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KEGAGALAN SCREENING PADA KASUS SAND CONTROL SUMUR X-TWIN DI LAPANGAN MANGUNJAYA, SUMATRA SELATAN

Undergraduate Theses from JBPTITBPP / 2010-01-12 15:55:51 Oleh : OMAR AL FAROUQ (NIM 12204011), Central Library Institute Technology Bandung Dibuat : 2009, dengan 1 file Keyword : Twin, Kekuatan formasi, tekanan formasi, Gravel-pack, Pengangkatan buatan Lapangan MangunJaya di Sumatra Selatan merupakan lapangan minyak tua yang telah berproduksi sejak 1936 oleh Shell. Kondisi reservoir yang dangkal dan berupa formasi batu pasir (sandstones) membuat lapangan tersebut mengalami masalah tingkat kepasiran yang tinggi. Di dalam makalah ini dibahas mengenai hasil pekerjaan di lapangan dalam analisis kasus kepasiran (sand control) pada sumur X-twin.

Ikut terproduksinya pasir pada saat memproduksikan fluida minyak, gas, maupun air dibawah permukaan bumi adalah permasalahan yang lama dan sering terjadi di industri migas. Hal ini tidak diharapkan karena berakibat terjadinya penurunan produksi sumur, kerusakan formasi, maupun kerusakan peralatan. Secara umum, munculnya produksi pasir selain diakibatkan laju produksi yang tinggi yang tidak terkendali juga karena kondisi dari formasi (reservoir) itu sendiri seperti faktor sementasi batuan, kekuatan formasi, tegangan (stress) di sekitar lubang bor, dan penurunan tekanan formasi (draw-down). Dari hasil sieve analysis, saya mencoba merekomendasikan stand alone screen pada sumur X-twin tanpa gravel-pack. Dipilih penggunaan screen selain karena praktis dan mudah juga biayanya murah dibandingkan metode sand-control lainnya. Dalam pengerjaannya bersama dengan PETRA sebagai pemilik lapangan, kegiatan ini mengalami kegagalan karena terjadi penyumbatan pada screen sehingga produksi sama dengan nol.

Selain itu, sumur X-twin yang baru selesai dibor pada akhir Juli 2008 sudah tidak mampu berproduksi secara alami. Tekanan reservoir yang telah turun tidak bisa mengangkat fluida sampai ke permukaan. Hal ini membuat metode pengangkatan buatan menjadi dominan pada lapangan ini terutama penggunaan Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) termasuk pada sumur X-twin. Deskripsi Alternatif : MangunJaya is an oil field in South Sumatra. It was produced by Shell since 1936. High abrasive or sand problem occurs from it because the condition of reservoir is shallow and sandstone formation. This paper discuss the result of my job in this field about sand control case in well X-twin.

Sand production at the times of producing fluids either that oil, gas, or water in subsurface is old problem and very often in the industry. This case is not expected an occurs because a decrease production well, formation damage, and also equipments failures. Generally, an appearance produce of sand not only high production rate of not control but also condition from formation (reservoir) likes a cementation factor, formation strength, tension in a around bore hole, and pressure drop formation (drawdown).

From the sieve analysis, I try to reccomendation using stand alone screen in well X-twin. The choise it because to easy, practice and more cheap than the another methos of sand control. In working together with PETRA as owner of field, the testing activities is failure because screen plugging or result of production is null.

Besides, ability of reservoir pressure is very down so needs using Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) in production well. A methods of artificial lift is very dominant using in a MangunJaya field because the fluids cannot be naturally productive.

Sumber: http://digilib.itb.ac.id/gdl.php?mod=browse&op=read&id=jbptitbpp-gdlomaralfaro-33984

Canada
See also: Athabasca Oil Sands and History of the petroleum industry in Canada (oil sands and heavy oil)

Syncrude's Mildred Lake mine site and plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta

Canada is the largest supplier of crude oil and refined products to the United States, supplying about 20% of total U.S. imports, and exports more oil and products to the U.S. than it consumes itself.
3 [20]

In 2006,

bitumen production averaged 1.25 million barrels per day (200,000 m /d) through 81 oil sands projects, representing 47% of total Canadian petroleum production. This proportion is expected to increase in coming decades as bitumen production grows while conventional oil production declines.
[1]

