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Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data

Yang akan Dibahas


Overview. Perbedaan Data primer dan data sekunder. Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Data Sekunder. Kriteria untuk Evaluasi data sekunder. Klasifikasi data sekunder.

Overview
Sebelum pengumpulan data primer, peneliti perlu mengumpulkan data sekunder yang relevan terlebih dahulu. Data sekunder sangat penting terutama untuk penelitian dengan anggaran yang terbatas.

PENGERTIAN DATA PRIMER DAN DATA SEKUNDER


Data primer merupakan data yang dikumpulkan langsung oleh peneliti untuk tujuan penelitian tersebut. Data sekunder data yang dikumpulkan oleh pihak lain untuk beberapa tujuan.

Perbedaan Data Primer dan Sekunder


Data Primer
Tujuan Langsung untuk masalah. Proses Keterlibatannya tinggi

Data Sekunder
Tidak langsung untuk masalah. Keterlibatannya rendah

Biaya
Waktu

Tinggi
Lama

Relative murah
Singkat

Manfaat Data Sekunder


Mengidentifikasi masalah. Menentukan masalah menjadi lebih tepat. Mengembangkan pendekatan terhadap masalah. Menformulasikan riset desain dengan tepat (mengidentfikasikan variabel kunci). Menjawab pertanyaan penelitian dan pengujian hipotesis. Melakukan interpretasi data primer lebih jelas.

Kelemahan Data Sekunder


Karena data sekunder dikumpulkan bukan untuk kepentingan langsung perneliti, maka:
Seringkali tidak relevan. Seringkali tidak akurat.

Tujuan, variabel, metode yang digunakan seringkali tidak tepat dengan situasi sekarang.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Spesifikasi dan Metodologi
Metode Pengumpulan Data Respon Rate Sample Teknik Ukuran Sampel Analisis Data

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Eror dan Ketepatan
Menguji tingkat kesalahan Desain Penelitian Sampel Analisis Data Pelaporan
Untuk mengukur ketepatan dengan dilakukan dengan membandingkan dengan sumber yang berbeda.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Kemutahiran
Jeda waktu antara pengumpulan dan publikasi. Frekuensi data di update.
Sensus data secara periodik akan di update.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Kemutahiran
Jeda waktu antara pengumpulan dan publikasi. Frekuensi data di update
Sensus data secara periodik akan di update.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Tujuan
Mengapa data di kumpulkan ?
Tujuan pengumpulan data menentukan relevansi data.

Kriteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Dasar/Isi Data
Definisi variabel kunci. Unit pengukuran. Kategori penggunaan.

Tujuan pengumpulan data menentukan relevansi data.

Kreiteria Evaluasi Data Sekunder


Kemandirian
Keahlian Kredibility. Reputasi.

Data yang didapatkan semestinya dikonfirmasikan dengan sumbernya.

Fig. 4.1

KLASIFIKASI DATA SEKUNDER

Secondary Data

Internal

External

Ready to Use

Requires further processing

Published Computerized Materials Databases

Syndicated Services

Data Sekunder Internal


Data sekunder yang berasal dari dalam perusahaan. Lebih murah dan mudah didapatkan. Data Base Marketing
Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan Penjualan berdasarkan produk line berdasarkan departemen berdasarkn toko tertentu berdasarkan daerah geogarfis kas dan kredit berdasarkan periode waktu berdasarkan jumlah pembelian

Data Sekunder Internal


Siap untuk digunakan. Harus diolah terlebih dahulu.

Data Sekunder Eksternal


Data sekunder yang berasal dari luar perusahaan seperti dari pemerintah, organisasi non profit, asosiasi perdagangan, organisasi profesional, comersial publisher, perusahaan pialang investasi, profesional marketing researchs. Sumber data Eksternal
Publish Material Computer database Syndicate service

Fig. 4.2

A Classification of Published Secondary Sources


Published Secondary Data

General Business Sources

Government Sources

Guides

Directories Indexes Statistical Data

Census Other Data Government Publications

Publish Material
General Business Source
Guideline Directories Indexes Statistical Data

