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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

TECHNICAL MANUAL

ORGANIZATIONAL AND INTERMEDIATE MAINTENANCE

GENERAL COMPOSITE REPAIR

This publication supersedes NAVAIR 01-1A-21, dated 01 November 2001.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C. Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors to protect publications required for official use of for administrative or operational purposes, determined on 31 January 1994. Other requests for this document shall be referred to: Commanding Officer, Naval Air Technical Data and Engineering Service Command, Naval Air Station North Island P.O. Box 357031, Building 90 Distribution, San Diego, CA 92135-7031. DESTRUCTION NOTICE - For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER, NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND

0801LP1046361

01 SEPTEMBER 2005
NATEC ELECTRONIC MANUAL

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES


Dates of issue for original and changed pages are: Original ....................... 0 ........................ 01 Sep 2005 Change ....................... x ....................... xx XXX 199X Change ....................... 0 ......................... 15 Sep 1993 Change ....................... x ........................ xx XXX 199X

Insert latest changed pages; dispose of superseded pages in accordance with applicable regulations. NOTE: On a changed page, the portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated be a vertical line, or other change symbol in the outer margin of the page. Change in illustrations are indicated by miniature pointing hands. Changes to wiring diagrams are indicated by shaded areas. Total number of pages in this manual is 320, consisting of the following: Page No. *Change No. Page No. *Change No. Page No. *Change No.

Title ........................................ 0 A ............................................. 0 i-xi .......................................... 0 xii Blank ................................. 0 1-1 - 1-3 ................................. 0 1-4 Blank ................................ 0 2-1 - 2-2 ................................. 0 3-1 - 3-13 ............................... 0 3-14 Blank ............................. 0 4-1 - 4-9 ................................. 0 4-10 Blank ............................. 0 5-1 - 5-30 ............................... 0 6-1 - 6-78 ............................... 0 7-1 - 7-113 ............................. 0 7-114 Blank ........................... 0 8-1 - 8-32 ............................... 0 9-1 - 9-3 ................................. 0 9-4 Blank ................................ 0 10-1 - 10-9 ............................. 0 10-10 Blank ........................... 0 Glossary-1 - Glossary-7 ........ 0 Glossary-8 Blank ................... 0

*Zero in this column indicates an original page. A Change X

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page Section VI REPAIR PROCESSES 6-1. 6-2. Description ...................................... 6-1 Cleaning .......................................... 6-1 a. General .................................... 6-1 b. Procedure ................................ 6-1 Damage Removal ........................... 6-1 a. Outlining the Damage ............. 6-1 b. Penetration Damage ............... 6-2 c. Partial Thickness Damage ...... 6-2 d. Core Damage .......................... 6-2 Machining, Drilling, Reaming and Countersinking Advanced Composites ................. 6-4 a. Background ............................. 6-4 b. General .................................... 6-5 c. General Air Tool Safety .......... 6-5 d. Machining Boron/Epoxy Composites ............................. 6-6 e. Drilling Boron/Epoxy Composites ............................. 6-6 f. Machining Carbon/Epoxy, Carbon/Bismaleimide and Carbon/Polyimide Composites ............................. 6-6 g. Drilling, Reaming and Countersinking Carbon/Epoxy, Carbon/Bismaleimide and Carbon/Polyimide Composites ............................. 6-6 h. Machining Kevlar/Epoxy Composites ............................. 6-7 i. Drilling and Countersinking Kevlar/Epoxy Composites ...... 6-8 j. Align-A-Drill Setup .................. 6-9 Paint Removal .............................. 6-11 a. General .................................. 6-11 b. Procedure .............................. 6-11 Joint Machining ............................. 6-11 a. General .................................. 6-11 b. Blunt Cut Joint Machining ..... 6-11 c. Scarf Joint Machining ........... 6-12 d. Step Joint Machining ............ 6-13 Bonded Repair Processes .......... 6-14 a. Drying .................................... 6-14 b. Core Replacement Methods . 6-17 c. Core Machining ..................... 6-19 d. Ply Orientation and Layup of Advanced Composite Repair Plies and Patches ................. 6-20 Page

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................ iii LIST OF TABLES ...................................................... vii WARNINGS APPLICABLE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS .................................................. ix

6-3. I INTRODUCTION 1-1. 1-2. 1-3. 1-4. 1-5. II Purpose ........................................... Contents and Limitations ................ Requisitioning and Automatic Distribution ................................... Abbreviations and Symbols ........... Reference Material ......................... 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1

6-4.

INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES 2-1. 2-2. 2-3. Advanced Composite Materials ..... 2-1 Prepreg ........................................... 2-2 Laminate ......................................... 2-2

III

TYPICAL DAMAGE 3-1. 3-2. 3-3. General ........................................... 3-1 Damage to Advanced Composite Materials ....................................... 3-1 Damage Assessment ..................... 3-6

IV

REPAIR PROCEDURE SELECTION CRITERIA 4-1. 4-2. 4-3. 4-4. 4-5. Design Criteria ................................ Additional Criteria ........................... Basic Repair Joints ......................... Damage Disposition ....................... Repair Versus Replace .................. 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-7 4-9

6-5.

REPAIR MATERIALS 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6. 5-7. Incorporated Materials ................... 5-1 Incorporated Repair Material Selection Criteria ........................ 5-14 Unincorporated Materials (Ancillary) 5-15 Repair Material Shipping, Receiving and Storage .............. 5-18 Repair Material Preparation ......... 5-20 Material Evaluation Testing .......... 5-27 Disposal of Materials Used for Repair .......................... 5-31

6-6.

6-7.

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) Section Page e. Standard Wet Layup Process .. 6-22 f. Double Vacuum Debulk (DVD) Wet Layup Process ... 6-27 g. Precured Patch Material Cure Processes ..................... 6-36 h. Surface Preparation for Bonding ................................. 6-37 i. Patch Installation .................. 6-39 j. Methods For Applying Pressure and Heat to Cure Bonded Repairs ........... 6-42 k. Adhesive Cure Processes .... 6-54 l. Repair Verification ................ 6-59 m. Heat Survey .......................... 6-61 Injection Repair Processes .......... 6-61 a. General .................................. 6-62 b. Adhesive Characteristics ...... 6-62 c. Damage Classification .......... 6-62 d. Positive Pressure Injection Repair .................................... 6-62 e. Vacuum Injection Repair ...... 6-63 Bolted Repair Processes .............. 6-63 a. Patch Preparation ................. 6-63 b. Blind Side Drilling .................. 6-64 c. Drilling/Reaming Patch and Skin ........................................ 6-68 d. Patch and Fastener Installation ............................. 6-69 e. Sealing Repairs ..................... 6-76 Section 7-5. Page Edge Damage Repair ................... 7-21 a. Procedure 8. Edge Damage Repair .................................... 7-21 b. Procedure 9. Edge Damage Rebuild .................................. 7-22 c. Procedure 10. Flush Corner Repair .................................... 7-31 d. Procdure 11. Flush Trailing Edge Repair .......................... 7-38 Fastener Hole Repair ................... 7-41 a. Procedure 12. Countersink Repair .................................... 7-41 b. Procedure 13. Fill and Drill Repair .................................... 7-42 c. Procedure 14. Fastener Hole Delamination Repair ............. 7-44 d. Procedure 15. Fastener Hole Repair: Swagged Grommet .. 7-47 e. Procedure 16. Fastener Hole Repair: Captive Bushing ....... 7-50 Penetration Damage Repair ........ 7-53 a. Procedure 17. Penetration Damage Bonded Repair ....... 7-53 b. Procedure 18. Backside Sealing for Installation of Externally Bonded Patches .. 7-56 c. Procedure 19. Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External Patch ....................... 7-60 d. Procedure 20. Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External/Internal Patch ......... 7-65 e. Procedure 21. Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch ........................ 7-73 Substructure Repairs .................... 7-78 a. Procedure 22. Honeycomb Core Repair: Core Fill Method ... 7-78 b. Procedure 23. Honeycomb Core Repair: Paste Adhesive Method ................................... 7-81 c. Procedure 24. Honeycomb Core Repair: Film/Foam Method ................................... 7-85 d. Procedure 25. Closure Rib Bonded Repair ...................... 7-91 e. Procedure 26. Substructure Bolted Repair ........................ 7-96 f. Procdure 27. Skin and Partial Rib Repair ........................... 7-105

7-6.

6-8.

7-7.

6-9.

VII

REPAIR PROCEDURES 7-1. 7-2. Description ...................................... 7-1 Partial Thickness Skin Repair ........ 7-1 a. Procedure 1. Surface Repair .. 7-1 b. Procedure 2. Partial Thickness Damage: Bonded Repair ........ 7-2 c. Procedure 3. Partial Thickness Damage: Bolted Repair .......... 7-6 Delamination Repair ..................... 7-10 a. Procedure 4. Delamination Open to An Edge .................. 7-10 b. Procedure 5. Delamination Not Open to An Edge (Blister) ..... 7-13 Disbond Repair ............................. 7-16 a. Procedure 6. Skin to Core Disbond ........................ 7-16 b. Procedure 7. Skin to Closure Member Disbond and Delaminations ....................... 7-19

7-8.

7-3.

7-4.

ii

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) Section VIII REPAIR EQUIPMENT/TOOLS 8-1. 8-2. 8-3. General ........................................... 8-1 Composite Repair Tool Sets .......... 8-1 Equipment/Tools to Perform Cutting/Machining, Drilling/Countersinking and Reaming Operations of Advanced Composite Materials ... 8-1 Fastener Installation and Removal Tools ........................... 8-13 Equipment and Tools to Perform Specialized Operations .............. 8-23 Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Sets ................................. 8-28 Page Section 9-3. 9-4. X Page General Ventilation ......................... 9-2 Equipment/Utility Requirements .... 9-2

HEALTH AND SAFETY Background ................................... 10-1 Exposure Routes .......................... 10-1 Exposure Limits ............................ 10-2 Toxicity and Hazards of Advanced Composite Materials Used for Repair .......................... 10-3 10-5. Personal Protective Equipment, Equipment/Facilities and Personal Hygiene ....................... 10-7 10-6. Emergency and First Aid Procedures 10-9 10-1. 10-2. 10-3. 10-4.

8-4. 8-5. 8-6. IX

FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 9-1. 9-2. Background ..................................... 9-1 Requirements ................................. 9-1

GLOSSARY ................................................ Glossary-1

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 2-1. Title Page Figure 4-4. Title Page

Laminate Cross Section Cut 90 Degrees to the 0 Degree Fiber Direction ....................2-2

Typical Impact Damage on 0.1 Inch Thick Carbon/ Epoxy Laminate, 3 Ft-Lbs Impact Energy ................................3-1 3-2. Dented Honeycomb Panel ...............................3-2 3-3. Penetration Damage .......................................3-2 3-4. Penetration Damage on 0.75 Inch Thick Carbon/Epoxy Laminate .............................. 3-3 3-5. Airstream Stripping Damage ............................3-3 3-6. Edge Damage .................................................3-4 3-7. Fire Damaged Advanced Composites .............3-6 3-8. Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Inspection with A-Scan Presentation ....................................3-8 3-9. Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Inspection, A-Scan Presentation ................ 3-11 3-10. Defect Mapping of Damage Extent from NDI .................................................... 3-13 4-1. 4-2. 4-3. Basic Repair Joints (General) ..........................4-2 Basic Repair Joints (Bonded) ..........................4-3 External Bonded Patch Joint Eccentricity Effects ......................................4-4

3-1.

External Bonded Patch Shear Stress Concentration Effects .................................. 4-5 4-5. Scarf Bonded Patch Joint Eccentricity and Shear Stress Concentration Effects .............4-6 4-6. Basic Repair Joints (Bolted) ............................4-7 4-7. Externally Bolted Patch Joint Eccentricity Effects ......................................4-7 4-8. External/Internal Bolted Joint Eccentricity Elimination ................................4-8 4-9. Effects of Close Tolerances on Displacement Required to Load Fasteners ....................................................4-8 4-10. Increased Load Sharing of Fasteners Caused by Tapering Patch ..........................4-8 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6. Dry Woven Carbon Cloth Weave Patterns ....... 5-9 Carbon/Epoxy Honeycomb Sandwich Assembly ................................................... 5-10 Honeycomb Core Designation ....................... 5-11 Close Tolerance Structural Screw Installation ................................................. 5-11 Blind Fastener Installation ............................. 5-12 Examples for Preparing Two Part Adhesives and Filler Compounds ............... 5-22

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont.) Figure 5-7. Title Page Figure Title Page

Use of Triple Beam Balance with Two Part Adhesives ................................... 5-23 5-8. Film/Foaming Adhesive Out-Time Log Example .................................................... 5-24 5-9. Film/Foaming Adhesive Out-Time Log ........... 5-25 5-10. Vertical Flow Test Fixture Assembly .............. 5-26 5-11. Temperature and Humidity Operating Environment for Adhesive Preparation ....... 5-27 6-1. 6-2. 6-3. 6-4. 6-5. 6-6. 6-7. 6-8. 6-9. 6-10. 6-11. 6-12. 6-13. 6-14. 6-15. 6-16. 6-17. 6-18. 6-19. 6-20. 6-21. 6-22. 6-23. 6-24. 6-25. 6-26. Damage Outlining ...........................................6-2 Penetration Damage Removal Template Method .........................................6-3 Partial Thickness Damage Removal ................6-3 In-Plane Versus Out-Of-Plane Cutting Forces .............................................6-4 Align-A-Drill Setup ......................................... 6-10 Basic Repair Joints ........................................ 6-11 Scarf Joint Outline Layout .............................. 6-12 Scarf Joint Machining .................................... 6-12 Scarf Joint Inspection Requirements ............. 6-13 Step Joint Outline Layout .............................. 6-14 Step Joint Inspection Requirements .............. 6-14 Core Replacement Methods .......................... 6-17 Replacement Core Fit ................................... 6-18 Weight Versus Hole Diameter for Two Core Replacement Methods ...................... 6-19 Lamina and Lamina Fiber Direction ............... 6-20 Fiber Orientations .......................................... 6-21 Typical Laminate ........................................... 6-21 Stacking Sequence Effects ............................ 6-21 Cutting Template Alignment .......................... 6-23 Ply Layup Log ............................................... 6-25 Three Ply (45,0,45)w Repair Patch ................. 6-27 DVD Wooden Box Tool ................................. 6-28 V-22 DVD Tool .............................................. 6-29 Minimum Vacuum Level for DVD Process ..... 6-32 Cure Stacking Sequences ............................. 6-35 The Effect of Cure Pressure on Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) and Void Content .............................................. 6-37 Typical Carbon/Epoxy Laminate Cure Cycle .. 6-38 Patch Edge Taper Dimensions ...................... 6-39 Layup of Stacked Patches and Adhesive ....... 6-41 Methods for Applying Positive Pressure ......... 6-43 C-Clamp Sequence and Placement ............... 6-44 Temperature Variations Underneath a Typical 12 Inch x 12 Inch Heat Blanket ...... 6-45 Heat Blanket Selection/Thermocouple Placement (Typical) ................................... 6-45 Heat Lamp Temperature Effects .................... 6-46

6-35. Heat Blanket Layup - Partial Vacuum Bag Cross Section ............................................ 6-48 6-36. Heat Blanket Layup - Partial Vacuum Bag ..... 6-50 6-37. Heat/Vacuum Blanket Installation .................. 6-52 6-38. Typical Envelope Bag Installation .................. 6-54 6-39. Typical Two Part Adhesive Heat Cure Cycle ........................................ 6-55 6-40. The Effect of Undercuring on Adhesive Strength ..................................... 6-56 6-41. Typical Film Adhesive Cure Cycle ................. 6-58 6-42. Inspection of Adhesive Squeeze Out Following Cure ........................................... 6-61 6-43. Types of Delaminations ................................. 6-62 6-44. Injection Repair ............................................. 6-62 6-45. Impact Damage Injection Repair .................... 6-62 6-46. EA956 Isothermal Rheological Response ...... 6-63 6-47. Hole Finder Method ....................................... 6-65 6-48. Blind Hole Transfer Punch Method ................ 6-66 6-49. Measuring and Scaling Method ..................... 6-66 6-50. Hydrocal Drill Blanket Method ........................ 6-68 6-51. Hi-Lok Installation: Pneumatic Tooling ........... 6-71 6-52. Blind Fastener Inspection .............................. 6-73 6-53. Fastener Removal Methods .......................... 6-73 6-54. Depth Gauge Adjustment .............................. 6-74 6-55. Vacuum Pad Indexing ................................... 6-75 6-56. Blind Fastener Drilling ................................... 6-75 6-57. Blind Bolt Knockout ....................................... 6-76 6-58. Removal of Tightly Clamped Blind Fasteners .......................................... 6-77 6-59. Removal of Loose Blind Fasteners ................ 6-77 6-60. Sealing of Bolted Repairs .............................. 6-78 Surface Damage .............................................7-1 Process Flow Diagram for Surface Repair, Procedure 1 .................................................7-1 7-3. Process Flow Diagram for Partial Thickness Bonded Repair, Procedure 2 ........................ 7-3 7-4. Partial Thickness Bonded Repair .....................7-4 7-5. Process Flow Diagram for Partial Thickness Bolted Repair, Procedure 3 ..........................7-7 7-6. Partial Thickness Bolted Repair, Generic Patch Layout .................................. 7-8 7-7. Fabrication/Installation of Countersink Filler ..... 7-9 7-8. Composite Blind Fastener Inspection and Acceptability Limits ............. 7-11 7-9. Process Flow Diagram for Delamination Open to An Edge Repair, Procedure 4 ....... 7-12 7-10. Delamination Repair Open to An Edge .......... 7-13 7-11. Process Flow Diagram for Delamination Not Open to an Edge Repair, Procedure 5 .... 7-14 7-1. 7-2.

6-27. 6-28. 6-29. 6-30. 6-31. 6-32. 6-33. 6-34.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont.) Figure Title Page Figure Title Page

7-12. Verification of Leak Path: Delamination Repair ................................. 7-14 7-13. Delamination Repair Not Open to an Edge (Blister) ...................................................... 7-15 7-14. Process Flow Diagram for Disbond Repair, Procedure 6 ............................................... 7-17 7-15. Verification of Leak Path: Disbond Repair ...... 7-17 7-16. Disbond Repair ............................................. 7-18 7-17. Process Flow Diagram for Skin to Closure Member Disbond and Delamination Repair, Procedure 7 ............. 7-20 7-18. Skin to Closure Member Disbond Repair ....... 7-20 7-19. Edge Damage and Repair ............................. 7-21 7-20. Process Flow Diagram for Edge Damage Repair, Procedure 8 ........... 7-22 7-21. Typical Edge Damage ................................... 7-23 7-22. Process Flow Diagram for Edge Damage Rebuild, Procedure 9 .......... 7-24 7-23. Edge Damage Rebuild .................................. 7-26 7-24. Machine Scarf ............................................... 7-28 7-25. Aluminum Support Plate ................................ 7-28 7-26. OML Patch Adhesive ..................................... 7-29 7-27. Machining Repair Core .................................. 7-29 7-28. Machining Ramp in Repair Core .................... 7-29 7-29. Cutting Impregnated Carbon Cloth ................ 7-29 7-30. Impregnated Carbon Cloth Repair Plies ......... 7-30 7-31. Ply Layup ...................................................... 7-30 7-32. Vacuum Bag Layup ....................................... 7-31 7-33. Process Flow Diagram for Flush Corner Repair, Procedure 10 ................................. 7-32 7-34. Flush Corner Repair Sequence ..................... 7-33 7-35. Repair Rib Layup and Tool ............................ 7-35 7-36. Marking Splice Plate for Alignment ................ 7-35 7-37. Adhesive Applied to Mating Surface of Patch ..................................................... 7-37 7-38. Repair Patch Taped to Repair Rib and Splice Plate ............................................... 7-37 7-39. Flush Trailing Edge Repair Sequence ........... 7-39 7-40. Process Flow Diagram for Countersink Repair, Procedure 12 ............. 7-41 7-41. Process Flow Diagram for Fill and Drill Fastener Hole Repair, Procedure 13 ............................................. 7-43 7-42. Template Fabrication ..................................... 7-43 7-43. Fastener Hole Sealing ................................... 7-43 7-44. Process Flow Diagram for Fastener Hole Delamination Repair (Vacuum Injection), Procedure 14 .............. 7-45 7-45. Vacuum Cup Installation ................................ 7-46

7-46. Application of Clamp-Up Pressure ................. 7-47 7-47. Process Flow Diagram for Fastener Hole Repair: Swagged Grommet, Procedure 15 ............................................. 7-48 7-48. Swagged Grommet Installation ...................... 7-49 7-49. Captive Bushing Repair Components ............ 7-50 7-50. Process Flow Diagram for Captive Bushing Repair, Procedure 16 ...... 7-51 7-51. Captive Bushing Repair Flange and Countersink Bushing Installation ................ 7-52 7-52. Installation View of Captive Bushing Repair ... 7-53 7-53. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bonded Repair, Procedure 17 ..... 7-54 7-54. Process Flow Diagram for Backside Sealing for Installation of Externally Bonded Patches, Procedure 18 ............................................. 7-57 7-55. Safety Wire and Slotted Backside Patch ........ 7-58 7-56. Installation of Backside Patch ........................ 7-58 7-57. Application of Adhesive ................................. 7-59 7-58. Backside Patch Pulled Into Position ............... 7-59 7-59. Application of Pressure .................................. 7-60 7-60. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External Patch, Procedure 19 ...................................................... 7-61 7-61. Repair Arrangement, Bolted Repair, External Patch ........................................... 7-62 7-62. Sump Removal and Installation ..................... 7-62 7-63. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair External/Internal Patch, Procedure 20 ........ 7-66 7-64. Damage Definition and Cleanup .................... 7-66 7-65. Repair Kit Components ................................. 7-67 7-66. Patch and Center Plug Aligned on Part .......... 7-67 7-67. Align-A-Drill Setup ......................................... 7-68 7-68. Locating Drill Guide ....................................... 7-68 7-69. Transferring Holes From Patch to Skin .......... 7-68 7-70. Insertion of Backup Plates Into Cavity ............ 7-69 7-71. Backup Plates Held in Place With Temporary Fasteners ................................ 7-70 7-72. Measuring Gap Between Center Plug and OML ................................ 7-70 7-73. Reaming Operation ....................................... 7-71 7-74. Installation of Backing Plates ......................... 7-71 7-75. Threaded Assembly Pin ................................ 7-71 7-76. Backing Plates Pulled Into Position ................ 7-71 7-77. Center Plug and Backing Plates Correctly Installed ...................................... 7-72 7-78. Finished Repair ............................................. 7-72

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont.) Figure Title Page Figure Title Page

7-79. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch, Procedure 21 ............................................. 7-74 7-80. Repair Arrangement for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch ....... 7-75 7-81. Fastener Pattern Layout ................................ 7-75 7-82. Internal Patch and Splice Plate Assembly ...... 7-76 7-83. Internal Patch Aligned and Secured ............... 7-76 7-84. Fay Surface Sealing ...................................... 7-77 7-85. Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Core Fill Method, Procedure 22 ................. 7-79 7-86. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Core Fill Method ......................... 7-80 7-87. Estimating Filler Material for Core Fill Method ........................................ 7-81 7-88. Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Paste Adhesive Method, Procedure 23 ...... 7-82 7-89. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Paste Adhesive Method ............. 7-84 7-90. Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Film/Foam Method, Procedure 24 .............. 7-86 7-91. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Film/Foam Method ..................... 7-88 7-92. Process Flow Diagram for Closure Rib Bonded Repair, Procedure 25 .................... 7-91 7-93. Repair Details ............................................. 7-92 7-94. Damaged Closure Rib ................................. 7-92 7-95. Damage Removed ...................................... 7-93 7-96. Replacement Closure Rib Fabrication ......... 7-93 7-97. Positioning Replacement Core .................... 7-93 7-98. Positioning Replacement Rib ...................... 7-94 7-99. Applying Pressure to Bondline With C-Clamps ........................................ 7-94 7-100. Machine Replacement Core Flush With OML ................................................ 7-95 7-101. Application of Adhesive to Repair Area ........ 7-95 7-102. Repair Patch Applied to Repair Area ........... 7-96 7-103. NDI Performed on Final Patch Bond ............ 7-96 7-104. Repair Complete ......................................... 7-96 7-105. Process Flow Diagram for Substructure Bolted Repair, Procedure 26 .................... 7-97 7-106. Repair Arrangement for C-Channel Substructure Bolted Repair ...................... 7-98 7-107. Process Flow Diagram for Skin and Partial Rib Repair, Procedure 27 .............. 7-106

7-108. Skin and Partial Rib Repair Sequence ....... 7-107 7-109. Skin and Partial Rib Repair, Repair Angle Bond .................................. 7-109 7-110. Repair Angle Layup and Tool .................... 7-110 7-111. Repair Angle Clamp Arrangement ............. 7-111 7-112. Pressure Application ................................. 7-112 8-1. 8-2. 8-3. 8-4. 8-5. 8-6. 8-7. 8-8. 8-9. 8-10. 8-11. 8-12. 8-13. 8-14. 8-15. 8-16. 8-17. 8-18. 8-19. 8-20. 8-21. 8-22. 8-23. 8-24. 8-25. 8-26. Router Motors and Accessories .......................8-2 Cutters/Sanding Equipment .............................8-6 Honeycomb Core Cutters ................................8-7 Drilling/Reaming/Countersinking/ Counterboring Tools ....................................8-8 Drilling Equipment ...........................................8-9 Temporary Fasteners .................................... 8-13 Blind Fastener Grip Length Gauges ............... 8-15 Blind Fastener Installation: Close Quarter Pneumatic Tooling .............. 8-18 Blind Fastener Installation: Pneumatic Tooling ..................................... 8-18 Blind Fastener Installation: Close Quarter Hand Tooling ...................... 8-19 Blind Fastener Installation: Hand Tooling ....... 8-19 Pistol Extension Assemblies .......................... 8-20 Installation Tool Conversion .......................... 8-20 Fastener Removal Kit: Vacuum System ........ 8-22 Hi-Lok Installation: Hand Tooling ................... 8-22 Hi-Lok Fastener Tools ................................... 8-23 HEPA Filter Vacuum Cleaner ........................ 8-24 Industrial Hypodermic Syringe and Needles .. 8-24 SEMCO Model 250 Sealant Gun ................... 8-25 Vacuum Cup ................................................. 8-25 Moisture Indicator .......................................... 8-29 SK340-00192 Adhesive Comb ...................... 8-29 F-14 Composite Structure Repair Console and Blanket Assembly ................. 8-30 4230-211 Two Zone Heat Blanket Temperature Sensor Placement ................ 8-30 F-18 Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set, P/N 74D110165-1001 .............. 8-31 Generic Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set, P/N 1935AS100-1 ................... 8-32

10-1. Carbon Fiber and Human Hair Diameters Compared to Filtration Level of HEPA Filter10-2 10-2. Removing Disposable Gloves ........................ 10-8

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1-1. 1-2. 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6. 5-7. 5-8. 5-9. Title Page Table 6-6. 6-7. Incorporated Repair Materials: Adhesives/Sealants/Fillers ...........................5-2 Incorporated Repair Materials: Patch Materials ............................................5-5 Incorporated Repair Materials: Honeycomb Core Materials ....................... 5-11 Incorporated Repair Materials: Mechanical Fasteners ................................ 5-13 Unincorporated Repair Materials ................... 5-16 Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit, P/N 135040-1 ............................................ 5-17 Two Part Adhesive Shelf-Life ........................ 5-18 Two Part Adhesives: Pot Life and Maximum Amount of Material .................... 5-20 Vertical Flow Test Limits ................................ 5-27 Title Page

Abbreviations and Symbols .............................1-2 Reference Material ..........................................1-3

Tool Selection to Remove Blind Bolts Using RK3042B Fastener Removal Kit ................ 6-74 Pilot and Shank Drill Sizes for Blind Fastener Removal ............................. 6-77 Clamp-Up Bolts and Torque Values .............. 7-45

7-1. 8-1. 8-2. 8-3. 8-4.