Most of the oil sands of Canada are located in three major deposits in northern Alberta. These are the Athabasca-Wabiskaw oil sands of north northeastern Alberta, the Cold Lake deposits of east northeastern Alberta, and the Peace River deposits of northwestern Alberta. Between them they cover over 140,000 square kilometres (54,000 sq mi)an area larger than Englandand hold proven reserves of 1.75 trillion barrels (28010 m ) of bitumen in place. About 10% of this, or 173 billion barrels (27.510 m ), is estimated by the government of Alberta to be recoverable at current prices, using current technology, which amounts to 97% of Canadian oil reserves and 75% of total North American petroleum reserves.
[1] 9 3 9 3

The Cold Lake deposits extend across the Alberta's eastern border into

Saskatchewan. In addition to the Alberta oil sands, there are major oil sands deposits onMelville Island in the Canadian Arctic islands, which are unlikely to see commercial production in the foreseeable future.

The Alberta oil sand deposits contain at least 85% of the world's reserves of natural bitumen (representing 40% of the combined crude bitumen and extra-heavy crude oil reserves in the world), but are the only bitumen deposits concentrated enough to be economically recoverable for conversion to synthetic crude oil at current prices. The largest bitumen deposit, containing about 80% of the Alberta total, and the only one suitable for surface mining, is the Athabasca Oil Sands along the Athabasca River. The mineable area (as defined by the Alberta government) includes 37 townships covering about 3,400 square kilometres (1,300 sq mi) near Fort McMurray. The smaller Cold Lake deposits are important because some of the oil is fluid enough to be extracted by conventional methods. All three Alberta areas are suitable for production using in-situ methods, such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The Alberta oil sands have been in commercial production since the original Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor) mine began operation in 1967. A second mine, operated by theSyncrude consortium, began operation in 1978 and is the biggest mine of any type in the world. The third mine in the Athabasca Oil Sands, the Albian Sands consortium of Shell Canada, Chevron Corporation, and Western Oil Sands Inc. [purchased by Marathon Oil Corporation in 2007] began operation in 2003. Petro-Canada was also developing a $33 billion Fort Hills Project, in partnership with UTS Energy Corporation and Teck Cominco, which lost momentum after the 2009 merger of Petro-Canada into Suncor. If approved,
[21]

upgraders were slated to begin output in 45 years.

With the development of new in-situ production techniques such as steam assisted gravity drainage, and with the oil price increases since 2003, there were several dozen companies planning nearly 100 oil sands projects in Canada, totaling nearly $100 billion in capital investment. With 2007 crude oil prices significantly in excess of the current average cost of production of $28 per barrel of bitumen,
[22] [22]

all of

these projects appear likely to be profitable. However, bitumen production costs are rising rapidly, with production cost increases of 55% since 2005, due to shortages of labor and materials.

The minority Conservative government of Canada, pressured to do more on the environment, announced in its 2007 budget that it would phase out some oil sands tax incentives over coming years. The provision allowing accelerated write-off of oil sands investments will be phased out gradually, so projects that had relied on them can proceed. For new projects the provision will be phased out between 2011 and 2015.
[23]

With oil prices setting new highs in 2007, tax incentives were no longer necessary to encourage oil sands projects in Canada. In July of that year, Royal Dutch Shell released its 2006 annual report and announced that its Canadian oil sands unit made an after tax profit of $21.75 per barrel, nearly double its worldwide profit of $12.41 per barrel on conventional crude oil.
[25] [24]

A few days later, Shell announced it had

filed for regulatory approval to build a $27 billion oil sands refinery in Alberta, one of $38 billion in new oil sands projects announced that week.

Oil sands development in Alberta is strongly opposed by some Canadian and other environmentalists. A pipeline from Alberta to Gulf coast refineries, Keystone XL is under consideration. [edit]Venezuela See also: Orinoco Belt and Energy policy of Venezuela
[26]

Outcrop of oil sands in the lower L'Enfer Formation (Pliocene) exposed at the Stollmeyer Quarry, near Parrylands, Trinidad and Tobago.

