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Budaya Organisasi Dan Kepemimpinan

Budaya Organisasi Dan Kepemimpinan

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Introduction

Organization is social unit —composed of two or more people which interact to achieve a common goals.  As social unit, organization consist of people which have different background that influence individual behavior, and it is influence of organizational performance  The implication -- each organization must created values in which share together to coordinate and change of behavior

ORGANIZATION VALUES ARE :
1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Philosophy and Purpose of organization Organization System Organization Design (structure, job design, authority, responsibility, controlling, reward system) Organization Socializations Cadre forming

Change Process of behavior
To changes individual behavior toward organizational

behavior organization need leader which agree with the type of activities of organization and size of organization Basic criteria of leader: good in (a) physical (b) psychology (c) social-economic Sources of Power: (a) structure (b) personal attribute (education; experience; seniority) (c) situation Basic of organizational behavior is organization culture

1.

2.

3.

CHALLENGES OF LEADER
DIVERSITY 2. ETHIC BEHAVIOR 3. SKILL 4. PRODUCTIVITY 5. EMPOWERMENT 6. CREATIVITY 7. LOYALITY 8. CADRE FORMING KNOWLEDGE WORKER
1.

9.

In the changing world, organizations are facing liberalization containing global demand, including;

• • • • • •

Profesionalism and moral standard Quality standard for products and services Appreciation toward human rights Protection toward customer rights Accomplishment of business ethic codes Environment conservation – nature and heritage • Increase for local society’s quality of life

GLOBAL ISSUES in HUMAN RESOURCES

The development of additional education/training improvement for special expertises (marketing; personality)  Increasing labor mobilization between countries  Work forces with special ability and advanced education  Demographic change: more woman available

Empat kompetensi dasar manusia era kemajuan teknologi (Urlich-1990)
1.

2.

3.

4.

Memiliki kemampuan untuk memahami karakteristik paradoks antara keseimbangan untuk berpikir global, tetapi mampu bertindak lokal Memiliki kemampuan untuk menyeimbangkan antara bertindak efisien tetapi juga bisa meningkatkan penghasilan perusahaan melalui kreativitas, inovasi dan kewirausahaan Memiliki kemampuan memahami karakteristik keunggulan teknologi untuk memaksimalkan nilai tambah perusahaan Memiliki kompetensi individual yang memadai, dan seimbang dengan komitmen serta kemampuan untuk belajar dan berubah.

8 Kompetensi Sarjana Administrasi Masa Depan


• • • • • •

Membaca -- reading Menulis -- writing Mendengar -- listening Menganalisis -- analyzing Menghitung -- calculating Menyimpulkan -- concluding Bertutur -- speaking Menghayal -- imaging

LEADERSHIP: Definition
THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE A GROUP TOWARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION GOALS (Greenberg& Baron; Hall ; Daft; Kotter; Bennis)

Is ability to appriciate and to direct/drive others in order to be more qualified and more useful.

(Poerwanto: 2009)
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP:

AUTOCRATIC  DEMOCRATIC / PARTICIPATION  FREE-REIN / EMPOWERMENT  PRESTATION ORIENTATION

Leaders and Managers: distinguishing their roles: (Greenberg and Baron: 2003)
Formulate startegy for implementing that mission Increase people’s commitment and efford toward the mission and strategy Implement organizational strategy through others

Establish organizational mission

Leader’s role

Manager’s role

The Manager’s Roles
Henry Mintzberg: 1975—(Penghargaan dari McKinsey artikel terbaik 1975)

Formal Authority and Status

Interpersonal Roles:
• Figurehead • Leader

Informational Roles:
• Monitor • Disseminator

Decisional Roles:
• Entrepreneur • Disturbance handler • Resource allocator

• Liaison

• Spokesman

• Negotiator

The Integrated Job

Four roles of leadership:
(Covey The 8th Habits, 2005)

Leadership is not a position but a proactive struggle to enhance values and potentials of people in or arround the organization, unite them as a team that intercompleting to increase the effect and impact of important organization goal. Roles of leadership: Modeling / panutan : menjadi contoh Pathfinding / perintis : bersama-sama menuju arah yang dituju Aligning / penyelaras : menyusun dan mengelola sistem Empowering / pemberdaya : memberi wewenang dan memfokuskan pada hasil

