mm to 0.020 in. undersize, 0.75 mm to 0.030 in. undersize, and 1.00 mm to 0.040 in. undersize. The most accurate method of determining the correct journal undersize diameter is to assemble and torque a rod and cap with the proper undersize bearing in the rod. Measure the bearing inside diameter. Subtracting the clearance desired from that figure results in the correct journal undersize diameter. 4. Place the crankshaft in the engine block, resting on the old front and rear main upper inserts. This will allow the shaft to be rotated. Using a dial indicator on the middle main journal, rotate the crankshaft one full turn and note the largest reading. The crankshaft deflection equals 50% of the largest indicator reading. Crankshaft deflection should be more than 0.0015 in. (0.0381 mm).

1. Solid Design (used with flat style gear cover) 2. Rubber Damper Design (used with domed style gear cover) Pulley Boss Types 2

3 1. Dial Indicator 1. 2. Seal Surface Crankshaft Timing Gear 3. Pulley Boss

Measuring Crankshaft Deflection 5. Inspect the pulley front seal surface for excessive wear. Worn or damaged pulley bosses must be replaced as no repair sleeve is available. The pulley boss is hand fit and can be removed by tapping with a soft hammer. NOTE: Two types of pulley bosses were used and they ARE NOT interchangeable. When replacing the pulley boss be sure it is the same style as the original. See the following picture to determine which pulley boss you have.

Checking Gear Wear, Seal Surface and Pulley Boss 6. Removing the crankshaft timing gear requires the use of a standard gear puller. When replacing the gear and the pulley boss, use silicone sealant on the crankshaft before installing the gear and pulley boss. The sealant prevents oil leakage. Check the rear crankshaft wear ring surface for a groove left by the lip seal. See following section for replacement.

7.

18

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

. 1

the rear. Make sure that the ring is square with the axis of the crankshaft. NOTE: The wear ring is uni-directional. Before driving it onto the crankshaft, ensure that the wear ring is properly positioned. 6. Using tool No. 204-592 and a hammer, drive the ring 0.31 in. (8 mm) onto the crankshaft. 1

1.

Wear Ring

Checking Rear Seal Surface 8. The crankshaft journals on these engines are surfaced hardened with a nitriding process. If the journal diameter is worn 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) or more it will need to be reground undersize or replaced.

Crankshaft Wear Ring (radial seal only)


3 Removal and replacement To provide a better oil seal, the rear of the crankshaft has a chromium-plated wear ring. 1. Hold the crankshaft firmly. Place a chisel on the O.D. surface of the wear ring facing the center of the crankshaft. Tap the chisel to expand the ring. NOTE: Use only taps. A heavy blow will break the ring and the chisel will mar the crankshaft surface. 2. 3. Pull the wear ring to the rear to remove it. Clean all dirt, grease and oil from the crankshaft ring area. Heat the replacement wear ring in boiling water or in an oven at approximately 200 F (93.0 C). Coat the inside surface of the wear ring with a thin coating of Loctite or silicone sealant. Position the ring on the crankshaft with the beveled O.D. surface toward 1. 2. 0.31 0.02 in. (8 0.5 mm) Chamfered I.D. Driving Wear Ring onto Crankshaft 3. Beveled O.D.

4.

5.

19

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Timing Gears
Three different types of timing gears were used: First Design Coarse Mesh - through S/N #219283 Second Design Hardened Coarse Mesh - beginning with S/N #219284 Third Design Hardened Fine Mesh - beginning with S/N #221207 NOTE: The gears ARE NOT interchangeable and must be replaced as a set. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2 3 4.

the gear and bushing. The bushing is not sold separately. Check the injection pump idler gear bearings for noise or roughness and inspect the transfer pump cam lobe for wear. To remove the injection pump idler gear bearings, remove the front and back snap rings. Tap out the spindle with a soft mallet. Using a suitable tool, press out the bearings applying pressure to the outer race only. To remove the transfer pump cam lobe, support it as shown. Press the lobe off.

4 Removing Transfer Pump Cam 1. Injection Pump Idler 3. Camshaft 4. Crankshaft Timing Gears 1. To remove the timing gear from the camshaft, remove the center bolt and tap the gear off with a soft-faced hammer. Remove the crankshaft timing gear (if it has not already been removed) with a standard puller. Examine the timing gears for chipped or worn teeth. During engine assembly, the timing gears will be checked for gear lash, so only a visual check is necessary now. Measure the inside diameter of the camshaft idler gear bushing. The standard dimension is 1.7717 to 1.7728 in. (45.000 to 450.030 mm). If the bushing is badly scored or worn more that 0.003 in. (0.072 mm), replace 9. Heat the new cam lobe in boiling water or an oven to approximately 200 F (93.0 C), and drop the lobe on the gear. There is no particular orientation of the lobe.

2. Camshaft Idler

10. Install the new bearings back in the gear making sure to press on the outer race only. Install snap rings and spindle.

2.

3.

20

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Transfer Pump Cam Repair


The transfer pump is driven by a cam that is mounted on the B idler timing gear. This cam can come off the gear or can be loose on the gear. The engine will not necessarily stop running if the cam is loose or fallen off because the injection pump has an internal pump of its own that is used to operate the timing piston in the injection pump. That pump is capable of pulling fuel from the fuel tank, especially if the unit is mounted lower than normal, or the fuel tank level is high. The internal pump may be able to keep the unit running, but not able to provide enough fuel for restart, or in some cases it will allow restarts, but the engine has difficulty coming up to speed. Typical symptoms are; The engine will crank but will not start. The engines runs, but is hard starting and difficult to get up to speed. The engine was running, but wont restart after being shut off. The transfer pump is not pumping fuel or pumping fuel at a low rate. Any problem that appears to be fuel delivery problem.

weld spatter. Use a wire feed welder or TIG welder to provide a clean spatter free weld. Allow the weld to cool at room temperature. Do not immerse the gear to cool it. Welding done as described will not harm the gear in any way or effect the gear backlash. Reassemble the engine.

Welding the Pump Cam to the Idler Gear

Inspection and Repair Remove the transfer pump and look at the cam. If it is in position on the B idler gear use a sharp tool such as a probe to push on the cam to make sure it doesnt move. If it moves on the idler gear, or is dropped off the gear, it must be repaired. Remove the front timing cover and remove the B idler gear. Mark the B idler gear to the inspection pump gear and to the A idler gear in case the valve springs or injection pump springs try to rotate the pump or camshaft. Weld the pump cam to the gear using three 0.50 inch beads spaced evenly around the cam. (See the following illustration.) Use tape on the cam surface and gear teeth to prevent

21

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Camshaft
1. Check the cam shaft journals, lobes and oil pump drive for wear or damage. Measure the camshaft lobe height. The standard dimension is 1.5913 in. (40.42 mm) for intake and 1.5984 in. (40.60 mm) for exhaust. More that 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) wear indicates the camshaft should be replaced. Check the lobe faces for damage. Clean up slight imperfections with an oil stone

4.

Measure the camshaft journal diameters. The standard dimension is 1.9670 to 1.9675 in. (49.96 to 49.97 mm). Replace the camshaft if the journals are worn more than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm).

2.

AGA53

Measuring Camshaft Journal Diameters

5.

Inspect the oil passageways and the oil bleed hole for obstructions. 1

AGA54

Camshaft Lobe and Gear Inspection 3. Measure camshaft deflection with a dial indicator and a set of V blocks. Rotate the camshaft one full turn and note the largest reading. The camshaft deflection is 50% of this reading. Replace the camshaft if the deflection is greater than 0.003 in. (0.7 mm) deflection.

1.

Oil Bleed Hole

Rear Journal and Oil Passageway Inspection

AGA55

Measuring Camshaft Deflection

22

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Cylinder Head
The cylinder head for the engine is a direct injection head, therefore it does not have prechambers, hot plugs, heat dams, etc., making it easier to service. Disassembly 1. Remove the bus bar and glow plugs if they have not been removed already. Do not set the head face down with the glow plugs installed or the glow plug tips will be damaged. Use a valve spring compressor to remove the valves from the head. Remove the steel spring seats and retain for assembly. Boil the head out if possible.

If the engine has acquired many hours of running time, it is a good idea to replace the guides because they are usually worn after such a period. Because the valve seat grinding procedure is piloted off of the guides, a new straight guide will ensure an accurate valve seat.

2. 3.

Cleaning Valve Guides 2. To remove the guides, use tool No. 204-355 to drive the guides out toward the lower face of the cylinder head.

Removing Spring Seat Washer

Valve Guides
1. Use a valve guide carbon beater to remove carbon from the guides. Measure the inside diameter of the guides using a small hole gauge or graduated set of tapered pilots. The standard dimension is 0.3150-0.3156 in. (8.000-8.017 mm). If guides show more than 0.003 in. (0.07 mm) wear, replace the guides.

1. Tool No. 204-355 Removing and Installing Valve Guides

23

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Cylinder Head Valve Depth


1 2 The depth at which the valves rest in the head (valve depth) is a critical dimension for most diesel engines. If the valves are set too deep as a result of valve grinding, the combustion chamber volume enlarges and the compression ratio drops. This results in hard starting. Therefore, it is very important to check valve depth before any valve or seat grinding is attempted. If this dimension is already at the limit, the valve seat inserts or valves, or possible both, may have to be replaced. 1. To check the valve seat depth, install the valves in their respective seats and check the depth. Normal depth is 0.011 in. (0.275 mm) negative to 0.007 in. (0.175 mm) positive. Valves should not be more that 0.022 in. (0.57 mm) negative for both intake and exhaust. Grind the valves at a 45 angle and check the depth again to determine if the depth is still within tolerance.

2. 1. 0.475 in. (12.07 mm) Intake 2. 0.475 in. (12.07 mm) Exhaust Valve Guide Set Depth 3. Install the new valve guides using the appropriate tool. Using a depth micrometer or caliper, set the guides to 0.475 in. (12.07 mm) as shown. After installation, the guides may need reaming with a 0.3155 in. (8.013 mm) hand reamer. Ream both the exhaust and intake guides.

4.

AGA62

Checking Valve Depth If the seat width exceeds 0.070 in. (1.75 mm) for intake and 0.63 in. (1.60 mm) for exhaust, 30 degree and 60 degree stones may be used to narrow and raise or lower the seat.

Reaming Intake and Exhaust Guides

24

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

30

45 60

1.

0.050- 0.070 in. (1.22-1.75 mm) Valve Seat Angle


APA124

Using Valve Seat Grinding Equipment

Grinding 1. If the valve depth does not exceed the specified limit, grind the seats to a 45 degree angle. A hard stone will be required. Since the valve guide bore is 0.315 in. (8.001 mm) standard, regular valve seat grinding equipment can be used. No metric pilots are required. As the seat is ground, periodically check the seating of the valve with Prussian Blue or a similar dye to ensure that the seat is contacting as close to the middle of the valve face as possible. 2. After all the valve seats have been ground, the valves may be lapped. Put a small amount of a medium grit compound on each valve face. Using a valve lapping toll, briefly spin the valve against the seat. Then lift the valve and rotate it about a quarter of a turn. Drop the valve back into the seat and continue lapping. Repeat this procedure until the compound is used up. Remove all traces of lapping compound.

APA125

Installing Grinding Pilot 3. If the limit still has not been exceeded, grind the seats as well. Measure the depth once again. If it is now beyond the specified limit, the seat or valve, or possibly both, will have to be replaced.

4.

25

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Replacement 1. Use a commercial-type valve seat replacement tool to remove the seat from the head. If such a tool is not available, use a welding torch and heat the valve insert red hot (1330 to 1400 F [721 to 760 C]) at two spots directly opposite each other. Allow the insert 3-5 minutes to cool and contract. Now pry the insert out with a screwdriver or a small pry bar. Clean out any carbon or foreign material that may be in the insert bore. Check the outside diameter of a new valve seat insert and the inside diameter of the valve seat bore. The insert should be 0.003-0.005 in. (0.76-0.127 mm) larger than the bore to ensure a good interference fit. Chill the insert and install it with a seat installing tool. Assuming the valve guides have been reconditioned or replaced, the new valve seats may now be ground to 45 degrees.

Valves
1. Inspect and measure the valve stems. Standard diameter is 0.3128-0.3141 in. (7.946-7.978 mm) for intake and 0.3119-0.3131 in. (7.921-7.953 mm) for exhaust. Replace if worn more than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm). Maximum clearance between valve and guide should not exceed 0.008 in. (0.20 mm) for exhaust and 0.006 in. (0.15 mm) for intake. Regrind the valve face to a 45 degree angle. Check for bent valves while they are in the grinding machine. Check the valve margin. If there is less than 0.040 in. (1.0 mm) margin left, replace the valves. Standard margin is 0.051 in. (1.3 mm).

2.

2. 3.

3.

4.

AGA64

1. 0.051 in. (1.3 mm) Valve Margin

Valve Spring
1. Check that the spring free length is 1.81-1.75 in. (4644.5 mm) and the inclination is no more that .118 in. (3.0 mm). Using a spring compressor, check that at the set length, 1.52 in. (38.6 mm), the pressure is 43.4-36.8 lb. (19.716.7 kg).

2.

APA126

Removing and Installing Valve Seat

26

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Cylinder Head Reassembly After all cylinder head components have been reconditioned, ground or replaced, the head is ready for assembly. NOTE: There are two types of valve seals supplied by Service Parts; Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) seals, which are included in the gasket set and Thermo King replacement seals which are sold individually in packages of 8. Normally, both seals do the same job, although some engines utilizing used valves that continue to exhibit excessive oil consumption after an overhaul, may benefit by changing the seals from one type to the other.

AGA71

1. 2.

Inclination Free Length

3.