Router Motors and Accessories .......................8-2 Cutters/Sanding Equipment .............................8-5 Honeycomb Core Cutters ................................8-7 Drilling/Reaming/Countersinking/ Counterboring Tools .................................... 8-10 8-5. Drilling Equipment ......................................... 8-12 8-6. Temporary Fasteners .................................... 8-14 8-7. Composi-Lok Installation Tooling ................... 8-16 8-8. Composi-Lok II and IIa Installation Tooling .... 8-16 8-9. Visu-Lok Installation Tooling .......................... 8-17 8-10. Visu-Lok II Installation Tooling ....................... 8-17 8-11. Blind Fastener Removal Kit, RK3042B .......... 8-21 8-12. Miscellaneous Equipment .............................. 8-26 10-1. Permissible Exposure Limits for Composite Materials .................................. 10-3 10-2. Personal Protective Equipment, Equipment/ Facilities and Personal Hygiene for Working with Advanced Composite Materials .......... 10-4

6-1. 6-2. 6-3. 6-4. 6-5.

Two Part Adhesive Cure Cycles .................... 6-26 DVD Material and Process Differences (8 Harness Vs. Plain Weave Fabric) .......... 6-31 Film Adhesive Cure Cycles............................ 6-57 Common Bonded Repair Errors .................... 6-60 Blind Fastener Inspection Requirements ....... 6-72

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

LIST OF TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS DEFICIENCY REPORTS INCORPORATED Report Control Number (RCN) HMH-466 QA/TPL 53998-2005-0028 alskjalkj 0000/00000 alskjalkj 0000/00000 alskjalkj 0000/00000 alskjalkj 0000/00000 alskjalkj 0000/00000 alskjalkj 0000/00000 alskjalkj 0000/00000 Location Report Control Number (RCN) alskjalkj 0000/00000 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx alskjalkj 0000/00000 Pg x-xx Pg x-xx Pg x-xx Pg x-xx Pg x-xx Pg x-xx Pg x-xx Location

Pg iii

Pg x-xx Pg x-xx

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

WARNINGS APPLICABLE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

1. Warnings and cautions for hazardous materials listed are designed to apprise personnel of hazards associated with such items when they come in contact with them by actual use. Additional information related to hazardous materials is provided in Section X of this manual, Navy Hazardous Material Control Program NAVSUPPINST 5100.27, Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manuals OPNAVINST 5100.23 (Ashore) and OPNAVINST 5100.19 (Afloat) and the DOD 6050.5 Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS) series publications. For each hazardous material used within the Navy, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) must be provided and available for review by users. Consult your local safety and health staff concerning any questions regarding hazardous materials, MSDS, personal protective equipment requirements, appropriate handling and emergency procedures and disposal guidance. 2. Under the heading HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS, complete warnings, including related icon(s) and a numeric identifier, are provided for hazardous materials used in this manual. The numeric identifiers have been assigned to the hazardous material in alphabetical order by material nomenclature. Each hazardous material is assigned only one numerical identifier. Repeat use of a specific hazardous material references the numeric identifier assigned at its initial appearance. The approved icons and their application are shown below. 3. In the text of the manual, the caption WARNING is not used for hazardous material warnings. Hazards are cited with appropriate icon(s), the nomenclature of the hazardous material and the numeric identifier that relates to the complete warning. Users of hazardous materials shall refer to the complete warnings, as necessary. 4. EXPLANATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ICONS. Chemical The symbol of a liquid dripping onto a hand shows that the material will cause burns or irritation to human skin or tissue.

Cryogenic The symbol of a hand in a block of ice shows that the material is extremely cold and can injure human skin or tissue. Explosion This rapidly expanding symbol shows that the material may explode if subjected to high temperature, sources of ignition or high pressure. Eye Protection The symbol of a person wearing goggles shows that the material will injure the eyes. Fire The symbol of a fire shows that the material may ignite or overheat and cause burns. Poison The symbol of a skull and crossbones shows that the material is poisonous or is a danger to life. Vapor The symbol of a human figure in a cloud shows that material vapors present a danger to life or health.

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS INDEX 1 MATERIAL Two Part Adhesive WARNING Adhesives are toxic. DO NOT breathe vapors. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Mix and use only in well ventilated areas. Wear face shield, gloves and apron to prevent eye and skin contact. If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water. If skin contact occurs, wash immediately with soap and water. To prevent excessive exotherm, mix no more than the "Maximum Amount to Mix" grams specified in Table 5-8 in any one container. If more resin is required, mix in separate mixing cups in the ""Maximum Amount to Mix" grams specified in Table 5-8. Do not mix resins when ambient temperatures exceed 90F. Mixed liquid adhesive may generate large amounts of heat. Liquid adhesive mixed in excess of 30 grams may melt the disposable injection cartridges. For ambient temperatures above 80F, do not use injection cartridges to inject liquid adhesive if more than 20 minutes have elapsed after mixing. For ambient temperatures below 80F, do not use injection cartridges if more than 40 minutes have elapsed after mixing. Pressurized cartridges may spray hot adhesive after the safe operating times have elapsed, potentially injuring artisans and bystanders. Solvents are toxic and flammable. DO NOT breathe vapors. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. Use only in well ventilated areas. Wear goggles and gloves to prevent eye and skin contact. If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap and water. Sealing compounds are toxic and flammable. DO NOT breathe vapors. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. Use only in well ventilated areas. Wear goggles and gloves to prevent eye and skin contact. If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap and water.

Two Part Residual Adhesive

Two Part Liquid Adhesive

Solvent

Sealing Compound

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS (Cont.) INDEX 6 Rubber Primer MATERIAL WARNING Rubber primer is toxic and flammable. DO NOT breathe vapors. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. Use only in well ventilated areas. Wear goggles and gloves to prevent eye and skin contact. If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap and water. Sanding, cutting or drilling composite materials produces a fine dust that may cause eye, skin and lung irritation. Breathing this dust may be injurious to health. When sanding, cutting or drilling composite materials, the following protective equipment shall be worn: a respirator containing a HEPA filter, gloves, goggles and long sleeve coveralls. Tape coverall sleeves closed at the wrist. Use a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter to control dust during and after sanding, cutting or drilling. Dry ice (solid C02) is extremely cold (-110F). DO NOT handle with bare hands. Use gloves with adequate insulation when handling. Dry ice passes directly from the solid state to the gaseous state when exposed to ambient temperatures. When material is stored in confined spaces, gaseous C02 can displace oxygen. Personnel entering oxygen deficient areas may become unconscious. Adhesives are toxic. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Wear gloves and long sleeve coveralls to prevent skin contact. If contact occurs, immediately wash with soap and water.

Composite Materials

Dry Ice

Film/Foaming Adhesive

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SECTION I INTRODUCTION

1-1.

PURPOSE.

a. The purpose of this technical manual is to provide repair methods for structures manufactured from advanced composite materials (ACM). In addition, the repair process rationale is described (where applicable) to provide the repair technician with an understanding of the process sensitive nature of advanced composite repair. This manual also lists the approved equipment and materials required for performing the repairs. These repair methods are for use at organizational and intermediate levels of maintenance. b. The repairs described in this manual are permanent and will restore the part being repaired to its required strength, stiffness and service life. 1-2. CONTENTS AND LIMITATIONS.

b. This manual is a supplement, not a replacement for a part specific structural repair manual (SRM). The individual part specific SRM must be consulted as the limitations, procedures and materials listed in it take precedence over this manual. Information such as operating environment, damage size limits, weight and balance limits and repair moldline protrusion limits are established by the aircraft manufacturer based upon the criticality of specific parts. Violation of SRM limits may result in excessive part deflection, dynamic instability or structural failure. Deviation or substitutions from part specific SRM materials and processes can only be authorized by the Fleet Support Team (FST) for the specific part in question. 1-3. REQUISITIONING AND AUTOMATIC DISTRIBUTION OF NAVAIR TECHNICAL MANUALS. Procedures to be used by Naval activities and other Department of Defense activities requiring NAVAIR technical manuals are defined in NAVAIR 00-25-100. 1-4. ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS. Table 1-1 lists abbreviations and symbols that do not appear in MIL-STD-12. 1-5. REFERENCE MATERIAL. All references applicable to this manual are listed in Table 1-2.

a. This manual provides a description of the equipment, materials and processes used to repair naval aircraft parts manufactured from ACM. Repair methods include both bonded and bolted techniques. The methods are applicable to monolithic laminates, bonded honeycomb sandwich assemblies and thin, stiffened skin assemblies. (The majority of this manual deals with the repair of carbon/epoxy composites as they comprise over 90% of the advanced composite assemblies currently in use on naval aircraft).

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Table 1-1. Abbreviations and Symbols


Abbreviations/ Symbol ACM ACS AIMD BCM BMI CRT CTE CRES DED DVD D d EMI E e FST HEPA HSS h IML Definition Advanced Composite Materials American Chemical Society Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department beyond the capability of maintenance bismaleimide cathode ray tube coefficient of thermal expansion corrosion resistant steel Damage Engineering Disposition double vacuum debulk scarf outline dimension diameter electromagnetic interference heat blanket edge distance joint eccentricity Fleet Support Team high efficiency particulate air high speed steel damage depth inner moldline
Abbreviations/ Symbol L LML mrA mrB mrF NDI NHMA OML P PCF PPE psi r SRM Tc T t w UML Definition patch overlap lower moldline mix ratio of part A mix ratio of part B mix ratio of filler material nondestructive inspection next higher maintenance activity outer moldline load pounds per cubic foot personal protective equipment pounds per square inch damage layout radius Structural Repair Manual thermocouple length of taper for partial thickness damage skin thickness woven upper moldline

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Table 1-2. Reference Material


Title Technical Manual, Aircraft and Missile Repair Structural Hardware Aerospace Metals - General Data and Usage Factors General Use of Cements, Sealants and Coatings Aircraft Weapons Systems Cleaning and Corrosion Control Nondestructive Inspection Methods Organizational, Intermediate and Depot Maintenance, Structure, Typical Repair Organizational, and Intermediate Maintenance Structure Repair Organizational, Intermediate and Depot Maintenance Repair Instructions, Horizontal Stabilizer - Boron/Epoxy Structure Temperature/Vacuum Control, Advanced Composite Structural Repair Test Set Operation and Maintenance Instructions Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual (Ashore) Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual (Afloat) Hazardous Material Information System Navy Environmental Health Center Technical Manual Adhesive Bonded Aerospace Structure Repair Naval Air Systems Command Technical Manual Program Distribution of NAVAIR Technical Publications Military Standard Abbreviations for Use On Drawings, and in Specifications, Standards and Technical Documents Interchangeability and Replaceability of Component Parts for Aerospace Vehicles Number NAVAIR 01-1A-8 NAVAIR 01-1A-9 NAVAIR 01-1A-507 NAVAIR 01-1A-509 NAVAIR 01-1A-16 A1-F18AC-SRM-250 A1-AV-8B-SRM-250 NAVAIR 01-F14AAA-3-2.4 NAVAIR 17-1-131 OPNAVINST 5100.23B OPNAVINST 5100.19B DOD 6050.5 NEHC-TM-91-6 MIL-HDBK-337 NAVAIR 00-25-100 NAVAIRINST 5605.5 MIL-STD-12 MIL-I-8500

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SECTION II INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES 2-1. ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ACM). ACM consist of high strength, high extensional stiffness fibers imbedded in a matrix or binder material. This composite of two separate and distinct materials forms a single new material with properties different from either constituent material. It is the high extensional stiffness of the fibers (high resistance to applied loads) that allow advanced composite materials to replace aluminum or steel as a structural material. One of the unique features of ACM which makes them so appealing to designers is the ability to tailor laminates by putting the fibers where they are needed to carry loads. This results in a structural material with higher strength and lower weight than currently is available using metallic materials. a. Fibers. The primary function of the fibers is to carry load and to provide the required part stiffness. Carbon, boron and aramid (Kevlar) are the three advanced fibers in use on naval aircraft. (1) Carbon. The carbon (or graphite) fiber is 0.0003 inch in diameter. It is made from a synthetic material similar to rug yarn. The fibers are carbonized in an inert environment at temperatures around 3000F. The carbon fiber has low bending stiffness allowing it to be woven into various patterns. It can be bent around an object about the diameter of a pencil point and can be readily used to manufacture complex contoured parts. The majority of advanced composite parts used on naval aircraft are made from carbon fibers. (2) Boron. The boron fiber is 0.005 inch in diameter. It is made by chemical vapor deposition of elemental boron onto a cleaned 0.0005 inch diameter tungsten wire. The boron fiber has a high bending stiffness and cannot be bent around an object any smaller than the diameter of a dime. Due to this relatively high bending stiffness, boron fibers cannot be woven into cloth or used for complex contoured parts. Their use on naval aircraft has been limited to the F-14 horizontal stabilator. (3) Aramid (Kevlar). Aramid material is a synthetic polymer. Kevlar fibers are made from the polymer using a dry-jet wet spinning process. DuPonts Kevlar fiber is 0.0005 inch in diameter and is currently the only commercially available aramid fiber. The Kevlar fiber, like the carbon fiber, has a low bending stiffness allowing it to be woven in various patterns. Although the fiber has excellent properties in tension, the compression properties are poor limiting its use in structural applications to internal ducts, non-structural access covers, fairings and lightly loaded helicopter skins. b. Matrix. The material that holds, or supports the fibers in the laminate is termed the matrix. In addition to providing support for the fibers, the matrix provides fiber to fiber bonding and bonds the plies or laminae together forming a laminate. The three matrix materials currently in use on naval aircraft (which are all thermosets) are epoxies, bismaleimides and polyimides. The governing criteria for selection of a matrix material is generally based upon the operating temperature of the part in question and the service temperature of the material. (1) Epoxies. Epoxy resins used for matrix materials on naval aircraft cure at 350F and have a service temperature of 250F. The majority of advanced composite parts on naval aircraft and in commercial applications use epoxy resins as the matrix material. (2) Bismaleimides. Bismaleimide resins are intermediate service temperature polyimide resins. They cure at 450F and have a service temperature of 350F. Generally, they are used on areas of the aircraft that experience operating temperatures in excess of 250F but less than 350F. (3) PMR Polyimides. PMR polyimide resins used as matrix materials are high service temperature resins. They cure at 650F and have a service temperature of 550F. PMR polyimide materials have seen very limited use as matrix materials and have been used exclusively on engine components.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

c. Adhesives. Film adhesives are used in the construction of parts manufactured from ACM to bond honeycomb core and/or substructure members to laminate skins. These adhesives may be cocured during the laminate curing process or they may be secondarily cured after the laminate curing process is complete. Epoxies are the predominant materials used for adhesives on naval aircraft. (1) Epoxy film adhesives that cure at 350F generally have a service temperature of 250F. A noted exception is the adhesive system used to bond F-14 honeycomb sandwich parts. This system has a service temperature of 350F. (2) Epoxy film adhesives that cure at 250F generally have a service temperature of 180F. 2-2. PREPREG. Prepreg material is the basic building block of advanced composites. It consists of fibers preimpregnated with a partially cured (B-staged) matrix material. It is supplied by a prepreg manufacturer in thin

sheets in two different forms, unidirectional prepreg (fibers all in one direction) and woven prepreg (fibers woven into a specified weave). The fibers in both of these forms are continuous. 2-3. LAMINATE. Skins and substructure details (ribs, spars, etc.) are manufactured by laminating plies of prepreg. Plies of prepreg are cut to the required orientation and shape and stacked together in specified directions to obtain the required stiffness and strength. This stackup is then cured in an autoclave using heat and pressure (100-200 psi), to form a solid laminate. Excess resin bled during the cure process bonds the plies together forming a laminate. Typical ply orientations used for aircraft parts are 0, 90, +45, and -45 degrees (see paragraph 6-7d for a description of ply orientation). A cross section of a laminate made from unidirectional carbon/epoxy prepreg is shown in Figure 2-1. Typical thickness per ply for a cured laminate made from unidirectional carbon/epoxy prepreg is 0.005 inch. Note the thin resin bands in between each ply. Interply bonding occurs in these resin band areas.

+45 0.005 INCH

INTERPLY RESIN BAND -45 MATRIX FIBER 90

Figure 2-1. Laminate Cross Section Cut 90 Degrees to the 0 Degree Fiber Direction

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SECTION III TYPICAL DAMAGE 3-1. GENERAL. Most damage to naval aircraft occurs on the ground during aircraft servicing, maintenance and handling. Impacts from dropped tools, forklifts, maintenance stands, dropped panels and in-flight foreign objects are major causes of damage. 3-2. DAMAGE TO ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ACM). Damage incurred by ACM is quite different than that experienced by metallic materials. ACM do not deform like metals. ACM either resist an impact force and spring back or rupture. Due to the brittle nature of most ACM, these ruptures can occur at rather low impact energies. The damage resulting from a rupture produces cracks in the matrix, delaminations between plies and broken fibers. a. Impact Related Delaminations. Impact related delaminations tend to occur at multiple depths throughout the thickness of the laminate. They consist of inter and intra ply matrix cracks which are not always interconnected. Subsurface delaminations and matrix cracks can exist without any indication on the part surface. (See Figure 3-1). Laminates subjected to or suspected of having been subjected to impacts from foreign objects (such as maintenance stands, tool boxes, dropped tools, etc.) must have the suspected area inspected by an appropriate method (usually ultrasonics). Inspect for the presence of subsurface damage per paragraphs 3-3b and 3-3c as well as the part specific structural repair manual (SRM). Impact related delamination damage is the most common type of damage experienced with ACM.

INTRAPLY MATRIX CRACKS

EXTENT OF NDI INDICATION

A. Impacted Laminate: No Indication of Subsurface Damage

INTERPLY DELAMINATION

INTRAPLY MATRIX CRACKS INTERPLY DELAMINATION

B. Cross Section of Impacted Area C. Magnified Cross Sections of Impacted Area Figure 3-1. Typical Impact Damage on 0.1 Inch Thick Carbon/Epoxy Laminate, 3 Ft-Lbs Impact Energy

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

b. Dents. The presence of dents in composite skins can indicate delaminations and/or matrix cracks. If honeycomb core is present, crushing of the core will exist beneath the dented composite skin (see Figure 3-2). The crushed core can be hidden by the brittle ACM separating in the laminate, springing back and masking the buckled core beneath (see Figure 3-3). c. Penetration Damage. Composite skin penetration damage is characterized by broken fibers, matrix cracks and delaminations. This type of damage usually results in subsurface delaminations and matrix cracks larger than

that apparent visually (see Figure 3-3). Mapping of these areas is required as described in paragraph 3-3c(3)(c). Visually apparent penetration damage on the exit side is typically 3-5 times larger than entrance side damage size (see Figure 3-4). d. Airstream Stripping Damage. Penetrations that occur in-flight result in damage much larger than the actual penetration. The air flow over the part lifts the outer ply of the composite at the edge of the penetration and strips it back off the part (see Figure 3-5).

DENT

DELAMINATION MATRIX CRACK

BUCKLED CORE

Figure 3-2. Dented Honeycomb Panel

DENT/SKIN PENETRATION

DELAMINATION

BROKEN FIBERS BUCKLED CORE

Figure 3-3. Penetration Damage

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

A. Entrance Side

B. Exit Side Figure 3-4. Penetration Damage on 0.75 Inch Thick Carbon/Epoxy Laminate

OUTER PLY STRIPPING CAUSED BY THE AIRSTREAM

SKIN PENETRATIONS

Figure 3-5. Airstream Stripping Damage

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

e. Edge and Corner Damage. Edge and corner damage to panels result in edge delaminations and/or broken off pieces sometimes requiring a rebuilding effort (see Figure 3-6). f. Partial Thickness Damage. Partial thickness damage due to gouging of the part surface results in outer ply splintering, broken/removed fibers and delaminations.

g. Resin Damage. Damage to the resin can occur due to the effects of heat and chemical attack. (1) Temperature exposures in excess of the part cure temperature can degrade matrix strength. Epoxy matrix materials that cure at 350F and that are exposed to

temperatures above 400F but less than 600F can experience a marked reduction in strength. Little or no visual indication of damage to the laminate is apparent. However, if the laminate is painted, discoloration of the paint system provides an indicator that laminate damage may have occurred. For 350F curing epoxy matrix materials, exposures beyond 600F may result in visual blistering and pyrolyzation of the outer plies of the laminate. For bonded composite assemblies, epoxy adhesives degrade at lower temperatures (typically 50F lower) than laminate matrix materials. ACM and bonded composite assemblies exhibiting discolored paint or that are suspected of being exposed to excessive temperatures (above 400F for epoxy matrix composites or 500F for bismaleimide matrix composites) may have experienced heat damage. These ACM and bonded composite assemblies are suspect. The

A. Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Edge Figure 3-6. Edge Damage (Sheet 1 of 2)

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

matrix material beneath any blistered, delaminated or pyrolyzed plies are suspect as well. The suspect areas require evaluation and disposition by Fleet Support Team (FST) engineering to evaluate laminates, laminate to core bonds and laminate to substructure bonds. (2) ACM exposed to aircraft fires may experience pyrolyzation of the matrix material on the outer plies, thus eliminating support for the fibers (see Figure 3-7), while the underlying plies experience blistering and interply delamination. Although appearing intact, the matrix material beneath blistered, delaminated or pyrolyzed plies experience a strength reduction and requires evaluation and disposition as discussed in paragraph 3-2g(1). (3) ACM exposed to chemical paint strippers experience a long term degradation of matrix strength with no visual indication on the part surface. They require evaluation and disposition by FST engineering.

(4) ACM exposed to most other chemicals found in the maintenance environment (cleaners, solvents, jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, etc.) show no effect due to exposure. h. Disbonds. Skin to core disbonds and skin to substructure disbonds occur as a result of core corrosion, or part exposure to temperatures at or above the part cure temperature. They can also be caused by impact forces if the adhesive used to bond the core or substructure is more brittle than the composite matrix material. Disbond indications between composite skins and composite closure members bonded with FM300 adhesive should be checked closely. In most cases (contamination being the exception), the indications are either skin delaminations or closure member delaminations as the FM300 adhesive is tougher than the matrix material.

B. Monolithic Panel Edge Figure 3-6. Edge Damage (Sheet 2)

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Figure 3-7. Fire Damaged Advanced Composites

i. Fluid Intrusion. This type of damage occurs with honeycomb sandwich assemblies when a leak path develops which allows fluid to enter the honeycomb core cells. This can be detrimental to weight critical flight control surfaces, as well as causing material degradation to both metallic and non-metallic honeycomb core. Fluid intrusion is of major concern in performing elevated temperature cures during bonded repairs. j. Fastener Hole Damage. Gouging of countersinks and areas surrounding fastener holes caused by fastener drivers can occur during fastener removal and installation. Repeated fastener removal and installation can result in excessive wear of fastener holes. Delamination of fastener holes can be caused by over torquing fasteners during installation and by generation of an excessive amount of heat when drilling out damaged fasteners.

3-3.