    

What a succesful leader does?
A summary of a leader characteristics:
(Ulrich,Zenger, Smallwood, Result-Based Leadership: disalin dari Covey 2005)

Directing
(Vision, future, customer)

Personal characters
(habits, integrity, belief, analitical)

Mobilizing other’s commitment
(involving others, sharing power—delegation of authority)

Increasing organization ability
(building team, managing changes, creative and inovative)

Empat Kecerdasan /Kemampuan dari kodrat Manusia
1. Kecerdasan Mental (Intelligence Quotient—IQ) : adalah kemampuan manusia untuk menganalisis, berpikir dan menentukan hubungan sebag-akibat, berpikir secara abstrak, menggunakan bahasa, mengvisualisasikan sesuatu, dan memahami sesuatu ; 2. Kecerdasan fisik (PQ): adalah sebentuk kecerdasan yang dimiliki oleh tubuh manusia ; 3. Kecerdasan Emosional (EQ) : adalah pengetahuan mengenai diri sendiri, kesadaran diri, kepekaan sosial, empati, dan kemampuan untuk berkomunikasi dengan baik dengan pihak lain. 4. Kecerdasan Spiritual (SQ): merupakan pusat dan paling mendasar di antara kecerdasan yang lain, karena menjadi sumber bimbingan/pengarahan bagi tiga kecerdasan lainnya.

Some Folklore and Facts about Managerial Work
Mintzberg:1975

1.

2.

3.

4.

Mitos: manajer adalah perencana yang sistimatik dan reflektif. Kenyataan: manajer bekerja dg irama kerja yang tidak teratur, tergesa2 dari pekerjaan yang satu ke yg lainnya – cenderung aksi drpd refleksi Mitos: manajer yang efektif tdk terlibat dlm tugas2 rutin. Kenyataan: pekerjaan manajer rutin – upacara2, negosiasi atau semacam tugas humas. Mitos: manajer senior memerlukan informasi yg lengkap oleh suatu sistem informasi -- informasi formal. Kenyataan: informasi manajer banyak diperoleh dari oral— telpon, pertemuan2 Mitos: manajemen adalah gabungan antara ilmu dan profesi. Kenyataan: lebih mngandalkan kemampuan pertimbangan/ pendapat dan intuisi drpd menerapkan program dan prosedur yang sistimatis.

Three Basic Skills of Leader

Diagnosis

Communication

Adaptation

Basic of three basic skill of leader is

KNOWLEDGE

FUTURE LEADERSHIP
WARREN BENNIS: Managing People is Like Herding Cats: (1997)

Dua Proposisi:
1. 2.

Kepemimpinan adalah Karakter Pemimpin harus menciptakan sebuah tatanan sosial yang mampu meningkatkan modal intelektual melalui: FAST (Pesat) ; FOCUSED; FLEXIBLE; FRIENDLY; FUN (menyenangkan).

Empat hal yang diinginkan bawahan dari atasannya: 1. Tujuan 2. Kepercayaan 3. Optimisme 4. Tindakan dan hasil

Budaya Organisasi
Adalah seperangkat asumsi dasar yang dibangun atau diciptakan dan dianut bersama sebagai moral organisasi dalam beradaptasi dengan lingkungan eksternal dan proses integrasi internal. (Poerwanto,2006)  Budaya organisasi merupakan bauran dari; filosofi, nilai-nilai, norma-norma, keyakinan, ide-ide, dan mitos yang terintegrasi, untuk menentukan cara kerja dan perilaku organisasional.

Organizational Culture and Leadership
Edgar H.Schein: 1995

A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be relation to those problems. Culture and leadership are two sides of the same coin in that leaders first create cultures when they create groups and organizations.

Tiga tingkatan budaya: (Schein 1997)

Artefak, (artifacts) yaitu produk-produk nyata dari organisasi seperti arsitektur lingkungan fisik, bahasa, teknologi, kreasi artistik, tata ruang, cara berpakaian, cara berbicara, cara mengungkapkan perasaan, cerita tentang mitos dan sejarah organisasi, daftar nilai-nilai yang dipublikasikan, kegiatan ritual dan seremonial, serta perilaku.

