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BIBLICAL HEBREW SUMMARY SHEET

2005 Mark D. Wessner www.wessner.ca




NOUNS WITH PRONOM. SUFF. OBJ. SUFF. PERSONAL PRONOUNS INTERROGATIVES NUMBERS
sg n. pl n. sg pl ? m. abs. f. abs.
3ms s : : who? s -s
3fs s . : what? :.: :-:
2ms z z z -s :-s s how? :: ::
2fs -s -s s where? .:s .:s
1cs . :.s ..s :: : :
3mp : : : :: ::
3fp PARTICIPLES .:: .::
2mp :: :: :: ms - mp : .:: . ::
2fp : : - fs - fp - .:- .:-
1cp . . . c. c.

VERB SYSTEM undersubject VOWELS IMPERATIVE
subject -- Passive Caus./Act. A I O/U ms - mp
Active qal piel hiphil fs fp .
Passive niphal pual hophal long
Reflexive niphal hithpael hiphil short

WITH THE PREFIX OF IMPERFECT, PRETERITE, JUSSIVE OR COHORTATIVE WITH THE PREFIX : :: : OF THE PARTICIPLE
I + dagesh + A class = Niphal A/I = Hiphil
I + any other vowel = Qal U = Hophal
A + I class (full) = Hiphil ind = Piel, Pual, Polel, Polal
A + any other vowel = Qal th = Hithpael, Hithpolel
U = Hophal
ind + A class + dagesh = Piel WITH THE PREFIX
ind + U class + dagesh = Pual I + dagesh + A class = Niphal impv/inf
-th = Hithpael, Hithpolel I + shewa + I class = Hiphil perf
A = Hiphil impv/inf
WITH NO PREFIX, BUT ALL 3 ROOT LETTERS U = Hophal perfect or infinitive
+ = Qal act. part. ind = Hiphil perf (with vowel reduction)
+ = Qal pass. part.
+ A = Qal inf. abs WITH THE PREFIX . .. . OF THE NIPHAL
+ any other vowel = Qal perfect . + in the ultima = Niphal inf. abs.
A + dagesh in 2nd rad. = Piel impv/inf . + in the ultima = Niphal participle
A + without dagesh = Qal impv (with ), Piel impv. . + in the ultima = Niphal perf.
I + dagesh in 2nd rad. = Piel perf.
I + suffixes = Qal impv. WITH NO PREFIX, ONLY 2 ROOT LETTERS
U + = Pual inf. abs. A = Qal perfect, participle or imperative
U + silent shewa and suffix = Qal impv./ inf. cons. I = Qal imperative, inf. cons.
U + any other vowels = Pual perfect U = Qal imperative, infinitive
ind (due to propretonic reduct) = Qal perf., impv., pass. part. ind + suffixes = Qal imperative
ind (not due to propretonic reduct) = Qal impv, inf. cons. = Qal inf. cons.

SC (perfective) - completed action / past (represented as a whole)
PC (non-perfective) - future / not specified as to perfectivity
Waw Rel. ( ) - represents a situation according to the perfective and relative to a preceding statement