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

a. Damage Categories. Prior to actually beginning a repair, the damage should be assessed and then categorized to determine if the repair is required/feasible. Three types of damage are categorized below: (1) Negligible Damage. Damage which, because of its size, nature and location that does not adversely affect the structural integrity of the part is defined as negligible. It may be allowed to exist without repair, or may only require a cosmetic repair to be performed to prevent further damage from occurring (such as further stripping of outer ply material). Refer to the part specific SRM for further guidance on what constitutes negligible damage.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(2) Repairable Damage. This is defined not only as damage requiring repair, but also damage that is within the repair capability of the activity at which the repair is to be performed. The location of damage, complexity of the repair procedure, repair weight limitations, availability of repair equipment and materials, repair time/cost, spare part availability, etc., are all factors in deciding whether a part is beyond the capability of maintenance (BCM) at that activity. Parts that are BCM must be forwarded to the next higher maintenance activity (NHMA). Refer to the part specific SRM for guidance on repairability due to damage location and to provide specific repair weight limits. (3) Non-Repairable Damage. Parts determined to be non-repairable must be forwarded to depot level for disposition. b. Damage Assessment Methodology. Four steps are involved in assessing damage. Locating damage, characterizing the damage and determining its extent, zoning the damage on the part being repaired and reevaluation of the damaged area after damage removal. (1) First, locate the damage. This is usually performed by visual inspection. However, caution must be exercised as non-visible subsurface damage may exist beneath impact areas and areas suspected of having been impacted. Areas impacted (with or without visual indication on the part surface) or suspected of having been impacted must be further evaluated for delaminations and matrix cracks. Use the nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods listed in paragraph 3-3c as well as the part specific SRM. (2) Once the damage has been located, the extent of the damage must be determined and the damage characterized. The depth of delamination and the presence of skin to core or skin to substructure disbonds (if applicable) should be determined to characterize the detected damage. Damage to honeycomb core should be characterized using radiographic techniques. Determining the extent of damage and characterizing the damage is an important part of the damage assessment process, as it will have a direct bearing on the repair procedures to be employed. (3) After the damage has been characterized and the extent determined, the repair zone in which the damage is located is determined using the part specific SRM. Overlap of damage from one repair zone to another requires the damage limits for the worst case zone be used. If the damage limits for the repair zone in which the damage is located are exceeded, the part must be forwarded to the NHMA for repair. If the damage lies in a non-repairable zone, the part must be forwarded to depot for disposition.

(4) Following damage removal, reinspect the damage area to ensure all the damage was in fact removed. Current NDI methods used to detect subsurface delaminations are capable of only finding the first delamination nearest the surface on which the probe was applied. Deeper delaminations can be masked by the first delamination (see Figure 3-8, View D). After removing what initially appears to be all the damage present, it is necessary to reinspect the area to ensure no delaminations remain below the originally defined damage. c. Damage Assessment Techniques. The following nondestructive methods are used to inspect ACM to evaluate damage. The ultrasonic inspection techniques may also be used following a bonded repair to evaluate the adequacy of the performed repair. (1) Visual Inspection. As discussed above, visual inspection is used to initially locate damage. Penetration damage is readily apparent. The presence of dents requires a closer look and can be aided by using a straight edge over a suspected dent area and comparing the suspected dent area with the surrounding part. The visual method can be enhanced by using a flashlight and magnifying glass. The presence of edge delaminations may sometimes be detected by wiping the edge of the part with a solvent. If the edge is delaminated, the solvent will wick into the delaminated area. The solvent will evaporate on the undelaminated edge area leaving a wet mark along the delaminated edge. NDI penetrants should not be used as they may contaminate surface cracks or edge delaminations, foiling subsequent repair attempts. Internal flaws such as delaminations not open to an edge and skin disbonds cannot be detected using visual methods and require the use of ultrasonic inspection techniques. (2) Coin Tap. This method can be used to detect the presence of disbonds and/or delaminations in bonded honeycomb sandwich assemblies with thin composite facesheets. It is not effective for thick laminates and cannot determine defect depth or distinguish a disbond from a delamination. The technique involves lightly tapping the surface of a composite in the area of a suspected defect and comparing the acoustic response due to tapping in the suspect area with the acoustic response from a good area. Good areas have a sharp glassy ring to them when tapped. Areas containing disbonds or delaminations have a dull or flat sound when tapped. Caution must be exercised when using coin tap. Experience has shown that areas that provide a defect indication do in fact contain defects. However, areas that sound good by coin tap may still contain disbonds and delaminations and must be inspected using ultrasonic techniques.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

100

DELAY LINE/ PART SURFACE INTERFACE RESPONSE

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
BACK SURFACE RESPONSE FROM COMPOSITE LAMINATE

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;


0.160 INCH

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.160 INCH

CRT DISPLAY

A. Composite Laminate/No Defects

100

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

RESPONSE FROM 0.060 INCH DEPTH

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;


0.160 INCH 0.060 INCH

10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DELAMINATION AT 0.060 INCH

0.060 INCH

CRT DISPLAY

B. Composite Laminate/Delamination at 0.060 Inch

100

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

RESPONSE FROM 0.020 INCH DEPTH

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;


0.160 INCH

RESPONSE FROM 0.040 INCH DEPTH

RESPONSE FROM 0.060 INCH DEPTH

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

MULTI-LEVEL DELAMINATION AT 0.020,0.040, AND 0.060 INCH

CRT DISPLAY

C. Composite Laminate/Multi-Level Delamination Figure 3-8. Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Inspection with A-Scan Presentation (Sheet 1 of 3)

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

100

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

RESPONSE FROM 0.060 INCH DEPTH

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;


0.160 INCH 0.060 INCH

10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DELAMINATION AT 0.060 INCH

DELAMINATIONS MASKED BY DELAMINATION AT 0.060 INCH

CRT DISPLAY

D. Composite Laminate/Masked Delaminations

100

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

PATCH SURFACE RESPONSE

PATCH/ADHESIVE RESPONSE
LAMINATE BACK SURFACE RESPONSE

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;

PATCH ADHESIVE LAMINATE

10 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

CRT DISPLAY

E. Repair Patch to Laminate Bond/No Defects

100

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

PATCH SURFACE RESPONSE

PATCH/ADHESIVE RESPONSE

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;

PATCH ADHESIVE LAMINATE

ABSENCE OF LAMINATE BACK SURFACE RESPONSE

10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PATCH TO LAMINATE BONDLINE VOID OR DISBOND

CRT DISPLAY

F. Repair Patch to Laminate Bond/Bondline Void or Disbond Figure 3-8. Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Inspection with A-Scan Presentation (Sheet 2of 3)

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

COMPOSITE SKIN BACK SURFACE RESPONSE

ADHESIVE/AIR INTERFACE RESPONSE

9 10

SKIN TO CORE BOND ADHESIVE

ADHESIVE/AIR INTERFACE

CRT DISPLAY

G. Composite Laminate Honeycomb Sandwich Assembly/No Defects


TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4

OVER SKIN AREA WHERE ADHESIVE IS DISBONDED FROM BACK SURFACE OF SKIN, AMPLITUDE MAY INCREASE & ADHESIVE/AIR INTERFACE RESPONSE WILL BE ABSENT

9 10

SKIN TO CORE DISBOND

CRT DISPLAY

H. Composite Laminate Honeycomb Sandwich Assembly/Skin to Core Disbond Figure 3-8. Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Inspection with A-Scan Presentation (Sheet 3)

NOTE The following summary provides an overview only and is not sufficiently detailed for performing ultrasonic or radiographic inspection of ACM. These inspections require a trained and certified NDI technician. (3) Ultrasonics. Currently, the contact ultrasonic inspection techniques are the most widely used methods for assessing damage to ACM in the field. This method uses high frequency sound waves, called ultrasound, transmitted into the part by a transducer placed in contact with the part. A liquid couplant is used to eliminate air gaps

between the transducer and the part as the air gaps interrupt sound being induced into the part. An internal defect, such as a delamination, interrupts the sound traveling through the laminate and an indication is received on the ultrasonic unit indicating the presence of a defect. Interpretation of ultrasonic inspection indications requires a reference standard made from the same material as the part being tested and containing flaws of known size and location for comparison purposes. Ultrasonic techniques require a certified NDI technician to perform the inspections and are performed using procedures in part specific SRMs. General procedures are provided in NAVAIR 01-1A-16. Two techniques are in use in the field, pulse-echo ultrasonics and through-transmission ultrasonics.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(a) Pulse-Echo Ultrasonics. This is the most common technique used in the field. It makes use of a single transducer that sends and receives sound energy. The sound energy is reflected back to the transducer by the initial surface of the part, by the backside surface of the part, by interfaces between different materials (such as composite and adhesive interfaces) and by locations of internal defects. It can be used to determine defect area, and defect depth. Field inspection test results are displayed using A-scan presentation on the cathode ray tube (CRT) of an ultrasonic flaw detector. When this method is used by a skilled technician, a skin delamination can usually be distinguished from a skin to core or skin to substructure disbond. Figure 3-8 shows typical pulse-echo A-scan presentation CRT displays for the defects indicated. (b) Through-Transmission Ultrasonics. This technique uses two transducers, one to transmit sound energy and one to receive. Sound energy is sent from one

side of the part through the part to the second transducer on the opposite side. A defect encountered in the part significantly reduces the intensity of the sound energy. This reduction in sound energy intensity is used to detect the presence of defects. It can be used to determine the area of a defect. Unlike pulse-echo ultrasonics, the sound does not have to traverse the thickness of the part twice. Throughtransmission ultrasonics is usually more sensitive for flaw detection in bonded assemblies. This technique is not able to determine defect depth or type. In addition, it requires access to both sides of the part and alignment of the two transducers during inspection to ensure the receiving transducer picks up the sound energy sent by the transmitting transducer (see Figure 3-9, View B). Like pulse-echo ultrasonics, field inspection test results are displayed using A-scan presentation. See Figure 3-9, View C for typical through-transmission A-scan presentation CRT responses for the defects indicated.

TRANSMITTER TRANSDUCER

;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;

100 90 80 70 60 50 T 40 30 20 10 0

PART SURFACE RESPONSE


OPPOSITE SIDE SURFACE RESPONSE

;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;


RECEIVER TRANSDUCER

9 10

CRT DISPLAY

A. Composite Laminate Honeycomb Sandwich Assembly with No Defects


;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;

;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;


SEARCH UNIT ALIGNMENT FIXTURE USED TO MAINTAIN TRANSDUCER ALIGNMENT

;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;


TRANSDUCER MISALIGNMENT CAN CAUSE AN ERRONEOUS DEFECT INDICATION

;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;

B. Transducer Alignment Figure 3-9. Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Inspection, A-Scan Presentation (Sheet 1 of 2) 3-11

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(c) Defect Mapping. Using the visual indication of damage as a guide, mark a grid of 0.5 inch squares out to a point at least 1 inch away from the edge of the damage on the part surface using a marking pen. Using one of the ultrasonic techniques listed above, inspect each 0.5 inch square of the marked grid. Mark the location of defect indications (and depths if using the pulse-echo ultrasonic technique) as indicated on the CRT on the part surface using a marking pen (see Figure 3-10). Tape a piece of mylar over the damage area and transfer the defect indication map to the mylar using a permanent marking pen. Mark locating lines on the part away from the damage area. Transfer these lines to the mylar to aid in positioning the mylar after the paint has been removed from the part during the repair process. The defect map will be used to determine

the damage layout and extent of material removed as described in paragraph 6-3. The mylar map provides an aid when performing subsequent NDI of the area after damage removal and after repair as well as providing a permanent record of the defect indications. (4) Radiographic Techniques. This technique makes use of x-rays to detect defects in materials and assemblies. X-rays penetrate a material and are absorbed differently based upon the material's density. Defects less dense than surrounding material (such as voids in a composite laminate) absorb less radiation and are shown on x-ray film as darker areas as compared to nearby images. Defects more dense than surrounding areas absorb more radiation (such as water in honeycomb sandwich

;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;

SKIN TO CORE UNBOND

100 90 80

;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;


DELAMINATION

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ABSENCE OF OPPOSITE SIDE SURFACE RESPONSE

CRT DISPLAY

;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;


Through-Transmission Ultrasonics Is Unable to Determine Depth of Defect or Defect Type

CTR Response for Both Skin to Core Disbond and Skin Delamination

C. Composite Laminate Honeycomb Sandwich Assembly/Skin to Core Disbond and Skin Delamination Figure 3-9. Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Inspection, A-Scan Presentation (Sheet 2)

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

assemblies) and are shown as lighter areas on x-ray film when compared to nearby images. The recording medium in the field is film. The need to precisely orient the part to obtain the required sensitivity to detect defects may preclude the use of radiographic techniques for inspection of complex contoured parts. In addition, the requirement for backside access to position x-ray film limits its usefulness. The following types of defects are detectable using radiographic techniques: (a) Voids in Patch to Part Bondlines. Voids contain less material than the surrounding adhesive and show up as darker areas when compared to areas lacking voids.

(b) Water Entrapment in Honeycomb Sandwich Assemblies. The water present is excess or added material for the x-rays to penetrate and appears lighter when compared to images of adjacent cells not containing water. (c) Honeycomb Core Damage. Damage to metallic core material, such as blown, crushed, corroded, fatigued, or distorted core material, is best detected when the cell walls appear to be laid over on the x-ray film. (The area of interest should be offset from the central ray of the x-ray beam to allow viewing of the cell walls and determining if damage is present).

VISUAL INDICATION OF DAMAGE

A. Layout of NDI Grid

ULTRASONIC INDICATION OF DAMAGE

B. Damage Extent from Ultrasonic Inspection Figure 3-10. Defect Mapping of Damage Extent from NDI

3-13/(3-14 Blank) 3-13

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK

3-14

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SECTION IV REPAIR PROCEDURE SELECTION CRITERIA 4-1. DESIGN CRITERIA. The design of a repair procedure is dependent upon many criteria. The following criteria are used when designing repairs defined in part specific structural repair manuals (SRMs) and by Fleet Support Team (FST) engineers. a. Strength. An important aspect of any repair is restoring strength to the part. Some composite parts are designed such that the full laminate strength is needed to carry the part load. These are referred to as strength critical parts. However, other composite parts are designed as stiffness critical. A damaged stiffness critical part may not require restoration to full strength as the part was not designed to carry high loads. Examples of structures for which full strength restoration is not required are as follows: lightly loaded secondary structure (non-structural access covers, doors, and fairings), some areas of flight control surfaces designed for resisting deflections rather than carrying high loads and some areas of fuselage skins or wing skins (skin thickness sized for resistance to handling damage rather than carrying loads). Part specific SRMs zone the part to identify the type of repair needed. This permits the use of simpler repairs in areas where full strength restoration is not required. Zoning can also be used to define other requirements such as weight and balance or moldline protrusion limitations. b. Stiffness. It is always necessary to restore a structure to its required stiffness. (1) Fixed structures such as wings and vertical tails have required bending and torsional stiffnesses to prevent excessive deflections when loaded. Improper stiffness restoration can result in excessive deflection or possible structural failure. (2) Actuated doors (such as landing gear doors) have stiffness requirements to prevent excessive deflection during actuation or during application of aerodynamic loads. Lack of stiffness restoration can result in improper door function, an increase in aerodynamic drag or possible structural failure. (3) Flight Control Surfaces. These surfaces are sensitive to aerodynamic flutter and their stiffnesses are designed to prevent flutter from occurring. Any significant change in part stiffness can result in improper function of the control surface or possible structural failure. (4) Load Path Changes. As a general rule, the local stiffness of the patch is designed to correspond to that of the surrounding material in order to avoid load path changes. This is especially important when restoration of strength is required. Attention must be given to the effect of the stiffness of the repair patch on the load distribution in the structure. If the patch has less stiffness than the surrounding structure (such as use of a fiberglass epoxy patch on a carbon epoxy structure), the patch may not carry its share of the load and overload of the surrounding structure may result. Conversely, an excessively stiff patch may attract more than its share of the load causing adjacent areas to which it is attached to be overloaded. c. Weight and Balance. The weight addition of most repairs is small in comparison to overall aircraft weight. However, the mass balance of most flight control surfaces is such that very little weight addition can adversely affect the balance of the part. Caution must be exercised when repairing flutter sensitive flight control surfaces (such as ailerons, rudders and stabilators). Both the weight addition and the distance of the repair from the hinge axis of the part must be considered to prevent premature failure of the part. The further aft of the hinge axis the repair is located, the less additional repair weight is allowed. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. 4-2. ADDITIONAL CRITERIA. In addition to design criteria, other criteria which must be considered include the following: a. Moldline Protrusion. High-performance aircraft depend upon smooth external surfaces to minimize drag. Some areas are more critical than others depending upon aerodynamic considerations. In general, the most critical areas from an aerodynamic moldline protrusion standpoint are leading edges of aerodynamic surfaces (wings, flight control surfaces, flaps, vertical tails) and engine inlet areas. In addition to aerodynamic considerations, some access covers and doors have moldline fit up constraints with other parts of the structure that preclude repairs from extending above the surface of the part. Requirements for low observable structures also provide moldline protrusion constraints. The use of a flush repair may be required to meet some of these requirements.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

b. Aircraft Systems. The effects of the repair on aircraft systems must be considered. (1) Fuel Systems. Repairs performed in areas used to contain fuel, must seal adequately to prevent fuel leaks. The repair design must take into account fuel pressure loads as well as interference with fuel system components due to geometric constraints. Protection of fuel system components against high repair cure cycle temperatures must be considered during repair selection. (2) Mechanical Systems. Mechanically actuated parts, such as landing gear doors and control surfaces, must function correctly after repair. In addition to fit problems mentioned above, the parts may required rerigging or rebalancing after repair. (3) Protection Systems. Composite structures that have fire suppression, survivability, noise suppression, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, low observable technology or lightning protection must have those systems restored to their original function in addition to restoring part stiffness and strength. c. Part Manufacturing Methods. Advanced composite parts used on naval aircraft consist of laminates or skins and some form of substructure members. Joining of these skins to substructure members (spars, ribs, honeycomb core, integral stiffeners, etc.) involves either a bolting or bonding process. In general, bolted assemblies use bolted repair concepts and bonded assemblies use bonded repair concepts. 4-3. BASIC REPAIR JOINTS. Restoration of strength and/or stiffness to damaged parts requires damaged areas to be joined for load path continuity. This restoration involves a repair joint and the joining of the patch material to an undamaged area of the part through this joint (see Figure 4-1). Load travels along the undamaged skins neutral axis through a joining material (adhesive or mechanical fasteners) into the patch. The patch provides a bridge for the load across the damaged area. Load travels along the neutral axis of the patch, through the joining material and back into the part skin. As can be seen in Detail A of Figure 4-1, the load in the skin and the load in the patch are horizontally opposed to one another. This sets up a shear force in the joining material. Some basic joints used for repair and their load transfer mechanisms are described below. a. Bonded Joints. Bonded joints make use of a repair patch to carry load across the damaged region. A common misconception is that the adhesive is applied to hold the patch in place on the part. While that is one function of the
P

DAMAGE HOLE A

PATCH

COMPOSITE SKIN A

BASIC REPAIR JOINT

PATCH BRIDGES DAMAGE HOLE SKIN

DETAIL A

HOLE EDGE

CENTERLINE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE

SECTION A-A CROSS SECTION OF REPAIR JOINT

SKIN NEUTRAL AXIS

PATCH NEUTRAL AXIS P

HOLE EDGE DETAIL A

DIRECTION OF TRAVEL OF LOAD P

Figure 4-1. Basic Repair Joints (General)

adhesive, the primary function is to transfer load from the undamaged part to the patch. Load transfer is accomplished via shearing action in the adhesive. Three commonly used bonded repair joints are shown in Figure 4-2. Only those bonded repair joints and patch/adhesive materials specified in either a part specific SRM or by FST engineering shall be used for repair. (1) External Bonded Patch. The external bonded patch is the easiest bonded repair joint to fabricate. Adhesive bondline area for load transfer is provided by overlapping the repair patch and the part skin. One of the

4-2

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

;; ;; ;; ;;

EXTERNAL

; ; ; ;

;;;;;; ;; ;
INTERNAL

; ; ; ;
SCARF PATCH ADHESIVE COMPOSITE SKIN CORE

; ; ; ; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;
CORE SPLICE ADHESIVE REPAIR CORE REPAIR PLUG

(3) Scarf or Step Bonded Joints. A scarf joint, (or step joint) machined in the part skin reduces the stress concentration and the adhesive shear stress at the edge of the damage cleanup hole. In addition, the scarf or step joint almost eliminates joint eccentricity as the patch and part skin neutral axes are nearly coincident. Adhesive bondline area is provided along the scarf or step surfaces within the thickness of the part skin. (See Figure 4-5). A scarf or step joint can result in joints as strong as the original part skin. The machining of the scarf or step joint in the part skin is time consuming, must be done with accuracy and removes a large quantity of sound material. A major disadvantage to using this type of joint is the need to very accurately layup and position replacement ply material in the repair joint. In addition, curing of replacement ply material can result in significantly reduced strength if not cured in an autoclave. For these reasons, this type of joint is usually performed only at depot level unless the part is lightly loaded. The scarf joint is preferred over the step joint as it is more efficient from a load transfer standpoint, and is easier to fabricate. Step joints have been used for repair of parts fabricated from woven materials utilizing Kevlar and glass fibers. b. Bolted Joints. Bolted joints also make use of a repair patch to carry loads across the damage region. Fasteners attaching the repair patch to the damaged structure complete the joint. Three commonly used bolted repair joints are shown in Figure 4-6. A common misconception is that the purpose of the fasteners are to hold the patch in place. The fasteners do provide clampup between the plate and the part surface, but their primary purpose is to allow the load to be transferred from the original part surface through the patch. This load is transferred through the fasteners and patch by shear forces as the fasteners contact the loaded structure and the plate at the edge of the fastener hole. This load transfer is illustrated in Figures 4-7 and 4-8. These forces are transferred more efficiently with tighter fastener hole tolerances. For fastener holes other than interference fit fasteners, a deflection in the structure and plate is required for the fasteners to contact the loaded structure and the plate. Figure 4-9 illustrates how a smaller deflection is required to load the adjoining structure for fasteners with smaller initial clearances than another hole with a larger fastener clearance. However, interference fit fasteners should not be used in composite structures. The composite matrix may crack or delaminate resulting in strength degradation as the interference fit fastener is pressed into place. A Class II fit (clearance of +0.0025/-0.000 inch) is normally specified for structural fasteners in composite materials.

Figure 4-2. Basic Repair Joints (Bonded) limiting factors for this type of joint is the eccentric load path caused by the offset of patch and part neutral axes due to the overlap. (See Figure 4-3). This eccentricity can result in interlaminar failure of the patch or part skin, or premature failure of the adhesive. Another limiting factor in the use of an external bonded patch is the stress concentration that exists at the edge of the patch and the edge of the damage cleanup hole in the part skin. (See Figure 4-4). This stress concentration can be reduced at the edge of the patch by gradually increasing the thickness at its edge (by stepping or tapering the edge of the patch) to ease the load into the repair joint, but the stress concentration at the hole edge remains and limits the load carrying capability of the external bonded patch. (2) Internal Bonded Patch. The internal bonded patch is similar to the external bonded patch and has the same limiting factors. However, the internal bonded patch is very difficult to incorporate without backside access and virtually impossible on honeycomb sandwich parts due to interference with the core. For these reasons, the use of internal bonded patches has been limited.

4-3

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

e = JOINT ECCENTRICITY CAUSED BY PATCH AND PART NEUTRAL AXIS OFFSET L = PATCH TO PART OVERLAP FOR LOAD TRANSFER P = APPLIED LOAD

PART NEUTRAL AXIS L

PATCH NEUTRAL AXIS

P P ADHESIVE HOLE EDGE

A. Lightly Loaded. Load Transfer Occurs Via Shear Through the Adhesive

P P

B. Highly Loaded. Skin Interlaminar Failure Caused By Joint Eccentricity (e) and Load (P) Figure 4-3. External Bonded Patch Joint Eccentricity Effects

(1) External Bolted Patch. The external bolted patch is the easiest bolted repair joint to fabricate. The external patch overlaps the part skin to allow sufficient fasteners to be installed for load transfer. Like the external bonded patch, the external bolted patch is also limited by the eccentricity due to the offset of patch and part neutral axes. This eccentricity results in fastener tipping, fastener failure, or bearing failure in the composite skin/patch material (see Figure 4-7, View B).

(2) Internal Bolted Patch. The internal bolted patch has the same eccentricity problems as the external bolted patch. The internal bolted patch is easier to fabricate than the internal bonded patch. When backside access is not available, this patch is split to allow installation through an elliptical or circular cutout in the skin. Internal bolted patches may have interference problems with substructure members.

4-4

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

PATCH EDGE STRESS

4000

2000

HOLE EDGE STRESS

PATCH EDGE P PART SKIN

PATCH P ADHESIVE HOLE EDGE

A. Adhesive Shear Stress Concentration Due to Load P

REDUCED PATCH EDGE STRESS

4000

2000

HOLE EDGE STRESS NOT REDUCED

L
PATCH EDGE P HOLE EDGE P

B. Adhesive Shear Stress Reduced at Patch Edge but Not at Hole Edge Figure 4-4. External Bonded Patch Shear Stress Concentration Effects

(3) External/Internal Bolted Patch. The use of external/internal bolted patches of the same material and thickness eliminates eccentricity as the fasteners are loaded in double shear. The eccentricity caused by the offset of the external patch and part neutral axes is balanced by the eccentricity caused by the offset of the internal patch and part neutral axes. The load is shared by both patches on either side of the repaired skin. (See Figure 4-8). This patch configuration makes use of split backing plates to facilitate installation, but has the disadvantage of possibly interfering with substructure members.

(4) Multiple Row Fastener Patterns. The repair of composite structures requires careful attention to design to prevent premature failure. Multiple row fastener patterns are required to gradually introduce load from the part being repaired into the repair patch. It is virtually impossible to distribute the load evenly between all the fasteners in a multiple row pattern. In general, the load in the fasteners increases with their distance from the center of the damage cleanup hole, with the load being the highest in the outermost fasteners. The amount of load shared by the fasteners in the pattern can be increased by using close

4-5

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

e = JOINT ECCENTRICITY CAUSED BY PATCH AND PART NEUTRAL AXIS OFFSET L = PATCH TO PART OVERLAP FOR LOAD TRANSFER P = APPLIED LOAD

PART NEUTRAL AXIS

PATCH NEUTRAL AXIS

e
L P

A. Joint Eccentricity Reduced Due to Nearly Aligned Neutral Axes

PATCH EDGE STRESS

4000

HOLE EDGE STRESS


2000

PATCH
0

PATCH EDGE P PART SKIN

HOLE EDGE

B. Adhesive Shear Stress Reduced at Hole Edge Due to Scarf Joint

Figure 4-5. Scarf Bonded Patch Joint Eccentricity and Shear Stress Concentration Effects

tolerance fasteners and close tolerance fastener holes patterns. The effects of close tolerances on the displacement of patch and skin to load fasteners is shown in Figure 4-9. In addition, load sharing of fastener can be increased by tapering or stepping the repair patch as shown in Figure 4-10. An improperly designed fastener pattern or tapered/stepped patch can result in premature failure of the repair. Only those fastener patterns and patches called out in either a part specific SRM or by FST engineering shall be used for repair.

c.