Located in eastern Venezuela, north of the Orinoco River, the Orinoco oil belt vies with the Canadian oil sand for largest known accumulation of bitumen in the world. Venezuela prefers to call its oil sands "extra heavy oil", and although the distinction is somewhat academic, the extra heavy crude oil deposit of the Orinoco Belt represent nearly 90% of the known global reserves of extra heavy crude oil, and nearly 45% of the combined crude bitumen and extra-heavy crude oil reserves in the world. Bitumen and extra-heavy oil are closely related types of petroleum, differing only in the degree by which they have been degraded from the original crude oil by bacteria and erosion. The Venezuelan deposits are less degraded than the Canadian deposits and are at a higher temperature (over 50 degrees Celsius versus freezing for northern Canada), making them easier to extract by conventional techniques. Although Venezuela's extra-heavy oil is easier to produce than Canada's bitumen, it is still too heavy to transport by pipeline or process in normal refineries. Lacking access to first-world capital and technological prowess, Venezuela has not been able to design and build the kind of upgraders and heavy oil refineries that Canada has. In the early 1980s, the state oil company, PDVSA, developed a method of using the extra-heavy oil resources by emulsifying it with water (70% extra-heavy oil, 30% water) to allow it to flow in pipelines. The resulting product, called Orimulsion, can be burned in boilers as a replacement for coal and heavy fuel oil with only minor modifications. Unfortunately, the fuels high sulfur content and emission of particulates make it difficult to meet increasingly strict international environmental regulations. Further development of the Venezuelan resources has been impeded by political unrest. Venezuela is less politically stable than a country such as Canada, and a two-month strike in 20022003 by employees of the state oil company was followed by the dismissal of nearly 20,000 staff. As tensions resolved, strike

leaders pointed to the reduction in Venezuela's domestic crude output as an argument that Venezuela's oil production had fallen. However, Venezuela's oil sands crude production, which sometimes wasn't counted in its total, has increased from 125,000 bbl/d (19,900 m /d) to 500,000 bbl/d (79,000 m /d) between 2001 and 2006 (Venezuela's figures; IAEA says 300,000 bbl/d). [edit]USA In the United States, oil sands resources are primarily concentrated in Eastern Utah. With a total of 32 billion barrels (5.110 m ) of oil (known and potential) in eight major deposits
9 3 [30] [27][28][29] 3 3

in the Utah counties of

Carbon, Garfield, Grand, Uintah, and Wayne. Currently, oil is not produced from oil sands on a significant commercial level in the United States, although the U.S. imports twenty percent of its oil and refined products from Canada, and over fifty percent of Canadian oil production is from oil sands. In addition to being much smaller than the oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada, the U.S. oil sands are hydrocarbon wet, whereas the Canadian oil sands are water wet. As a result of this difference, extraction techniques for the Utah oil sands will be different than those used for the Alberta oil sands. A considerable amount of research has been done in the quest for commercially viable production technology to be employed in the development of the Utah oil sands. A special concern is the relatively arid climate of eastern Utah, as a large amount of water may be required by some processing techniques.
[18]

Section 526 of the Energy

Independence And Security Act prohibits United States government agencies from buying oil produced by processes that produce more greenhouse gas emissions than would traditional petroleum including oil sands.
[31][32]

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_sands#Canada

The Chicontepec Basin (CB) contains 54% of Mexicos non-Cantarell proven reserves. The regions geology, however, makes extraction extremely challenging because sand distributions restrict oil flow. This low permeability characterizes the Basin and has led George Baker, publisher of Mexico Energy Intelligence, to conclude that the prospects for the area are suspect. Baker argues the potential of the CB is a highly speculative investment, given the adverse geological parameters of the field, the rapid annual decline rate of 50% and the low rate of initial production, typically below 150 barrels a day. The CB faces other issues as well: (a) this onshore system covers an extended area of 2,400 square miles, thus requiring extensive infrastructure development, (b) the overwhelming majority of the reserves are classified as heavy, (c) oil recovery rates barely reach 10% and the field is expected to peak in 2016. In his 2005 book, The Coming Oil Crisis, Colin Campbell claims Mexico systematically exaggerates the recoverable oil in the CB.
Sumber: Cantarell Is Not Mexicos Only Oil Production Problem
By Jude Clemente, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