Square

Measuring Valve Spring Free Length and Inclination

1 1. OEM Seal

2 2. Thermo King Seal

Valve Seal Types 1. Place the valves in the guides, and install the valve stem seals, being careful that the teflon insert does not get scratched or pulled from its rubber carrier. Use the installation tool (if supplied with the seals) for ease of installation. Later seal sets may not include this tool.

APA127

Testing Valve Spring Tension

Typical Valve Stem Seal Installation

27

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

2.

Before placing the springs in position, make sure that the steel spring seats are in place to ensure that the steel spring does not wear the cast iron head. Install the valves, springs, and retainers.

Rocker Arm Assembly


1. To disassemble the rocker arm assembly, remove the clips at both ends of the shaft. Then remove the springs, rocker arms and supports. Arrange the rocker arms in the sequence of disassembly to ensure correct assembly.

3.

APA128

1 2 Installing Spring Seat Washer 1. Clip

3 4 3. Spring 4. Support

2. Rocker Arms 4. After the valves are installed, place the head on its side and fill up the exhaust ports with diesel fuel. Check around the exhaust valves for leaking fuel. Only a small seepage should be visible. Repeat this step for the intake valves. If the leakage seems excessive, the leaking valve will have to be removed and lapped again.

Rocker Arm Assembly 2. Measure the rocker arm shaft deflection with a dial indicator and a set of V blocks. Rotate the rocker arm shaft one full turn and note the largest reading. The rocker arm shaft deflection is 50% of this reading. Replace the rocker arm shaft if the deflection is greater than 0.005 in. (0.127 mm).

APA129

Check Rocker Arm Shaft Deflection 3. Testing Sealing Ability of Valves Measure the outside dimension of the rocker arm shaft. The standard dimension is 0.7476-0.7480 in. (18.9919.00 mm). Replace the shaft if it is worn more than 0.005 in. (0.127 mm).

28

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

4.

Measure the inside diameter of the rocker arm bushings. The standard dimension is 0.7484-0.7500 in. (19.01-19.05 mm). If there is more than 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) wear, replace the rocker arms. Do not reuse any rocker arm/shaft combinations that exceed a combined clearance of more than 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) or high oil consumption may result due to excess oil throw off into the valve seals or crankcase breather areas.

Measure the outside diameter of the lifter with a micrometer. Standard diameter is 0.5108 in. (12.97 mm) wear. Replace the lifter if there is more than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) wear.

Pistons
1. 2. Remove and discard the old piston rings. Heat the piston in hot water, 120-140 F (49-60 C), and then push out the piston wrist pin. NOTE: When working with a piston and rod assembly, do not clamp it in a steel jaw vise. Use a soft jaw vise, or use soft covers over the steel jaws. Clamping the rod in a steel vise will put small nicks in the rod. These nicks become stress raisers that can cause premature rod failure.

1.

Hardened Steel Face Contact Face Wear

3.

If the pistons are to be reused, perform steps 4 through 6. All di and se 2.2 engines have a letter stamped on the top of the piston between the valve relief areas. (See Inspection and Reconditioning the Cylinder Block). This letter indicates the size of the piston within the manufacturing to tolerance range-A being the smallest, and D the largest. The tolerance range is 3.4633 to 3.4652 in. (87.967 to 88.016 mm). Each letter is approximately 0.0004 in. (0.01 mm) larger than the previous one. Measure the piston diameter. The measurement should be taken about 2.75 in. (70 mm) from the top of the piston and at a right angle to the piston pin. The pistons

4.

5.

Check wear on the rocker arm contact face. Recondition or replace as necessary. Assemble the rocker arm shaft, supports, rocker arms, springs and other hardware. Be sure to loosen all the valve lash adjusting screws. NOTE: Tightening down the rocker arm shaft with the valve lash adjustments in the original position may bend the push rods.

6.

Push Rods
Check the push rods for bending and wear at the ends. Replace the rods if these conditions appear.

Lifters
Check the face of the lifters for wear or damage. Replace the lifter if these conditions appear.

29

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

should not be reused if they are worn more than .002 in. (0.05 mm).

1 2 3 4

AGA45

Measuring the Piston 5. Clean the ring grooves with a ring groove cleaner, being careful not to scrape any metal from the piston. If it is not possible to obtain a ring groove cleaner, a used ring can be broken and sharpened to do the job.

Piston Ring Set

AGA46

Cleaning Ring Grooves 6. Using a new set of piston rings, check the ring-togroove clearance (see Specifications) by inserting a feeler gauge along with the ring and roll it all the way around the piston ring groove. Excessive side clearance requires piston replacement. Do not install the rings yet, the end gap must be checked first.

Checking Ring Groove Clearance

Wrist Pins
The wrist pin and bushing carries a great deal of load in a small area, so the wrist pin fit is very critical. A qualified machine shop should do the pin fitting when the engine is overhauled.

30

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

1.

If the block requires boring and new pistons are used, replace the wrist pins. Because of the very close tolerances of the wrist pin, piston bore and rod bushing bore 0.0004-0.0008 in. (0.01-0.02 mm) measuring wear becomes very difficult using standard micrometers and small hole or telescopic gauges.

Connecting Rods
Beginning with engine serial no. 936751, new connecting rods P/N 11-6873 are used. The new rod is heavier than the old one and has knurled bolts. Because of the difference in weight the two types cannot be mixed. Both are available from Service Parts, old style P/N 11-5824 and new style P/N 11-6873. Reconditioning a connecting rod requires varied and expensive equipment. If this equipment is not available, most machine shops are able to recondition the rods to likenew specifications. To recondition the rods yourself, use the following procedure: 1. The connecting rods should, if possible, be glass bead cleaned, which stress relieves them. The connecting rod and cap should be assembled and torqued without the bearing. Measure the big end bore. If it is more than 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) out-of-round, it should be reconditioned.

2.
AGA47

Wrist Pin Measurement 2. If precision gauging equipment is not available, the wrist pin to bushing fit can be checked by oiling the wrist pin and inserting it in the bore. It should be snug and require at lease a hand-push fit.

AGA48

Connecting Rod Bore Measurement Checking Wrist Pin-to Bushing Clearance 3. Use a rod alignment fixture to check for connecting rod twist or parallelism. The standard value for rod twist is

31

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

0.002 in (0.05 mm) per 4 in. (100 mm). The service limit is 0.008 in. (0.20 mm) per 4 in. (100 mm). The standard value for rod parallelism is 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) per 4 in. (100 mm). The service limit is 0.006 in. (0.15 mm) per 4 in. (100 mm). If the rod is twisted or bent beyond the service limit, the rod will have to be straightened or replaced.

Manifold
1. 2. Check the manifold for cracks, damage or carbon build up. Check for distortion using a straight edge and feeler gauge. Resurface or replace the manifold if the distortion is greater than 0.006 in. (0.15 mm). Earlier engines have an exhaust restrictor to control oil migration. Clean and check this if the engine is so equipped.

1 2 1

1. 2. 3.

Per 4.00 in. (100 mm) Parallelism no more than 0.006 in. (0.15 mm) Twist no more than 0.008 in. (0.20 mm) Checking Manifold Distortion

Measuring Connecting Rod Twist and Parallelism 4. Press out the piston wrist pin bushing using a suitable tool. Reinstall the new bushing, and if a bushing expanding tool is available, expand the bushing in the bore. Ream or hone the new bushing to the finishedsize. Each bushing should be fitted to its own individual wrist pin with precision gauging equipment.

Oil Filter Assembly


Two different oil filter assemblies are used on these engines; Full Flow and Dual 1500. The di 2.2 normally uses a full flow oil filter assembly and the se 2.2 normally uses a dual 1500 oil filter assembly. Either assembly will fit on either engine, but the dual 1500 element filter will not fit on the full flow filter base and the full flow filter will not fit on the dual element filter base. The oil filter assembly incorporates an oil pressure relief valve to maintain the engine oil pressure at 40 to 65 psi (275 to 448 kPa) and a bypass valve to protect the engine from oil starvation if the filter becomes plugged with accumulated sludge.

APA130

Removing Wrist Pin Bushing

32

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

3 4 1 5

1. 2.

Dirty Oil From Pump Filter Bypass Valve

3. 4.

Clean Filtered Oil to Engine Pressure Regulator Full Flow Filter System

5.

Oil Returned to Sump through Pressure Regulator

33

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

3 4 1 5

1. Dirty Oil From Pump 2. Filter Bypass Valve 3. Clean Oil from Full Flow Filter to Engine 4. Pressure Regulator

5. Excessive Oil Bleed Port on Pressure Regulator 6. Clean Oil from Bypass Filter Returned to Sump 7. Fine Micron Bypass Filter 8. Coarse Micron Full Flow Filter Dual Flow 1500 Filter System

34

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Reconditioning the Assembly 1. 2. 3. 4. Remove and discard the old filter. Remove the bypass and relief valves and oil pressure safety switch. Thoroughly clean all parts and examine them for cracks and other damage. The relief valve cannot be disassembled. The valve must be replaced if oil pressure is low because of excessive oil being bypassed. It is interchangeable with the C201 oil relief valve. Replace the O-ring seals on the bypass and relief valves before assembling.

5.

35

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Oil Pumps
Different types of oil pumps were used in these engines. The most noticeable difference in the oil pumps is the strainer size. The small strainer oil pump has a strainer that is much smaller and has seven 0.28 in. (7 mm) holes instead of a screen. There are some other minor differences but all are inspected in the same way. 1

2 2

3 3

4 4 1. Knock Pin Type Pinion 2. Single Supported Driven Gear 3. 4. Gear Support Point Large Strainer 1. Shrinkage Fit Pinion 3. 2. Double Supported Driven Gear 4. Gear Supporting Points Small Strainer

Large Strainer Oil Pump (interchangeable with small strainer pump)

Small Strainer Oil Pump (no longer available as a service replacement part)

36

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Oil Pump Inspection 3 2 1 11 2. 3. 4. 1. Remove the strainer by unbending the tabs. Only four tabs are used on the original assembly. Use the four unused tabs when reassembling. If all eight tabs have been removed, replace the oil pump. Remove the oil pump cover bolts and the cover. Remove the idler gear. The driven gear, its shaft and pinion gear are not normally removed because the driven gear is pressed on the shaft and the pinion gear is pinned to the shaft. Visually inspect the gears and pump body for scratches and other damage. Place the idler gear in the pump body. Check for excessive clearance between the body cover surface and gears with a straight edge and feeler gauge0.002 to 0.0045 in. (0.050 to 0.114 mm) is the standard dimension.

4 5. 5 6 6. 7 7. 8 10

1. Oil Pump Assembly 2. Pin-pinion gear 3. Gear-pinion gear 4. Gear-idler 5. Gear-driven 6. Cover-oil pump body

7. 8. 9. 11.

Cover Bolt-cover Screen Bolt-mtg. oil pump Oil Pump Body Cover Gear Clearance

10. Pipe-oil pump

Oil Pump Assembly (exploded view) NOTE: Oil pump rebuild kits are not available. Only items #1, #2, #3, #10 and #11 are available as replacement service parts.

37

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Gear to Oil Pump Body Wall Clearance

8.

Check for excessive clearance between the gear tips and pump body inner wall with a feeler gauge-0.002 to 0.0031 in. (0.050 to 0.082 mm) is the standard dimension. If any of these measurements exceed the recommended tolerances by more than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm), replace the oil pump assembly.

9.

Water Pump
Although a number of different water pumps were used on di 2.2 and se 2.2 engines over the years, a replacement water pump is available through Service Parts which fits all engines. A new water pump is P/N 11-8478, a remanufactured water pump is P/N 811-8478. NOTE: Water pump rebuild kits are not available. A worn or damaged water pump must be replaced.

38

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Engine Breathing System


There are four types of breather systems used on the di 2.2 and se 2.2 engines. 1. Chimney breather can with negative crankcase pressure. 2. Side breather can with negative crankcase pressure (beginning with S/N 102568). PCV valve on valve cover with positive crankcase pressure (beginning with S/N 221207). PCV valve on valve cover with negative crankcase pressure (beginning with S/N E10889).

PCV Valve Cover Breathers Both of the positive and negative PCV valve systems vent crankcase gases only to the intake and do not draw any fresh air into the crankcase, which is called a closed crankcase system.

3.

4.

The breather should be disassembled and cleaned on a regular basis. Chimney and Side Can Breathers The chimney and side breather can use an opening in the block that draws fresh air into the crankcase. Engines with worn rings will force crankcase gases or oil out of the breathers.

PCV Type Engine Breather

2 1

1. Chimney Breather Can 2. Side Breather Can Can Type Engine Breathers

39

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Closed Crankcase with PCV Valve An improved closed PCV system was incorporated on Second Generation se 2.2 engines (beginning with serial No. 221207) and on all Third Generation se 2.2 engines. The system utilizes a spring and diaphragm, located in the valve cover, to maintain a constant flow of crankcase gas regardless of the intake manifold pressure. This results in a system with a constantly regulated crankcase pressure even in the presence of ring wear or a restricted air cleaner.

Closed Positive PCV System The following schematic illustrates the closed Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) operation. In the unrestricted position, gas flow exits the crankcase via the push rod passages and past the orifice and diaphragm. In the past, as air cleaner restriction increased, vacuum and flow would increase in the crossover line lowering the crankcase pressure. To prevent this, the PCV diaphragm expands into the passageway, restricting the flow to maintain a constant, slightly positive crankcase pressure. CAUTION: To prevent injury always check engine oil level with the engine shut off. The positive PCV system will cause oil to be thrown out of the dipstick tube if the dipstick is removed while the engine is running.