Bonded Versus Bolted Repairs.

(1) Bonded repair concepts have found applicability in both types of manufacturing assembly methods. They have the advantage of not introducing stress concentrations by drilling fastener holes for patch installation and can be stronger than original part skin. They have the disadvantage of using process sensitive materials that require special storage, handling and curing procedures. In addition, the presence of moisture can

4-6

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

COMPOSITE SKIN

DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE

e = JOINT ECCENTRICITY P = APPLIED LOAD

SKIN

PATCH

A
P

e
P

FASTENER

SHEARING ACTION ON FASTENER DUE TO LOAD P

PATCH

FASTENER

A. Lightly Loaded. Load Transfer Occurs by Single Shearing Action on Fastener


EXTERNAL

;;;;; ;;;;;
INTERNAL EXTERNAL/INTERNAL

TIPPED FASTENER

;;;; ;;;;
REPAIR PLUG

BEARING FAILURE IN PATCH FASTENER HOLE

P P
BEARING FAILURE IN SKIN FASTENER HOLE

;; ;;

TITANIUM PATCH COMPOSITE SKIN

B. Highly Loaded. Fastener Tipping/Bearing Failure Caused by Joint Eccentricity (e) and Load (P) Figure 4-7. Externally Bolted Patch Joint Eccentricity

SECTION A-A

Figure 4-6. Basic Repair Joints (Bolted)

cause part damage during elevated temperature cure cycles. To preclude this damage, drying of the part is required prior to heating. (2) Bolted repairs are quicker and easier to fabricate than bonded repairs. They are normally used on composite skins thicker than 0.125 inch to ensure sufficient fastener bearing area is available for load transfer. They are prohibited in honeycomb sandwich assemblies due to the potential for moisture intrusion from the fastener holes

and the resulting core degradation. Bolted repairs are heavier than comparable bonded repairs limiting their use on weight sensitive flight control surfaces. 4-4. DAMAGE DISPOSITION. When determining whether a repair can be performed on a damaged part, the type of damage encountered must be first determined. After classifying the damage by NDI (as discussed in paragraph 3-3), refer to the part specific SRM to determine if the damage is negligible, within SRM limits or beyond SRM limits.

4-7

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

e = JOINT ECCENTRICITY P = APPLIED LOAD

P = APPLIED LOAD

EXTERNAL PATCH
FASTENER LOAD

SKIN

e e

INTERNAL PATCH P 2 P 2

600 400 200 1 2 3 4 FASTENER ROW

PATCH P 2
P 2

ELIMINATION OF JOINT ECCENTRICITY DUE TO USE OF EXTERNAL/ INTERNAL PATCHES DOUBLE SHEARING ACTION ON FASTENER DUE TO LOAD P AND THE USE OF EXTERNAL/ INTERNAL BOLTED PATCHES

FASTENER

PART SKIN

HOLE EDGE

A. Fastener Load - Untapered Patch

Figure 4-8. External/Internal Bolted Joint Eccentricity Elimination


FASTENER LOAD
600 400 200 1 2 3 4 FASTENER ROW

TAPERED PATCH

P = APPLIED LOAD l = DISPLACEMENT OF PATCH AND SKIN TO LOAD FASTENERS CLEARANCE


P

P 2
P 2

UNLOADED l P

B. Fastener Load - Tapered Patch


P LOADED

Figure 4-10. Increased Load Sharing of Fasteners Caused by Tapering Patch

LOOSE TOLERANCE FASTENERS/ FASTENERS HOLES - LARGE l

CLEARANCE

UNLOADED l P P LOADED CLOSE TOLERANCE FASTENERS/ FASTENERS HOLES - SMALL l

Figure 4-9. Effects of Close Tolerances on Displacement Required to Load Fasteners

4-8

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

a. If the damage is negligible, no repair action need be performed other than a non-structural cosmetic repair. b. If the damage is within SRM limits, the following must be evaluated prior to beginning the repair. (1) Availability of Equipment and Tools. Section VIII defines the equipment and tools available at most Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department (AIMD) shops both ashore and afloat required to perform composite repairs. Use of equipment and tools not intended for composite repairs can cause additional damage to the part during the repair process. Only those items listed in Section VIII should be used. (2) Availability of Repair Materials. Section V lists the repair materials currently available in the supply system used to perform repairs to composite structures. Both the ancillary materials used to incorporate the repair (vacuum bag materials, etc.) and those structural materials that embody the repair (patches, fasteners, adhesives) are listed. Unauthorized substitution of structural repair materials from one weapons system to another is prohibited. Substitution must be approved by FST engineering. (3) Availability of Facilities. Section IX provides recommended facility requirements for performing composite repairs. The part should be repaired in a clean, environmentally controlled facility. This requires that the facility be sized to handle the largest part anticipated to be repaired. As an example, current AIMD composite repair shops on aircraft carriers were sized to handle the largest removable F/A-18 composite component, the horizontal stabilizer. For larger removable composite part, or for nonremovable composite parts, the repairs will have to be performed outside of a controlled environment. However, preparation of repair materials must be performed in a controlled environment. The facility requirements for repairs of this nature are the same as those specified in Section IX as far as cleanliness and environmental control are concerned. (4) Cost and Schedule. Repair cost, except for a very complex repair, is almost always less than the cost of a new part. Repair time must be balanced against aircraft schedule requirements and the time required to replace the part.

c. If the damage is beyond SRM limits, two options are available: (1) Submit the extent of the damage sustained by the part to the Weapons System FST engineering. For damaged F/A-18 composite parts, submit the damage via naval message per the Damage Engineering Disposition (DED) program. The DED program is defined in NAVAIR letter, COMNAVAIRSYSCOM WASHINGTON DC LTR 4793, SER 41013A/0107, dated 27 JAN 1986. (2) BCM the part to the next higher maintenance activity (NHMA), if the part can be removed. If the part cannot be removed, assistance from the NHMA (either AIMD or a depot level field team) or permission for a one time flight to the NHMA will be required. If the part is classified as replaceable (see paragraph 4-5 below), consideration should be given to seeking assistance from the NHMA for repair to preclude having to scrap the part. 4-5. REPAIR VERSUS REPLACE. In addition to the criteria listed in paragraph 4-4 above, the decision to repair or replace a damaged part must include a consideration of part interchangeability/replaceability and spare availability. a. Interchangeability/Replaceability (as defined in MILI-8500). (1) An interchangeable part can be forwarded to the NHMA, be repaired and then be put back in the supply system as a spare part. (2) A replaceable part (part requiring trimming and/or drilling for installation) if removed and replaced with a new part, in most cases cannot be put back in the supply system. It fits only the aircraft from which it was removed and will result in the part having to be scrapped at the NHMA. b. Spare Availability. Lack of an available spare will result in excessive aircraft downtime. If the part is interchangeable, a part from an aircraft down for extended maintenance has the potential to be used as a spare. If the part is not interchangeable, assistance from the NHMA in performing the repair should be pursued.

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4-10

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SECTION V REPAIR MATERIALS 5-1. INCORPORATED MATERIALS. These materials form the structural repair and are incorporated onto the part. They consist of adhesives, patches, honeycomb core materials and mechanical fasteners. This paragraph discusses these materials and the advantages and disadvantages in using them. A list of approved repair materials is provided in Tables 5-1 through 5-4. The criteria used to determine repair material selection is provided in paragraph 5-2. a. Adhesive Materials. Adhesives used for repair of ACM consist of liquid resins, filler materials, paste adhesives, film adhesives and foaming adhesives. Those used for repair of advanced composites on naval aircraft are all epoxy based resin systems. (1) Liquid Adhesives. These materials consist of low viscosity resins used for injecting delaminations and disbonds and for laminating dry woven carbon cloth. They are two component systems and come in separate containers. Part A contains the base resin and part B the curing agent. Just prior to use, the two parts are weighed to obtain the proper mix ratio and then mixed together. Correct weighing and thorough mixing is required to ensure strength is not compromised. Liquid adhesives are extremely exothermic (heat liberating) after mixing and require special care when mixing quantities in excess of 100 grams. For most of these resin systems, the curing reaction begins immediately after mixing. Some of these resin systems can be cured at room temperature (see Table 6-1). However, the cure time can be significantly shortened by application of heat. Liquid adhesives can be filled with chopped fibers or hollow microspheres to make low density filler compounds or pastes. Liquid adhesives require refrigerated storage (see paragraph 5-4a) to maximize their shelf-life. These materials are specified in Table 5-1. (2) Filler Materials/Paste Adhesives. Paste adhesives use the same liquid adhesives discussed above, but have been modified by the adhesive manufacturer by the addition of fillers or a chemically reactive modifier. For example, EA9321 paste adhesive uses the same base resin as EA956 but is modified with a reactive rubber to provide a toughened adhesive system. EA934NA is an aluminum filled version of EA956. Paste adhesives are used in the repair of composite parts as filler materials, for bonding repair core sections in place and for bonding repair patches. Like liquid adhesive systems, paste adhesives are two component systems requiring careful weighing and thorough mixing to ensure strength is not compromised. Compared to film adhesives, paste adhesives have the advantage of lower temperature cure cycles and are easier to store and ship. However, they have the disadvantage of lower strength, poor bondline thickness control and higher overall repair weight when compared to film adhesives. Paste adhesives require refrigerated storage (see paragraph 5-4a) to maximize their shelf-life. These materials are specified in Table 5-1. (3) Film Adhesives. These materials are used for bonding repair patches. Film adhesives have the base resin and curing agent pre-mixed and are cast into a thin film containing a carrier cloth. The carrier cloth provides bondline thickness control and support for the adhesive film. Additionally, heavier knit carrier cloth can provide galvanic isolation between aluminium honeycomb core and carbon/epoxy patches. The adhesive is partially cured during the casting process resulting in a solid film. Film adhesives are strong and provide good bondline thickness control with minimum weight repairs. They have the disadvantage of requiring a high temperature cure cycle, and must be shipped and stored at or below 0F. They are sensitive to moisture, temperature and contamination in the uncured state and must be handled and stored properly to prevent degradation (paragraph 5-4b). Film adhesives obtained from adhesive manufacturers are supplied in large rolls (500 ft2 minimum order), are expensive and have a limited shelf-life. Film adhesives (FM300 and FM300-2) used for F/A-18 repairs are processed into adhesive kits from these large rolls at depot level for use in the field. They are first cut into 15 inch square sheets and then staged and embossed with a honeycomb core imprint during a short heat cycle. The staging removes residual solvent in the adhesive. The embossed surface provides a leak path for trapped gases to escape during initial stages of the repair cure cycle. Following the staging and embossing cycle, the 15 inch square sheets are placed in individually sealed MIL-B-131 water-vaporproof bags and stored at 0F prior to shipment to fleet activities. These materials are specified in Table 5-1. (4) Foaming Adhesives. Foaming adhesives consist of a thin unsupported epoxy film containing a blowing agent. During the rise to cure temperature, an inert gas is liberated causing an expansion or foaming action in the film. The expansion must be performed under positive pressure to prevent over expansion and reduced strength. The exception is FM410-1, which can be expanded under reduced vacuum levels. Following expansion, the adhesive

5-1

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-1. Incorporated Repair Materials: Adhesives/Sealants/Fillers


ITEM NO 1a 1b 2 3 4 5a 5b NOMENCLATURE/ USE Adhesive, Liquid/ Wet Layup, Delam Injection, Disbond Repair Adhesive, Liquid/ Wet Layup Adhesive, Paste/ Filler Material Aerodynamic Filler/ Contour Restoration Adhesive, Paste/ Core Splice, Patch Bond, Filler Material PART NUMBER NSN EA956A/B 8040-00-463-7042 EA9396A/B 8040-00-207-1286 EA9390A/B EA934NA/ 8040-00-016-8662 EA960F EA9321A/B 8040-01-193-6717 EA9394A/B 8040-01-288-5856 74K000004 (FM300) 1560-01-125-7783 135027 (FM300-2) 1560-01-460-7497 FM300K 135014 (FM404) 8040-01-233-0490 135028 (FM410-1) 1560-01-460-7499 A51BGSK36-203 Epibond 87803A/B Epocast 1656 A/B BJO-0930 9330-00-130-0409 A51BGSK36-203 Reliabond 398-1A Metlbond 329-1A Adhesive, Film/ Patch Bond 12b Metlbond 329M-1A F-14 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT F-14/F-18A-D/ AV-8B/AH-1W F-18A-F/ F-14 F-18E/F/ V-22 F-14/F-18A-D/ AV-8B/AH-1W F-18A-F F-18A-D/ AV-8B F-14/F-18E/F/ V-22 F-18A-D NADEP North Island 91145 F-18A-F American Cyanamid 07542 VENDOR CAGE CODE Hysol 33564 Hysol 33564 Hysol 33564 Hysol 33564 Hysol 33564 Hysol 33564 Hysol 33564

6a

6b

Adhesive, Film Kit Staged & Embossed 15" X 15" Sheet/ Patch Bond Adhesive, Film 500 ft2 Roll/Patch Bond

AH-1W

8a

8b

Adhesive, Foam Kit 12" X 13" Sheet/ Core Splice

F-18A-D NADEP North Island 91145 F-18A-F Vantico, Inc. 99384 Ciba-Geigy 0ED58 Union Carbide Corp. 87578 Ciba-Geigy 0ED58 Ciba-Geigy 0ED58 BASF Structural Materials 1HT75

9 10 11

Adhesive, Liquid/ Disbond Repair Adhesive, Filler Microballoons, Phenolic

F-14 F-14 F-18A-D/ AV-8B F-14

12a

5-2

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-1. Incorporated Repair Materials: Adhesives/Sealants/Fillers (Cont.)


ITEM NO NOMENCLATURE/ USE Adhesive, Film Conductive/Lightning Strike Strip Bond Adhesive, Paste/ Core Splice, Core Potting Prepreg, Fiberglass Epoxy/ Patch Bonding Sealant PART NUMBER NSN A51BGSK36-203 Reliabond 350 A51BGSK36-203 Epocast 1651 8030-01-324-2646 A51BGSK36-203 E7743/2054 PR1826 B2 PR1750, Class B AMS 3276, Class B AMS-S-8802, Class B 93-006-1 SS4004 Style 5602 Style 1620 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT VENDOR/ CAGE CODE

13

F-14

Ciba-Geigy/0ED58

14

F-14

Vantico, Inc./99384

15

F-14

BASF Structural Materials/ 1HT75 PRC-DeSoto International/ 83574 PRC-DeSoto International/ 83574 ----Dow Corning/71984 General Electric/01139 Travis Textiles/2G749 J.P. Stevens/95746

16

AV-8B F-18A-F/F-14/ AV-8B AV-8B AV-8B AV-8B F-18A-F/AV-8B AV-8B

17 18 19 20 21 22

Sealant Sealant High Temperature Sealant Sealant Primer Scrim Cloth High Temperature Scrim Cloth Adhesive, Paste/ Patch Bond Scrim Cloth

23 24

Magnobond 6363 Reemay 2006

V-22 V-22

Magnolia Plastics Inc./22121 BBA Industrial/53912

is cured into a strong highly structured foam. It is used as a lightweight splice material for splicing honeycomb core repair sections. Like film adhesives, foaming adhesives have the disadvantage of requiring a high temperature cure cycle and must be shipped and stored at or below 0F. They are sensitive to moisture, temperature and contamination in the uncured state and must be handled and stored properly to prevent degradation (paragraph 5-4b). Foaming adhesives are supplied by the adhesive manufacturer in large sheets. A minimum order of this material consists of a large quantity of these sheets, is expensive and has a limited shelf-life. FM404 and FM410-1 foaming adhesives used for F/A-18 composite repairs are packaged at the depot into individual 12 inch x 13 inch sheet kits of material and provided in MIL-B-131 heat sealed, water-vaporproof bags for use in the field. These materials are specified in Table 5-1.

b. Patch Materials. The two general types of patch materials currently in use to repair advanced composite structures on naval aircraft are composite patches and metallic patches. (1) Composite Patches. Composite patches come in two forms; precured patches and wet layup patches. They are used for performing bonded repairs. (a) Precured Patches. Precured patches are flat and have the advantage of low void content and high strength making them usable for repair of highly loaded structures. They can be stacked with layers of adhesive if additional thickness is required to meet strength or stiffness requirements and have unlimited shelf-life. They cannot be applied to parts with complex contours or sharp contour breaks and are limited to simple contours with a large radius of curvature. They are not applicable for scarf

5-3

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

bonded repairs. Precured patches are cured in an autoclave from carbon/epoxy prepreg at depot level. 1 For F/A-18 repairs, flat precured patches have a six ply (+60, -60, 02, -60, +60) quasiisotropic layup (see paragraph 6-7d) and are 0.0312 inch thick. They are not orientation sensitive from a strength or stiffness standpoint, but have minimum bending resistance in the 0 degree direction. Their application is limited to parts with a radius of curvature greater than 20 inches. These patches are provided in kit form (Table 5-2, Items 8-16) for use in the field. They are circular and supplied in diameters ranging from 2.75-12.75 inches in MIL-B-131 heat sealed, water-vaporproof bags. In addition, a 30 inch square sheet of patch material is provided as a patch kit. Experience has proven the square sheet to be more useful as it can be cut into any patch shape desired and the remainder of the patch material used on subsequent repairs. Kitted patches come with peel ply material on both sides of the patch. The peel ply material provides contamination protection and must be removed prior to preparing the patch surface for bonding. Precured contoured patches for application in complex contoured areas may be obtained from NADEP North Island for specific field applications on an as needed basis. 2 For AH-1W repairs, flat precured patches are made from woven prepreg and come in two ply ( 45)w, 0.015 inch thick, and four ply ( 45)2w, 0.030 inch thick configurations (Table 5-2, Items 3 and 4). The patches are provided in a two foot square sheet and are not available in kit form. They may be obtained on an as needed basis from the aircraft manufacturer. (b) Wet Layup Patches. Wet layup patches consist of dry woven carbon cloth impregnated with a two part liquid epoxy laminating resin. 1 Dry Woven Carbon Cloth. Woven carbon fabrics are specified as repair materials in two different weave styles, plain weave and 8 harness satin weave (see Figure 5-1 and Table 5-2, Items 1, 2a and 2b). The plain weave is applicable if the part to be repaired is relatively flat. However the looser 8 harness satin weave is needed for repair of complex contour and substructure details due to its superior drapability and conformance to these surfaces. The 8 harness weave and plain weave carbon cloth materials are not interchangeable as they vary in fiber count and weave. Use only that weave pattern for the applicable aircraft specified in Table 5-2. 2 Standard Wet Layup Process. The standard wet layup process is performed by the repair technician at the repair site on the part being repaired.

Some advantages of wet layup patches are that they can be applied to contoured areas, used to fabricate repair substructure details (if an 8 harness satin weave is used) and can be cured at low to moderate temperatures. However, the process is messy to perform and results in a patch material with high void content, low mechanical properties, poor fiber wetting and poor control over resin content. Wet layup patches are also layup and orientation sensitive. Inspectability of adhesive bondlines beneath these patches is poor due to the high void content. Their use is limited to lightly loaded structures. See paragraph 67e for further discussion on this technique. 3 Double Vacuum Debulk (DVD) Wet Layup Process. The DVD wet layup process is similar to the standard wet layup process in that it is performed by the repair technician on the part, and can be applied to contoured areas and for substructure detail manufacture. Unlike the standard wet layup process, it provides a technique for removing entrapped air that causes porosity in wet layup laminates. Compared to the standard wet layup process, the DVD process provides better control of resin content, decreased porosity and better fiber wetting. This results in increased mechanical properties. DVD wet layup laminates are not limited to lightly loaded structures. See paragraph 6-7f for further discussion on this technique. (2) Metallic Patches. Two types of metallic patches are in use. Thin sheet material is used for bonded repairs and thick plate material for bolted repairs. Titanium alloy is the preferred material due to its superior strength, stiffness and resistance to galvanic corrosion as compared to other metals. (a) Bonded Repair Patches. These patches are made from titanium foil and are typically 0.008-0.016 inch thick. Titanium patches are lighter and have less moldline protrusion for aerodynamic and fitup considerations as compared to composite patches. Like precured patches, they can be stacked using layers of adhesive in between if additional thickness is required to meet strength or stiffness requirements. The thinner foil patches (0.008-0.010 inch thick) can be bonded to parts with a radius of curvature less than 20 inches but are limited to simple contoured areas without sharp contour breaks. They are applicable only for externally and internally bonded repair joints. Titanium stock material used for patches must be cleaned, acid etched and primed prior to use. This procedure is process sensitive. Improper processing can result in low bond strength. Procedures are provided in part specific structural repair manuals (SRMs) and MIL-HDBK-337. For F/A-18 repairs these patches are cut into various diameters, cleaned, acid etched and primed with BR-127 adhesive primer at depot

5-4

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-2. Incorporated Repair Materials: Patch Materials


ITEM NO NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Dry Carbon Cloth, 0.014" 8 Harness Satin Weave T-300 Fiber (3K Tows) 24 Warp X 23 Fill Dry Carbon Cloth, 0.007" Plain Weave AS4 Fiber (3K Tows) 11.5 Warp X 11.5 Fill Precured Carbon/Epoxy 2 Ply Woven Patch Material 24" X 24" Square Sheet Precured Carbon/Epoxy 4 Ply Woven Patch Material 24" X 24" Square Sheet Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch Material 30" X 30" Square Sheet (AS4/3501-6) Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch Material 30" X 30" Square Sheet (IM7/977-3) Precured Carbon/Epoxy 3 Ply Patch, 2.25" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 3 Ply Patch, 2.75" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 2.75" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 4.00" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 5.25" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 6.50" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 7.75" Dia PART NUMBER NSN APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT VENDOR CAGE CODE

W-133 8305-01-236-1392

F-18A-F/AV-8B

Cytec Fiberite 07314

2a

A193-P PW42195GSMTR7X 12AS4

AH-1W Hexel 10396 V-22

2b

209-034-264-101

AH-1W

Bell Helicopter 97499

209-034-264-103

AH-1W

Bell Helicopter 97499

5a

74K000002-1023 1560-01-246-6384

F-18A-D NADEP North Island 91145

5b

135313

F-18E/F

74K000002-1003 1560-01-125-7823 74K000002-1001 1560-01-125-7822 74K000002-1005 1560-01-125-7824 74K000002-1007 1560-01-125-7825 74K000002-1009 1560-01-125-7826 74K000002-1011 1560-01-125-7827 74K000002-1013 1560-01-125-7828

F-18A-D

NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145

F-18A-D

F-18A-D

F-18A-D

10

F-18A-D

11

F-18A-D

12

F-18A-D

5-5

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-2. Incorporated Repair Materials: Patch Materials (Cont.)


ITEM NO 13 NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 9.00" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 10.25" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 11.50" Dia Precured Carbon/Epoxy 6 Ply Patch, 12.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 2.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 3.50" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 4.00" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 4.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 5.25" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 6.00" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 6.50" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 7.25" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 7.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 8.50" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 9.00" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 9.75" Dia PART NUMBER NSN 74K000002-1015 1560-01-125-7829 74K000002-1017 1560-01-125-7830 74K000002-1019 1560-01-125-7831 74K000002-1021 1560-01-125-7832 74K000003-2001 5340-01-130-8688 74K000003-2003 5340-01-130-8689 74K000003-2005 5340-01-130-8690 74K000003-2007 5340-01-130-8691 74K000003-2009 5340-01-130-8692 74K000003-2011 5340-01-130-9418 74K000003-2013 5340-01-130-9933 74K000003-2015 5340-01-140-2649 74K000003-2017 5340-01-130-9419 74K000003-2019 5340-01-130-9420 74K000003-2021 5340-01-130-9421 74K000003-2023 5340-01-130-8693 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT F-18A-D VENDOR CAGE CODE NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145

14

F-18A-D

15

F-18A-D

16

F-18A-D

17

F-18A-F

18

F-18A-F

19

F-18A-F

20

F-18A-F

21

F-18A-F

22

F-18A-F

23

F-18A-F

24

F-18A-F

25

F-18A-F

26

F-18A-F

27

F-18A-F

28

F-18A-F

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-2. Incorporated Repair Materials: Patch Materials (Cont.)


ITEM NO 29 NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 10.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 11.00" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 11.50" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 12.25" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.012" Thick, 12.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 2.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 4.00" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 5.25" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 6.50" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 7.75" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 9.00" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 10.25" Dia Preprimed Titanium Patch 0.016" Thick, 11.50" Dia Bolted Repair Patches 0.16" Thick Titanium (For 1.25" Dia Hole) Bolted Repair Patches 0.16" Thick Titanium (For 2.00" Dia Hole) PART NUMBER NSN 74K000003-2025 5340-01-133-8068 74K000003-2027 5340-01-130-8694 74K000003-2029 5340-01-130-8695 74K000003-2031 5340-01-130-8696 74K000003-2033 5340-01-130-9422 74K000003-2035 5340-01-130-9423 74K000003-2037 5340-01-130-9424 74K000003-2039 5340-01-130-9425 74K000003-2041 5340-01-130-9426 74K000003-2043 5340-01-130-9427 74K000003-2045 5340-01-130-9428 74K000003-2047 5340-01-130-9429 74K000003-2049 1560-01-130-9430 74K000006-1001 1560-01-154-2795 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT F-18A-F VENDOR CAGE CODE NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 NADEP North Island 91145 McDonnell Douglas 76301

30

F-18A-F

31

F-18A-F

32

F-18A-F

33

F-18A-F

34

F-18A-F

35

F-18A-F

36

F-18A-F

37

F-18A-F

38

F-18A-F

39

F-18A-F

40

F-18A-F

41

F-18A-F

42

F-18A-F

43

74K000006-1003 1560-01-152-9933

F-18A-F

McDonnell Douglas 76301

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-2. Incorporated Repair Materials: Patch Materials (Cont.)