Dari beberapa data lapangan, bahwa problem produksi yang sering dialami mempengaruhi laju produksi sumur adalah problem kepasiran beberapa cara teknik yang digunakan untuk menanggulangi problem kepasiran tersebut antara lain : 1. Sand Clean Up Dikerjakan dan dilaksanakan untuk sumur-sumur yang mengalami problem kepasiran dengan Field Up Rate (kecepatan pasir menutupi lubang sumur) yang paling rendah dan hanya mengganggu laju produksi secara berkala, karena lubang perforasi tertutup oleh pasir atau lempung. Teknik dan peralatan yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk Sand Clean Up adalah : a. Sand Bailer / Sand Pump Dimana alat ini berbentuk barrel yang dirangkai dengan tubing dan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang sumur dengan rangkaian tubing atau wire line dan sampai kedalaman yang diinginkan dan setelah barrel penuh berisi pasir, rangkaian tubing / wire line diangkat ke permukaan, selanjutnya pasir dibersihkan di permukaan, begitu seterusnya sampai tinggi pasir dibawah lubang perforasi. Semua operasi cabut masuk rangkaian tubing dan wire line menggunakan work over rig. Estimasi biaya : Work Over Rig Rp............ X 7 hari kerja US$ SDM Completion Fluid :......................... US$ Total :......................... US$ b. Clean Up Sand Membersihkan pasir dengan menggunakan rangkaian tubing atau coil tubing, dimana water gel di pompakan / disirkulasikan ke dalam lubang sumur sampai tinggi pasir dibawah tinggi lubang perforasi. Operasi tersebut menggunakan work over rig atau tubing unit. Estimasi biaya : Form Chemical Work Over Rig Personel Total

Contoh kasus: Dengan coil tubing unit Coil tubing US$ 35,000 Chemicals US$ 500 Personnel US$ 2,000 Total US$ 37,500 c. Vacum Clean Sand Dikerjakan dengan menggunakan Coil Tubing Unit (CTU) yang diujung coil tubing dipasang Vacum Tool yang dikoneksikan dengan Dual String Coil Tubing (diameter 2.375 dan 1.25), dimasukkan kedalam sumur dan dipompakan fluida water gel / fresh water melalui coil tubing menghasilkan efek jetting di Vacum Tool yang menghisap pasir dan mengalir ke permukaan melalui anmulus CT CT. Estimasi Biaya : Seandainya menggunakan Coil Tubing Unit : Coil Tubing Unit US$ 35.000 Chemicals US$ 500 Personnel US$ 2.000 Additional Charge US$ 2.000 Total US$ 39.500 2. Sand Consolidation Dikerjakan untuk sumur-sumur yang mengalami kepasiran dengan Fill Up Rate yang cepat / tinggi dan dapat merusak peralatan produksi (obrasive). Seperti pompa, tubing, drifice dll, sehingga laju produksi tidak optimum bahkan sumur tersebut tidak dapat berproduksi lagi. Peralatan yang digunakan untuk sand consolidation adalah : a. Screen / Slotted Liner, menggunakan screen yang ditempatkan I depan perforasi untuk mencegah dan manyaring pasir dari lubang perforasi. Ukuran lubang dari screen ditentukan oleh analisa butiran (sleve analisis) dari pasir produksi. Estimasi biaya Workover Rig US$. Screen Liner / m US$

Total US$ b. Gravel Pack, menggunakan gravel (pasir) yang ditempatkan di anmulus antara screen dan perforated casing, dengan cara dicampur dengan water gel dan dipompakan melalui gravel pack tool. Ukuran butiran dari butiran gravel tersebut ditentukan oleh analisa butiran (Sieve Analisis) dari pasir yang terproduksi. Estimasi biaya Pompa dll Chemicals Personel Total c. Sand Resin Coated, menggunakan pasir / gravel yang ditempatkan di formasi dengan cara dicampur dengan water gel dan dipompakan masuk ke dalam formasi dan di aktifkan resinnya dengan menggunakan activator. Estimasi biaya : Pompa dll Chemicals Resin Personel Total 3. Sand Fracturing Dilakukan untuk mengatasi sumur-sumur yang mengalami problem selain kepasiran juga mengalami problem kerusakan formasi (Formastion Damage) mis scale, filtrate lumpur/bonding semen jelek atau dikarenakan permeabilitas batuan yang rendah. Teknik dan peralatan yang dibutuhkan untuk sand frac adalah : A. Frac Pack Menggunakan fracturing unit yang digunakan untuk menempatkan pasir / gravel di formasi dan di screen-screen casing perforated anmulus, dengan cara memompakan pasir yang dicampur dengan water gel melewati gravel pack tool (Square Position) pada tekanan diatas tekanan rekam formasi, setelah jumlah pasir sesuai dengan fracturing program atau mengalami screen out. Gravel Pack Tool di set pada posisi (Circulated) dan di lanjutkan dengan memompakan pasir sampai kondisi pack di anmulus screen-casing tercapai. Estimasi biaya : Pompa

