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Presented by: Group no. 20 Under guidance of: Er. I. C.

Choudhury

Motor operating principle What is star-delta starting Star-delta starter Why star-delta starting is used Comparison between star and delta current Advantages and disadvantages Practical circuit diagram Components Contactor Over load relay Timer Conclusion References

PREAMBLE

Faradays law:a. Whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic field an e.m.f. is induced in it. b. Whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in magnetic field it experiences a force.

The motor is connected in STAR during the starting and when the motor is accelerated close to the 75% of the rated speed, the motor is connected in DELTA.

With the windings in a star connection rather than the delta, the full voltage applied line to line is the same, but the voltage across the individual motor windings is reduced. The voltage is reduced by the inverse of the square root of 3 or 57.7% of full voltage. Starting Voltage Reduction =Vline /3 Hence starting current is reduced

First we will examine the normal running condition, i.e. when the motor is connected in Delta.

Now lets have a look what happens when the motor is connected in STAR, i.e. in the starting condition.

Advantages As calculated above, the most significant advantage is the reduction in starting current. The starting current will determine to a large extent: the size of the cables used, the size of the fuses, as well as the transformers. Requiring 67% less starting current can have a tremendous cost saving implication! Disadvantages As calculated above, the disadvantage of using star delta starting is the reduction in starting torque.

Increased run-up time

CONTACTORS
A contactor is an electrically controlled switch
used for switching a power circuit. It can be controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit The physical size of contactors ranges from a

device small enough to pick up with one hand,


to large devices approximately a meter (yard) on a side.

CONSTRUCTION
A contactor has three components. 1) The contact parts 2) Electromagnet 3) enclosure The contact parts are the current carrying parts of the contactor. This includes power contact, auxiliary contact and contact spring.

The electromagnet provides driving force to close the contacts. The coil input is either DC or AC depending on the contactor design.

Enclosure is a frame housing the contact and the electromagnet. Enclosure are made of insulating materials like Bakelite, Nylon 6 and Thermosetting plastic to protect and insulate the contacts.

To protect the motor when motor current is excessive, overload relay is connected in series with the supply to the motor. Overload relays : allow harmless temporary overloads (such as motor starting) without disrupting the circuit

will trip and open a circuit, if current is


high enough to cause motor damage over a period of time

can be reset once the overload is removed

Overload relays are rated by a trip class which defines the length of time it

will take for the relay to


trip in an overload condition. The most common trip classes are Class 10, Class 20, and Class 30.

Overload protection can be accomplished with the use of a bimetal overload relay. This component consists of a small heater element wired in series with the motor and a bimetal strip that can be used as a trip lever.

The bimetal strip is made of two dissimilar metals bonded


together. The two metals have different thermal expansion characteristics, so the bimetal strip bends at a given rate when

heated.
Under normal operating conditions, the heat generated by the heater element will be insufficient to cause the bimetal strip to bend enough to trip the overload relay.

As current rises, heat also rises.


The hotter the bimetal strip becomes, the more it bends. In an

overload condition, the heat


generated from the heater will cause the bimetal strip to bend until the mechanism is tripped, stopping the motor.

For an automatic star-delta starter

timer is required to change the


connection from star to delta after a specified time interval. In case of an electronics timer we can specify the time for which the motor operate in star connection as well as the transit time from star to delta.

When the supply voltage U is applied, the star-contact switches to on position and the set star-time t1 begins . After the interval t1 has expired the star-contact switches to offposition and the set transit-time t2 begins. After the interval t2 has expired the contact for the delta-contactor switches to on position. To restart the function the supply voltage must be interrupted and reapplied.

This type of starter is used upto 50 HP motors.

This method of starting of motor is simple, cheap, effective since very less power is lost in auxiliary components
This starter is used where high starting torque is not essential requirement

Practical book on electrical engineering- by P.S. Dhogal www.cselectrric.co.in

Theory and performance of electrical machines- by J.B.Gupta


Basic Electrical Engineering-by V.N.Mittle