ITEM NO NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Bolted Repair Patches 0.16" Thick Titanium (For 3.00" Dia Hole) Bolted Repair Patches 0.16" Thick Titanium (For 4.00" Dia Hole) Bare Titanium Foil 0.008" Thick Aluminum Stock 0.125" Thick Aluminum Stock 0.160" Thick Titanium Stock 0.040" Thick Titanium Stock 0.063" Thick Titanium Stock 0.071" Thick Titanium Stock 0.083" Thick Titanium Stock 0.125" Thick Titanium Stock 0.160" Thick Precured Fiberglass Laminate Sheet 0.031" Thick PART NUMBER NSN 74K000006-1005 1560-01-159-9012 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT VENDOR CAGE CODE McDonnell Douglas 76301

44

F-18A-F

45

74K000006-1007 1560-01-152-9934

F-18A-F

McDonnell Douglas 76301 Grumman Aerospace 26512 N/A

46

A51BGSK36-204 QQ-A-250/25 7075 T76 QQ-A-250/25 7075 T76 MIL-T-9048 Ti-6Al-4V MIL-T-9048 Ti-6Al-4V MIL-T-9048 Ti-6Al-4V MIL-T-9048 Ti-6Al-4V MIL-T-9048 Ti-6Al-4V MIL-T-9048 Ti-6Al-4V MIL-I-24768/3-S-5 Type GEB

F-14

47

AV-8B

48

AV-8B

N/A

49

AV-8B

N/A

50

AV-8B

N/A

51

AV-8B

N/A

52

AV-8B

N/A

53

AV-8B

N/A

54

AV-8B

N/A

55

F-18A-F/ AV-8B

N/A

level. They are provided in kit form in a MIL-B-131 heat sealed, water-vaporproof bag for use in the field (Table 5-2, Items 17-41). (b) Bolted Repair Patches. Bolted metallic patches are fabricated from either 6AL-4V titanium or 7075-T76 aluminum. The use of stainless steel as a substitute for titanium is generally acceptable. The thickness of the patch depends on the material used and the location

of the damage. Typical titanium patches range from 0.040-0.160 inch thick, while aluminum patches range from 0.063-0.180 inch thick. For F/A-18 repairs, titanium patches are stocked precut and predrilled with 164 inch undersized fastener holes, and are provided in kit form for fleet use (refer to Table 5-2, Items 42-45). Metallic patches for the AV-8B must be cut, shaped and drilled from flat stock (refer to Table 5-2, Items 47-54). The following characteristics are associated with each patch material.

5-8

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

WARP FIBERS

FILL FIBERS

WARP FIBERS

FILL FIBERS

FIBER TOWS PART NUMBER: A193-P or PW42195GSMTR7X12AS4 FIBER: WEAVE: AS (3K TOWS) PLAIN (OVER 1, UNDER 1)

FIBER TOWS PART NUMBER: W-133 FIBER: WEAVE: T300 (3K TOWS) 8 HARNESS (UNDER 7, OVER 1) FIBER COUNT*: 24 WARP X 23 FILL PER INCH THICKNESS: 0.014 INCH

FIBER COUNT*: 11.5 WARP X 11.5 FILL PER INCH THICKNESS: 0.007 INCH

*FIBER COUNT SPECIFIES THE NUMBER OF TOWS PER INCH.


1 TOW CONTAINS 3,000 CARBON FIBERS

Figure 5-1. Dry Woven Carbon Cloth Weave Patterns 1 6AL-4V Titanium. Titanium is a corrosion resistant structural material that is lightweight and galvanically compatible with carbon composites. Other advantages of titanium include a high strength-to-weight ratio, good toughness and a coefficient of thermal expansion comparable with that of carbon/epoxy. 2 7075-T76 Aluminum. This is a high strength aluminum alloy with improved stress corrosion resistance. Use Alclad material to provide better corrosion resistance. Due to the galvanic corrosion potential between aluminum and carbon composites, a fay surface seal between the patch and part should always be used. 3 Stainless Steel. AISI Type 301 1/4 hard is the preferred type of stainless steel for use in composite repair. However, each repair must be evaluated for strength, formability, environment and available materials. These requirements may dictate using another alloy. Whenever attaching any stainless steel to a carbon composite, fay surface seal to provide an isolation barrier between the patch and part surface. c. Honeycomb Core Repair Sections. Honeycomb core is made by bonding thin ribbons of material, either metallic or non-metallic, together to form hexagonal cells. The bonded areas along the thin ribbons are called node bonds (Figure 5-2). Advanced composite skins are bonded to the honeycomb cell walls using adhesive to form a fillet bond resulting in a sandwich assembly (Figure 5-2). The strength of the core material is determined by its hexagonal cell size, material type and foil thickness. The density of the core is determined by the cell size and foil thickness. Honeycomb core is strongest in the ribbon direction. For core of the same cell size and foil thickness, metallic core is stronger than non-metallic core. Honeycomb core is designated as shown in Figure 5-3. Honeycomb core is

5-9

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

CARBON/EPOXY FACESHEET
ADHESIVE

NODE BOND AREAS A

ADHESIVE

FILLET BONDING

CARBON/EPOXY FACESHEET
ADHESIVE CORE

IB BO N

CARBON/EPOXY FACESHEET

CORE

THIN FOIL RIBBON

IR
CARBON/EPOXY FACESHEET
ADHESIVE

SECTION A-A

Figure 5-2. Carbon/Epoxy Honeycomb Sandwich Assembly provided by vendors in 4 foot by 8 foot sheets. Honeycomb core repair kits for F/A-18 composite repairs are packaged at the depot into smaller sized kits in various sizes, thicknesses and densities for field use (refer to Table 5-3). d. Mechanical Fasteners. The two different types of mechanical fasteners used for patch installation are close tolerance structural screws and blind fasteners. Close tolerance structural screws are used for double shear patch repairs and use internal patches with nut plates installed for fastener clamp-up (Figure 5-4). Blind fasteners are used for single shear patch repairs. Composi-Lok fasteners are required as they have a larger footprint on the clamp-up side of the repair when compared to blind fasteners used for metallic repairs. This not only provides a larger area for the fastener to bear on the composite surface, it reduces the potential for pulling the fastener through the hole in the composite skin during installation. The maximum slope in the composite skin for ComposiLok fastener installation is 7 degrees. Blind fastener installation is shown in Figure 5-5. Hi-Lok fasteners and collars are used for attaching substructure repair elements. Mechanical fasteners are listed in Table 5-4. e. Sealing Compounds. Sealing compounds used in repair of ACM are typically used during the installation of mechanical fasteners and provide a fay surface and fillet seal for bolted repair patches. The type of sealant specified for a given repair is dependent upon factors such as high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance and rate of cure. Polysulfide type sealants are used for F/A-18 and AV-8B composite wing repairs. These sealants are resistant to fuels, oils and hydraulic fluids and are required for repairs to areas containing integral fuel tanks. Silicone based sealants are used in areas where resistance to high temperatures (250-450F) is required. These materials consist of two components: the base (containing the prepolymer) and the accelerator (containing the curing agent). When thoroughly mixed, the accelerator cures the prepolymer into a rubbery solid. Correct weighing and thorough mixing of the two components is essential for proper curing and adhesion of sealants. Sealing

5-10

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-3. Incorporated Repair Materials: Honeycomb Core Materials


ITEM NO NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Aluminum Core 1/8-5056-.0015N-6.1 9" X 9" X 2" Aluminum Core 1/8-5056-.0015N-6.1 9" X 9" X 4" Aluminum Core 1/8-5056-.0015N-6.1 9" X 9" X 6" Aluminum Core 3/16-5056-.001N-3.1 12" X 12" X 2" Aluminum Core 3/16-5056-.001N-3.1 12" X 12" X 4" Aluminum Core 3/16-5056-.001N-3.1 12" X 12" X 6" PART NUMBER NSN 135001-1001 1560-01-190-2349 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT F-18 VENDOR CAGE CODE NADEP North Island 91145

135001-1003 1560-01-190-0042

F-18

NADEP North Island 91145

135001-1005 1560-01-190-2350

F-18

NADEP North Island 91145

135001-1007 1560-01-245-8057

F-18

NADEP North Island 91145

135001-1009 1560-01-245-8058

F-18

NADEP North Island 91145

135001-1011 1560-01-245-8059

F-18

NADEP North Island 91145

RIBBON DIRECTION

CLOSE TOLERANCE STRUCTURAL SCREW


0.001 INCH FOIL GAGE NODE BONDS THIN FOIL RIBBON

SKIN

3 16 INCH CELL SIZE

NODE BOND AREA

NUT PLATE FASTENER

; ;; ;;;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;


NUT PLATE d

EXTERNAL PATCH

INTERNAL PATCH

0.2495 * 0.2490

DESIGNATION: CELL SIZE: MATERIAL: FOIL GAGE: DENSITY:

3/16-5056-.001N-3.1 3/16 INCH 5056 ALUMINUM ALLOY 0.001 INCH N = NON-PERFORATED 3.1 LBS/FT3

* 1 INCH DIAMETER 4
FASTENER TOLERANCE

Figure 5-3. Honeycomb Core Designation

Figure 5-4. Close Tolerance Structural Screw Installation

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

d1 = JO BOLT FOOTPRINT DIAMETER d2 = COMPOSI-LOK FOOTPRINT DIAMETER

d2 > d1
SCREW PATCH

NUT SLEEVE

;;; ;;;
d1 0.2595* 0.2575

ICONEL 718

COMPOSITE SKIN

TITANIUM (6A1-4V)

;;;
TITANIUM d2

STANDARD BLIND FASTENER (JO-BOLT)

;;;;; ;;;;;
7 SLOPE

COMPOSI-LOK FASTENER

*1
4 INCH DIAMETER FASTENER TOLERANCE

MAXIMUM COMPOSITE SKIN SLOPE FOR COMPOSI-LOK INSTALLATION

Figure 5-5. Blind Fastener Installation compounds are often supplied in ready-mix kits (Semkit). These kits are compact, two part mixing and application units designed for easy mixing and proper application of the sealant in small quantities. Sealing compounds used in ACM repair are listed in Table 5-1, Items 16-20. Additional information on sealants can be found in NAVAIR 01-1A507 and NAVAIR 01-1A-509. f. Scrim Cloth. Scrim cloth is used with both bonded and bolted repair patches. It consists of woven monofilament nylon or dacron cloth. In bonded repairs, scrim cloth is used as a corrosion barrier by preventing contact of dissimilar materials (carbon/epoxy skin and aluminum honeycomb core, for example). In both bonded and bolted repairs, it is used to control the thickness of the adhesive or sealant bondline. It is important to use only the monofilament type scrim cloth specified in Table 5-1 or Table 5-6. Do not use multifilament type scrim cloth as it tends to wick moisture into the bondline, potentially causing corrosion. g. Aerodynamic Filler. Aerodynamic filler compound (Table 5-1, Item 4) is a two part epoxy based material used for fairing and smoothing exterior aircraft surfaces. Its use is limited to non-structural applications. It should not be substituted for the adhesive or sealant specified in the applicable aircraft SRMs. 5-2. INCORPORATED REPAIR MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA. The selection of materials to be used in a repair is dependent upon many criteria. The following are some criteria used to select materials used for repairs defined in part specific SRMs and by Fleet Support Team (FST) engineering. This criteria is presented as a guide only. The part specific SRM or FST engineering disposition takes precedence when selecting materials to perform a repair. Materials applicable for repair on one weapons system are not applicable for another weapons system and must not be substituted unless authorized per the part specific SRM or FST engineering. a. Patch and Adhesive Materials. The criteria are listed below in their order of importance. (1) Strength. The material must be strong enough (in tension, compression, shear, peel and bearing strength) for the loads encountered in the area being repaired. Adhesives and composite patch materials have different strengths at different temperatures and moisture conditions. These strengths must be considered for the service environment encountered when selecting these repair materials.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-4. Incorporated Repair Materials: Mechanical Fasteners


ITEM NO NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Structural Screw Flush, Sealing Head Titanium, 1/4" Dia Composi-Lok Blind Bolt Flush, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Composi-Lok Blind Bolt Hex Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Composi-Lok II Blind Bolt Hex Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Hi Lok Pin Flush, Shear Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Hi Lok Pin Protruding, Tension Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Hi Lok Pin Flush, Tension Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Hi Lok Collar Visu-Lok Blind Bolt Flush, Tension Head Titanium, 3/16" Dia Visu-Lok Blind Bolt Protruding, Shear Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia Visu-Lok Blind Bolt Protruding, Tension Head, Titanium, 3/16" Dia PART NUMBER NSN APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT VENDOR CAGE CODE Hi-Shear Corp 73197 Monogram Aerospace Fasteners 98524

HT271A4

F-18A-F

MBF 2012-06

AV-8B

3a

MBF 2011-06 AV-8B Monogram Aerospace Fasteners 98524

3b

MBF 2111-06

HL 11V6

AV-8B

Hi-Shear Corp 73197

HL 12V6

AV-8B

Hi-Shear Corp 73197

HL 13V6

AV-8B

Hi-Shear Corp 73197 Hi-Shear Corp 73197 Monogram Aerospace Fasteners 98524 Monogram Aerospace Fasteners 98524 Monogram Aerospace Fasteners 98524

HL570-6MC

AV-8B

PLT 170-06

AV-8B

PLT 270-06

AV-8B

10

PLT 1058-06

AV-8B

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(2) Service Environment. The material must have the required strength over the service temperature range and moisture content for which the part is exposed. The minimum external skin exposure temperature is -65F. The maximum external skin exposure temperature is a function of the aircrafts maximum operating speed (except for parts subjected to other forms of heating, such as engine parts). For example, subsonic aircraft have a maximum operating temperature of 180F while supersonic aircraft can have service temperatures in excess of 200F. In general, composite patches and adhesives have the worst case service environment for tensile strength at the -65F/dry condition and the worst case compression strength at the maximum exposure temperature/wet condition. In general, select materials that have a service temperature higher than the service environment of the part. (3) Weight. The weight of the material is an important criteria for flutter sensitive parts. For bonded repairs, the lightest weight patch/adhesive combination consists of titanium foil patches bonded with a film adhesive. Weight considerations may affect the use of titanium bolted repair patches on flight control surfaces. (4) Processing Requirements. The required cure temperature and pressure have a bearing on the selected material. High pressure cure requirements and high cure temperatures are prohibitive for field applications. The use of prepreg as a patch material is not recommended in the field due to temperature and pressure processing limitations. (5) Handling/Storage/Shelf-Life. To meet this criteria, the ideal adhesive material requires no measuring or mixing, is insensitive to ambient handling conditions, can be shipped and stored at ambient temperature and has a shelf life in excess of 3 years. Unfortunately, no currently available material systems meet all these criteria. (6) Selection of an adhesive is also dependent upon its intended usage. For example, a paste adhesive is unsuitable as a laminating resin or for injection repair due to its high viscosity. b. Patch Materials. In addition to the criteria listed above, patch materials must meet the following criteria: (1) Extensional Stiffness. The extensional stiffness of the skin being repaired should be approximately equal to the extensional stiffness of the patch to provide a stiffness balanced repair. (2) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The patch and part CTE should be approximately equal to prevent excessive bondline stresses from occurring. 5-14

(3) Conformability. The patch must conform to the surface to which it is applied. Complex contoured surfaces and surfaces with sharp contour changes preclude the use of flat metal or precured flat composite patches. Wet layup patches, contoured prepreg patches precured in an autoclave at depot, or formed metal patches are some options available to meet conformability criteria. (4) Galvanic Compatibility. To prevent corrosion and degradation of the repair, the patch material must be galvanically compatible with the part being repaired unless galvanic isolation is provided. The use of aluminum as a patch material for repair of parts containing carbon fibers is a poor selection from a galvanic standpoint. (5) Inspectability. Use of porous patches (such as wet layup patches) reduces inspectability of patch to part adhesive bondline as porosity attenuates ultrasound. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by limiting the thickness of the patch. (6) Moldline Protrusion. In areas where moldline fitup or airflow are critical, this criteria may take precedence. In general, titanium foil patches have less moldline protrusion than carbon/epoxy patches. c. Honeycomb Core. The following criteria are applicable for repair core material selection. (1) Strength. To achieve the same strength, replacement core should be of equal or higher density than the part being repaired, be constructed of the same foil material and match the part ribbon direction. When crossing a foam splice line, the replacement core density should be equal to or higher than the highest density on either side of the foam splice. (2) Material. Never use non-metallic core as a repair core material for metallic core. Aluminum alloy 5052 core may be replaced with aluminum alloy 5056 core but not vice versa. (3) Service Temperature. Aluminum core is limited to 350F. Some non-metallic core is limited to temperatures no greater than 180F. Glass fabric reinforced polyimide core material has a service temperature of 500F. (4) Corrosion Protection. When repairing metallic honeycomb core, always use corrosion resistant aluminum core as the replacement core material. (5) Machineability. Small cell size (18 inch) repair core sections are easier to machine than larger cell sizes as the large cell size material tends to roll over during machining.

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

d. Mechanical Fasteners. Some criteria for fastener selection are listed below. (1) Strength. The shear strength of the fasteners must be high enough to react fastener shear loads due to transfer of load from the part skin to the patch. The fastener single shear allowable load is used for external bolted patches and the fastener double shear allowable load is used for external/internal bolted patches. (2) Tolerance. Close tolerance fasteners are required to provide greater load sharing of fasteners in multifastener patterns. Fastener tolerances for nominal 14 diameter fasteners are provided in Figures 5-4 and 5-5. (3) Galvanic Compatibility. To prevent corrosion of the fasteners, they must be galvanically compatible with the composite skin and the repair patch material. Titanium is the material of choice for most bolted repair applications. (4) Head Geometry. Flush, 100 degree shear head fasteners should be used for bolted repairs when moldline protrusion occurs. Protruding head fasteners should be used for those repair applications where moldline protrusion does not occur (such as for substructure repairs). (5) In general, use the following guidelines when selecting fasteners for bolted repairs: (a) For repair of carbon fiber composites, do not use cadmium plated steel fasteners, stainless steel fasteners, aluminum or aluminum coated fasteners. Use only titanium or Inconnel fasteners with carbon fiber composites. (b) Do not use cadmium plated fasteners with titanium patches to keep from embrittling the titanium. (c) Do not use interference fit fasteners or expanding, hole filling rivets in composites as they will cause damage to the fastener hole during installation. (d) Do not use driven rivets or fasteners requiring rivet guns for installation. They can cause delamination of composite skins. (e) Do not use fasteners made of composite materials. They have insufficient strength for repair applications. (f) When blind fasteners are required, use a fastener with a large clamp-up side footprint such as a Composi-Lok fastener. This will prevent fastener pullthrough during installation.

5-3. UNINCORPORATED MATERIALS (ANCILLARY). These are the materials required to effect the repair on the part. They do not become part of the repair and are removed and discarded after the repair is complete. They include items such as vacuum bag materials, release films, tapes, wiper materials, etc. A list of unincorporated materials is provided in Table 5-5. a. Vacuum Bag Materials. Materials required to fabricate a vacuum bag for performing bonded repairs are numerous (release films, bag material, breather material, sealant tape, etc.). Some of these materials are available in the supply system but are only provided in large quantities on large rolls. However, only small quantities are required for performing repairs. To alleviate this problem, a vacuum bag repair materials kit was developed and is available in the supply system. This kit, P/N 135040-1, provides the materials required to fabricate approximately 25 vacuum bags. The NSN for this kit and a list of the kit contents is provided in Table 5-6. b. Scrim Cloth. This material is used to maintain adhesive in the bondline when bonding patches with paste adhesive. It is the one material provided in the vacuum bag repair materials kit, P/N 135040-1, that becomes part of the structural repair. c. Solvents. Liquid solvents are used to clean surfaces by dissolving solids from contaminated surfaces. Solvents come in various grades depending upon their purity level. Use only solvent grades that have a residue after evaporation of 0.005% or less. Two solvents are specified in Table 5-5. These solvents may not be compliant with local environmental regulations. Consult the local hazardous material instructions and environmental office for guidance. (1) Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK). This material must be ACS (American Chemical Society) certified reagent grade. The NSN listed in Table 5-5, Item 5 provides MIBK that meets this requirement. Inspect the label on MIBK containers received from supply. If the material is not ACS certified to the above residue after evaporation level, it is not acceptable for use in performing composite repairs. (2) Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK). This material must be ACS (American Chemical Society) certified reagent grade. The NSN listed in Table 5-5, Item 6 provides MEK that meets this requirement. Inspect the label on MEK containers received from supply. If the material is not ACS certified to the above residue after evaporation level, it is not acceptable for use in performing composite repairs.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-5. Unincorporated Repair Materials


ITEM NO
1

NOMENCLATURE/ DESCRIPTION
Vacuum Bag Repair Material Kit

PART NUMBER NSN


P/N 135040-1 8040-01-326-7014

APPLICATION

VENDOR/ CAGE CODE


Airtech/53912

Construction of Vacuum Bags; See Table 5-6 for a Complete Listing of Contents Clean Bonding Surfaces Mix and Apply Adhesives Protect Cleaned Surfaces from Contamination Cleaning Cleaning Mix Adhesive Storing Adhesives Sealing Prior to Cleaning ----Backing Plate

2 3 4

Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Barrier Material

AMS 3819, Class I, Grade A 6515-00-324-5505 MIL-B-121, Type II, Grade A, Class I 6810-00-052-1371 6810-01-074-5507 7350-00-641-4516 MIL-B-131, Type I, Class I MIL-T-23397, Type II A-A-883, Type I QQ-A-250/14

Kendall Co./2N019 ---------

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Cups, Paper Disposable Water-Vaporproof Barrier Material Pressure Sensitive Tape Masking Tape Sheet Stock, Aluminum, 0.063 Inch Thick Cutting Fluid Copper Sheet, 0.020 Inch Thick Cord, Nylon Cleaning Compound Preservation Tape Release Liquid Cotton Tipped Applicator Mylar, Clear, Type A, 0.005 Inch Thick Double Sided Adhesive Tape, Pressure Sensitive Acetate, Clear, 0.040 Inch Plaster, Gypsum

-----------------------------

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Immunol 1809 QQ-C-576, Type ETP, Annealed 4020-00246-0688 MIL-C-85570, Type II MIL-T-22085, Type II Release All 19 6515-00-303-8250 9330-01-223-6127

Drilling Composites Thermal Diffuser ----Cleaning Protective Masking Parting Agent for Layup Tools Cleaning Template Material

Miller Corp./07648 ----------------Airtech/53912 ---------

20

A-A-180, Type II, Grade B, 0.5 Inch 9330-00-290-6755 Hydrocal B-11 5610-01-012-8808 A-A-1047

-----

-----

21 22

Template Material Making Castings

----U.S. Gypsum Co./61357 58536

23

Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper 80, 100,120, 150, 180 and 240 Grits High Temperature Tape

Paint Removal/ Surface Preparation

24

No. 855

Tape Used Under Vacuum Bags

3M/26066 or Table 5-6, Item 4 Airtech/53912

25

Flashbreaker Tape, 5 Mils Thick

Flashbreaker 5

Countersinking Kevlar Fiber Composites Release Agent Breather Cloth for Vacuum Bagging Tape Used Under Vacuum Bags

26 27

Petrolatum Fiberglass Cloth Style 181

VV-P-236 AMS-C-9084, Class 2, Type VIII

---------

28

High Temperature Tape

M783

Saint Gobain/1ECV7

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-6. Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit, P/N 135040-1


ITEM NO 1 NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION Vacuum Bag Film (Nylon Film) Release Film (Fluorocarbon Film) Porous Release Fabric (Teflon Coated Fiberglass) High Temperature Tape (Nylon Film/ Non-Silicone Adhesive) Scrim Cloth (Woven Nylon, Monofilament) Vacuum Bag Sealant Tape (Uncured Rubber) Bleeder Material (Fiberglass Cloth, Style 120) Breather Cloth (Polyester Material, 4 oz.) STOCK (INCHES) .002 x 30 x 360 APPLICATION

Used to Construct Vacuum Bag

.001 x 30 x 360

Release Layer Allows Flow of Bleed Resin & Trapped Gas

.003 x 30 x 360

.003 x 1.0 x 2592

Taping During Repair Cure Cycle

30 x 60

Provides Bondline Thickness Control & Corrosion Protection

.75 x 300

Used to Seal Vacuum Bag

30 x 60

Absorbs Excess Resin for Wet Layup Patches Provides Separation Between Part & Vacuum Bag for Breathing

.125 x 30 x 360

5-17

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-7. Two Part Adhesive Shelf-Life


MATERIAL Part A EA956 / EA9321 / EA934 Part B Part A EA9394 / EA9396 Part B Part A EA9390 Part B Part A Magnobond 6363 Part B 6 months 6 months 9 months 18 months 12 months 6 months 12 months 6 months 12 months 9 months 12 months 18 months 12 months 3 months 12 months 6 months 18 months 12 months 36 months 12 months 12 months 6 months 12 months 12 months 18 months 18 months 24 months 36 months 90 F 1 month 77 F 3 months 40 F 12 months 0 F 24 months

5-4. REPAIR MATERIAL SHIPPING, RECEIVING AND STORAGE. a. Liquid Resins and Paste Adhesives. These are two part systems. Both parts are in a liquid state and are normally supplied in two separate cans as a 1 quart kit. They should be shipped and stored at 0F or below. Material stored at temperatures above 40F for extended periods are subject to degradation. (1) Receiving Inspection. Upon receipt at the operating activity, inspect the containers to determine the materials date of manufacture. Compare the date of manufacture with the shelf-life in Table 5-7. (2) Storage. The material should be stored at or below 0F to maximize its shelf-life. Material stored above this temperature has a reduced shelf-life as discussed below. (3) Shelf-Life. Material which exceeds its shelf-life must be discarded. The shelf-life is dependent upon storage temperature, see Table 5-7. (4) Field Level Material Evaluation Test. A material evaluation test for EA956, EA9396, and EA9321 adhesives is described in paragraph 5-6a. Use this test to evaluate these two part adhesives if they have experienced questionable storage conditions or they are questionable in consistency or appearance. If the adhesive passes the specified test it is acceptable for use. Until material evaluation tests are developed for adhesives other than those listed above, they must either be discarded or recertified by FST materials engineering if questionable.

b. Film and Foaming Adhesives. These materials in the uncured state require shipping and storage at or below 0F in MIL-B-131 heat sealed, water-vaporproof bags to prevent material degradation. If the material has been shipped or stored at temperatures above 0F, the material is considered questionable. FM300, FM300-2, FM404 and FM410-1 adhesive kits are packaged in MIL-B-131 bags and shipped to operating activities in rigid foam containers containing dry ice (solid C02 blocks).