Chemicals, pasir Personel Total B. Damage Frac Menggunakan pasir / gravel yang ditempatkan di formasi dengan cara dicampur dengan water gel dan dipompakan dengan fracturing unit pada tekanan diatas tekanan formasi. Dengan terisinya formasi dengan pasir yang butirannya lebih homogen dan permeabilitasnya diharapkan formasi mengalami kenaikan permeabilitas dan mengalami stabilitas formasi yang lebih baik sehingga pasir tidak terproduksi ke lubang sumur.

Sumber: http://fatmapetroleum.blogspot.com/2011/06/masalah-kepasiran.html

Methods of Sand Control - Restricting the production rate of the well. This reduces the drag forces on the sand grains. This is often an uneconomical solution. Increasing the number and diameter of the perforations also reduces the flow velocity and drawdown pressures. - Gravel packing is the oldest and simplest method of sand control. Works in both on and off shore wells. - Sand consolidation; resins are injected into the formation binding the grains of sand while leaving pore spaces open. - Resin coated gravel packs; gravel coated with resin is placed in the casing and perforations. The resin binds the grains together which results in a strong but permeable filter. The excess is drilled out of the casing so the well is produced with a full opening wellbore. This can be used with or without a screen, can be placed using coiled tubing. The method of sand control will depend on such parameters as grain-size distribution, clay content, interval length, well deviation, flow rate and of course costs.

Title Production Problems in the Grass Creek Oil Field Authors Edward L. Estabrook, Midwest Refining Co. Source Published in Transactions, AIME, Volume 68, 1923, pages 1130-1137. Preview This paper gives a brief account of the geologic and production problems encountered in the Grass Creek oil field, the methods used in their solution, and the beneficial results obtained from the work. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance received from J. H. Pearson and Miss Ninetta A. Davis in the collection of the data and the preparation of the cross-sections. Permission for its publication was given by the officials of the Midwest Refining Co. and the Ohio Oil Co. The Grass Creek oil field is located in Ts. 98-99 W., R. 46 N., Hot Springs County, Wyo. The productive area includes about 2 mi. (4 km.) on the apex of a great anticlinal fold occupying more than 150 sq. mi. Fig. 1 shows the structural contours of the field. Oil was discovered in the field in June, 1914; development proceeded rapidly and production rose to a maximum in 1918. About 350 wells, 800 to 1500 ft. (243 to 457 m.) deep, have been drilled to reach the upper oil sands; two companies, the Ohio Oil Co. and the Midwest Refining Co., operate the entire field. The principal producing sands in the field are members of the Frontier Formation, a series of sands and shales occurring in the upper portion of the Colorado Group of the Upper Cretaceous series. These Frontier, or "Wall Creek" sands are also productive in the Salt Creek, Big Muddy, and Elk Basin fields and, therefore, are much the most important reservoirs of light oil in Wyoming. At Grass Creek, the sands in the Formation are more numerous than in the other fields and much less uniform in thickness and character. Usually, eight distinct beds are encountered and in some wells twelve sands have been reported.