5 4

5 4

5 4

Unrestricted Position

Partially Restricted Position

Fully Restricted

1. 2. 3. 4.

PCV Valve Spring Valve Cover Push Rod Passages

5. 6. 7.

Baffle Plate To Crossover Tube Diaphragm (on bottom of spring)

Closed Positive PCV System

40

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Closed Negative PCV System The following schematic illustrates the closed negative crankcase ventilation (PCV) operation.

The negative pressure system functions similar to the positive PCV system but maintains a negative crankcase pressure.

6 5 4 Unrestricted Position 1. PCV Valve

Partially Restricted 5. 6. 7. Baffle Plate

Fully Restricted Position

2. Diaphragm (on top of spring) 3. Valve Cover 4. Push Rod Passages

To Crossover Tube Spring

Closed Negative PCV System

41

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Checking Crankcase Pressure 1. An adapter to check crankcase pressure can be made from a C201 dipstick (11-2893) and a fitting (55-2857). Remove the dipstick from the cap and drill a 11/32 in. (8.7 mm) hole in the cap. Tap the hole with an 1/8 in. NPT tap and install the fitting. This adapter will provide a convenient hook-up for the Magnehelic gauge to monitor crankcase pressure. To use the adapter, remove the oil dipstick and replace it with the adapter. Connect the low pressure side of the gauge to the adapter and observe the readings on high and low speed. 3 1 2 Breather System Typical Crankcase Pressures*

2.

Chimney Breather Can -3 in. to -8 in. water column Side Breather Can Closed Positive PCV Closed Negative PCV -3 in. to -8 in. water column -1.5 in. to +3.5 in. water column -2.5 in. to -7.5 in. water column

3.

4.

*measured with a new air filter installed. Typical Crankcase Pressures If your readings are significantly more positive than those shown, you may have excess blowby past the rings. A compression check should be performed to confirm this. To convert a positive pressure PCV system to a negative pressure system install Service Parts Kit P/N 10-340. The following items can effect your crankcase pressure readings.

1. Fitting 2. Fill Cap 3. Discard Dipstick Vacuum Gauge Adapter

Crankcase Pressure Effect Increase Decrease Increase 2 1 Decrease Increase

Typical Cause Piston Rings Stuck or Worn Air Cleaner Dirty or Plugged Breather Hose Plugged with Dirt or Ice PCV Diaphragm Torn PCV Diaphragm Frozen to Seat in Valve Troubleshooting Chart

1. 2.

Adapter Magnehelic Gauge 10 in. (254 mm) Mearsuring Engine Pressures

42

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

Crossover Hose Alignment During a routine service, check the orientation of the crossover hose from the air intake adapter to the valve cover. It is important to avoid kinks and bends in the hose to prevent icing during cold weather operation.

PCV Breather Vent The PCV valve that regulates the crankcase pressure can develop excessive pressure in the engine crankcase if the atmospheric vent in the cover of the valve is plugged. NOTE: If your engine has a crankcase pressure significantly over 3 inches (7.6 mm) WC positive, or has blown out its oil level switch, check this vent for blockage.

3 1. 2. Valve Cover Crossover Hose 3.

Air Intake Manifold

Correct Crossover Hose Alignment

1. 1 1 1. Restricted Crossover Hose

Vent Hole

PCV Breather Vent

Incorrect Crossover Hose Alignment

43

Inspection and Reconditioning (Rev. 5/01)

BLANK PAGE

44

Engine Assembly

Assembly Precautions
NOTE: Refer to the Specifications chapter for specifications not given in this chapter. After the components of the engine have been disassembled, repaired, reconditioned, or replaced, the engine can be assembled. It is very important to keep the engine as clean as possible while it is being assembled, because dirt is one of the major factors that contributes to the failure of rebuilt engines. To avoid problems, take these precautions: 1. Do not assemble the engine in an area where any type of grinding is done. Keep your workbench, tools, and hands clean. Keep sub-assemblies covered until they are needed. If the engine must be left, even for a short period of time, cover the engine until you return. Make sure to follow the sequence of assembly exactly. If certain parts are not installed in the correct order, the engine may require some disassembly to install these parts properly. Check all the assembly tolerances such as bearing clearance, end play, and gear lash carefully. Neglecting these tolerances can cause serious reliability problems in a rebuilt engine. NOTE: Cam bearings supplied by Service Parts are semi-finished. If cam bearings are replaced, the bearings will need to be line bored. If there is any questions concerning type of bearing, check the bearings against the camshaft before installing.

Cam Bearings
NOTE: Cam bearings can be damaged by the solvents used to clean the block. New cam bearings should always be installed when an engine is overhauled. The cam bearings supplied by Service Parts are semi-finished and will need to be line bored by a machine shop. Always check the bearings against the cam shaft before installing. 1. Install the cam bearing using a cam bearing driver. Make sure each bearing is installed in the proper position. Oil hole alignment is acceptable if the hole in the bearing has at least 50% of its area open to the hole in the block. The bearings may be installed at room temperature or they can be chilled to make installation easier.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

1. Cam Bearing Driver Cam Bearing Installation NOTE: The C201 cam bearing driver will not work on this engine. The cam bearings are larger. A new driver and pilot can easily be machined to fit the C201 tool.

45

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

3 1. 2. Flywheel end Arrows point toward Flywheel end 3. 4. Notch toward rear Water Pump end 1. Valve Lifter Valve Lifter Installation 4. 2. The front and middle cam bearings are the same. The rear cam bearing is wider and has a notch on one side. The front and middle bearings each have two holes (only one is used). The hole centered in the middle of the bearing with a groove machined on one side is the hole that is lined up with the hole in the block. The offset hole is not used. Both holes in the rear bearing are utilized. One hole allows oil into the bearing, and a machined groove in the bearing routes oil to the second hole. This hole feeds the rocker arm assembly. The notch in the bearing faces the rear (flywheel end) of the engine. NOTE: The arrows on all three cam bearings point to the rear of the engine. 3. Coat the lifter barrels and faces with engine assembly compound or engine oil and install the lifters. NOTE: This MUST BE DONE before the camshaft is installed. Install or check all oil galley plugs and the rear camshaft bearing cover. Silicone sealant must be applied to the mating surfaces of the camshaft bearing cover to prevent oil seepage. 1

Cam Bearing Location

Crankshaft Clearance
1. Place the new upper main bearing inserts in the block. Check that all oil holes are aligned. NOTE: All upper main bearings must have oil holes. The lower inserts do not have oil holes.

Main Bearing Positions

46

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

2. 3.

Carefully place the crankshaft in the block. Install the half-circle thrust bearings in the block on both sides of the middle main bearing.

NOTE: The cast-in-arrows on the main bearing caps point to the rear of the engine (flywheel end). The main bearing caps are also numbered, with No.1 being the rear (flywheel end). 1

1. Embossed C 1. Groove Thrust Bearing Installation 4. Place a piece of Plastigauge on each main journal. Place the lower main bearing inserts in the main bearing caps. Install and torque the main bearing caps to 123 ft lb (167 N.m) in increments of 30 ft lb (41 N.m) 5. 2. Rear (flywheel end)

3. Middle 4. Front

Main Bearing Cap positions Remove the main caps and check that the main bearing clearance is 0.0013 to 0.0033 in. (0.030 to 0.083 mm). Using a dial indicator or feeler gauge, check the crankshaft end play. Standard is 0.002 to 0.008 in. (0.05 to 0.20 mm) with a wear limit of 0.012 in. (0.30 mm). If the clearance is excessive (usually from grinding the journal undersize) shims must be cut from shim stock to bring the end play within specifications. It is rare that there is not enough end play. Check for a warped thrust bearing. If the end play is still insufficient, lap the thrust bearings.

6.

AGA35

Checking with Plastigauge

47

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Camshaft
Lubricate the camshaft lobes, journals and bearings with engine assembly compound, or engine oil, and install the camshaft. Install the camshaft thrust plate, torque the bolts to 14 ft-lb (19 Nm) and install the camshaft gear. Torque the camshaft gear mounting bolt to 74 ft-lb (110 Nm). Use a dial indicator to check camshaft end play. If it exceeds the service limit of .008 in. (0.20 mm), replace the camshaft gear or camshaft thrust plate. NOTE: The gear mounting bolt may be easier to torque after the camshaft idler is installed. It allows the camshaft to be locked up by blocking the crankshaft. End Play Measurement 7. Coat the main bearing inserts and crankshaft journals with engine assembly compound or engine oil. Place a very light coating of silicone sealant on the sealing surface of the front main cap and under the main cap bolt heads. Install all main caps and torque to 125 ft-lb (170 Nm) in increments of 30 ft-lb (41 Nm). NOTE: Front main cap must be lined up flush with front of block or oil will leak because the front plate is distorted.

Checking Camshaft End Play

1.

Silicone Sealant

Applying Sealant to Main Bearing Caps

48

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Rear Plate
The rear plate is positioned on the rear of the block by a pin and the special alignment bolt. The alignment of the plate is critical for two reasons, centering the rear seal on the crankshaft and the alignment of the cylinder block and rear plate at the oil pan sealing surface.

1.

Apply a thin coating of silicone sealant to the shaded areas as shown.

1 1

1.

Apply Silicone Sealant

Rear Plate Sealant Areas 2. Install the plate and torque 8 mm bolts to 14 ft-lb. (19 Nm) and the 10 mm bolts to 30 ft-lb. (41 Nm).

Rear Crankshaft Seals and Seal Plates


1. Must be flush with cylinder block Rear Plate Position Rear Plate Installation If the rear crankshaft seal is not centered on the crankshaft, oil leaks and premature seal failure will result. The plate must be flush with the rear of the block or oil leaks will occur because of oil pan misalignment. Installing the original plate on the cylinder block should not cause problems, however using a new plate or a plate from another engine could result in misalignment because of the pin position. If a new plate is used, carefully check for plate misalignment. If it is flush with the block all the way across the rear, it indicates the seal will also be centered correctly. 1 Two types of rear crankshaft seals and seal plates were used on di 2.2 and se 2.2 engines; Radial Crankshaft Seals and Axial Crankshaft Seals.

2 1. Radial Crankshaft Seal 2. Axial Crankshaft Seal Seal Identification

49

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Radial Rear Crankshaft Seal All di 2.2 and se 2.2 engines produced prior to serial #198650 had radial rear crankshaft seals (P/N 33-2208) with matching seal plates (P/N 11-5792). Use ONLY Radial crankshaft seals and matching seal plates on these engines. Removal and Installation 1. Remove the old radial rear crankshaft seal and wear ring (see Crankshaft Wear Ring (radial seal only) on page 19 for wear ring removal details). Install the radial rear crankshaft seal after coating the outside diameter with silicone sealant. Drive the seal to the bottom of the bore in the plate, using tool 204-592.

2.

1 2 1. 2. 3. Larger Diameter Opening Smaller Diameter Opening Depth of Large Diameter Opening Rear Seal Identification NOTE: The rear seal plate is identified by the size of the smaller diameter hole as shown in the table below. New Style Seal Plate P/N 11-8857 Old Style Seal Plate P/N 11-5792 Approximately 4.645 in. (117.9 mm) Approximately 4.315 in. (109.6 mm) Approximately 0.5 in. (12.7 mm) 3

Installing Radial Rear Crankshaft Seal Axial Rear Crankshaft Seals All se 2.2 engines after serial #198650 use a new axial rear crankshaft seal (P/N 33-2634). This change also includes the use of a new rear seal plate (P/N 11-8857). The replacement seal is packaged as an assembly. Use ONLY Axial rear crankshaft seals and matching seal plates on these engines. NOTE: The new seal may only be used with the new seal plate. Do not separate the metal ring and rubber seal assembly or the rubber lip will be damaged. Use the following information to identify seal plates.

#1 Larger Diameter #2 Smaller Diameter #3 Depth of Larger Diameter

Approximately 4.645 in. (117.9 mm) Approximately 4.570 in. (116.0 mm) Approximately 0.6 in. (15.2 mm)

50

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

NOTE: In extreme emergencies the old seal can be installed in a new seal plate. A wear ring (11-5833) must be installed on the crankshaft before installing the seal. Take extreme care to insure that the seal is installed no more than 0.040 in. (1.016 mm) below the outside surface of the seal plate. When a new style seal plate is used as a replacement for an old style plate, the wear ring should be removed from the crankshaft and a new style axial seal installed. When removing the wear ring, use great care to prevent damage to the crankshaft. NOTE: Any scratches, nicks or damaged areas of the crankshaft must be cleaned up or the new metal ring may not seal to the shaft. Axial Seal Removal The seal removal tool (204-848) is designed to remove the axial rear seals. If the seal has been previously replaced using Loc-Tite or a similar sealant on the metal ring the possibility exists that the removal tool will straighten the lip on the metal ring instead of removing the seal assembly. If this occurs the rubber portion of the seal may be removed by prying it out. The metal ring can then be removed by carefully cutting it with a chisel. NOTE: Any scratches, nicks or damaged areas of the crankshaft must be cleaned up or the new metal ring may not seal to the shaft.

1.

Remove the two hex head screws and the removable half of the seal puller from the seal removal tool.

1 2 3 4 1. Tool Fits Behind Lip on Metal Seal Ring 2. Removable Half 3. Removal Bolt Axial Seal Removal Tool 2. 3. Press the stationary half of the seal puller past and behind the outer lip of the metal ring of the seal. While holding the stationary side of the tool engaged on the lip, press the removable half of the tool in and behind the lip on the other side of the seal. Reinstall the hex head screws that secure the removable half of the seal puller. At this point the removable half will not be flat against the top of the tool, but will be close enough to get the cap screws started. Carefully tighten the screws while holding the tool behind the lip. As the screws are tightened the tool will pull together and firmly grip the lip. With the tool firmly locked behind the lip, tighten the removal bolt. The entire seal assembly will be drawn out. 4. Stationary Half 5. Seal in Place 5

4.