Dry Ice

(1) Receiving Inspection. Upon receipt at the operating activity, inspect the container the material was shipped in for the presence of dry ice (solid C02). (a) If dry ice is present upon receipt, expedite material to 0F storage. The material is acceptable for use. (b) If dry ice is not present upon receipt, the material is questionable and must be tested for acceptability. 1 FM300, FM300-2, FM404 and FM410-1 Adhesive. Expedite the material to 0F storage and perform the material evaluation test per paragraph 5-6b for the film adhesives and 5-6c for the foaming adhesives. 2 Other Film/Foaming Adhesive Systems. Until material evaluation tests are developed for

5-18

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

other adhesive systems, these systems must either be recertified by FST materials engineering or discarded. (2) Storage. Store the material at or below 0F in MIL-B-131 heat sealed, water-vaporproof bags. If the adhesive has been removed from the bag, it must be placed back in the water-vaporproof bag and heat sealed using a jaw type heat sealer (see Table 8-12, Item 31) prior to replacement in 0F storage. If the adhesive has been exposed to temperatures above 0F for longer than 24 hours any time during its storage life, it is considered questionable. It must be tested per paragraph 5-6b or paragraph 5-6c. Other film/foaming adhesive systems must be recertified by FST materials engineering or discarded. (3) Shelf-Life. Because film and foaming adhesive systems have the curing agent mixed with the base resin, they have limited shelf-lives (even when stored at 0F or below). If they have exceeded their shelf-life, they are no longer acceptable for use and must be discarded. Most manufacturers assign an arbitrary (and unrealistic) shelflife to their film and foaming adhesives. FM300, FM300-2, FM404 and FM410-1 adhesive kits have undergone an extensive test program to extend their shelf-lives to the following: (a) FM300, FM300-2, and FM410-1. The shelf-life is 36 months from the date of adhesive manufacture if stored at 0F or below. Shelf-life expiration date is marked on the adhesive kit label. (b) FM404. The shelf-life is 15 months from the date of adhesive manufacture if stored at 0F or below. Shelf-life expiration date is marked on the adhesive kit label. Following a successful material evaluation test per paragraph 5-6c, the shelf-life can be extended another 21 months for a maximum of 36 months from date of manufacture. c. Patch Material. Both precured composite patches and preprimed titanium patches should be shipped and stored in MIL-B-131 heat sealed, water-vaporproof bags. No other special shipping, receiving or storage requirements exist for these materials. d. Unincorporated Materials. Some of these materials can degrade if stored improperly. (1) Nylon Vacuum Bag Film (Table 5-6, Item 1). This material can dry out and become brittle if stored in a low humidity environment. This increases the chances of a bag failure during a repair cure cycle. Remaining vacuum

bag material, P/N 135040-2, should be replaced in its MIL-B-131 water-vaporproof bag and reheat sealed using a jaw type heat sealer (see Table 8-12, Item 31) prior to returning to storage. (2) Vacuum Bag Sealant (Table 5-6, Item 6). To prevent excessive aging of this material, store in a cool, dry place. 5-5. REPAIR MATERIAL PREPARATION.

a. Preparing Two Part Adhesives, Sealants and Filler Compounds. Two part adhesives come in separate containers. Part A contains the base resin and part B the curing agent. Prepare the material as follows:

Two Part Adhesive

Two Part Residual Adhesive CAUTION

Pressure must be applied to layup within the pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperatures in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the resin gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing resin. NOTE Perform adhesive preparation in an environmentally controlled area only. If the repair is to be performed on-aircraft, expedite the layup of repair materials, heat blanket and vacuum bag materials to minimize exposure. Material has a limited pot life. Mix only the amount of material that can be used within the pot life shown in Table 5-8. (1) Determine the amount of each part to mix as follows. First, determine the amount of material required to perform the repair. Next, determine the mix ratio from the adhesive container or SRM. Filler materials (such as chopped carbon or glass fibers, milled glass fibers or

5-19

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 5-8. Two Part Adhesives: Pot Life and Maximum Amount of Material
ADHESIVE POT LIFE AT 75F (see Note 1) 40 minutes 120 minutes 40 minutes 120 minutes 100 minutes 90 minutes MAXIMUM AMOUNT TO MIX (GRAMS) (see Note 2) 100 100 100 250 100 100

(a) Check Balance Set Up. Move all poise weights to the zero position. Ensure the pointer is at or near zero. If not, adjust as required using the knurled knob located at the left end of the beam. (b) Weigh the Mixing Cup (Table 5-5, Item 7). Place the cup on the scale pan. Move the poise weights along their respective beams until the pointer centers at zero. Add the poise weight readings together and record as W1. See Figure 5-7, View A. (c) Add the weight of the mixing cup and the amount of part A calculated above and record as W2. (d) Move the poise weights along their respective beams to correspond to W2 (Figure 5-7, View B).

EA956 EA9396 EA9321/EA934 EA9390 EA9394 Magnobond 6363

Note 1. At 90F these times are reduced by 50% 2. Maximum amount to mix to prevent excessive exotherm

microspheres) may be added to the adhesive to produce filler compounds. The amount of material to be added is specified in parts by weight. Determine the amount of each part to be added using the following formulas: Part A = Amount For Repair X mrA mrA + mrB + mrF Part B = Amount For Repair X mrB mrA + mrB + mrF Filler where: = Amount For Repair X mrF mrA + mrB + mrF mrA = mix ratio of part A mrB = mix ratio of part B mrF = mix ratio of filler material (if used*)

Two Part Adhesive

Two Part Residual Adhesive

(e) Place the mixing cup weighed above on the scale pan. Using a wooden spatula (Table 5-5, Item 3), remove part A from its container and place in the mixing cup until the pointer centers at zero. Use care not to overshoot the zero point or incorrect mix ratio will result. (f) Add the amount of part B calculated above to W2 and record as W3. Reset the poise weights to correspond to the new W3 value. (g) Using another wooden spatula, remove part B from its container and place in the mixing cup containing part A until the pointer centers at zero. Use care not to overshoot the zero point or incorrect mix ratio will result. (h) If a filler material is used, weigh the amount of filler calculated above in a separate container. Add the weighed filler material to the mixing cup containing the part A and part B. CAUTION Reduced strength will result if the incorrect mix ratio is used, if an excessive amount of air is introduced into the adhesive during mixing, or if mixing is inadequate.

* If filler material is not used, mrF = 0. Figure 5-6 illustrates how to calculate the required amounts of components to mix to obtain a specific amount of material for repair. (2) Remove the containers of adhesive from storage. If containers are in refrigerated storage, allow material to reach room temperature before opening. Ensure material has not exceeded its shelf-life. (3) Use a triple beam balance (see Figure 5-7) to weigh the amount of part A, part B and filler material (if used) as calculated from the above formulas. Follow the procedure below.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(5) Using a wooden spatula, mix the parts together thoroughly being careful to minimize the amount of air introduced into the mixture during mixing. The adhesive begins to cure when mixed. Note the time part A and part B were mixed together. Adhesive pot life and time to maximum exotherm begin immediately after mixing. (6) Pot Life for Two Part Adhesives. The pot life of an adhesive is the amount of time elapsed between the time a two part adhesive is mixed and when the material hardens into an unworkable state. Each adhesive has a different pot life which must be taken into account when accomplishing a repair. See Table 5-8. b. Film and Foaming Adhesives. Film and foaming adhesives stored at 0F must be allowed to warm to room temperature before use. Opening the sealed bag before the material has reached room temperature will result in the uncured film adhesive absorbing atmospheric moisture while it is thawing to room temperature. Absorbed moisture will result in excessive bondline porosity and reduced strength following adhesive cure. Adhesive exposure time to temperatures above 0F is limited. Maintain an adhesive out-time log as shown in Figure 5-8 to keep track of adhesive exposure time. CAUTION Perform adhesive preparation in an environmentally controlled area only. If the repair is to be performed on-aircraft, expedite the layup of repair materials, heat blanket and vacuum bag materials to minimize exposure. (1) Remove material from 0F storage. Inspect the date on the adhesive kit to ensure the adhesive shelflife has not expired. Note time adhesive was removed from storage and enter on adhesive out-time log (Figure 5-9). Minimize time of adhesive exposure to temperatures above 0F. (2) Allow adhesive to warm to room temperature a minimum of 2 hours before opening sealed bag. Large adhesive rolls may require as long as 6 hours to reach room temperature. CAUTION Wear clean cotton gloves (Table 8-12, Item 12) to prevent contamination due to skin oils when handling patch and film adhesive materials.

NOTE FM404 foaming adhesive has a very narrow temperature band for handling. At subfreezing temperatures the material readily breaks into small pieces. At temperatures above 40F it becomes extremely tacky. The material is most workable at 40F. The material may be reinserted in the freezer momentarily to bring the temperature of the material into a workable range. (3) After material has reached room temperature, open sealed bag and remove adhesive. Remove separator sheets from adhesive before installation. (4) Cut adhesive as required to perform repair. NOTE If adhesive is exposed to temperatures above 0F for longer than 24 hours, it is considered questionable and must be tested prior to use or discarded. (5) Note time adhesive is returned to 0F. Determine cumulative time of adhesive exposure to temperatures above 0F and enter on adhesive out-time log. Replace unused adhesive in its sealed bag along with the out-time log. Press the bag flat to remove air and reheat seal the bag using the jaw type heat sealer (Table 8-12, Item 31). 5-6. MATERIAL EVALUATION TESTING. Use the following procedures to evaluate questionable adhesive material. If the material passes the specified test it is acceptable for use. a. Procedure for Liquid Resin and Paste Adhesive Evaluation. The material will be tested for vertical adhesive flow. Equipment Required Nomenclature Triple Beam Balance Vertical Flow Test Fixture Assembly Stop Watch Gloves, White Cotton Latex Gloves Face Shield Rubber Coated Apron Specification Table 8-12, Item 8 P/N SK340-00205, Figure 5-10 Local Availablity Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 8-12, Item 10 5-21

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

EXAMPLE 1: 25 grams of EA956 is required for repair. The mix ratio for EA956 is 100 parts A to 58 parts B. Part A = 25 grams X 100 = 15.8 grams 100 + 58 = 25 grams Part B 100 + 58 X 58 = 9.2 grams Total = 25.0 grams Combine 15.8 grams of part A and 9.2 grams of part to obtain 25 grams of mixed material. EXAMPLE 2: 80 grams of EA9321 is required for repair. The mix ratio for EA9321 is 100 parts A to 50 parts B. Part A = 80 grams X 100 = 53.3 grams 100 + 50 Part B = 80 grams 100 + 50 X 50 = 26.7 grams Total = 80.0 grams Combine 53.3 grams of part A and 26.7 grams of part B to obtain 80 grams of mixed material. EXAMPLE 3: 60 grams of EA956 based syntactic foam is required as a low density core filler. The mix ratio for the syntactic foam is 100 parts A , 58 parts B, 18 parts milled glass and 16 parts glass micro spheres. The total mixture is 100 + 58 + 18 + 16 = 192 = 60 grams 192 Part B = 60 grams 192 Milled = 60 grams Glass 192 Micro = 60 grams Spheres 192 Part A X 100 = 31.3 grams X X X 58 = 18.1 grams 18 = 16 = 5.6 grams 5.0 grams

Total = 60.0 grams Combine 31.3 grams of part A, 18.1 grams of part B, 5.6 grams of milled glass and 5 grams of glass micro spheres to obtain 60 grams of syntactic foam. EXAMPLE 4: 15 grams of EA956 filled with chopped carbon fiber is required for a fastener hole repair. The mix ratio for the filler material is 100 parts A , 58 parts B and 5 parts chopped carbon fiber. The total mixture is 100 + 58 + 5 = 163 = 15 grams X 100 = 163 = 15 grams Part B X 58 = 163 Chopped = 15 grams X 5 = Carbon 163 Part A 9.2 grams 5.3 grams 0.5 grams

Total = 15.0 grams Combine 9.2 grams of part A, 5.3 grams of part B, 0.5 grams of chopped carbon fiber to obtain 15 grams of filler material.

Figure 5-6. Examples for Preparing Two Part Adhesives and Filler Compounds 5-22

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SCALE PAN

MIXING CUP POISE WEIGHTS DETAIL A POINTER

BEAMS
0 10 0 0 1 2 20 100 3 4 30 40 200 5 6 50 60 300 7 8 70 80 400 9 90 100 g 500 g 10 g

KNURLED KNOB

TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE

100 GRAM POISE WEIGHT


10 0 1 2 20 100 3 4 30 40 200 5 6 50 6

* The weight of the cup depicted in this illustration is 15.3 grams. (The 100 gram poise weight is set at 10 grams, the 500 gram poise weight is set at 0 grams and the 10 gram poise weight is set at 5.3 grams.)

500 GRAM POISE WEIGHT DETAIL A *

10 GRAM POISE WEIGHT

1. All poise weights should be in zero position and the pointer should be at zero. 2. Place the cup on the scale pan. 3. Adjust the poise weights to the position which will bring the pointer to rest at zero. (If the pointer drops below zero, move the poise weight back until the pointer is again at zero.) 4. The weight of the cup is the sum of the values of all poise weight positions read directly from the graduated beams.

A. Procedure for Weighing

100 GRAM POISE WEIGHT

40 200 4

50

60 300

70

80 400

90

** The poise weight settings in this illustration are for the cup and part A. (The 100 gram poise weight is set at 60 grams, the 500 gram poise weight is set at 0 grams and the 10 gram poise weight is set at 8.6 grams.)

10 GRAM POISE WEIGHT DETAIL A **

Example: Addition of 53.3 grams of part A: w1 = weight of mixing cup = 15.3 grams w2 = w1 + weight of part A w3 = w2 + weight of part B In this instance: w2 = 15.3 + 53.3 = 68.6 grams

1. Set poise weights on respective beams to correspond to w2 (if part A is being added) or w3 (if part B is being added). 2. Add material to the mixing cup until pointer centers at zero. 3. The correct amount of part A (or part B) is now in the mixing cup.

B. Use of Balance to Add Correct Amount of Part A or Part B to Mixing Cup Figure 5-7. Use of Triple Beam Balance with Two Part Adhesives

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FILM/FOAMING ADHESIVE OUT-TIME LOG

NSN/PART NO.: PRODUCT DESIGNATION: LOT NO: KIT NO: SHELF LIFE EXPIRATION DATE:

EXPOSURE TIME DATE TIME DATE TIME TOTAL HOURS CUMULATIVE TOTAL OUT IN OUT HOURS OUT

Figure 5-8. Film/Foaming Adhesive Out-Time Log Example

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

FILM/FOAMING ADHESIVE OUT-TIME LOG

NSN/PART NO.: PRODUCT DESIGNATION: LOT NO: KIT NO: SHELF LIFE EXPIRATION DATE:

EXPOSURE TIME DATE TIME OUT DATE TIME IN TOTAL HOURS CUMULATIVE TOTAL OUT HOURS OUT

Figure 5-9. Film/Foaming Adhesive Out-Time Log

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

LAY FIXTURE HORIZONTALLY SO THAT FRONT OF FIXTURE FACES UPWARD DEPRESS PLUNGER FULLY FILL CAVITY WITH PART A ADHESIVE AND LEVEL WITH FRONT OF FIXTURE USING SPATULA

A. Vertical Flow Test Fixture Assembly

C. Application of Adhesive to Fixture

NUT

PLUNGER

WASHER (IF REQUIRED)

INSTALL PLUNGER AND WASHER (IF REQUIRED) AND ATTACH NUT TO BACK SIDE NOTE SEE TABLE 5-9 TO DETERMINE IF WASHER IS REQUIRED WHEN TESTING ADHESIVE

SIMULTANEOUSLY PERFORM THE FOLLOWING STEPS:

PLACE THE FIXTURE IN THE VERTICAL POSITION PRESS UNTIL NUT IS FLUSH WITH THE BACK OF THE FIXTURE START THE STOPWATCH

B. Cut-Away View of Fixture

D. Vertical Flow Test of Adhesive (See Table 5-9 for Vertical Flow Test Limits) Figure 5-10. Vertical Flow Test Fixture Assembly

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Materials Required Nomenclature Wooden Spatula Mixing Cup Solvent Adhesive (Part A only) Specification Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 7 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-1, Item 1a, 1b or 5a
0

Relative Humidity

NOTE: Operate within shaded area 65% 45%

65F 75F Temperature

(1) Remove the container of Part A adhesive from storage. If container was in refrigerated storage, allow material to reach room temperature before opening. Ensure material has not exceeded its shelf-life. (2) Use a triple beam balance (see Figure 5-7) to weigh out 30 grams of Part A in a mixing cup per paragraph 5-5a(3)(a) through paragraph 5-5a(3)(e). NOTE This test must be performed within the temperature and humidity limits shown in Figure 5-11. (3) Set up the vertical flow test fixture as shown in Figure 5-10, View A and B. Install plunger and washer (if required) and attach nut to the back side. See Table 5-9 to determine if washer is required when testing the adhesive. (4) Using solvent, clean the face of the fixture.

Figure 5-11. Temperature and Humidity Operating Environment for Adhesive Preparation Table 5-9. Vertical Flow Test Limits
ADHESIVE (PART A ONLY) EA9321 (do not use washer) EA956 (use washer) EA9396 (use washer) TIME TO THE TWO INCH MARK 8 minutes TIME TO THE THREE INCH MARK N/A

N/A

3 minutes

N/A

5 minutes

If the vertical flow time exceeds the time in this Table, the material is unacceptable for use

(8)

Perform steps (a)-(c) below simultaneously: (a) Place the vertical flow fixture in the vertical

position. (5) Place the vertical flow test fixture on a level surface with the front face up and the plunger depressed to the limit of its travel. (See Figure 5-10, View C). NOTE (c) Start the stop watch. When testing EA9321 adhesive, ensure washer IS NOT incorporated in the vertical flow tester. When testing EA956 and EA9396, ensure washer IS incorporated in the vertical flow tester. (6) Place part A of the adhesive in the cavity. Ensure air pockets do not exist in the cavity by probing with the spatula. Level adhesive flush with the surface of the front face using the spatula. (7) Carefully clean around the front face using the spatula and rymplecloth to remove any excess adhesive. (9) Record the time when the part A first passes the 2 or 3 inch mark as applicable per Table 5-9. Perform two tests per batch of adhesive and average the time. (10) If the time to reach the 2 or 3 inch mark is equal to or less than the value listed in Table 5-9, then the adhesive is acceptable for use. If the time to reach the 2 or 3 inch mark is greater than the value listed in Table 5-9, discard the adhesive per paragraph 5-7 below. (11) Disassemble and thoroughly clean the vertical flow test fixture after each use using solvent and rymplecloth. Ensure no residual adhesive is left in the cavity or on the front face of the fixture. (b) Push the plunger until the nut is flush with the back face of the fixture allowing the adhesive to flow down the front face.

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b. Procedure for FM300 and/or FM300-2 Evaluation. The material will be tested for adhesive flow. Equipment Required Nomenclature Temperature/Vacuum Controller Heat Blanket Surgical Razor Gloves, White Cotton Specification Paragraph 8-6b or c Paragraph 8-6b or c Table 8-12, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 12 Film/Foaming Adhesive 9

(5) Allow adhesive to thaw for at least 2 hours before opening sealed bag. (6) Cut one 2 inch diameter disk out of the questionable film adhesive material using the template fabricated above and a surgical razor. (7) While wearing cotton gloves, remove the release material from the adhesive disk. Sandwich the disk between 2 pieces of 12 inch square mylar film near the center of the mylar. It is essential to the test results that only the specified mylar film be used. Do not use a substitute. (8) Center the mylar sheets containing the adhesive disk on the upper surface of the lower layup tool. (9) Center the upper layup tool on the lower layup tool over the mylar. Tape the upper layup tool in place using high temperature tape. (10) Tape a temperature sensor on top of the upper layup tool near the center of the tool using high temperature tape. (11) Center a heat blanket on top of the upper layup tool. Apply 4 layers of Style 120 glass cloth on top of the heat blanket extending beyond the upper layup tool onto the lower layup tool surface. (12) Apply vacuum bag sealant, vacuum connectors and vacuum bag material to the layup per paragraph 6-7i(5). Do not use copper sheet. Connect temperature/vacuum controller to the heat blanket and vacuum connectors per paragraph 8-6. (13) Perform adhesive flow as follows: (a) Operate the temperature/vacuum controller per paragraph 8-6. (b) Apply a minimum of 20 inches of mercury vacuum to the vacuum bag. If the vacuum pressure (as indicated by the vacuum gage in the vacuum bag) drops below 20 inches of mercury during the flow test, abort the test and repeat using a new adhesive disk and new mylars.

Materials Required Nomenclature 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet 0.25 Inch Thick Aluminum High Temperature Tape Fiberglass Cloth, Style 120 Mylar Sheet, 0.005 Inch Thick Vacuum Bag Materials Kit Lockwire, 0.032 Inch Diameter Specification Table 5-5, Item 11 QQ-A-250 Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-6, Item 7 Available In Adhesive Kit, P/N 74K000004 and P/N 135027 Table 5-6 MS 20995NC32

(1) Fabricate a 2 inch diameter circular template from 0.063 inch thick aluminum sheet. (2) Fabricate a 12 inch by 12 inch upper layup tool and a 16 inch by 16 inch lower layup tool from 0.25 inch thick aluminum. Check the flatness of the layup tools using a 12 inch straight edge. The tools must be flat to ensure uniform pressure is applied during the test. (3) Tape a temperature sensor to the center of the lower surface of the lower layup tool using high temperature tape. (4) Place the lower layup tool on 10-20 layers of fiberglass cloth for insulation purposes. The glass cloth should be at least 2 inches larger than the layup tool.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(c) Use the temperature sensor located on top of the upper layup tool (underneath heat blanket) for heat blanket control. Use the temperature sensor located on the lower layup tool lower surface for monitoring. (d) Cover the layup with multiple layers of Style 120 fiberglass cloth for insulation purposes. (e) Cure using the following Table 6-2 cure cycle: 1 2 For FM300, use Cure Cycle 1a. For FM300-2, use Cure Cycle 2.

c. Procedure for FM404 and/or FM410-1 Evaluation. The material will be tested for expansion. Equipment Required Nomenclature Surgical Razor Micrometer Temperature/Vacuum Controller Air Circulating Oven Specification Table 8-12, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 3 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Local Availability

Materials Required (f) Initiate Cure. Monitor temperature during rise and cure. Ensure monitoring thermocouple on lower layup tool lower surface attains a temperature of at least 330F for FM300 and at least 230F for FM300-2. Adjust controller setpoint to obtain this temperature. Do not exceed a setpoint of 375F for FM300 or a setpoint of 275F for FM300-2. If the lower surface does not reach the required temperature with above mentioned setpoints, abort test and repeat using new adhesive disk and mylars. More insulation or a larger heat blanket may be required. (g) After the hold at the cure temperature, cool to room temperature as rapidly as possible. (h) Remove mylars containing adhesive from layup. (14) Determine adhesive flow using the perimeter measurement method as follows: (a) Cut a piece of lockwire 11 inches in length. (b) Tape one end of the lockwire to the adhesive flow area on the mylar. (c) Apply the wire to the perimeter of the adhesive flow area. Tape wire at 1 inch intervals to facilitate application. (d) If the wire does not touch or overlap, the material is acceptable for use. If the wire touches or overlaps, material is unacceptable for use and must be discarded per paragraph 5-7 below. Nomenclature 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Release Agent, Liquid High Temperature Tape Specification Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-6, Item 4 or Table 5-5, Item 24

Film/Foaming Adhesive

(1) Allow adhesive to thaw for at least 2 hours before opening sealed bag. (2) Cut three 1.5 inch diameter test specimens from the questionable foaming adhesive while the specimens are near 40F. (3) Refreeze specimens to below 0F to ensure correct thickness measurements are made. (4) While the specimens are near 0F, measure their thickness to the nearest 0.001 inch using a micrometer, keeping the parting liners intact. Subtract parting liner thicknesses to obtain the unexpanded foam specimen thickness. A minimum of 5 thickness measurements per specimen should be averaged to obtain the specimen thickness. (a) FM404 unexpanded specimen thickness should be approximately 0.030 inch. (b) FM410-1. The unexpanded specimen thickness should be approximately 0.050 inch.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(5) Place the specimens on an aluminum sheet that has been previously coated with release agent. Tape a temperature sensor to the sheet to monitor the temperature during expansion of the specimens. Hook up the sensor to the temperature/vacuum controller. (6) Place the aluminum sheet containing the specimens in an air circulating oven at ambient temperature. (7) Heat the oven to the appropriate temperature and maintain for 1 hour. Operate the oven per paragraph 6-7j(4)(b). (a) FM404: Heat oven to 350 10F. Ensure the aluminum sheet reaches a minimum of 340F. (b) FM410-1: Heat oven to 245 15F for 1 hour. Ensure aluminum sheet reaches a minimum of 230F. (8) After 1 hour at temperature, allow to cool to below 100F and remove from oven. Remove specimens from aluminum sheet. (9) Measure the thickness of the cured specimens using a micrometer. Obtain the expanded foam thickness by averaging 5 thickness measurements per specimen. (10) Determine foam expansion by dividing the unexpanded foam thickness determined in paragraph 5-6c(4) into the expanded foam thickness determined in paragraph 5-6c(9). Report the results as times the original thickness. Average the results of the three specimens. (11) The expansion must be within the following limits for the material to be acceptable for use. If the average

expansion is not within this limit, the material is unacceptable and must be discarded per paragraph 5-7 below. (a) FM404. The expansion must be at least 4 times the original thickness. (b) FM410-1. The expansion must be at least 2 times the original thickness. 5-7. DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS USED FOR REPAIR. a. Composite, Adhesive and Sealant Materials. In some cases cured composite and adhesive materials and dry woven carbon cloth may be disposed of as normal waste. However, contact the local environmental office for disposal procedures as local hazardous material disposal instructions take precedence. Do not incinerate carbon fiber composite materials. Uncured composites, adhesives and sealants (including gloves, wipers, mixing cups, etc., that contain any amount of uncured material) must be disposed of as hazardous waste per local hazardous waste disposal procedures. Some cured sealants contain chromates which are considered to be hazardous waste and must be disposed of per local hazardous waste disposal procedures. Contact the local environmental office to determine which cured sealants fall into this category. b. Unincorporated Repair Materials. For disposal of the unincorporated repair materials listed in Table 5-5, contact the local environmental office to determine which materials require treatment as hazardous waste.

