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1. Kupri.

Air Kristal adalah komponen-komponen air yang terkandung di dalam kristal senyawa dengan perbandingan molekul tertentu, umumnya dapat dibebaskan melalui pemanasan. Cu + 2 H2SO4 CuSO4 + SO2 + 2 H2O 3 Cu + 8 H+ + 2 NO3- 3 Cu2+ + 2 NO + 4 H2O Cu + 3 H2O + H2SO4 + 2 HNO3 CuSO4.5H2O + 2NO3 (monoklin) V HNO3 = 25 mL Mm H2SO4 = 98,00 gr/mol Mm H2O = 18,00 gr/mol Mm HNO3 = 63,00 gr/mol Mm Cu = 63,50 gr/mol Mm CuSO4.5H2O = 244,37 gr/mol

massa Cu = 5 gram H2SO4 = 1,84 gr/mL H2O = 1,00 gr/mL HNO3 = 1,51 gr/mL V H2SO4 = 6,5 mL V H2O = 43,5 mL 2. Heksamin
[Co(H2O)6]SO4.H2O + 6NH4Cl + H2O [Co(NH3)6]Cl2 + NH3 [Co(NH3)6]Cl2 + PbO2 + HCl

[Co(NH3)6]Cl2+ SO4 + 8H2O +4Cl-

Co(NH3)6]Cl2 [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 + Pb2++ H++O2 Co3+ +e- x2 x1 Pb2+ 2Co3+ +2ePb2+ 2Co3+ + Pb2+ m PbO2= 2,4 gram Mr = 239,2 gram/mol

Oksidasi: Co2+ Reduksi: Pb4+ + 2e2Co2+ Pb4+ +2e2Co2+ + Pb4+

m [Co(H2O)6]SO4=5,6 gram Mr = 280.93 gram/mol m NH4Cl= 5,5 gram Mr = 53,5 gram/mol H2O = 1 g/mL V H2O = 25 mL Mr H2O= 18 g/mL NH3= 0,91 g/mL V NH3 = 10 mL 3. Pentamin NH4Cl + 5 NH3 CoSO4.6H2O + 6 NH3 [Co(NH3)6]SO4 + H2O2 + HCl Mr CoSO4.6H2O Mr [Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4

NH4OH= 0,91 g/ml Mr = 35 gram/mol Mr NH3= 17 g/mL Mr HCl= 36,5 g/mL HCl= 1,19 g/mol V HCl= 30 mL

6 NH3 + HCl [Co(NH3)6]SO4 + 6 H2O [Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4 + NH3 + H2O + OHmassa CoSO4.6H2O : 4,0 gram

: 262,93 gram/mol : 275,43 gram/mol

[Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4 + HNO3 [Co(NH3)6]SO4 + NaNO2 + HCl

[Co(NH3)6]SO4 + Cl[Co(NH3)5ONO]SO4 + NaCl + NH4+ massa [Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4 massa NaNO2 : 1,0 gram : 1,0 gram

Mr [Co(NH3)5Cl]SO4 Mr [Co(NH3)5ONO]SO4 Mr NaNO2

: 275,43 gram/mol : 285,93 gram/mol : 69 gram/mol

4. Kromium (III) oksida + oksidasi: 2 NH4 + 2 e reduksi: Cr2O72(NH4)2Cr2O7 m (NH4)2Cr2O7 Mr (NH4)2Cr2O7

N2 + 4 H2O Cr2O3 + 2 eCr2O3 + N2 + 4 H2O Mr Cr2O3 : 152 g/mol

: 1,0000 g : 252 g/mol

5. Kalium bikromat

2 KOH + Cr2O3 + 2 KNO3 2 K2CrO4 + 2 CH3COOH

2 K2CrO4 + H2O + 2 NO (tetrahedral) K2Cr2O7 + 2 CH3COOK + H2O

2 CrO42-(aq) + H2O(l) Cr2O72-(aq) + 2 OH-(aq) atau 2 CrO42-(aq) + 2 H3O+(aq) Cr2O72-(aq) + 3 H2O(l) : 56 g/mol : 152 g/mol : 101 g/mol : 294 g/mol Massa KOH : 3,5 g Massa Cr2O3 : 2,5 g Massa KNO3 : 3,5 g

Mr KOH Mr Cr2O3 Mr KNO3 Mr K2Cr2O7 6. Tawas

3+

K+, (SO42-)2. 6 H2O