Government Source
Census Data Other Government Publication

Fig. 4.3

A Classification of Computerized Databases


Computerized Databases

On-Line

Internet

Off-Line

Bibliographic Databases

Numeric Databases

Full-Text Databases

Directory Databases

SpecialPurpose Databases

Fig. 4.4

A Classification of Syndicated Services


Unit of Measurement

Households/ Consumers

Institutions

Computerized Database
Online and Off Line
Bibliographies Data Bases Numeric Databases Full Text Databases Directory Databases Special Purpose Database

Syndicated Data from Households i. Surveys


a. Psychographics & Lifestyles b. Advertising Evaluation c. General Surveys d. Uses of Surveys e. Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys

ii. Diary Panels


a. Diary Purchase Panels b. Diary Media Panels c. Uses of Dairy Panels d. Advantages & Disadvantages of Dairy Panels

iii. Electronic Scanner Services


a. Volume Tracking Data b. Scanner Diary Panels c. Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV d. Uses of Scanner Services e. Advantages & Disadvantages

12) Syndicated Data from Institutions

i. Retailers & Wholesalers


a. Uses of Audit Data b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Audit Data ii. Industry Services a. Uses of Industry Services b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Industry Services

RIP 4.1

Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms


Demographic Data Identification (Name, address, telephone) Sex

I. -

Marital status
Names of family members Age (including ages of family members)

Income
Occupation Number of children present

Home ownership
Length of residence Number and make of cars owned

II.

Psychographic Lifestyle Data

Interest in golf
Interest in snow skiing Interest in book reading Interest in running Interest in bicycling Interest in pets Interest in fishing Interest in electronics Interest in cable television

There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and American Business Information which collect demographic data on businesses.

Fig. 4.4 Contd.

Syndicated Services: Consumers


Households / Consumers

Mail Diary Panels Purchase


Surveys

Media

Electronic scanner services


Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV

Volume Tracking Data

Scanner Diary Panels

Psychographic & Lifestyles

General

Advertising Evaluation

Fig. 4.4 Contd.

Syndicated Services: Institutions


Institutions

Retailers

Wholesalers

Industrial firms

Audits

Direct Inquiries

Clipping Services

Corporate Reports

Table 4.3

Overview of Syndicated Services


Characteristics Advantages
Surveys conducted at Most flexible way of Interviewer errors; regular intervals obtaining data; respondent errors information on underlying motives Recorded purchase behavior can be linked to the demographic / psychographic characteristics

Type

Surveys

Disadvantages Uses

Diary Households provide Purchase specific information Panels regularly over an extended period of time; respondent asked to record specific behaviors as they occur Diary Media Panels Electronic devices automatically recording behavior, supplemented by a diary

Lack of representativeness; response bias; maturation

Same as diary purchase panel

Same as diary purchase panel

Market segmentation, advertising theme selection and advertising effectiveness Forecasting sales, market share and trends; establishing consumer profiles, brand loyalty and switching; evaluating test markets, advertising, and distribution Establishing advertising rates; selecting media program or air time; establishing viewer profiles

Table 4.3 Contd.

Type

Sc anner Volume Tracking Data

Data may not be Price tracking, representative; errors modeling, in recording effectiveness of inpurc hases; difficult tostore promotions link purchas es to elements of marketing mix other than price Sc anner Sc anner panels of Data reflect actual Data may not be Promotional mix Diary households that purc hases; sample representative; analyses , copy Panels subscribe to cable control; ability to link quality of data testing, new product with Cable TV panel data to limited testing, positioning TV household characteristics Audit Verification of Relatively precise Coverage may be Measurement of services product movement information at the incomplete; matc hing consumer sales and by examining retail and wholesale of data on market share, physic al records or levels competitive activity competitive activity, performing may be diffic ult analyzing inventory analysis distribution patterns: tracking of new products Industrial Data banks on Important sourc e of Data are lacking in Determining market Product industrial information on terms of c ontent, potential by Syndicated establishments industrial firms, quantity, and quality geographic area, Servic es created through particularly useful in defining sales direct inquiries of initial phases of the territories, allocating companies, c lipping projects advertising budget services, and corporate reports

Characteristics Advantages

Household Data reflects actual purc hases are purc hases; timely recorded through data, less expensive electronic scanners in supermarkets

Disadvantages

Uses