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SECTION VI REPAIR PROCESSES 6-1. DESCRIPTION. This section describes the basic repair processes for advanced composite parts. Specific repair procedures described in other sections of this manual reference these basic processes. Refer to this section when performing specific repairs to ensure the basic repair processes are properly performed. 6-2. CLEANING.

Solvent

(7) Remove any gross contamination (grease, oil, etc.) left on the part following detergent cleaning using rymplecloth and solvent (Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6). 6-3. DAMAGE REMOVAL. Damaged material must be removed to sound material to effect a structural repair. This means that damage must be removed along with a minimum amount of good material. First, use NDI to determine the damage extent. Then, determine the cutout shape for removing damage. A circle is the most practical cutout shape for small damage; however, large damage can rarely be confined to a circle without removing an excessive amount of good material. Cutouts required to remove large areas of damage may take any form. However, maintain generous radii at the cutout corners to prevent excessive stress concentrations and the resultant overstress of the repair joint. The cutout radius shall not be less than 0.5 inch. To avoid causing additional damage during the damage removal process, use the correct cutter type and the correct cutter feed/speed for the composite material being machined. a. Outlining the Damage. CAUTION DO NOT mark the composite surface with any method that will indent or deform the surface. (1) Outline the damage to be removed. Use a permanent ink marker (Table 8-12, Item 14) on light colored painted surfaces or a yellow pencil (Table 8-12, Item 34) on dark surfaces. A correct damage outline encompasses the damaged area and a minimum amount of good material while maintaining the minimum required cutout radius. (2) For non-circular damage, use a straight edge to draw straight lines on the damage surface which will encompass the damaged area as indicated by NDI. Connect the lines using a circle with a radius not less than 0.5 inch. A typical damage outline is shown in Figure 6-1.

a. General. Prior to the part being processed for repair, the part surface must be cleaned to remove dirt, grease, aircraft fluids and nondestructive inspection (NDI) couplant. This prevents potential contamination of the repair adhesive bondline as well as contamination of equipment and facilities. b. Procedure. (1) Visually inspect part for skin penetrations, openings or edge delaminations. CAUTION Mask all penetrations and openings to avoid water intrusion and resultant part damage during the cure process of a bonded repair. (2) Mask all penetrations and openings using water-vaporproof barrier material (Table 5-5, Item 8) and pressure sensitive tape (Table 5-5, Item 9). (3) Detergent clean the part using cleaning compound (Table 5-5, Item 15). Apply cleaner solution to the part using rymplecloth (Table 5-5, Item 2). (4) Scrub the solution into stubborn areas using a nonmetallic bristle brush until the surface deposits are loosened. Do not damage outer surface ply fibers near panel edges or in fastener hole countersink areas. (5) Rinse part with fresh water and dry with clean, dry rymplecloth. Do not use compressed air to dry part as damage to the composite laminate may result. (6) After part is dry, remove the masking material carefully to prevent pulling fibers out of the laminate.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
DAMAGE EXTENT FROM NDI

the depth of cut desired. Firmly attach the template to the part surface with tape to prevent movement during routing. Then move the router guide along the template edge to establish the damage cutout shape. Templates are limited to fairly flat surfaces. A new template must be manufactured for each nonstandard damage shape encountered. (2) Hand Method. Hand routing operations can be performed without a template, using either a 0 degree or 90 degree router motor. Remain 18 inch inside the damage outline while routing. Then, finish sand the damage cleanup hole edge to the damage outline. Use a 90 degree router motor, a sanding drum with an 80 grit abrasive sleeve or a 1.0 inch diameter diamond coated router bit for finish sanding of the damage cleanup hole edge. c. Partial Thickness Damage. Partial thickness damage (skin gouges, delamination damage, etc.) must be sanded down to undamaged material. After determining the damage depth and damage outline, sand down to the damage depth using a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit abrasive disk. Sand carefully as the material is removed quickly. Since multilevel delaminations may be present, reinspect the area in question using NDI after the damage is removed. If delaminations are present in the skin below the original damage area, remove them by sanding and reinspect using NDI. Taper the edge of the partial thickness damage removal area to provide a smooth transition between the damage depth and the outer skin surface. The length of the taper should be 10 times the damage depth (see Figure 6-3). d. Core Damage. (1) If damage cleanup hole is 1.5 inches in diameter or less, remove damage down to undamaged core by sanding with a 90 degree router motor and a small sanding disk. Vacuum clean the repair area. (2) If damage cleanup hole is larger than 1.5 inches in diameter, completely remove damaged core. (a) Using a core slicer or core knife (Table 8-3, Item 1 or 2), carefully slice down the core cell walls to separate the core in the damage cleanup area from the remaining part core section. Use the damage cleanup hole in the skin as a guide. Slice along the part core cell axis. Ensure core slicer cutting edge is sharp. CAUTION DO NOT delaminate opposite skin inner surface when removing damaged core. DO NOT damage the adjacent core or skin when sanding.

r r r

r = 0.5 inch minimum OUTLINE OF DAMAGED AREA FOR REMOVAL

OUTLINE ENCOMPASSES DAMAGE

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VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON THE PART SURFACE

Figure 6-1. Damage Outlining NOTE Refer to paragraph 6-4 for machining procedures for composite materials and paragraphs 8-2 and 8-3 for a description of the equipment used for machining. b. Penetration Damage. Remove the damage using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel or a 14 inch diameter diamond coated router bit. A hand operated cutting wheel is adequate for most thin laminates (up to 0.100 inch thick). For thicker laminates or when a controlled depth cut is required (to prevent damage to honeycomb core or substructure elements), remove the damage using a 0 degree router motor and a 14 inch diameter router bit. (1) Template Method. A template works well for stabilizing the router bit during the routing operation. Templates can be fabricated from aluminum or fiberglass stock and should be a minimum of 18 inch thick. A 0 degree router motor, router attachment and router guide are required for this operation. The router setback distance shown in Figure 6-2 must be considered when making the template to ensure the correct damage outline is attained. Adjust the position of the router bit in the router assembly to compensate for the template thickness and to achieve

6-2

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

COMPOSITE SKIN

ROUTER BIT ROUTER GUIDE TEMPLATE DAMAGE LAYOUT OUTLINE/ DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE EDGE

SKIN ROUTER SETBACK DISTANCE ROUTER BIT MUST EXTEND BELOW SKIN INNER SURFACE

SECTION A-A

Figure 6-2. Penetration Damage Removal - Template Method (b) If only one skin has been damaged, use the core slicer to separate the core. Then, completely remove separated core in the damage cleanup hole area down to the opposite skin inner surface. 1 Low density core can easily be removed by causing cell wall failure using needle nose pliers and a gentle pulling and twisting motion. Be careful not to delaminate the opposite side skin during removal. Use a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit abrasive disk to remove the core and adhesive from the inner surface of the opposite skin. It is acceptable to allow some adhesive to remain on the inner skin surface to avoid sanding into the laminate. If difficulty in removing the core is encountered, employ the procedures in step 2 below. 2 High density core is sometimes difficult to remove. Remove by sanding with a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit abrasive disk. Use care during sanding not to damage adjacent core areas or sand into the opposite side skin. It is acceptable to allow some adhesive to remain on the inner skin surface to avoid sanding into the laminate. (c) Vacuum core and sanding residue from repair area. Wipe inner skin surface using clean, dry rymplecloth to remove remaining sanding residue. Tape barrier material or release film (Table 5-6, Item 2) over the area to prevent contamination.
A A

COMPOSITE SKIN

OUTER SKIN SURFACE

T (T = 10 h)

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DAMAGE EXTENT FROM NDI SECTION A-A DAMAGE DEPTH (h)

Figure 6-3. Partial Thickness Damage Removal

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6-4. MACHINING, DRILLING, REAMING AND COUNTERSINKING ADVANCED COMPOSITES. a. Background. Cutting (machining, drilling, reaming and countersinking) advanced composite materials requires different methods and equipment than those used for cutting metallic materials. The methods and equipment used are dependent upon the matrix material and fiber being cut. (1) Matrix Materials. These materials although relatively easy to cut have an inability to dissipate heat coupled with a low tolerance for heat buildup. Excessive heat buildup can result in resin damage and delaminations. Bismaleimide and polyimide resins are more tolerant to heat buildup than epoxy resins. In general, temperatures due to drilling that exceed the cure temperature of the matrix material being drilled are cause for concern. The use of sharp cutters, correct cutter material, control of feed rates and use of coolant are all means used to control heat buildup. In addition, matrix materials are comparatively weak in the out-of-plane direction and do not provide adequate support for the fibers being cut to prevent fiber breakout and splintering. Cutting techniques which use out-of-plane cutting forces (band sawing, table sawing and drilling, etc.) should use backup material clamped on the exit side of the work piece to reduce breakout whenever possible. Cutting techniques which cut in-plane (router bits and sanding drums) do not require backup material. (See Figure 6-4). (2) Fibers.
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LAMINATE

CUTTING FORCE OUT-OF-PLANE CUTTING FORCE

LAMINATE

CUTTING FORCE IN-PLANE CUTTING FORCE

Figure 6-4. In-Plane Versus Out-Of-Plane Cutting (c) Kevlar. Kevlar fibers are more ductile and tougher than either boron or carbon. While this has advantages in terms of impact resistance, it provides problems during machining. Rather than a brittle fracture occurring during cutting operations, the Kevlar fibers split along their length resulting in fuzzing of fiber ends. In addition, Kevlar fibers have a relatively low compressive strength and tend to recede into the matrix instead of being sheared off during machining operations. To reduce fuzzing and produce smooth edge cuts, cutter designs attempt to keep the fiber preloaded in tension while shearing the fiber. Sharp HSS or carbide cutters are adequate for shearing Kevlar fibers. Unlike dust generated when machining carbon fibers, Kevlar fibers tend to generate clumps of subfibers (fibrils) which clog cutters and reduce the quality of cut surfaces.

(a) Boron. Boron fibers are harder than most conventional cutting materials (tungsten carbide, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide and tool steel) and require the hardness of diamond for cutting. Vibratory stress can be setup along the tungsten filament during machining which may result in damage to the boron fiber. (b) Carbon. Carbon fibers are very abrasive and rapidly dull high speed steel (HSS) cutters during cutting operations. Either carbide or diamond are acceptable materials to use for cutting carbon fibers. Carbon fibers can be readily sanded and cut using abrasive materials. Silicon carbide is the most effective abrasive material for sanding carbon fibers. During sanding the silicon carbide particles fracture exposing a fresh cutting surface. By contrast, aluminum oxide abrasive dulls during sanding reducing its material removal capability. During cutting operations, carbon fibers experience a brittle fracture of the fiber.

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b. General. (1) When using diamond tools, inspect cutting surfaces before use and replace if diamond plating appears worn or if bare metal areas are evident. Remove resin or other contamination from diamond tool cutting surfaces before use. (2) Carbide tools are significantly heavier than HSS tools and can be distinguished from them by their difference in weight. When using carbide tools, inspect and replace if nicks, chips or other defects are present on the tool cutting surface. Keep cutting surfaces free of resin buildup. Carbide tools are very brittle and cutting surfaces are easily broken or chipped if dropped. Use care in handling. (3) Cutting forces increase considerably as tools become dull. It is essential to use sharp cutters to provide quality cuts and minimize the potential for delaminations. Replace or resharpen tools if excessive cutting force is encountered during cutting operations. (4) Use coolant for cutting operations whenever feasible. This not only reduces the potential for heat damage, it extends cutter life and provides some control of dust. Do not use coolant when cutting laminates bonded to honeycomb core. (5) The use of bandsaws, table saws and radial arm saws for cutting generate a considerable out-of-plane cutting force and should not be used on advanced composites without firmly clamped backup material. Their use on actual aircraft parts is impractical unless cutting up scrapped parts for disposal. (6) Exit Side Breakout/Splintering During Drilling. As the drill bit breaks through the exit side of the laminate when drilling, there is a sudden decrease in resistance to drilling and a rapid increase in feed rate. The increased feed rate results in exit side breakout and splintering of the laminate. Reduced strength of bolted joints can result. Use firmly clamped backup material on drill exit sides. When drilling blind holes, use cutters designed to reduce drilling forces and the Align-A-Drill which incorporates a hydraulic check valve to reduce the breakout/splintering tendency. (7) Edge Deburring After Machining. Break sharp edges on composite laminates after machining, using 150-240 grit silicon carbide abrasive paper. Sand from either surface toward the center of the laminate edge to prevent splintering or delamination.

(8) Inspection Requirements. Machined and drilled surfaces shall be visually inspected for indications of delaminations, excessive fiber breakout or overheating. Surfaces exhibiting these indications shall be further inspected ultrasonically to determine the extent of damage. Surfaces of machined and drilled parts shall have a smooth, polished appearance as opposed to a dull, rough surface as determined visually. c. General Air Tool Safety. Air tools operate at high revolutions per minute (RPM) and can cause injury if not used properly. (1) Always disconnect air supply hose from tools before changing cutters or making adjustments to attachments. (2) Chuck keys or collet wrenches must always be removed from tools before reconnecting air supply hose. (3) Use only sanding disks and disk holders with positive locking features incorporated. (4) Observe the safe speed rating of cutters, drums and sanding disk holders. The safe speed must be equal to or greater than the speed of the tool. (5) Never attempt to make arbors from nuts and bolts for any cutter. (6) Make sure tools and cutters are in good condition before installing and using in air motors (no bent shanks or loose hardware). (7) Never hold small parts in your hands for machining or drilling. Always secure parts properly before beginning work. (8) Always secure loose clothing (sleeves, etc.) when using rotating equipment. (9) Always start router motors before applying to work piece. (10) Never attempt to hold a vacuum cleaner hose with one hand while operating equipment with the other hand. (11) Always wear the personal protective equipment specified in Table 10-2 before beginning work.

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CAUTION Machining boron fiber composites will damage fibers resulting in strength loss. NOTE The procedures discussed in the following paragraphs refer to the tools and equipment listed in Table 8-1, Table 8-2, Table 8-4 and Table 8-5. Specific table and item numbers are provided only where required for clarity. d. Machining Boron/Epoxy Composites. The strength loss associated with machining boron/epoxy composites used on F-14 horizontal stabilizers has been determined not to adversely effect its structural integrity. The following procedures are approved only for F-14 boron/epoxy horizontal stabilizers. Diamond plated tools are the only tools acceptable for machining boron fiber composites. (1) Damage removal. Use 80 grit diamond abrasive router bits and the template method described in paragraph 6-3b. Use a feed rate of 2 inches per minute. Do not use coolant. (2) Repair Joint Machining.

90 degree router motor and the procedures specified in paragraph 6-3b. As an alternate, 40-80 grit diamond coated router bits and a 0 degree router motor may be used. Cut outs may be finish sanded using a 90 degree router motor and either the abrasive sleeve and sanding drum or the 1.0 inch diameter diamond coated router bit. The 1.0 inch diameter carbide router bit while not the preferred cutter, is a suitable alternate. Do not exceed a feed rate of 15 inches per minute. (b) For thick laminates use either the template method or the hand method described in paragraph 6-3b(1) or 6-3b(2). Use 40-80 grit diamond coated router bits. If using the hand method, finish sand to the damage outline using either the abrasive sleeve and sanding drum or the 1.0 inch diameter diamond coated router bit. The 1.0 inch diameter carbide router bit while not the preferred cutter, is a suitable alternate. Do not exceed a feed rate of 15 inches per minute. (2) Partial Thickness Damage Removal. Remove the damage using a 90 degree router motor a sanding disk holder and an 80 grit sanding disk. Use the procedures specified in paragraph 6-3c. (3) Edge Trimming. When trimming edges of laminates, determine the trim line and mark on the part using a suitable marking pen. Sand the edge of the part to the trim line using either the abrasive sleeve and sanding drum or the 1.0 inch diameter diamond coated router bit. The 1.0 inch diameter carbide router bit while not the preferred cutter is a suitable alternate. Do not exceed a feed rate of 15 inches per minute. Break sharp edges after trimming by hand sanding with 150-240 silicon carbide abrasive paper. (4) Repair Joint Machining.

(a) Field repairs to boron/epoxy composites use externally bonded patches. The blunt cut repair joint is formed during the damage removal operation. (b) Depot repairs to boron/epoxy composites use step joints. The step joint uses a controlled depth router and 1.0 inch diameter diamond plated router bits. e. Drilling Boron/Epoxy Composites. Hand drilling small diameter holes for performing resin injection repairs is the only drilling allowed on boron/epoxy surfaces. Carbide is the specified drill bit material. Use a 2,000 RPM drill motor, a carbide twist drill and a maximum feed rate of 0.5 inch per minute. Do not use coolant. f. Machining Carbon/Epoxy, Carbon/Bismaleimide and Carbon/Polyimide Composites. Diamond plated tools have proven to be superior to carbide tools when machining carbon fiber composites. They not only provide longer tool life, they are not prone to breaking and chipping during handling or use. (1) Penetration Damage Removal.

(a) Blunt Cut Repair Joint. Externally bonded patches use a blunt cut repair joint. This is formed during the penetration damage removal operation. (b) Scarf Joint. Following damage removal, the scarf joint is machined by hand using a 90 degree router motor an 80 grit silicon carbide sanding disk and a sanding disk holder. Use the procedures described in paragraph 6-6c. g. Drilling, Reaming and Countersinking Carbon/ Epoxy and Carbon/Bismaleimide and Carbon/Polyimide Composites. Use carbide drill bits, reamers and countersink cutters only. Carbide cutters are significantly heavier than HSS cutters. Do not use HSS cutters for carbon fiber composites as they dull rapidly and can cause laminate

(a) For thin laminates and substructure elements, use 40-80 grit diamond cutting wheels, a

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damage. Flat flute carbide drills and carbide twist drills are used for drilling operations. The flat flute drill is designed to reduce the feed force required to penetrate the laminate which reduces the potential for exit side damage. Use a flood of cutting fluid (Table 5-5, Item 12) for drilling and reaming operations. (Water may be used as an alternative). (1) Drilling. A drill bushing and drill guide are required to stabilize drill bits to prevent wobble and to provide moldline perpendicularity control. Carbide drill bits are limited to no more than 30 holes per bit. Bits which exceed this limit must either be resharpened or discarded. (a) Free Hand Drilling. Use a 2,000 RPM drill motor. Carbide twist drills are acceptable for use if backup material is used or if small diameter injection holes are being drilled. The Align-A-Drill, drill bushing and drill guide are required when using twist drills (except when drilling injection holes). Use micarta, wood or masonite as backup material firmly clamped to the drill exit side of the surface being drilled. (b) Drilling Blind Holes. Use a 2,000 RPM drill motor, carbide flat flute drill bits, the Align-A-Drill, a drill bushing and a drill guide to drill blind holes. (c) Set up the Align-A-Drill per paragraph 6-4j. Adjust the hydraulic check damper to obtain a maximum feed rate of 10-15 seconds per inch. (d) Drill Press. A drill press and backup material may also be used in lieu of the Align-A-Drill and drill bushing. Ensure drill bit is properly chucked to prevent wobble. Do not operate the drill press at speeds in excess of 2,000 RPM. Use a feed rate of 4-6 inches per minute. (2) Reaming. A reaming operation is used to enlarge an undersized hole to very accurate dimensions in laminates with metallic material in the stackup. Fluted reamers cut primarily on the periphery of the hole removing 0.004 to 0.008 inch on the bore. The removal of a small amount of material reduces the amount of metal chips pulled through laminate holes as well as allowing high quality close tolerance hole patterns to be produced. During reaming operations, holes are first drilled in the patch material 164 inch undersize using a twist drill. These holes are then transferred into the laminate using the patch as a guide. The inner and outer patches are installed and the patches and laminate holes reamed simultaneously to final size. This allows both patch and laminate holes to be line reamed ensuring hole center alignment.

(a) Ensure pilot on reamer engages inner patch hole before beginning reaming. Use straight flute, piloted carbide reamers only. (b) Perform reaming operation by hand using a drill motor operating at a maximum of 250 RPM and a feed rate of 4-6 inches per minute. Limit holes reamed to no more than 10 per reamer. Reamers which exceed this limit must be resharpened or discarded. (3) Countersinking. Following drilling, laminate holes must be countersunk if flush head fasteners are to be installed. To ensure countersinks are cut to the proper depth and are correctly oriented with the part surface, use a countersink microstop cage. (a) Select the carbide countersink cutter (or HSS cutter body with carbide chips) with the pilot diameter that corresponds to the drilled hole being countersunk. Insert the cutter in a microstop cage and adjust depth. (b) Install the microstop cage in a 2,000 RPM drill motor. Center cage over hole to be countersunk and ensure piloted cutter is aligned with hole. (c) Cut the countersink to the depth set in the microstop cage. Use a feed rate of 4-6 inches per minute. Ensure countersink cutter is rotating before contacting laminate surface to prevent splintering. h. Machining Kevlar/Epoxy Composites. (1) Penetration Damage Removal. Use the template method described in paragraph 6-3b(1) and a straight flute carbide router bit (Table 8-2, Item 3). Inspect the router bit after every few inches of cut for clogging of the bit with Kevlar fibrils. Keep bits clean to improve quality of the cut. Some backsanding of the damage cleanup hole per paragraph 6-4h(5) below may be required to remove fuzzing. Do not exceed a feed rate of 15 inches per minute. (2) Partial Thickness Damage Removal. Remove damage by sanding with an 80 grit silicon carbide abrasive sanding disk and a 90 degree router motor. Change the sanding disk frequently as it tends to load up with Kevlar sanding residue. Some fuzzing may occur. Carefully remove damage to keep fuzzing to a minimum. Fuzzing can be removed by back sanding per paragraph 6-4h(5) below.

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(3) Edge Trimming. Trim edges using the straight flute carbide router bit and a template as described in paragraph 6-4h(1) above except use backup material (micarta, wood or masonite) firmly clamped to the edge being trimmed. Do not exceed a feed rate of 15 inches per minute. Backsand and seal the trimmed edge to remove fuzzing per paragraph 6-4h(5) below. (4) Repair Joint Machining.

(a) Free Hand Drilling. Drill holes using the Align-A-Drill, a 2,000 RPM drill motor, a bushing and drill guide to stabilize the drill bit and a HSS clothes pin drill bit (Table 8-4, Item 4). Use micarta, wood or masonite as backup material firmly clamped to the drill exit side. (b) Set up the Align-A-Drill per paragraph 6-4j. Adjust the hydraulic check damper to obtain a maximum feed rate of 120 seconds per inch. (c) Drill Press. A drill press and backup material may be used in lieu of the Align-A-Drill and drill bushing. Ensure the drill bit is properly chucked to prevent wobble. Do not operate the drill press at speeds in excess of 2,000 RPM. Use a feed rate of 0.5 inch per minute. (2) Countersinking. Following drilling, laminate holes must be countersunk if flush head fasteners are to be installed. To ensure countersinks are cut to the proper depth and are correctly oriented with the part surface, a countersink microstop cage is required. (a) Select the HSS countersink cutter with the pilot diameter that corresponds to the drilled hole being countersunk. Insert the cutter in the microstop cage and adjust depth. (b) Apply flashbreaker tape (Table 5-5, Item 25) to outside surface of hole to be countersunk. Cut through tape to expose fastener hole. If flashbreaker tape is not available, fuzzing of outer surface plies will occur. Remove fuzzing and reseal with resin per paragraph 6-4h(5). (c) Install the microstop cage in a 2,000 RPM drill motor. Center cage over hole to be countersunk and ensure piloted cutter is aligned with hole. (d) Cut the countersink to the depth set in the microstop cage. Use a feed rate of 0.5 inches per minute. Ensure countersink cutter is rotating before contacting laminate/flash breaker tape surface to prevent splintering. j. Align-A-Drill Setup. The Align-A-Drill attachment when installed on a 2,000 RPM pistol grip drill motor is used to reduce exit side splintering of composite laminates when drilling blind holes. It also provides control of feed rate during drilling operations. The following procedures describe feed rate setup, Align-A-Drill installation and alignment, and drill bit travel adjustment.

