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X.

Adaptations

Characteristics which organisms already have (born with as determined by genetics) which allow them to survive.

1. Survival of individuals:
Physiological Adaptation

Ex: deer metabolism Change what they can eat during the winter

Physiological Adaptation cont


Hibernate
Metabolic rate change Ex: bats, woodchucks, jumping mouse, snakes,frogs NOT bears

Dormancy
Development is suspended; long sleep periods Bears

Estivate (hot regions)


Summer hibernation (ex: tortoise, lungfish, frogs)

Physiological adaptation (cont)


Ex: shiver Muscles under the skin warm through friction Ex: Counter current exchange Duck feet or an arm Retain body temperature by recycling heat

2. Morphological adaptation
= Outward body structure Ex: jack rabbit ears vs hare ears

Morphological adaptation cont


Ex: fur growth/ loss and shedding antlers

Morphological adaptation cont


Ex: Color change Chameleon or octopus by location Colors can camouflage or warn or fool you! *Rabbit by season *Warning coloration *Mimicry
http://www.pgc.state.pa.us/pgc/lib/pgc/wildlife/photolib/snowshoe_hare.jpg

Mimicry- an adaptive advantage=survival of species


Batesian: one species called the mimic resembles in color, form, and/or behavior another species called the model, but does not actually have the survival adaptation
Mullerian: Both species resemble each other, both have the survival trait- both benefit when predators avoid the trait.

Can you tell which tastes bad?

Monarch

and

Viceroy

It was once thought only one did- but new evidence says both do-so the advantage is to both, but a bird only has to a few to avoid both kinds= Mullerian mimicry.

Snakes

Coral snake Scarlet king snake Red and yellow, kill a fellow; red and black, friendly jack= Batesian mimicry

Plants and insects

Orchid

Bee

Question: What is the advantage to the orchid to look like a bee?

Morphological adaptation cont


Ex: fat buildup and retention (bears, seals & people) in winter

3. Behavioral adaptation = an action

Ex: migration

Behavioral adaptation (cont)


Ex: seek microclimates like shade

Behavioral adaptation (cont)


Ex: store food like nuts

Survival of the Species


4. Genetic variations = mutations create new genes which allows enough diversity that some will survive though most individuals die Ex: bacterial resistance to antibiotics newt neurotoxin

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/biowarfare_04