5.

6.

51

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Axial Seal Installation The seal installation tool (204-847) is designed to install the axial rear crankshaft seal at the correct depth and to insure the correct preload between the rubber lip and the metal ring. 4 NOTE: Do not attempt to install this seal without using the installation tool. Driving the seal in by hand will crush the rubber lip into the metal ring and cause the seal to burn up when the engine is run. If necessary, the inside diameter of the metal ring can be lightly coated with Loc-Tite 620 or silicone gasket sealer. The original seal ring was installed without sealant, but the use of sealant offers some insurance against leaks if the crankshaft has some surface damage. However, sealant will make future removal of the ring more difficult. If necessary, a light coating of silicone sealant may also be applied to the outside diameter of the seal. 1. Remove any imperfections from the surface of the crankshaft that contacts the metal ring of the seal. Check your work by placing the installation tool cup over the end of the crankshaft to check fit. The cup must fit smoothly over the crankshaft or it will bind when installing the seal. Attach the installation tool mandrel to the crankshaft using two flywheel bolts. The cup stops must be facing away from the crankshaft as shown. NOTE: There are three different types of flywheel bolts. If the bolt with an integral washer is used, part of the washer must be ground away so it does not extend past the mandrel. The other two bolt styles may interfere if a point of the hex is facing directly out. Grind down the points as required. 1 5 3 2

1. Installation Bolt 2. Cup

4. Mandrel 5. Check Cutout to be Sure the Mandrel Contacts the Cup

3. Seal Axial Seal Installation Tool 3. 4. Place the seal over the installation tool mandrel with the metal face of the seal toward the engine. Place the tool cup over the mandrel as shown. This allows you to see when the cup has completely bottomed on the mandrel. Carefully tighten the installation tool bolt. This pulls the cup over the mandrel and presses the seal into place. When the bolt stops turning check the cutouts on the cup to be sure it is completely bottomed on the mandrel. The seal is now installed to the proper depth. Remove the installation tool. NOTE: If there are any imperfections on the crankshaft the cup may jam and be difficult to remove. Tapping alternately on each side will assist in removing a jammed cup. This problem can be eliminated by testing the fit of the cup on the crankshaft before installing the seal.

2.

5.

6.

52

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Front Plate
Using a new gasket, install the front plate. Make sure the two hallow dowels are installed to position the plate. NOTE: The front main cap must be positioned flush with the front surface of the block or the front plate and timing cover will be warped.

2.

Place the camshaft idler gear on the camshaft idler gear support. Make sure the X on the tooth of the camshaft idler gear is indexed between the two Xs on the teeth of the crankshaft timing gear, and the Y on the tooth of the camshaft idler gear is indexed between the two Ys on the teeth of the camshaft timing gear. Install the injection pump idler gear, make sure the Z on the tooth of the camshaft idler gear is indexed between the two Zs on the teeth of the injection pump idler gear, torque the retaining bolt to 76 ft-lb (103 Nm). Install the camshaft idler gear retaining cap and the transfer pump cam oil fed line. The oil feed line should point toward the transfer pump cam. Torque the bolts to14 ft-lb (19 Nm).

3.

1 1. Alignment Dowels Position of Alignment Dowels

Idler Gear Support


1. Install the camshaft idler gear support with the oil feed hole pointing upwards towards the head surface.

Pump Cam Oil Feed Line

1. Hole Facing Toward Head Surface Installing Camshaft Idler Gear Support

53

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Zs

Xs

Ys

Timing Gear Marks

54

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Flywheel Installation
Install the flywheel. The flywheel on this engine does not have a pin to correctly orient the flywheel timing marks to the crankshaft. A few early engines do not have an arrow stamped on the flywheel indicating up to assist in correct installation. Use the following procedures for engines without arrows. NOTE: The following sequence of flywheel/bellhousing installation steps must be followed on early engines to ensure correct positioning of the flywheel timing marks to the crankshaft. The flywheel can be installed in the wrong position and if not corrected will make it impossible to time the fuel injection pump. 1. Rotate the crankshaft to bring No.1 crank pin to top dead center. Install the flywheel on the crankshaft and secure it with one bolt. The bolt needs only to be finger tight. Temporarily install the bellhousing and secure it with one or two bolts. Remove the bolt from the flywheel and carefully rotate the flywheel until the TC mark on the flywheel lines up with the pointer on the bellhousing. Do not allow the crankshaft to rotate. Install the locking ring and torque the eight flywheel bolts to 86 ft-lb (117 Nm) in the sequence shown. 1

2.

1.

Indicates Up

3.

Note: 6-pin flywheel shown, 8-pin also used Flywheel Positioning Flywheel Interchangeability There are four possible combinations of 8-pin and 6-pin flywheels with both small and large crankshaft compressors. Units with small crankshaft compressors and 6-pin flywheels are interchangeable with 8-pin flywheels provided you have the correct 8-pin clutch or 8-pin coupling. Units with large crankshaft compressors and 8-pin flywheels are interchangeable with 6-pin flywheels provided you have the correct 6-pin clutch or 6-pin coupling. NOTE: See TK-50254 for complete information regarding interchageability of components and Service Part numbers.

4.

5.

NOTE: Later production engines have an arrow stamped on the flywheel indicating up. Simply rotate the No. 1 crank pin to top dead center and install the flywheel with the arrow pointing up.

55

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Pistons and Rings


1. Check the piston ring end gaps. The end gaps may exceed the upper limit by 10% (see table). If the end gaps are out of this range, however, make sure the pistons and rings are the same size and that the cylinder bores are the correct size for the pistons and rings. If everything is correct but the end gaps are too small, carefully file the ring ends to obtain the correct end gaps.

NOTE: When the engines are initially assembled at the factory the numbers on the rods and caps generally face away from the crankshaft. The rods could be installed either way but is a good practice to note the orientation during disassembly and assemble them the same way. 3. Place the piston rings on the pistons in the proper order. All four rings are marked with a T. The T faces up. No. 1 is a chrome barrel faced ring. It should never be expanded over 1 in. (24.4 mm). No. 2 is a plain compression ring. No. 3 is a grooved combination scrapercompression ring. No. 4 is an oil control ring with expander.

1 2 3 4 Checking Piston Ring End Gap

Ring 1st 2nd 3rd Oil

Gap (Inches 0.004 to 0.014 0.008 to 0.014 0.006 to 0.012 0.004 to 0.014

Gap (mm) (0.10 to 0.35) (0.20 to 0.35) (0.15 to 0.30) (0.10 to 0.35) 4. Make sure that there are no ring end gaps aligned with each other or with the wrist pin. Coat the cylinder bore, pistons and rings with engine oil. Using a ring compressor, install the piston assemblies with the marks pointing forward. Piston Ring Location

Piston Ring End Gap Table 2. Heat the pistons in hot water 120 to 140 F (49 to 60 C). Coat the wrist pin and rod bushing with engine assembly compound or engine oil. The triangular marks on the tops of the pistons should point to the front of the engine and the numbers of the rods and rod caps should face away from the crankshaft, install the circlips.

56

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Checking Rod Side Clearance Installing Pistons

Oil Pump
Install the oil pump. Torque the mounting bolts to 14 ft-lb (19 Nm). Install the oil supply pipe. NOTE: Do not install the oil pan yet. The engine should be pressure tested first.

Connecting Rods
1. Place the rod bearing inserts in the rods and rod caps. Place a piece of Plastigauge on each rod journal, install the rods and caps and torque to 62 ft-lb (84 Nm). in increments of 20 ft-lb (27 Nm). The numbers on the rods and caps should face away from the crankshaft. Remove the rod caps and check that the rod bearing clearance is 0.0011 to 0.0027 in. (0.029 to 0.069 mm). Coat the rod bearing inserts and rod journals with engine assembly compound or engine oil, install the rods and caps and torque to 20 ft-lb (27 Nm). 2. Using a feeler gauge, check the rod side clearance. If the clearance is less than .007-.011 in. (0.175-0.290 mm), the rod can be removed and its side faces lapped on a lapping board.

Oil Pump Installation

Cylinder Head
1. Install the cylinder head gasket (TOP mark up) and the cylinder head. If the head alignment dowels have been removed for block boring, make sure the open cut faces the camshaft when installing the dowels.

57

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

2.

NOTE: Proper torquing sequence of the head bolts is very critical. A three step angular torquing procedure outlined below must be used.

STEP #3: Starting again with head bolt #1, repeat the same procedure outlined in STEP #2, turning each head bolt 75 or from the 12 oclock position to the 2 oclock position. The head bolts are now properly tightened. Install the push rods. If the push rods are being reused, replace them in the same order that they were removed. Install the rocker arm assembly. Make sure the valve adjusting screws have been loosened and backed out. Tighten the rocker arm support mounting bolts by alternately turning each bolt one turn at a time. This evenly applies the valve spring pressure to the rocker arm assembly. Torque the mounting bolts to 40 ft-lb (54 Nm) in 20 ft-lb (27 Nm) increments. NOTE: Do not use an air wrench to install the rocker arm support bolts. The tilting of the rocker arm assembly combined with the speed of the air wrench will gall the bolts in the aluminum rocker arm supports.

12 16 8

4 1

5 9

13 17

15 11

7 3

2 6

10 14

18

Headbolt Tightening Sequence STEP #1: Starting approximately in the center of the head, install head bolt #1 and torque it to 40 ft-lb. (54 Nm). Working your way outward in a angular pattern as shown, install head bolt #2, then #3, etc. torquing each bolt to 40 ft-lb. (54 Nm). STEP #2: Starting with head bolt #1, and the torque wrench in the 12 oclock position, turn the head bolt an additional 75 or until the torque wrench is in the 2 oclock position. Repeat this procedure on each head bolt in the same order as shown above.

Valve Adjustment
Adjust both the intake and exhaust valves to .016 in. (0.40 mm). Refer to the valve adjustment procedure in the Run In Section.

Adjusting Valves Additional Turning of Head Bolts

58

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Oil Filter Assembly


1. Install the oil filter assembly. Torque to 30 ft-lb (41 Nm). Install a fresh filter. Pressure check the engine. Pressurizing the engine will show any problem areas in the oiling system and will prevent a dry start up when the engine is finally test run. Fill the pressure tank with engine oil and attach to fitting that supplies the oil pressure gauge. Check for any other open fittings, such as a feed line for a bypass filter, and cap them off. Pressurize the tank to 60 psi (413 kPa) and open the oil line up to the engine. The tank will fill the oil filter first and then pressurize the entire oil system of the engine. Check each individual rod and main bearing for oil leakage. Each bearing should drip at a fairly good rate. There should be no large streams of oil from the bearings or any other part of the engine. Any excessive leakage indicates a problem, such as a wrong bearing, cracked or porous block casting, loose or missing galley plugs. The transfer pump cam oil feed line should be dripping oil if the camshaft idler gear support has been installed correctly. Rotate No.1 cylinder to 28 BTDC to line up the camshaft feed hole with the supply port. Oil should appear at the rocker arms. After the engine oil system has been pressured checked, the assembly can be completed.

NOTE: Although a C201 engine is shown, a di and se 2.2 test is similar.

2.

1. Oil Feed Line

2.

Pressure Tank

Pressure Checking Engine 3. 4. Install the rocker arm cover using a new O-ring gasket. Torque the cap nuts to 9 ft-lb (12 Nm). Press the front crankshaft seal into the timing gear cover after coating the outside edge of the seal with silicone sealant. Using a new O-ring and square seal rings, install the timing gear cover.

5.

59

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

NOTE: The transfer pump SHOULD NOT be installed on the timing gear cover when installing the cover.

2 Dowel Pin 2. Special Alignment Bolt

1.

Bellhousing Dowel Pin and Shoulder Bolt 1. Square Seal Rings Installing Timing Gear Cover The second area is the junction of the oil pan and bellhousing. If the positioning of the oil pan is not correct, the bellhousing will be distorted when the two components are bolted together, causing the bellhousing runout to increase well above 0.008in. (0.20 mm). The bellhousing bolts to the back of cylinder block and projects below the block. The oil pan bolts to the bottom of the cylinder block and projects rearward to the bellhousing. The bellhousing and oil pan are bolted together at this point.

Bellhousing / Oil Pan Installation


The installation of the bellhousing and oil pan are grouped together because there are two critical areas in the installation of these components and the installation of one influences the installation of the other. The first area is the concentricity of the bellhousing to the crankshaft. The bellhousing must be concentric with the crankshaft centerline within .004 in. (0.10 mm), or the compressor will be damaged. The bellhousing is aligned at the factory, and this alignment is maintained by a dowel pin and special shoulder bolt.

1. Critical Areas Bellhousing / Oil Pan Interface

60

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

The oil pan on the C201 engine was located rigidly with pins to the block, and if the base did not contact the bellhousing tightly, spacers would be used to take up the clearance. The di and se 2.2 engine does not use shims. The dowels for the oil pan are a loose fit allowing the pan to be shifted slightly. 1. Apply silicone sealant around the ends of the rubber gaskets. Insert the tips of the front gasket into the slots provided in the main cap/block junction. The rear gasket does not utilize tips. Coat the gaskets and engine block with a light coat of silicone sealant as shown. NOTE: The amount of sealer used must be very small or the excess will squeeze into the crankcase. Sealant squeezing out on the outside of the engine indicates too much sealant. If sealant appears on the outside of the engine, it is also squeezing out inside the engine. 3. 1.

1 Silicone Sealant

2.