Title Case Study: The Application of Sand Management Solution for Sarir Field in Libya Authors K. Qiu, SPE, Schlumberger; Y. Gherryo and M. Shatwan, SPE, AGOCO, Libya; R. Marsden, J. Alexander, and A. Retnanto, SPE, Schlumberger Source SPE North Africa Technical Conference & Exhibition, 12-14 March 2008, Marrakech, Morocco ISBN 978-1-55563-189-5 Copyright 2008. Society of Petroleum Engineers Discipline Categories 1.5.3 Sand Control Preview Abstract Sand production from the Sarir field became a major concern for AGOCO at the end of the 1980s when ESPs were introduced to the field. The sanding severely impaired the performance of field, and consequently led to significant economic loss. AGOCO recognized that it was facing a major challenge in terms of understanding potential sanding risk for Sarir, and that it was necessary to design and implement a sandface completion and sand management strategy for more than 400 wells in the field. It was decided to apply a particular systematical approach, termed as Sand Management Solution (SMS), to properly address the sanding issues it was facing, which involved prediction, prevention, monitoring, and, if required, remediation activities. The first step in the SMS was to obtain a clear understanding of the cause and the mechanism for the sand production. This knowledge was required because attempts to run new completion designs without knowing the cause of the sand and understanding the risks had been proved costly, and would be likely to fail. To this end, a SMS was implemented in Sarir field. The work started from geomechanical reservoir characterization including geomechanics core laboratory test and mechanical earth model building, sanding prediction and evaluation, and a detailed review of sanding history to understand the severity of the sanding risk and sanding mechanism. Based on this knowledge, sanding management and remedial completion measures were devised that would minimize economic loss caused by sanding and optimize hydrocarbon production. This paper provides details of implementation of this SMS in the Sarir field, and demonstrates that a systematical approach is required when addressing sanding issues in giant mature fields such as Sarir. Introduction Sanding is a major concern for AGOCO. Sand production can destroy electrical submersible pumps (ESP), erode completion hardware and surface equipment, and block flowlines and trunklines. It can also lead to casing failure or borehole collapse. In addition to the costs associated with lost production, workovers, and the repair of ESPs, surface equipment, and pipelines, operators also have to manage the separation and disposal of the sand produced with the oil. Sand production from the Sarir field was first recorded in the mid-1970s, when sand fills were discovered during workover operations. At that time the issue was not considered to be a major problem, but that changed at the end of the 1980s when ESPs were introduced across the field. Some of these ESPs, which were installed to sustain production rates, failed as a direct result of sand influx. Since 1984, most wells in Sarir field have been periodically cleaned as a precaution against sanding-related problems. AGOCO, the field operator, investigated the issue, and in 1992 the first gravel-pack completion was installed in the Well A to prevent sand production. However, sand control measures were not applied across the entire field. A geomechanics study conducted in 2004 (Sarir Sanding Study Phase I1) examined seven wells in the south eastern part of Sarir. It identified the source and severity of the sand production, linking the problem to the occurrence of thin beds, and proposed new completion solutions to address the issue and optimize production in that part of the field. A Phase II of the study, discussed here, was initiated by Schlumberger in October 2005 to address a further 25 wells located in three areas (GC1, GC2 and GC3) that were deemed to be representative of the whole field. The work covered geomechanical reservoir characterization, review of sanding history, and optimization of completion options. The principal aims of this project were to identify potential sanding risks, propose optimum well completions, and provide a

complete SMS for the field.

Title Plume Dispersion: Another Problem In The Development Of The Athabasca Oil Sands Authors J. Wallis, J. K. Donnelly, K. Aziz,The University of Calgary Source Annual Technical Meeting, Jun 11 - 13, 1975 , Banff ISBN 978-1-55563-619-7 Copyright 1975. Petroleum Society of Canada Preview Abstract The upgrading of the bitumen extracted from the Athabasca Oil Sands results in a substantial amount of sulfur byproduct; part of which is emitted to the atmosphere as sulfur dioxide. Present regulations require that a plant be designed such that the maximum ground level concentration for SO 2 be 0.17 ppm or less in a Pasquill D atmosphere. Ignored or neglected are inversion layers and other atmospheric stability categories. Yet both occur with some regularity in the Fort McMurray area. This study shows that these factors have a strong bearing on ground level concentrations in the Oil Sands area, and that the problem is compounded when plume overlap occurs. Introduction That portion of the bitumen which can be recovered from the Athabasca Oil Sands by strip mining techniques is presently in the early stage of industrial development. Significant amounts of sulfur are present in the raw bitumen and after refining some of the sulfur is finally emitted to the atmosphere as sulfur dioxide. Present government regulations for stack emission design are based on experience with the conventional oil and gas industry. Due to their low frequency it appears that due regard has not been given to the effect of inversion layers, proximity of different emission sources or different stability categories. The objective of this study is to show that these factors should be considered in the oil sands area and that they can significantly increase the expected ground level concentrations. EFFECT OF INVERSION LAYERS Inversion layers because of their temperature stratification can prevent a plume from rising to its normal level. Briggs (1969) suggests that under certain circumstances penetration can occur and the plume will breakthrough if in light winds Equation (1) Available in Full Paper or for moderate winds Equation (2) Available in Full Paper Expressions 1 and 2 should be regarded as indicators only because they are based on limited data. Inversion data are not presently available for the Oil Sands area; so an estimation of inversion height had to be made. Based on data at Fort Smith an inversion height of 200 - 600 m is thought to be representative of the Tar Sands area during the months October to March, with 200 m occurring in January and 600 m in October and March. For the purposes of this study 300, 400 and 600 m inversion heights have been considered .Typical ventilation coefficients at 2 Fort Smith are 800 - 3500m /s, the lower value occurring in January. Average monthly wind velocities, based on the above are: u(Jan.) 4 m/s