Nilai-nilai, (espoused values) adalah apa yang secara ideal menjadi alasan untuk berperilaku. Nilai-nilai merupakan landasan dari komitmen organisasi. Nilai-nilai biasanya ditemukan oleh para pendiri seperti strategi-strategi, tujuan-tujuan, filosofi, serta cara pencapaian tujuantujuan—filosofi, visi, disiplin, sistem balas jasa, dan cara berinterkasi. Asumsi-asumsi dasar, (basic underlying assuptions) adalah apa yang tidak disadari, tetapi secara aktual menentukan bagaimana anggota organisasi mengamati, berpikir, merasakan dan bertindak. Budaya menetapkan cara yang tepat bagi organisasi untuk melakukan sesuatu sesuai dengan visi, misi dan tujuan-tujuan—keteladanan, pola komunikasi.

Peran Budaya Organisasi (Roles of organization culture) (Poerwanto: 2008)
Rasa memiliki identitas (identity) dan kebanggaan yang menciptakan perbedaan dengan organisasi lain (boundary-defining)  Mempermudah terbentuknya komitmen (commitment)  Memperkuat standar perilaku (behavior standard)  Menciptakan pola adaptasi (adaptation)  Sistem kontrol (control system)

Four dimension forces for successful culture
(Hickman & Silva 1984 and Poerwanto 2004)

Commitment

Competence

Cohesion

Consistency

Culture-Image-Social responsibility

Organizational Culture:
•Artifacts •Values •Assumptions

Corporate Social responsibility:

Image:
is a total impressions of organization

•Working condition •Consumer rights •Government regulation •Environmental friendly •Community rights

Citra--kesan

Culture and satisfaction of four stakeholders
Employee
Sense of belonging

Customer
Loyal & Potential

Corporate culture
Long term shareholder Cooperative

Investor

Community

Corporate Social Responsibility
(poerwanto:2010)

Tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dapat dipahami sebagai kebijakan-kebijakan dan tindakan-tindakan perusahaan dalam berinteraksi dengan lingkiungannya yang didasarkan pada etika. Dasar dari kebijakan dan tindakan adalah MORAL.

Managing Culture Diversity
Build organization values (ideology;
philosophy; system): Schein,1997; Kilmann,1989

Intercultural Communication: Hofstede
(1991)

Build Team Work (organizational design;
heroes): Costley; Melgoza; Todd,1994

Communication in organization
Communication: The transference and understanding of meaning (Robbins:2000) Communication: as the process by which a person, group, or organization (the sender) transmit some type of information (the massage) to another person, group or organization (the receiver) (Greenberg &
Baron:1995)

Function of communication in organization
1.

3.

Sharing information 2. Motivation Emotional expression 4. Control

Network of Communication

Formal:
(Vertical Communication) (1) Chain authority (2) Task Top-down and bottom-up communication

Informal:
(Open Communication) (1) Work group (2) Social group Horizontal or lateral communication

Media of organization communication

Verbal: transmission of message using word, either or spoken; Memos-telephoneletters

Non-verbal: Transmission of messages without the use of word; Style of dress -proxemics – status symbol – chronemies -- touching

KALBE FARMA

Core Values
Memberikan Pelayanan Terbaik kepada Pelanggan (Giving The Best to Customers)

Gigih untuk mencapai yang terbaik (Striving for Excellence)

Kerjasama yang kokoh (Strong Team Work)

Inovasi (Innovation)

Lincah (Agility)

INTEGRITAS (INTEGRITY)

The Effect Organizational Culture to Market Orientation of Employees on Three-star Hotels in Surabaya (Path Analysis)
Assumption (X1)

Adaptation (X2)

Market Orientation (Y)

Perception (X3)
Residual Var

Learning (X4)

The Effect Organizational Culture to Market Orientation of Employees on Three-star Hotels in Surabaya

Assumption (X1)

Adaptation (X2)

Market Orientation (Y)

Perception (X3)
Residual Var

Psychology

Anthropology Contributing Disciplines to the Organizational behavior field Social Psychology

Sociology

Political Science

MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

NEED OF COMPANY

NEED OF INDIVIDU

OB
NEED OF TEAM WORK

Security Goal Achieve ment Foundations of Group Behavior Status

Affiliation Power

SelfEsteem

BUDAYA ORGANISASI DAN KEPEMIMPINAN
(ORGANIZATION CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP)

Poerwanto

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