Apply Silicone Sealant to Shaded Areas Place the oil pan on the cylinder block. Install the bolts and tighten finger tight. Place the bellhousing on the engine block. Install the bolts, including the two bellhousing to oil pan bolts and tighten finger tight. Using a dial indicator mounted on the flywheel, check the bellhousing runout. The bellhousing must be concentric with the flywheel to within 0.004 in. (0.1 mm). If the runout is excessive, the compressor will be damaged.

4.

5.

Installing Rubber Gaskets

Checking Runout of Bellhousing with Dial Indicator

61

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

6.

If the runout figure is slightly above the limit, use a soft hammer to tap the bellhousing into place. Then torque all but the two bellhousing to oil pan bolts. 8 mm 14 ft-lb (19 Nm) 10 mm 30 ft-lb (41 Nm)

7.

Use a feeler gauge to check the contact area between the bellhousing and oil pan for clearance. Lightly tap the oil pan toward the bellhousing with a soft hammer to eliminate any clearance. Torque the two 12 mm bellhousing to oil pan bolts to 56 ft-lb (76 Nm). Torque the oil pan mounting bolts to 14 ft-lb (19 Nm). Check the bellhousing runout. Reaming Bellhousing for Dowel Pin

8. 9.

Occasionally the alteration of the original bellhousing cylinder block rear plate combination, such as the use of a new short block or replacement of the original bellhousing make it difficult to bring the bellhousing into the specified limit. If this occurs, do the following: 1. 2. Remove the dowel pin and special shoulder bolt. Install the rear plate if it was removed. Install the flywheel and bellhousing. Make sure the rear plate is flush with the bottom of the cylinder block. NOTE: Without the dowel pins the rear plate may not be concentric with the crankshaft, however the rear seal will usually center the plate. A dial indicator may be used before installing the flywheel to check concentricity. 4. Use a dial indicator to align the bellhousing to within 0.004 in. (0.10 mm). Torque all bellhousing bolts. Ream the dowel pin hole to 7/16 in. and install an oversize pin, P/N 55-5578. Ream the shoulder bolt hole to 0.498 in. and install an oversize bolt, P/N 55-6379. Reaming Bellhousing for Shoulder Bolt 7. Adjust the oil pan to eliminate any clearance in the bellhousing to oil pan contact area. Torque the bellhousing to oil pan bolts and then torque the oil pan bolts.

3.

Manifolds
Install the intake and exhaust manifolds. Earlier engines have an exhaust restrictor to control oil migration. Reinstall the restrictor if applicable.

5. 6.

62

Engine Assembly (Rev. 5/01)

Injection Pump
Install the injection pump (see the Fuel System Section).

2. 3. 4.

Install the water pump. Install the thermostat housing. Install the crankshaft pulley boss. Use a light coat of silicone sealant on the crankshaft to prevent oil seepage. Torque the bolts to 161 ft-lb (218 Nm).

Injection Nozzles
1. Install the injection nozzles. Use new O-rings and sealing washers. The sealing washers are installed with taper facing down. Torque the nozzle retaining nut to 27 ft-lb (37 Nm).

1.

Taper Faces Down

Nozzle Sealing Washer

63

BLANK PAGE

64

Lubrication System

The di and se 2.2 engines have a pressure lubrication system. Oil is circulated by a gear-type oil pump driven off a gear on the camshaft. The pump has several times the capacity required by the engine; excess oil is returned to the crankcase. The oil pump extends down into the oil pan, but is positioned far enough away from the bottom of the oil pan that any residue that settles to the bottom is not picked up by the screened inlet. From the oil pump, the oil passes through the oil supply pipe to the oil filter assembly. The oil filter assembly contains the oil pressure relief valve, the bypass valve and oil filter. The oil is forced through the oil filter into the main oil galley. The main oil galley supplies oil to the main bearings, camshaft and camshaft idler gear support. Oil passes from the main bearings, through drilled passages in the camshaft, to the connecting rod bearings. The tappets

and cylinder walls are lubricated by oil thrown from connecting rod bearings as the crankshaft rotates. From the rear camshaft bearing, oil passes through an oil gallery inside the engine to the rocker arm shaft where the surplus drains back into the crankcase. Oil at the camshaft idler gear support lubricates the idler bushing and passes through the transfer pump cam oil feed line to lubricate the transfer pump cam and the injection pump idler gear. Oil pressure is automatically regulated to 40-65 psi (275448 kPa) by a spring-loaded relief valve. Oil pressure may exceed this setting when the oil is cold. Oil pressure is affected by oil temperature, viscosity and engine speed. Subnormal oil pressure usually may be traced to lack of oil, faulty relief valve, loose oil connections or worn bearings.

3 4 6 5

1. 2.

Rocker Arm Shaft Camshaft

3. 4.

Crankshaft Oil Pump Lubrication System

5. 6.

Oil Filter Low Oil Pressure Switch

65

Lubrication System (Rev. 5/01)

BLANK PAGE

66

Fuel System

The fuel system used on the Thermo King di and se 2.2 diesel engine is manufactured by Diesel Kiki, Ltd. under license from Bosch. It uses a high pressure distributor (VE type) injection pump. Unlike the C201 in-line injection pump, the governor, timing device, fuel supply pump and other components are located within the pump itself.

The increased pressure moves a piston which in turn advances the timing of the engine. The banjo fitting also acts as a transfer point for overflow fuel coming from the nozzles and a point to bleed air from the system. Injection pump leakage, injection nozzle overflow and excess fuel from the fuel filter orifice are then all sent back to the fuel tank in the return line. NOTE: Do not switch banjo bolts from one injection pump to another. When calibrating an injection pump, use the banjo bolt that belongs to that pump. Using a different banjo bolt after calibration can affect engine timing.

Operation
Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank by the transfer pump. The transfer pump delivers fuel to the primary filter and then to the secondary filter. The outlet fitting at the secondary filter contains an orifice. The orifice controls the pressure in the fuel system be allowing a certain amount of fuel to return to the tank. Filtered fuel then passes through a line from the fitting between the secondary filter and the orifice, to the injection pump. Fuel enters the injection pump and then a fuel supply pump. Pressure in the injection pump is set by a relief valve located in the output of the fuel supply pump and a small drilled orifice in the outlet banjo bolt on the top of the pump. Excess fuel is recycled back through the fuel supply pump. As engine speed increases so does the internal injection pump pressure.

Maintenance
The fuel system is relatively trouble-free, and, if properly maintained, will usually not require major service repairs between engine overhauls. Contamination is the most common cause of fuel system problems. Therefore, to ensure best operating results, the fuel must be clean and fuel tanks free from contaminants. Change the fuel filters regularly and clean the fuel strainer on the inlet side of the transfer pump.

1 2

6 Return Fuel Line 1. 2. 3. Water Separator Injection Line Injection Nozzle 4. 5. 6. Bleed Screw Transfer Pump Hand Pump

5 Supply Fuel Line 7. 8. Injection Pump Fuel Filter

Box Type Filter Fuel System

67

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

1 7

6
5

AGA224

1. 2. 3. 4.

Fuel Filter Injection Pump Prefilter

5. 6. 8.

Inlet Fuel Line Priming Pump Bleed Screw Return Fuel Line

Fuel Transfer Pump 7.

Late Style Spin-On Filter Fuel System

68

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

1 2

3 9 10 5 8 7 6 4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Injection Nozzle Injection Line Injection Pump Hand Pump Transfer Pump

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Inlet Strainer Fuel Supply Line Fuel Return Line Secondary Fuel Filter Primary Fuel Filter

Early Style Spin-On Filter Fuel System

69

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Whenever the fuel system is opened, take the following precautions to prevent dirt from entering the system: 1. 2. 3. Cap all fuel lines. Work in a relatively clean are whenever possible. Complete the work in the shortest possible time.

3.

Tighten the bleed screw and screw the hand pump handle back in. Start the engine and observe the engine run for a few minutes. If the engine fails to start, or starts but stops in a few minutes, repeat the procedure.

4.

Any major injection pump or nozzle repairs should be done by a quality diesel injection service speciality shop. The necessary service equipment and facilities are not found in most engine rebuild shops because of the large investment required. The following procedures may be done in the field: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bleed air from the fuel system. Fuel tank and filter system maintenance. Hand pump replacement or repair. Transfer pump replacement or repair. Injection line replacement. Pump and governor adjustments. Pump timing. Nozzle spray pattern testing and adjustment.

Hand Pump
The hand pump requires little service and is usually replaced as an assembly. If the hand pump does not appear to be working, check the following items before replacing the pump: 1. 2. 3. Fuel level in the tank. Possible air leaks in fuel supply line from the tank. Remove the hand pump and examine the inlet check valve. Remove the outlet adapter, and examine the outlet check valve. To test a hand pump, install it on the transfer pump if it was removed. Place a container of diesel fuel about 3 ft (1 m) below the hand pump and place the inlet hose into the container. The hand pump should draw diesel fuel to the transfer pump in 60 strokes. If the hand pump requires more than 120 strokes, it should be replaced.

4.

Bleeding the Fuel System


If the engine runs out of fuel, repairs are made to the fuel system, or air gets into the system for any other reason, the fuel system will have to have the air bled out. Proceed as follows: 1. Loosen the bleed screw on top of the injection pump about one turn. Unscrew the hand pump handle and manually prime the fuel system until air bubbles are no longer visible in the fuel coming out of the bleed screw.

2.

70

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Injection Pump
Injection Pump Cover O-Ring Replacement The di 2.2 and the se 2.2 injection pump cover O-ring seal can be changed without removing the injection pump from the engine. The proper seal can be purchased from a Zexel (Diesel Kiki) dealer under part number 146600-1000. 1. 2. 3. 4. Prior to disassembly thoroughly clean the pump with suitable cleaner and blow it dry. Remove the fuel lines and intake manifold. Remove the fuel return hose from the pump cover and tie it back out of the way. Remove the fuel inlet hose from the pump and tie it out of the way. If the hose is left connected fuel may continually siphon from the filters into the pump. Remove the 8D wire and spike diode connector from the fuel solenoid terminal. The diode must be removed from the terminal to allow the seal to slipped over the pump cover. Remove the throttle control rod from the throttle lever. 1 2

4 3

1. 2.

Fuel Outlet Two Piece Lever

3. 4.

Fuel Inlet 8D wire & Diode

5.

Injection Pump 7. Note the alignment of the marks on the throttle lever in relation to the mark on the throttle shaft. They will not always be in perfect alignment but will usually be within a few degrees. The throttle shaft must be replaced in the same position when reassembled. Use a pliers to unhook the return spring from the throttle lever. Again note the position of the spring. It can be reassembled at least two different ways. The correct way is to have the straight end down on the pump cover and engaged against the boss on the high speed limiting screw. The hook is then placed in the hole in the middle of the lever. Remove the throttle lever nut and lock washer and remove the throttle lever and spring. Note that there is a thin steel washer located between the throttle lever and the throttle shaft boss. It usually stays with the lever and falls out later.

6.

NOTE: There are two versions of the throttle lever on di 2.2 injection pumps. Early style pumps have a one piece throttle lever. Later pumps have a two piece lever. If you are working on a pump with a one piece lever go directly to step #9. If you have a two piece lever you may have to remove the throttle lever to get access to the inner gear end pump cover screw. Use the following steps.

8.

9.

71

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

10. Remove the four pump cover retaining screws. The low speed screw may have to be moved to access the inner, distributor end screw.

NOTE: Do not remove the spring from the throttle shaft linkage. The O-ring can be easily installed without disconnecting the spring. If for any reason the spring is disconnected, it should be reinstalled with the open end of the loop facing down.

1 1

2 1. 2. Alignment Dowel DO NOT remove spring Pump Cover 13. Remove the old O-ring from the cover by cutting it or sliding it up around the cover.

1 1. 2. Hold pump cover down Remove this screw last

Pump Cover Retaining Screws NOTE: The pump cover is spring loaded and should be held down firmly until the last screw is removed. The outer, gear end screw should be removed last. 11. Carefully lift the injection pump cover until the dowel pin in the cover is disengaged from the pump body. Slowly let the full load lever push the cover forward until it is no longer spring loaded. 12. Tip the pump cover up on the edge of the pump body as far as possible. 1. Cut old O-ring

O-ring Removal

72

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

14. Install the new O-ring by sliding it down around the cover and placing it in the slot.

NOTE: If the dowel pin is not resting on the pump body it is still resting on the full load lever. You may have to move the cover around slightly to index it. Level off the cover and push it down and forward against the spring tension until the dowel drops into its bore. Doing it correctly may take a little practice. Push down against the spring pressure and check to see that the entire pump cover is contacting the pump body. If not, the cover is still not installed correctly. 18. Install the outer, gear end mounting screw first to hold the cover in place, then install the three other screws.

O-ring Installation 15. Loosely place the cover on the pump as shown in the following photograph. The cover should be parallel with the pump body. NOTE: Because the full load screw is resting on top of the full load lever, the dowel pin will be slightly above the surface of the injection pump. 16. Slightly elevate the front of the pump cover and then slide it back until it contacts the fuel solenoid.

Installing Retaining Screws Pump Cover Alignment 17. Just before the cover reaches the fuel solenoid, the full load screw should drop off the full load lever. The dowel pin should now be touching the pump body. 19. If you had to remove the throttle lever, reinstall the return spring and lever. Make sure to index the lever with the shaft using the marks. The low speed stop screw may have to be backed all the way out to get clearance for correct alignment

73

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

. 1 2

4. 5.