u(Oct.) u(Feb.) 6 m/s

u(Nov.) = u(Dec.) u(Mar.) =5 m/s The average annual measured wind velocity at Fort McMurray is approximately 3 m/s. The wind data for Fort McMurray are listed in Table 1. Various stack parameters used in this study are: T(STACK) = 562 K, T(AMBIENT) 295 K

D = 6.7 m, Vs = 18.3 m/s Typical emission rates and other data are given in Table 1.

Title Optimum Procedures for Calibrating Acoustic Sand Detector, Gas Field Case Authors M. Ibrahim, Suez Canal University; T. Haugsdal, ClampOn Source Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Jun 17 - 19, 2008 2008, Calgary, Alberta ISBN 978-1-61399-115-2 Copyright 2008. Petroleum Society of Canada Preview Abstract Sand production from unconsolidated formations in oil and gas wells has been a world-wide challenge for the petroleum industry for many decades. The challenge is not merely to avoid or stop sand production, but to be able to maintain commercial well productivity after efforts to control sand are implemented. At the same time, the control method selected must be justified by a reasonable payback time of the investment cost. Produced sand is a major problem in many production situations since small amount of sand entrained in the produced fluid can result in significant erosion and erosion corrosion problems. Even in "sand free" or clean service situations where sand production rate is only a few pounds per day, erosion damage could be very severe at high production velocities. Sand erosion can also cause localized erosion damages to protective corrosion scales on pipe walls and result in accelerated erosion-corrosion damage. In a high velocity gas well sand erosion is a serious problem since it can 1 erode holes in the pipe work in a very short time period . Produced sand can result in serious damage to the reservoir, where in some cases the reservoir collapses as a result of the sand production. Again, this scenario is a costly experience for the operator who has to overhaul and complete the producing reservoir zone. In this paper, we will present the optimum procedures for calibrating ClampOn sand detector which will help us to detect sand production. Also, we will present the effect of water production and choke change in the sand detector response. Introduction Control of sand production is a major concern in Sun Gas Company's offshore Gulf of Mexico operations. Sonic sand detection systems now in service on several Sun operated production platforms provide effective, relatively low cost platforms provide an effective, relatively low cost method for maintaining optimum production rates while minimizing equipment erosion and well bore damage. A case history of field application on one Sun platform as well as the 2 theoretical basis for the Sonic Sand Detector is presented . The major advantage of using the ultrasonic sand detector to detect sand is that sand monitoring has moved forward from a level of production trend to actual quantification in real time. The detector quantifies sand beyond its initial limit of profiling. The principle adopted uses an iterative method to locate a considerable threshold in the sand signature logged. Raw signals, in energy/sec, were simulated to reflect true sand production by marking up the background noise value, 3 with about 10% to achieve the true sand free level of the signals for sand rate calculation . Some of the lessons learnt from the application of the DSP Sand Monitor are; a single sample from a shakeout (Wellhead Sample) may not represent the true sand characteristics of a well. Average sand reading from the monitor should not be expected to match a single value shake out. Successful use of monitor requires teamwork and 4 coordination among petroleum engineers (PEs), Operators .