Remove the boot from the high speed solenoid. Pull the plunger out of the solenoid enough to loosen the jam nut. An allen wrench placed in the hex opening in the face of the plunger will keep the plunger from turning. Turn the plunger eye bolt clockwise to increase the speed and counter clockwise to decrease the speed. Replace the control rod, start the unit and check the speed. When the speed is correct, tighten the jam nut and replace the solenoid boot. NOTE: If the correct speed cannot be set close enough with half turns of the eye bolt, use the allen wrench to turn the plunger in smaller increments.

6.

1. 2.

Correct Spring Stop Incorrect Spring Stop - DO NOT USE Spring Stop Position

Low Speed 1. 2. Loosen the jam nut on the low speed adjustment screw. Run the unit with the speed solenoid de-engerized. Adjust the screw to the speed desired. Shut the unit off and retighten jam nut.

20. Reinstall the fuel inlet line, the outlet line and the throttle rod on the pump. 21. Readjust and secure the low speed screw. 22. Reinstall the 8D wire and the spike diode on the fuel solenoid. 23. Start and run the engine and check for fuel leaks. Readjust low speed if necessary. Injection Pump Speed Adjustment To determine the correct speed settings for a particular Thermo King unit, consult the maintenance manual for that model. As a general rule, most transport units run at 13001350 rpm on low speed and 2200 rpm on high speed. Most generator sets run at 1800 rpm (single speed). There are exceptions to this general rule such as some Super II units, so it is important to check the proper maintenance manual if there is a question. High Speed 1. 2. 3. Start the unit and check the high speed rpm. Shut the unit off. Remove the control rod from the high speed solenoid.

3.

Maximum Speed The maximum speed limit screw is adjusted and sealed at the factory. It should not need adjustment. If it has been tampered with, it should be adjusted to give .020 in. (0.5 mm) clearance to the pump control lever when the unit is in high speed. Full Load Adjusting Screw The full load screw is reset and sealed at the factory and should not need adjustment. If the adjustment has been tampered with, the injection pump should be recalibrated by a diesel injection service shop. In an emergency, a rough setting for the screw is approximately 0.61 in. (1.55 mm) from the tip of the screw to the face of the nut.

74

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

NOTE: The adjustment of the full load screw can damage the engine and may void the warranty. 1 2

1. Maximum Speed Limit (factory set) 2. Full Load Adjusting Screw (factory set) 3. Low Speed Adjustment Adjusting Speeds 2. Test for buzzing. Close the hand valve and operate the handle several times rapidly with full strokes. If the nozzle is operating properly, there will be a buzz and a high whistle. NOTE: If the pumping speed is increased, the buzzing stops and the oil then leaves the nozzles with a hissing noise. 3. Check the spray pattern. Operate the pump at about 1 stroke per second and observe the spray pattern. There should be four distinct uniform patterns, one out of each quadrant of the nozzle. Nozzle Tester

Injection Nozzles
Testing 1. Attach the nozzle assembly to the nozzle tester P/N 204-290. WARNING: Keep hands away from spraying nozzles. The pressure of the fuel spraying from the nozzle can penetrate into flesh destroying tissues and may cause blood poisoning.

75

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Correct

Top View

Disassembly and Inspection 1. Clamp the nozzle body in a vise with the nozzle nut up. Carefully remove the nozzle nut, nozzle seat and nozzle valve, locating pins and spacer. Keep the nozzle seat and valve together as a set. NOTE: If the nozzle seat turns with the nozzle nut the locating pins may be broken. Soak the nozzle assembly in a cleaning solution such as carbon cleaner before removing the retaining nut. 2. Take the nozzle boy out of the vise and remove the push rod, spring and adjusting shim(s). Clean all the parts in clean filtered fuel using a nozzle cleaning kit P/N 204-283. NOTE: Do not use any abrasive materials to clean the nozzle seat, nozzle valve, the spacer, or the mating surfaces of the nozzle body. 4. Inspect all parts for damage or wear and replace as necessary.

3.

Incorrect 4. Test the opening pressure. Open the hand valve so the gauge will register. Slowly force the handle down and determine the opening pressure. The nozzle should buzz distinctly during spraying. Opening pressure should be 2633 to 2704 psi (18142 to 18632 kPa) and all the nozzles should be within 70 psi (482 kPa) of each other. If the opening pressure needs adjustment, the nozzle must be disassembled and the adjusting shims changed. Refer to the nozzle assembly and opening pressure adjustment section. Test for dripping. Open the hand valve and operate the pump slowly to build the pressure up to within 300 psi (2067 kPa) of the opening pressure. there should be no dripping until the pressure is within 300 psi (2067 kPa0 of the opening pressure. NOTE: during the testing procedures, there should be very little if any fuel flowing from the tube. If enough fuel is leaking past the nozzle valve and seat to flow out of the fuel return tube during testing, the nozzle should be repaired or replaced.

Assembly and Opening Pressure Adjustment 1. Clamp the nozzle body in a vise with the nozzle nut end up. 2. Place the adjusting shim(s) in the nozzle body. If the opening pressure of the nozzle needs to be adjusted change the shims(s) accordingly. Add shims, or change to a larger shim to increase the pressure. Remove shims or change to a smaller shim to reduce the pressure. Place the spring, push rod and locating pins in the nozzle body. Place the spacer over the locating pins and check the alignment. Submerge the nozzle valve and nozzle seat separately in clean, filtered diesel fuel. Place the nozzle valve in the nozzle seat while holding the seat. Pull the valve out approximately .25 in. (6 mm).

5.

3.

4.

5.

76

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Release the valve, it should slide into the seat by itself. Turn the valve in the seat and repeat several times. If the valve does not consistently slide smoothly into the seat, replace the nozzle valve and seat set. NOTE: When installing a new nozzle valve and seat set, thoroughly clean them in solvent to remove the anti-rust compound and then follow the above procedures before installing the set. 6. Carefully place the nozzle valve and seat set on the locating pins and the spacer. Check the alignment. Install the nozzle nut and torque to 29 to 36 ft-lb (39 to 49 Nm) Attach the nozzle assembly to a nozzle tester and test the opening adjustment, carefully disassembly the nozzle, change the shim(s) as required, and assemble and test the nozzle to obtain the correct opening pressure. NOTE: Adjust opening pressure so that it is 200 psi (1379 kPa) more than what specifications call for 2833 to 2904 psi (19,534 to 20,023 kPa). The injection nozzles push rod, spring and adjusting shim need to seat themselves. The over-adjustment of opening pressure will compensate for the seating of the push rod, spring and adjustment shim. If further work is needed, send the nozzle to a diesel injection service shop.

7.

77

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

3 8 4 9

1. Adjusting Shim 2. Spring 3. Push Rod

4. Spacer Rod 5. Nozzle Valve and Seat 6. Nozzle Nut

7. Fuel Return Tube 8. Nozzle Body 9. Locating Pins

78

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Transfer Pump
The transfer pump is driven by a cam on the injection pump idler gear and forces fuel through the filter to the injection pump. When the system reaches design fuel pressure, this pressure prevents the spring from returning the piston until some fuel is used. The pressure then drops allowing the spring to return the piston, this maintains a fairly constant system pressure. The transfer pump should maintain 18 to 20 psi (124 to 138 kPa) fuel pressure at the injection pump in a spin-on filter fuel system, and should maintain 7 psi (48 kPa) in the box type filter fuel system. Transfer Pump Inspection 1. Remove the transfer pump and depress the tappet with a finger. If tappet cannot be depressed fully, it indicates that the push rod, tappet or the piston is seized or sticking. If the tappet can be depressed fully and the hand pump operates properly, the piston may have excessive clearance. Remove the plug screw. NOTE: The plug screw is under slight spring pressure. 4. 5. Examine the piston for wear. The clearance between the piston and body is 0.001 (0.025 mm). If the clearance is excessive or piston or body is scored, the pump will require replacement. 1 1 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Hand Pump Assy. 11. O-Ring Spring Valve Eyebolt Gasket Adapter Piston Spring Gasket 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Plug Eyebolt Tappet Guide Pin Roller Snap Ring Washer Plug

2.

3.

Exploded View of di 2.2 Transfer Pump

1.

Cam Lobe

1.

Cam Lobe Fuel Intake and Delivery

1.

Cam Lobe Control of Fuel Delivery

Beginning of Fuel Delivery

Transfer Pump Operation

79

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Pump Assy.-hand O-Ring Spring Valve Bolt-eye Gasket-eye bolt

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Adapter Gasket Plug Not Used Gasket Bolt-eye

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Tappet Guide Pin Roller Ring Washer

19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Plug Piston Spring Gasket Plug

Exploded View of se 2.2 Transfer Pump

80

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Transfer Pump Testing


Assemble the transfer pump and perform the following tests. Air Pressure Test Cap off the outlet, screw in the hand pump handle and tighten. Apply pressure to the inlet at 28 psi (193 kPa) and submerge the transfer pump in clean diesel fuel. A small amount of air, 1.8 cu. in. / min. (30 cc/min), should be leaking between the push rod and pump body. Any other air leaks should be repaired. Suction Test Installing the transfer pump and disconnect the fuel solenoid. 1. Connect a fuel hose approximately 6.6 ft (2 m) long to the inlet adapter. Keep the hand pump handle screwed all the way in. Position a container filled with diesel fuel about 3.3 ft (1 m) below the level of the transfer pump, and place the loose end of the hose into the diesel fuel in the container. Turn the engine over with the starter. The transfer pump should pump fuel out of the outlet within 60 revolutions. If more than 120 revolutions are required to pump fuel through the pump, repair or replace the transfer pump. 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hand Pump Small Air Leak Normal Outlet Check Valve Push Rod 6 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Fuel Strainer Filter Inlet Check Valve Pump Body 1

2 10 3

2.

4 5

3.

Cutaway View of Transfer Pump

81

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Installation and Timing of Injection Pump


Currently there are three generations of 2.2 engines in service and two different types of injection pumps and timing marks. NOTE: You must verify which type of engine you have before proceeding with the installation on the injection pump. First Generation di 2.2 Engines a. b. c. produced through April 1992 have coarse mesh timing gears 14 Timing Mark

14 Timing Mark First & Second Generation Engines

Second Generation se 2.2 Engines a. b. c. produced April 1992 through December 1998 have coarse mesh and fine mesh timing gears 14 Timing Mark

Third Generation 2.2 EPA / Low Noise Engines a. b. c. d. 1. beginning 1998 serial number begins with E have fine mesh timing gears 6 Timing Mark

Remove the rocker arm cover and rotate the engine in the direction of rotation, clockwise from the front, until both push rods on No. 1 cylinder are loose and the injection timing mark on the flywheel lines up with the pointer in the bellhousing. NOTE: First and Second Generation engines have 14 timing marks, while Third Generation EPA/Low Noise engines have 6 timing marks.

6 Timing Mark Third Generation Engines NOTE: The injection timing mark is a line scribed in the flywheel. The 14 mark is approximately 1-3/8 in. (35 mm) from the TC mark and the 6 mark is approximately 5/8 in. (1.6 mm) from the TC mark. The injection timing mark has no identification markings other than the scribed line.

82

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

First and Second Generation Engines On First and Second Generation Engines only, an alternative method is to remove both access covers from the timing gear cover and rotate the engine in the direction of rotation until the O on the cam gear lines up with the pointer in the cam gear access hole, and the injection timing mark lines up with the pointer in the bellhousing. The engine now has No. 1 cylinder at the fuel injection mark of its compression stroke. 1. Before installing the pump, rotate the pump gear until the O marked on the gear is approximately in the 10 oclock position as you face the gear end of the pump. Install the pump in the engine lining up the O with the timing mark cast into the access hole. Install and torque the injection pump mounting bolts. 1. Timing Mark Injection Pump Timing Mark

2.

3.

1. 2.

Injection Pump Gear Access Hole 3. Cam Gear Access Hole

Access Cover

Timing Gear Marks

83

Fuel System (Rev. 5/01)

Third Generation EPA/Low Noise Engines On Third Generation EPA/Low Noise Engines only, the O on the cam gear and injection pump gear will not line up with the pointer. The O on the cam gear will be approximately 1-1/2 notches from the pointer, and the O on the injection pump gear will also be approximately 1-1/2 notches from the pointer. The Os will be positioned as shown.

2.

Rotate the engine backwards, counterclockwise from the front to approximately 3.5 in. (89 mm) from the TC mark on the flywheel. Adjust the dial indicator to zero. The pump plunger should be at the bottom of its stroke. To check this, rotate the engine back and forth no more than 0.5 in. (13 mm). The dial indicator should stay at zero. Rotate the engine forward, clockwise from the front, to the injection timing mark. The dial indicator should now show the pump plunger is at 0.020 in. (0.5 mm) from the bottom of its stroke and ready to inject fuel. If the timing position is not correct, loosen the bolts on the front flange of the pump. NOTE: The di 2.2 has two bolts on the front flange. The se 2.2 has three bolts on the front flange.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

If the dial indicator shows a figure larger than 0.020 in. (0.5 mm). rotate the top of the pump away from the engine until the dial indicator reads the correct value. A smaller figure requires the pump be turned in towards the engine until the correct value is reached. Tighten the bolts and lock the pump in position. Perform a final check by turning the engine backwards, counterclockwise from the front, beyond the injection timing mark and then clockwise back to the injection timing mark. The dial indicator should now be at 0.020 in. (0.5 mm). Slight adjustments may be necessary. Remove the dial indicator and replace the timing bolt.

8. Third Generation Engine Timing Mark Checking the Timing using a Dial Indicator 1. Remove the 8 mm timing bolt located at the back of the injection pump between the injection lines. Install the special dial indicator, P/N 204-589 in its place. Make sure the adapter bottoms out slightly on the pump housing. Insert the dial indicator into the adaptor until the dial indicator contacts the pump plunger. Preload the dial indicator at least 0.080 in. (21 mm) and lock the dial indicator in place by tightening the locking collar. 9.

84

Electrical

Gear Reduction Starter (Hitachi)


Construction and Operating Principle The gear reduction starter consists of a motor that develops starting torque, a gear reduction pinion assembly and a starter solenoid. The starter solenoid energizes the motor and shifts the pinion assembly to mesh with the engine ring gear. The smaller armature shaft gear meshes with the larger gear of the pinion assembly, producing the speed reduction and torque increase. Motor The motor is a series wound dc motor, meaning the armature and field coil windings are wired in series.

Starter Solenoid The starter solenoid actuates the shift lever that forces the pinion assembly to mesh with the ring gear and holds it in position while cranking. Contacts in the starter solenoid conducts electrical power to the motor. A series winding actuates the shift lever and closes the contacts. A shunt winding holds the switch in that position until the starter switch is opened. Pinion Assembly The pinion assembly has an over-running clutch that allows the pinion shaft to turn freely after the engine ring gear spins the pinion faster than starter motor speed. Troubleshooting To identify faults in the starter system, refer to the troubleshooting flow chart. 1 3

7 5 1. Armature 2. Field Coil 3. Brush 4. Rear Cover 5. Pinion Shaft 6. Pinion Clutch Reduction Starter Construction 2. 3. 4. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Gear Case Shift Lever Torsion Spring Starter Solenoid Armature Shaft Gear 1. Start/Preheat Switch Series Coil Shunt Coil Armature Reduction Starters Electrical Circuit 5. 6. 7. Field Coil Battery Solenoid Contacts 6 4

85

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

Engine does not start. Does starter rotate?


NO YES

NO 1

Does engine tun over with continued cranking?

Is there anything unusual about the meshing of the pinion and ring gear teeth?
NO

Check the pinion clutch for damage. Replace if necessary.


YES

Check pinion motion. Check the shift lever for deformation, the torsion spring for excessive wear and the pinion for free movement. Check the condition of the pinion and the ring gear teeth.

NO

(or turns slowly) Does the flywheel rotate?


YES

YES

Check the batterys charge, the battery terminal connections and condition.
NO

Check fuel system.

Check the consistency of the oil in the engine. Is it thick?


NO

YES

Charge or replace battery. Repair connections and clean corrosion off battery terminals. Change engine oil.

Does the engine turn over if the starter is replaced?


NO

YES

Repair or replace starter.

(or rotation is slow)

Inspect the inside of the engine.

Starter does not stop if start switch is turned off.

Repair or replace start switch, starter relay or starter solenoid. Troubleshooting Chart

CAUTION: If any abnormality is found, immediately disconnect battery negative terminal.

86

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

Check the batterys charge, the battery terminal connections and condition.

NO

Charge or replace battery. Repair connections and clean corrosion off battery

O.K.

Can you hear the starter solenoid operating?

NO

Check and repair wiring and connections between starter solenoid and starter switch. Check and replace if necessary: Starter switch Starter solenoid

YES

Remove starter from engine. Does starter turn under no load conditions by connecting battery positive terminal to M terminal of starter and battery negative terminal to the starter case?

NO

Check brushes. If worn, replace. If there is no wear on the brush, replace the motor (including the field coil and armature).

YES

The starter solenoid contacts are faulty. Replace.

Troubleshooting Chart

87

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

Starter Disassembly and Overhaul


1. Remove the 8 mm terminal nut from the starter solenoid, and disconnect the stator lead wire.

3.

Lift the brush springs with a brush spring lifter tool so that the negative brush is separated from the surface of the commutator. Then remove the brushes connected to the field coil windings. Remove the brush holder assembly. Remove the armature from the stator. Remove the stator from the gear case.

4. 5.

1.

8 mm Terminal Nut

Removing Terminal Nut 2. Remove the 4 mm bolts from the rear cover, remove the 5 mm through bolts from the motor, and remove the rear cover. Removing Brush Holder Assembly

1 2 1. 4 mm Bolts 2. 5 mm Bolts Removing Armature and Stator

Removing Rear Cover

88

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

6.

Remove the 6 x 10 mm bolts that mount the starter solenoid. Then remove the starter solenoid from the gear case, and remove the torsion spring . 1 2

8.

Remove the three 4 mm bolts holding the bearing retainer to the gear case, and remove the bearing retainer. 1 2

3 1. 2. 6 x 10 mm Bolts Starter Solenoid Removing Starter Solenoid 7. Remove the dust cover and then the shift lever from the gear case . 3 2 1 3. Torsion Spring 1. 2. 4 mm Bolts Bearing Retainer 3.

Gear Case

Removing Bearing Retainer and Pinion Assembly 9. Remove the pinion assembly from the gear case. Using a slotted screwdriver, remove the pinion stop clip from the pinion while pushing the pinion stop toward the pinion.

1. 2.

Dust Cover Shift Lever

3.

Gear Case

Removing Dust Cover and Shift Lever Removing Pinion Stop Clip 10. Remove the pinion stop and retaining spring from the pinion shaft. Remove the pinion shaft from the clutch assembly.

89

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

2. 1 2

Test for continuity between the S and M terminals. If there is no continuity, the series coil is open and the switch must be replaced. 1

4 5

1. 2. 3.

Pinion Stop Clip Pinion Stop Retaining Spring

4. 5.

Pinion Clutch Pinion Shaft

Disassembling Pinion Assembly Starter Inspection 1. The starter solenoid can be tested with an ohmmeter. First, test for continuity between the S terminal and switch body. If there is no continuity, the shunt coil is open and the switch must be replaced. 2 1. S Terminal 2.

AGA144

M Terminal

Testing Series Coil 3. Test the continuity of the solenoid contacts, between the B and M terminals. Press the plunger into the solenoid to check the continuity. Try this test several times while wiggling the plunger. Roughness or corrosion may make the continuity of the contacts unreliable; if so, replace the solenoid. 1

1 2

AGA143

1.

Switch Body

2. S Terminal 1. B Terminal

AGA145

Testing Shunt Coil

2.

M Terminal

Testing Solenoid Contacts

90

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

Brush Holder Assembly 1. Test the brush holder assembly with an ohmmeter. The positive brush holder should show infinite resistance to the plate and negative brushes should have continuity to the plate.

Test Brush Springs


AEA370

Stator Assembly 1. Inspect the stator and field coils for any damage, loose field cores, or signs of overheated field coils such as discolored or burnt insulation. Field coils that show signs of overheating should be replaced. Check the field coils for continuity from each brush or brush lead wire to the stator lead wire.

Testing Brush Holder Assembly 2. Measure the length of the brushes. Replace all the brushes as a set if any brush is less than 0.35 in. (9 mm) on the short side. 2.

1
AEA371

1. Brush Measure Brush Length 3. Inspect the brush springs for signs of overheating or other damage. Measure the brush spring tension with a spring scale. The tension should be 5.5 - 7.7 lb (2.5 3.5 kg) at the point of contact with a brush sitting on the commutator. Replace the brush springs if necessary

AEA373

Testing Field Coils

91

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

3.

Test the field coil insulation. Place an ohmmeter on Rx1000 and check from the stator lead wire to the stator case. The ohmmeter should show infinite resistance. Any continuity indicates bad insulation. NOTE: If one coil is bad all the coils will show continuity. Check the coils individually to isolate the bad one.

Measure Commutator Diameter 3. Using a dial indicator and a lathe, check the armature core for surface distortion, deflection and out of round. Check the commutator for roughness, corrosion and out of round. The maximum deviation is .004 in. (0.10 mm). It may be possible to turn the armature to meet specifications. Clean the commutator with fine sandpaper (500-600 grit). Turn the commutator in a lathe if needed.
AEA373

Testing Field Coil Insulation 2 Armature Assembly 1. Inspect the armature and commutator for any thrown solder, deformed windings, signs of overheating and shaft or gear damage. Measure the commutator on the brush path. The standard diameter is 1.44 in. (36.5 mm). Replace the armature if the commutator is less than 1.40 in. (35.5 mm). 1. Commutator 2. Core 1

2.

AGA141

Dial Indicate Armature

92

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

5.

Test the armature for open or shorted coils using a growler. An ammeter or a test light is used to check the current induced into the armature by the growler. Move the test leads from commutator segment to commutator segment while rotating the armature in the growler. An open or shorted coil will show no or low current and will not light the test light. If a coil is bad, replace the armature. Test insulation of the armature coils. Using a growler, test for current between the commutator segments, test for current between the commutator segments and the core and shaft. An ammeter should show no current and a test light should not light. Using a ohmmeter on Rx1000, there should be no continuity. If the insulation is bad replace the armature. Check the armature bearings. The bearings should be smooth and quiet. Replace the bearings if they are rough, noisy or have excessive free play.

6.

AEA375

Clean Commutator 7. 4. After turning the commutator in a lathe, check the undercut of the insulating material. If the undercut is less than 0.008 in. (0.2 mm), file it down to 0.20-0.031 in. (0.5-0.8 mm) 1 2 3

Correct
AEA377

Testing Armature Insulation


AGA142

Incorrect 1. 2. Insulator 3. Commutator Segments

Undercut 0.020 - 0.031 (0.5 - 0.8 mm) Insulating Material Undercut

93

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

Pinion Assembly 1. Inspect the pinion assembly for signs of wear, damage or corrosion. Check the pinion clutch operation. While holding the clutch gear stationary, rotate the pinion shaft. It should turn smoothly in one direction and the clutch should lock in the other direction. 4. Check the bearing. The bearing should be smooth and quiet. Replace the bearing if the bearing is rough, noisy or has excessive free play.

2.

Bearing Check 5. Check Pinion Clutch 3. Push on the shift lever end of the pinion shaft and see that the pinion slides out smoothly. Repair any roughness or stiffness. Excessive grease may make the motion stiff, so only a light coating of grease should be used. After completing these checks, lightly grease the pinion shaft and assemble the pinion assembly.

Starter Reassembly The reduction starter can now be assembled. Where lubrication is required, use light grease. Observe the torque specifications shown below when tightening bolts.

Bolt 4 mm Bearing Retainer 4 mm Rear Cover 5 mm through 6 mm Solenoid Mount

Torque 15 - 20 in.-lb (1.7 - 2.3 Nm) 15 - 20 in.-lb (1.7 - 2.3 Nm) 43 - 55 in.-lb (4.9 - 6.2 Nm) 51 - 72 in.-lb (5.8 - 8.1 Nm)

8 mm Solenoid Terminal Nut 64 - 85 in.-lb (7.2 - 9.6 Nm)

1.

Place the pinion assembly in the gear case. Install the bearing retainer and bolts. Install the shift lever, torsion spring and dust cover.

2. Check Pinion Clutch

94

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

3.

Place the solenoid in the shift arm and gear case, pry the pinion forward to aid assembly, install the solenoid mount bolts. 1 2 3

If the motion is outside this range, the solenoid mounting must be adjusted as follows: First, remove the 6 mm bolts holding the solenoid to the gear case. Do not disconnect the shift lever. Second, rotate the spacer washers to increase or decrease the spacing. Increasing the spacing will decrease the pinion motion. Finally, replace the solenoid mount bolts and measure the pinion motion. Repeat the spacing adjustment until the measurement falls in the specified range. 5. Place the stator on the gear case. Place the armature in the stator and check that the armature shaft gear meshes with the pinion clutch gear. Install the brush holder assembly. Place the brushes in the brush holder and check that the brushes move freely. Place the brush springs on the brushes and check that the springs hold the brushes against the commutator.

1. 2.

Gear Case Dust Cover

3.

Starter Solenoid

6.

Solenoid and Shift Lever Assembly 4. After assembly, connect a 12 Volt battery to the solenoid, positive to the S terminal and negative to the the M terminal. The pinion snaps out into the engaged position. Measure the additional distance the pinion travels when pulled out to its stop. The additional distance should be 0.012-0.059 in. (0.3-1.5 mm).

7.

8.

Brush Spring Tension 9. Pinion Motion Check If the brush spring tension have not already been checked, measure the brush spring tension with a spring scale. The tension should be 5.5-7.7 lb.(2.5-3.5 kg). Replace the brush springs if necessary. 10. Install the rear cover, rear cover bolts and through bolts.

95

Electrical (Rev. 5/01)

No Load Test To check the starter specifications, perform the following test. However, do not run the test for more than 30 seconds at a time. 1. Set the starter securely on a test bench and make the connections. 1

Glow Plugs
Glow plugs heat the combustion chamber to aid in quick starting. They are energized when the preheat switch is pressed and when the starter switch is pressed. The heating element is encased in the stainless steel sheath filled with sintered magnesium oxide powder. One end of the heating wire is connected to the center electrode. The glow plugs are connected in parallel so that if one of them fails, the other plugs will remain operative. 2 To check for defective glow plug, remove the bus bar between the glow plugs. Using an ohmmeter, check each plug individually for continuity, dead shorts to ground and for a resistance of approximately 1.8 ohm. Normally, each plug should draw approximately 7 amps. 4

1. 2.

Switch Ammeter

3. 4.

Battery Voltmeter

Starter Connections 2. When the switch is turned on, current flows through the starter in a no-load condition. The no-load current should be less than 140 amps, the voltage should be 11 volts and the speed 3,900 rpm. NOTE: Do not run the starter with no load for more than 30 seconds or damage to the starter will occur.

3.

96

Run In Procedure

Engine Run In
The run in of a rebuilt engine will often determine the oil consumption, power output, and other variables during the service life of the engine. It is important to run in a rebuilt engine properly. How an engine will be run in is determined by the type of equipment and the time that is available. Thermo King recommends an engine be run in on a dynamometer if possible. Pressurize the lubrication system of the engine with an oil pressure tank if the engine has been stored for any length of time. This prevents a dry start. All new or rebuilt engines should be run in low speed for the first 10 minutes when initially started. This ensures that any air is purged from the cooling system and that oil flow is established to all parts of the lubrication system.

2.

Slowly add coolant into the system until you see coolant at the accumulator hose fitting on the thermostat housing, or at the accumulator hose if the hose was disconnected from the accumulator, or at the bypass hose fitting. Connect the accumulator hose to the thermostat housing or the accumulator, or connect the bypass hose to its fitting. Add coolant into the system until it appears to be full. Make sure the amount of coolant that goes back into the system is approximately equal to the amount of coolant that came out of the system. Start the engine and let it run for 1 minute in LOW SPEED, and then shut it off. Check the coolant level and add coolant if necessary. Repeat steps six and seven until the coolant level stabilizes.

3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

Bleeding Air from the Coolant System


Air must be thoroughly bled from the block before the engine is started. NOTE: If the engines runs with air trapped in the block, the engine may be damaged. The high water temperature switch may not protect an engine that has air trapped in the block. A high water temperature switch is designed to measure the temperature of engine coolant, it cannot measure trapped air in the block. Normally when the cooling system on a di 2.2 or se 2.2 engine is drained, approximately 8 qt. (7.6 l) of coolant drains out. Often when the system is refilled, it appears that about 4 qt. (3.8 l) of coolant fill the system. This happens because air is trapped in the engine block. Air can be trapped in the block by coolant that remains above the thermostat after the system is drained. NOTE: Do not start the engine without bleeding the air out of the block. 1. Disconnect the accumulator hose from the thermostat housing or from the accumulator before adding coolant into the cooling system. On units without accumulator hoses, disconnect the bypass hose under the thermostat housing.

8.

Dynamometer Run In Procedure


1. Pressurize the lubrication system of the engine with an oil pressure tank if the engine has been stored for any length of time. This prevents a dry start. Start the engine and run it at 1400 rpm with a light load of 2-3 hp. Run the engine at 1400 rpm for 15 minutes with approximately 5 hp load. Run the engine at 2200 rpm for 30 minutes with a 8-9 hp load. Run the engine at 1400 rpm for 30 minutes with a 5 hp load. Run the engine at 2200 rpm for 10 minutes with a 1012 hp load.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

If time permits, additional run in time is desirable. Vary the speed and load in ranges between 3 to 8 hp and 1400 to 2200 rpm ranges.

97

Run In Procedure (Rev. 5/01)

Run In Procedure Without Dynamometer If a dynamometer is unavailable, use the following procedure: 1. Run the engine on a test stand with no load for approximately 15 minutes in both low speed (1400 rpm) and high speed (2200 rpm). Check the engine for abnormal noises, coolant, fuel, or oil leaks. NOTE: DO NOT run a newly rebuilt engine without a load for a long period of time. This can cause the engines oil consumption to be higher than normal. 2. Mount the engine in a unit and run the unit on high speed heat for 2 hours. Occasionally return the unit to low speed heat to vary the compression pressures and engine temperatures. Mount the unit on a trailer and run the unit in high speed heat with trailer doors open for 2 to 10 hours depending on the time available.

Engine Test Stand

3.

Valve Clearance Adjustment


NOTE: Remove the wire from the fuel solenoid to prevent the engine from starting and causing personnel injury. 1. Remove the rocker arm cover. Torque the cylinder head bolts to 63 ft-lb (85 Nm) before adjusting the valves. The valve clearance should be checked after the first 500 hours of engine operation. It is very important that the valves be adjusted to the correct specifications for satisfactory engine operation. Insufficient valve clearance will result in compression loss and misfiring resulting in burned valves and seats. Excessive valve clearance will result in noisy valve operation and abnormal wear of the valves and rocker arms. The intake and exhaust valves are adjusted with the valves closed.

Go Power Dynamometer

2.

The valves are adjusted to 0.016 in. (0.4 mm). When the right gap is obtained, BE SURE to tighten the lock while holding the adjusting screw in position.

98

Run In Procedure (Rev. 5/01)

Turn the engine using a wrench on the front crankshaft bolt. 1 2

3.

Turn the crankshaft clockwise from the front, until the TC mark on the flywheel aligns with the pointer om the flywheel housing.

AGA148

1.

Adjustment Screw 2.

Lock Nut

Valve Clearance

Top Dead Center Marks 4. Wiggle the push rods on the No. 1 intake and exhaust valves. If both rods are loose enough to turn freely, the No. 1 piston is at TDC on the compression stroke. This is the first adjusting position. If instead, the No. 1 push rods are tight and the No. 4 are loose, the No. 4 piston is at TDC in the compression stroke. Turn the crankshaft clockwise from the front, until the TC mark on the flywheel is aligned. Now both No. 1 push rods should be loose, and No. 1 piston at TDC of the compression stroke.

AGA114

Adjusting the Valve Clearance

99

Run In Procedure (Rev. 5/01)

5.

Adjust both valves on the No. 1 cylinder, the intake valve on the No. 2 cylinder, and the exhaust valve on the No. 3 cylinder. Turn the crankshaft one full turn, clockwise from the front, and align the TC mark. This is TDC of the No. 4 cylinder compression stroke. Adjust the No. 2 exhaust valve, the No. 3 intake valve, and the No. 4 intake and exhaust valves. Front
Cylinder Number Valve Arrangement Piston in Number 1 cylinder is at TDC on compression stroke. Piston in Number 4 cylinder is at TDC on compression stroke. E 1 I

7.

BE SURE to tighten each lock nut while holding the adjusting screw in position. Install the rocker arm cover making sure that the gasket is in position.

8.

6.

Rear
2 E I E 3 I E 4 I

O O

O O O O

Valve Adjustments and Cylinder Configurations

100

Run In Procedure (Rev. 5/01)

Testing Engine Compression


Compression should be checked while the engine is near operating temperature. Procedure 1. Run the engine until operating temperature is reaching. Stop engine. Remove the wire from the fuel solenoid and loosen all 4 fuel lines at the injection nozzles. CAUTION: The fuel solenoid must be disconnected to prevent fuel from being injected into cylinder which could result in the engine starting during testing operations. The fuel lines must be loosened at the injection nozzles during the test because temperatures and pressures developed if the engine should fire would destroy the tester. The tester manufacturer will disclaim responsibility for damage resulting from firing.

3. 4. 5.

Remove all the glow plugs. Install a compression tester, P/N 204-439. Crank the engine with a starter and observe the reading. An engine in good condition will register 427 psi (2942 kPa) or more at cranking speed (250 rpm) using compression tester 204-439. Variations between cylinders should not exceed 10% of the compressor pressure (Because compression space is small and gauges vary in construction, readings will vary). The important factor in determining the engine conditions is the variation of compression pressures and hard starting due to lack of compression. NOTE: If the engine cannot be run, repeat Steps 2, 3, 4 and 5. Compression readings will be 10% lower than those of a warm engine.

2.

101

Run In Procedure (Rev. 5/01)

BLANK PAGE

102

Parts Interchange

se 2.2
The se 2.2 engine is the same as the di 2.2 engine with the following exceptions: Injection Pump Timing Gear Cover (Gear Case Cover) Front Plate (Gear Case Cover Backing Plate) Oil Base Transfer Pump Flywheel Housing Oil Filter and Oil Filter Base Water Pump Thermostat Housing Intake and Exhaust Manifolds The following information should be used as a guideline for interchanging these parts or the se 2.2 and di 2.2 engines themselves. Refer to Service Bulletin T & T 096 for more complete information. 3 2 1 4

Injection Pump
The se 2.2 injection pump and the di 2.2 injection pump cannot be interchanged. The se 2.2 injection pump has a three bolt mount. The di 2.2 injection pump has a two bolt mount. The flange that mounts the injection pump to timing gear cover and front plate cannot be exchanged because the bolt pattern is different. The se 2.2 flange has five bolts. The di 2.2 flange has six bolts. The timing gear cover and the front plate are not interchangeable because of the different (five or six bolt) pump mounting flanges. The injection pump gear is interchangeable. The flange that mounts the injection pump gear is not interchangeable because the bolt pattern has been shifted six degrees relative to the keyway (see Gear Mounting Flange Identification on page 104). 3

2 1

1. 2.

di 2.2 Two Bolt Mount di 2.2 Six Bolt Flange

3. 4.

di 2.2 and se 2.2 Gear di 2.2 Gear Mounting Flange

1. 2.

se 2.2 Three Bolt Mount se 2.2 Five Bolt Flange

3. 4.

di 2.2 and se 2.2 Gear se 2.2 Gear Mounting Flange

di 2.2 Injection Pump

se 2.2 Injection Pump

103

Parts Interchange (Rev. 5/01)

NOTE: Using the wrong gear mounting flange will cause problems because it changes the timing by six degrees. It is difficult to see the difference in the gear mounting flanges. Use the template to identify a gear mounting flange. The injection pump, the pump mounting flange, the timing gear cover, the front plate, and the gear mounting flange must all be the same type. To switch the injection pump from one type of engine to another would require replacing the entire front of the engine except for the timing gears.

Oil Base
The oil base on the se 2.2 engine is designed to be used with a three point mounting system and cannot be used on an engine that will be installed in a unit that has four point mounting system.

Gear Mounting Flange Identification


1. Place the gear mounting flange on the template with the black painted side facing down towards the paper. Line up the center hole and keyway in the flange with the center hole and keyway drawn on the template. One of the lines on the template will line up with one of the bolt holes in the flange. This line indicates the type of engine the flange is built for. se 2.2 Oil Base

2.

3.

Transfer Pump
1 2 The hand pump on the transfer pump for the se engine is mounted horizontally to clear the front door on the SMX unit. There is no clearance problems on Sentry, Super II, or SB units. Therefore the di 2.2 transfer pump can be used on the se 2.2 engines in these units. There may be some interference problems with the filter minder if an se 2.2 transfer pump is used on an older Super II or SB unit. The hand pump can be moved to a vertical position on the se 2.2 transfer pump by removing the adapter P/N 11-7413 and mounting the hand pump vertically. Exchanging transfer pumps between se 2.2 and di 2.2 engines may also require exchanging or transferring banjo bolts, plugs, etc.

1. di 2.2

2. se 2.2

Gear Mounting Flange Template

104

Parts Interchange (Rev. 5/01)

Oil Filter and Oil Filter Base


1 The se 2.2 engines uses a two stage oil filter that combines a full flow and a bypass filter. The base and the filter can be switched as an assembly. Either assembly will fit on either engine, but the dual element filter will not fit on the full flow filter base and the full flow filter will not fit on the dual element filter base.

1.

Remove to Install Hand Pump Vertically se 2.2 Transfer Pump

Flywheel Housing
The se. 2.2 flywheel housing can be used on di 2.2 engines. The di 2.2 flywheel housing can be used on se 2.2 engines with the following exceptions: SMX 50 units, Super II units built after June of 1992, and Sentry II 50 units built after September of 1993. 2

1. 2.

Oil Filter Base 11-5856 Dual Oil Filter 11-3712

di 2.2 Oil Filter and Oil Filter Base

se 2.2 Flywheel Housing

105

Parts Interchange (Rev. 5/01)

Crankcase Breather
The se 2.2 crankcase breather can be used on a di 2.2 engine if it is installed as a complete assembly. Adapter P/N 117389 must be installed and drain back fitting P/N 11-5572 must be installed in an available post in the oil base. The di 2.2 crankcase breather can be used on the se 2.2 engine if the drain back port in the oil base is plugged.

1 2

1. Oil Filter Base 11-2689 2. Dual Oil Filter 11-3712 se 2.2 Oil Filter and Oil Filter Base 2

1. 2.

Adapter 11-7389 Drain Back Fitting 11-5572

se 2.2 Crankcase Breather

106

Parts Interchange (Rev. 5/01)

Thermostat Housing
The accumulator water return port has been removed from from the thermostat housing for the se 2.2 engine. The se 2.2 thermostat housing can be used on di 2.2 engines if the accumulator hoses are rerouted. The di 2.2 thermostat housing can be used on se 2.2 engines except in SMX units.

Intake and Exhaust Manifolds


The se 2.2 intake and exhaust manifolds have been redesigned to reduce the engine width for the SMX unit. The se 2.2 intake manifolds can be used on di 2.2 engines. The di 2.2 intake manifolds cannot be used on the se 2.2 engine because the manifold hots the injection pump. The exhaust manifolds are interchangeable between the two engines but they are not easily interchanged between units designed for the other engine because of the exhaust connections. 1

1.

No Ports

se 2.2 Thermostat Housing

Water Pump
The outlet on the water pump for the se 2.2 engine has been shortened by an inch and the accumulator water hose port has been removed. Units with se 2.2 engines supply water to the accumulator from a port on the rear of the engine head. The se 2.2 water pump can be used on di 2.2 engines if the accumulator water lines are rearranged to the current configuration. The di 2.2 water pump can be used on se 2.2 engines except in SMX units. 1. Intake 2. Exhaust se 2.2 Intake and Exhaust Manifolds

1 1. No Port

se 2.2 Water Pump

107

Parts Interchange (Rev. 5/01)

Narrow Sump Engine Serial 3 Point Type Number Mount

Fine Mesh Timing Gears

Injection Timing

di 2.2 900074 14 se 2.2 992987 X 14 se 2.2 198650* X 14 X se 2.2 221207 X X 14 X X se 2.2 391775 X X 14 X X X se 2.2 E00001 X X 6 X X X *after engine serial number 999999 the numbers start over beginning with 100000 Engine Chart

Domed Timing Cover & Radial Damper Rear Pulley 8 Pin Main Boss Flywheel Seal X X

Axial Rear Main Seal

108