(a) Blunt Cut Repair Joint. Externally bonded patches use a blunt cut repair joint. This is formed during the penetration damage removal operation. (b) Step Joint. The method described in paragraph 6-6d makes use of x-acto knives or razor blades to cut through individual woven plies of Kevlar. Some care must be used with this technique as a significant amount of force is required to cut through the cured epoxy matrix and the Kevlar fibers. There is a tendency to cut deeper than required. Be careful not to cut any deeper than the ply being removed or a reduction in joint strength will result. Use only sharp blades and replace them frequently. Use a straight edge and/or templates to assist in cutting. (5) Removal of Fuzzing by Backsanding. Hand sand fuzzed areas with 120-150 grit silicon carbide abrasive paper. Sand away from the center of the laminate in one direction only. After majority of fuzz is removed, dress the edge by lightly sanding parallel to the edge of the laminate. Vacuum clean sandpaper frequently to remove Kevlar sanding residue. Following removal of fuzz, coat back sanded areas with epoxy resin (Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b), and cure to prevent excessive moisture intrusion. i. Drilling and Countersinking Kevlar/Epoxy Composites. Use HSS clothes pin drill bits and HSS or carbide countersink cutters. Bits and cutters should be inspected after each hole for Kevlar fibril clogging. Keep bits and cutter clean to improve quality of the cut. The clothes pin drill is a special drill bit designed to shear the outer surface Kevlar fibers as it enters the laminate and produce fuzz free holes. (1) Drilling. A drill bushing, drill guide and backup material are required for drilling. Only sharp drill bits should be used. Replace at frequent intervals (after 15-20 holes).

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NOTE The Align-A-Drill attachment provided in the Generic Tool Kit is different in design than that described below. The procedures for setup are essentially the same, but will vary accordingly. Unless otherwise specified, item numbers in the below procedures refer to Figure 6-5. key. (1) Feed Rate Setup.

(d) Loosen the yoke lock screw (8). (e) Install a drill bit (9) through the coolant bushing (2) into the drill chuck (10) and tighten chuck. (f) Without moving the yoke (3), tighten yoke lock screw (8). (g) Loosen drill chuck (10) 14 turn with chuck

(a) Remove the Align-A-Drill attachment (1), drill guide (Figure 8-5, View F) and coolant bushing (2) from the tool kit. (b) Temporarily secure the drill guide on a flat surface. Install the coolant bushing (2) into the yoke (3) and secure with the bushing installation screw (4). (c) Place the Align-A-Drill attachment containing the coolant bushing in the drill guide. The arrangement should be free standing. (d) Using a shot bag, apply 20-25 pounds of weight on the Align-A-Drill attachment. Stabilize the attachment as required. (e) Rotate the hydraulic check damper adjustment (5) to obtain the specified feed rate in seconds per inch. Note the numerical setting (located on the back end of the hydraulic check damper adjustment) required to obtain the specified feed rate. (f) Remove the weight from the Align-A-Drill attachment and the attachment from the drill guide. (2) Align-A-Drill installation and alignment. (a) Perform feed rate setup per paragraph 6-4j(1). (b) Loosen drill mount screw (6). Slide AlignA-Drill attachment onto drill motor (7) and tighten drill mount screw. (c) Install the coolant bushing (2) into the yoke (3) and secure with the bushing installation screw (4).

(h) The drill bit should move freely through the coolant bushing. If binding occurs, loosen yoke lock screw (8) and reposition yoke (3) to permit free movement of drill bit in coolant bushing. Tighten yoke lock screw (8) and drill chuck (10). (3) Drill Bit Travel Adjustment.

(a) Perform feed rate setup, installation and alignment of Align-A-Drill per paragraphs 6-4j(1) and 6-4j(2). (b) Loosen the hydraulic check damper arm stop locknut (11) and back off hydraulic check damper arm stop (12) approximately 14 inch. (c) Note numerical setting on hydraulic check damper adjustment (5). Turn hydraulic check damper adjustment (5) to zero. (d) Loosen yoke lock screw (8) and adjust yoke (3) until end of drill bit (9) is flush with end of coolant bushing (2). (e) Without moving yoke (3), tighten yoke lock screw (8). (f) Adjust hydraulic check damper arm stop (12) until it is in solid contact with hydraulic check damper arm (13). Tighten hydraulic check damper arm stop locknut (11). (g) Depress yoke (3) full travel and adjust yoke travel adjustment (14) to desired drill bit travel. (h) Reset hydraulic check damper adjustment (5) to numerical setting noted above.

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5 1 8 12 3 13 14

11

9 7

6 10

2 4
Index No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Nomenclature Align-A-Drill Attachment Coolant Bushing and Adapter Yoke Bushing Installation Screw Hydraulic Check Damper Adjustment Drill Mount Screw Drill Motor Yoke Lock Screw Drill Bit Drill Chuck Hydraulic Check Damper Arm Stop Locknut Hydraulic Check Damper Arm Stop Hydraulic Check Damper Arm Yoke Travel Adjustment

Figure 6-5. Align-A-Drill Setup

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6-5. PAINT REMOVAL. Paint removal (this includes primer) is required prior to drying composite laminates as the presence of paint inhibits the exit of moisture during the drying process. Paint removal is also required prior to patch installation for the following reasons: in adhesively bonded joints the paint to laminate bond is considerably weaker than the adhesive to laminate bond, and in bolted joints the paint to laminate bond is weaker than the sealant to laminate bond. a. General. The only currently approved paint removal (and primer removal) method for composite field repair is sanding. Perform this method either by hand or by using an orbital sander. Use of other types of powered sanders is prohibited since there is a high potential for laminate damage. Use care during paint removal to prevent sanding into the laminate. It is impossible to remove paint without sanding into some of the load carrying fibers; however, the amount of fiber damage should be kept to an absolute minimum. Chemical paint strippers are unsatisfactory for paint removal as they attack the matrix material in composite laminates causing degradation. b. Procedure. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. A black color on the sand paper indicates that sanding into the laminate has occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. If this occurs, the sanding process should be stopped immediately. (1) Apply masking tape (Table 5-5, Item 10) to mask off the repair area and to provide a paint removal boundary. If an external patch is to be applied, the tape should extend 1 inch beyond the patch periphery. (2) Remove paint by sanding by hand or with an orbital sander. Use 80-120 grit abrasive paper initially. Vacuum area frequently to reduce paint residue buildup on the abrasive paper. Visually inspect the abrasive paper frequently for paint buildup and replace as required. (3) When primer is visually detected on the part, change to 180-240 grit abrasive paper and continue the sanding operation until the majority of the primer has been removed. Some residual primer may remain in peel ply impression recesses on the laminate surface. Sand cautiously to prevent laminate damage: some composite parts are painted with dark colored primers making primer detection difficult, and some are painted without the use of primer.

CENTERLINE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE

BLUNT CUT

SCARF

STEP

REPAIR JOINT CROSS SECTIONS

Figure 6-6. Basic Repair Joints

(4) Vacuum paint removal area to remove sanding dust. Wipe area with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove remaining sanding residue. 6-6. JOINT MACHINING. Implementing structural repairs to advanced composite structures involves repair joint machining. One of the advantages in repairing advanced composite parts over repairing metallic parts is the ability to machine repair joints in the laminate. Perform joint machining prior to drying to ensure that the surface dried is in fact the surface upon which the repair is to be performed. a. General. The three basic types of repair joints used in repairing advanced composite materials are shown in Figure 6-6. The most commonly used repair joint and the easiest to machine is the blunt cut joint. It is used for externally and internally bonded and bolted repairs. The scarf joint is the next easiest to machine and is used to repair either unidirectional or woven carbon/epoxy laminates. However, scarf joints have limited application in a field environment. They are used in the field only when moldline protrusion requirements dictate a flush repair and load conditions are low enough to allow for the reduced strength that results when curing replacement ply materials without an autoclave. The step joint is generally used to repair woven kevlar/epoxy and woven fiberglass/epoxy laminates. It is limited to lightly loaded parts due to the reduced strength of replacement plies. b. Blunt Cut Joint Machining. The blunt cut joint is formed by machining the damage cleanup hole edge as described in paragraph 6-3b. No other machining is required.

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c. Scarf Joint Machining. The first step in machining a scarf joint is removing the damage. (1) If penetration damage is present, remove the damage as described in paragraph 6-3b and proceed to paragraph 6-6c(3). (2) If partial thickness damage is present, proceed to paragraph 6-6c(7). CAUTION DO NOT mark the composite with any method that will indent or deform the surface. (3) Determine the scarf outline perimeter.

COMPOSITE SKIN D

SCARF OUTLINE PERIMETER DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE EDGE

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;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; t ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;


FINISHED SCARF SLOPE SECTION A-A

(a) Measure the skin thickness (t). Multiply the skin thickness by 20 to obtain the scarf outline dimension (D). This will provide a scarf slope of 20 to 1. (See Figure 6-7). (b) Measure outward from the damage cleanup hole edge the scarf outline dimension (D). (See Figure 6-7). The scarf outline perimeter is defined by this dimension. If variations in skin thickness are encountered, the scarf outline dimension (D) must be changed accordingly.

t = SKIN THICKNESS D = SCARF OUTLINE DIMENSION = 20t

Figure 6-7. Scarf Joint Outline Layout


SCARF OUTLINE PERIPHERY

Composite Materials NOTE

SANDING DISK HOLDER SANDING DISK FINISHED SCARF SLOPE

Refer to paragraph 6-4 for machining procedures for composite materials and paragraphs 8-2 and 8-3 for a description of the equipment used for machining. If a monolithic skin is being scarfed, seal the backside as described in paragraph 7-7b prior to beginning the scarfing operation. This will prevent the loss of ply material at the scarf tip during machining. (4) Machine the edge of the damage cleanup hole to a knife's edge using a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit abrasive disk. Keep the knife's edge steeper than required for the finished scarf joint (see Figure 6-8). This allows the skin plies to be readily identified and serves as a reference point for the remainder of the scarfing operation.

INITIALLY MACHINE SCARF TO A KNIFE'S EDGE STEEPER THAN REQUIRED

SCARF OUTLINE PERIPHERY

FINISHED SCARF SLOPE CONTINUE WORKING SCARF BACK TO SCARF OUTLINE DIMENSION

Figure 6-8. Scarf Joint Machining

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(5) Using the 90 degree router motor, continue working the scarf joint back to the scarf outline dimension determined above to obtain the proper scarf slope. Sand carefully as the composite material is removed quickly. As the scarf outline dimension is approached, use a sanding block and 80 grit abrasive paper to finish the scarf joint. (6) Inspect the finished scarf joint for the following (see Figure 6-9): (a) Visually inspect the scarfed surface for the presence of pre-existing delaminations. Open up the damage cleanup hole to remove the delaminated area (if present), and redefine the scarf outline perimeter as described in paragraph 6-6c(3). (b) Inspect the scarf joint surface with a straight edge. The surface must be flat and free of any convex or concave surfaces to avoid locally changing the scarf slope. (c) The required scarf joint slope must be achieved. Too steep a slope can result in premature joint failure. Too shallow a slope can remove an excessive amount of good material and/or move the joint into an area of higher loading. Ensure that the scarf joint extends to the scarf outline dimension marked in paragraph 6-6c(3). (d) The scarf joint tip must be machined to a knifes edge to eliminate any stress concentrations at the hole edge. (7) Outline and remove partial thickness damage as described in paragraph 6-3c changing only the following: the length of the taper shall be 20 times the damage depth instead of 10 times the damage depth. Apply the criteria of paragraph 6-6c(6) following machining. d. Step Joint Machining. Generally, step joints are used in field repairs only on laminates made from woven materials. This is because woven material, unlike plies of unidirectional material, have a greater tendency to separate between plies than within a ply. The advantage to this is that the lamina can be separated along ply boundaries. This minimizes damage to subsurface plies and ensures that the correct step depth is achieved. Machining step joints on laminates made from unidirectional prepreg materials requires the use of controlled depth router equipment and templates. These are necessary to ensure that the proper step depth and length is achieved. This repair is difficult to perform on complex contours and is limited to depot level repairs. (1) Outline and remove damage as described in paragraph 6-3.

INSPECT SCARF TIP

SCARF TIP NOT MACHINED TO A KNIFE'S EDGE

INSPECT SCARF SURFACE WITH A STRAIGHT EDGE

SCARF SURFACE NOT FLAT MEASURE SCARF LENGTH (D) D

INCORRECT SCARF SLOPE (TOO STEEP) SCARF OUTLINE DIMENSION

INSPECT SCARF SURFACE FOR DELAMINATIONS

CORRECTLY MACHINED SCARF

Figure 6-9. Scarf Joint Inspection Requirements

CAUTION DO NOT mark the composite with any method that will indent or deform the surface. (2) Determine the step outline perimeter.

(a) Determine the number of steps. The number of steps is equal to the number of plies in the laminate minus one. (b) Determine the step outline dimension (D) by multiplying the step length by the number of steps. In general, use a minimum step length of 0.5 inch. Refer to the part specific structural repair manual (SRM) for further guidance. (c) Measure outward from the damage cleanup hole edge the step outline dimension (D). (See Figure 6-10). The step outline perimeter is defined by this dimension.

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4 PLY WOVEN SKIN

INSPECT PLY SURFACE FOR DAMAGE


r = 0.5 INCH MINIMUM A

MEASURE STEP LENGTH

STEP CUT LINE

0.5 INCH MINIMUM

ENSURE PLY HAS NOT BEEN CUT THROUGH HERE

Figure 6-11. Step Joint Inspection Requirements


DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE EDGE STEP OUTLINE PERIMETER D STEP LENGTH

(7) Repeat paragraphs 6-6d(4) through 6-6d(6) until all of the required plies have been removed. (8) Inspect the step joint for the following (see Figure 6-11): (a) Measure the step length of each step to ensure the required step length has been achieved. (b) Visually inspect the cut line at each step to verify that the remaining ply at that step has not been cut through. (c) Visually inspect the ply surface of each step to ensure that damage has not occurred as a result of previous ply removal. 6-7. BONDED REPAIR PROCESSES.

SECTION A-A D = STEP OUTLINE DIMENSION = (STEP LENGTH) x (NUMBER OF STEPS)

Figure 6-10. Step Joint Outline Layout

(3) Make a 1 inch diameter circle template to facilitate cutting the perimeter radii. CAUTION DO NOT cut deeper than the ply being removed or the strength of the repair will be significantly reduced. (4) Starting at the step outline perimeter, carefully cut through the first ply of woven material using an x-acto knife or single edged razor blade. Cut along the step outline perimeter marked on the part. Use a straight edge and circular template to assist in cutting. (5) To remove the ply, work the edge of a razor blade or x-acto knife under the ply at the cut line. Peel the ply toward the damage cleanup hole edge. Once the ply has been lifted slightly, use a sharpened putty knife or spatula to completely remove the ply. Use care not to damage the ply immediately below the ply being removed. (6) Mark the next step outline perimeter by measuring 0.5 inch in toward the damage cleanup hole edge from the perimeter of the previous step. All step perimeters should be parallel. (See Figure 6-10).

a. Drying. (1) Background.

(a) Laminates. Advanced composite laminates absorb moisture when exposed to the environment for extended periods of time (several months). The absorption process is reversible and time/temperature/ humidity dependent. The moisture content of a laminate varies through the thickness with the moisture content being highest at the laminate surface. Painted laminates have a higher moisture content than unpainted laminates as the paint tends to inhibit the moisture egress from the laminate. (b) Honeycomb Sandwich Assemblies. Moisture can enter into honeycomb sandwich assemblies through damaged edge closeouts, skin punctures or other defects that expose the core to the environment. This moisture can collect in core cells and become trapped. Moisture present in honeycomb sandwich assemblies may not be detectable by x-ray.

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(c) When applying heat to cure bonded repairs, the following can occur: 1 Moisture in laminate skins desorbs into the adhesive bondline during the cure process and results in bondline voids. This can be alleviated when curing two part adhesive systems by allowing the adhesive to gel at room temperature prior to beginning the heat cure (paragraph 6-7k) or by drying the part per paragraph 6-7a(2). 2 Blistering of laminate plies can occur if the vapor pressure of the moisture in the laminate exceeds the strength of the matrix material. The potential for blistering can be reduced by drying the repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2). 3 Skin to core disbonds and honeycomb core node bond failures can occur if the pressure in the core (due to heating air and trapped moisture in the core cells) exceeds the strength of the skin to honeycomb core bond and/or the strength of the core node bond. The potential for node bond failure and skin to core disbonds can be reduced by reducing the repair cure temperature. For example, FM300-2 which cures 50F lower than FM300, has been qualified as a repair adhesive to replace FM300 and to reduce the possibility of skin to core disbonds due to the presence of moisture. Laminate drying as described in paragraph 6-7a(2) is still required prior to performing the cure cycle to reduce bondline porosity and the potential for laminate blistering. If liquid water is present in the honeycomb sandwich assembly (as detected by x-ray), use one of the water removal procedures described in paragraph 6-7a(3). (2) Procedure for Laminate Drying Prior to Bonding. As discussed above, absorbed moisture in composite laminates can cause problems when heat is applied during the curing process. It is therefore necessary to dry the part prior to curing using drying temperatures that do not allow the moisture vapor pressure to exceed the matrix strength. Generally, the part is never dried at a temperature higher than the service temperature of the material used to manufacture the part (as described in paragraph 2-1b). The time required to completely dry the skin varies with skin thickness, initial moisture content and drying temperature. Fortunately, it is not necessary to completely dry the skin to prevent laminate blistering and/or bondline porosity as completely drying thin skins (4-10 plies) may take more than 10 hours. Completely drying thicker skins (12 plies and up) can take more than 30 hours. It is only necessary to reduce the near surface moisture content by using the following laminate drying procedure.

CAUTION DO NOT use the following drying procedure if liquid water has been detected in the honeycomb sandwich assembly. In this case, proceed to paragraph 6-7a(3). (a) Remove paint in the patch bond area as described in paragraph 6-5. (b) Machine the repair joint as described in paragraph 6-6. CAUTION Support removed core areas, exposed core and core edges to prevent the vacuum bag from damaging or crushing the core. (c) Layup the heat blanket, thermocouples and vacuum bag as described in paragraph 6-7j(5) or (6). CAUTION DO NOT exceed the specified drying temperature or part damage may result. (d) Specified Drying Temperature. For parts manufactured from 250F service temperature materials, dry at 210 10F. For parts manufactured from 180F service temperature materials, dry at 160 10F. (e) Apply 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum to the vacuum bag. Heat the repair area to the specified drying temperature at a rise rate of 2-6F per minute. (f) Upon reaching the specified temperature, hold for 2 hours and maintain 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum. (g) Cool to room temperature at a rate not to exceed 5F per minute. (h) Disassemble vacuum bag, heat blanket and thermocouples. (3) Water Removal From Honeycomb Core. Water present in the honeycomb core, either visually apparent or detected by x-ray, must be removed to prevent corrosion of metallic core or moisture related degradation of nonmetallic core. Areas containing water will appear lighter than adjacent areas in an x-ray film, however, the presence of cured liquid adhesive from a previous disbond or delamination repair can give a similar appearance. If the water indication is in

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proximity to a previous repair, obtain assistance from an NDI technician to determine if water is present. Water must be removed prior to a cure temperature of 200F or higher being used. Generally, water removal is performed at a lower temperature than the laminate drying temperature to prevent damage to the honeycomb sandwich assemblies due to steam pressure. Two water removal procedures are listed below. Selection of the procedure to use is dependent upon availability of equipment and materials, whether the part can be removed from the aircraft and if the water is located in a repairable area. (a) Procedure 1. This procedure uses a heat blanket to locally heat the water in the assembly causing it to egress out of the part. It is the easiest method to use and is effective only when the moisture in the area being heated has an open path to the vacuum bag. 1 Perform NDI of part to determine location of water in the core. 2 If the part has water in a non-repairable zone (as defined in the part specific SRM), proceed to Procedure 2, paragraph 6-7a(3)(b). 3 If the part has water in a repairable zone (as defined in the part specific SRM), drill holes through skin in the area containing water. Use a 0.125 inch diameter carbide drill bit. For each square inch of water accumulation, drill 2 holes. CAUTION Support removed core areas, exposed core and core edges to prevent the vacuum bag from damaging or crushing the core. 4 Layup heat blanket, thermocouples and vacuum bag as described in paragraph 6-7j(5) or (6) over the area containing water. CAUTION DO NOT exceed the specified drying temperature or part damage may result. 5 Specified Drying Temperature. For parts manufactured from 250F service temperature materials, dry at 190 10F. For parts manufactured from 180F service temperature materials, dry at 160 10F. 6 Apply 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum to the vacuum bag. Heat affected area to the specified drying temperature at a rise rate of 2-6F per minute.

7 Upon reaching the specified temperature, hold for 6 hours while maintaining 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum. 8 Test for the presence of water during the last hour of the drying cycle by connecting a moisture indicator in the vacuum line as discussed in paragraph 8-5c and shown in Figure 8-21. 9 If the desiccant in the moisture indicator changes from blue to pink, dry the part for an additional 6 hours. Remove the discolored desiccant. Repack the filter with fresh desiccant using rymplecloth at each end of the filter. 10 Repeat steps 7-9 above until there is no color change. 11 Cool to below 150F at a rate not to exceed 5F per minute. 12 Disassemble heat blanket, vacuum bag and thermocouples. 13 Reinspect area using NDI to determine if water has been removed or if it has migrated to another location. 14 If water has been removed from the assembly, proceed to step 17 below. 15 If water is still present in the assembly, repeat the process starting at step 5 above. 16 If water has migrated as a result of the drying process or if the above procedures prove unsuccessful and the water is still in a repairable zone, remove the skin from the area containing water. Remove the skin cautiously to minimize damage to the core underneath. After skin removal repeat the process starting at step 4 above. 17 If holes were drilled in skin, seal holes with liquid adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b). Bond an external patch over the drilled holes as described in paragraph 7-7a. 18 If the skin was removed and/or the core damaged, repair skin and core as described in paragraph 7-8. (b) Procedure 2. Use this procedure when an oven is the heat source for performing bonded repairs. This will ensure that any undetectable water vapor in the core assemblies will not cause part damage. It is also used for removal of water

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located in a non-repairable zone. The oven is used to heat the water in the part and to drive it out the way it came in. An envelope vacuum bag (a vacuum bag that completely surrounds the part) is used to ensure a path exists for moisture egress. A moisture indicator is used to determine when drying is complete. This procedure can only be used when the part can be removed from the aircraft and an oven large enough to hold the part is available. CAUTION Support removed core areas, exposed core and core edges to prevent the vacuum bag from damaging or crushing the core. 1 Completely surround the part with an envelope vacuum bag as described in paragraph 6-7j(7). Tape two thermocouples to the part under the vacuum bag. Apply 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum. 2 Place the enveloped bagged assembly in an air circulating oven at least three feet above the oven floor. Apply 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum. Operate the oven per paragraph 6-7j(4)(b). 3 The drying temperature and time should be recorded either using the thermocouples applied to the part and a temperature recording device (preferred) or the oven temperature recorder. If neither of the recorders are available, temperature recordings should be made manually at 15 minute intervals. CAUTION Ensure temperature does not exceed the specified drying temperature or damage to part may result. 4 Specified Drying Cycle. Dry parts using a 2 step drying cycle. For parts manufactured from 250F service temperature materials, dry at 190 10F for 32 hours followed by 225 10F for 16 hours. For parts manufactured from 180F service temperature materials, dry at 160 10F for 32 hours followed by 180 10F for 16 hours. 5 Dry the part using the specified drying cycle. Heat oven to the required temperature at a rise rate of 2-6F per minute. Maintain 20-30 inches of mercury vacuum during the entire drying cycle. 6 Test for the presence of water during the last hour of the drying cycle by connecting a moisture indicator (outside of the oven) in the vacuum line as discussed in paragraph 8-5c and shown in Figure 8-21.

7 If the desiccant in the moisture indicator changes from blue to pink, dry the part for an additional 6 hours. Remove the discolored desiccant. Repack the filter with fresh desiccant using rymplecloth at each end of the filter. 8 no color change. Repeat steps 5-7 above until there is

9 Cool to below 150F at a rate not to exceed 5F per minute. 10 Remove part from oven and debag. 11 Inspect the part to determine the moisture/water entry point. If the entry point can be determined, seal the area with liquid adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b) and cure as specified in paragraph 6-7k(1). b. Core Replacement Methods. There are three methods for replacing damaged core sections: the core fill method, the paste adhesive method and the film/foam method. The core fill method is limited by damage size. Selection of the paste adhesive or film/foam method is based on strength and weight considerations. These methods for core replacement are shown in Figure 6-12. The rationale for method selection is discussed below.

ADHESIVE FILLER

COMPOSITE SKIN

;;; ;;; ;;;


CORE FILL METHOD REPLACEMENT CORE PASTE ADHESIVE COMPOSITE SKIN

PART CORE

PART CORE

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;


PASTE ADHESIVE METHOD

FILM ADHESIVE FOAMING ADHESIVE

REPLACEMENT CORE COMPOSITE SKIN

PART CORE

;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;


FILM/FOAM METHOD

Figure 6-12. Core Replacement Methods

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(1) Replacement Core Fit Considerations. One of the most difficult aspects of replacing core sections is obtaining a good fit between the replacement core, the opposite skin inner surface and the part core sidewalls. Figure 6-13 shows a typical flight control surface trailing edge. Observe the gaps that exist between the replacement core and the part core sidewalls if the cell axes are not aligned. When the cell axes are aligned, a gap exists between the opposite skin inner surface and the replacement core mating surface. The gap conditions shown in Figure 6-13 are for a taper in one direction only. Unfortunately, flight control surfaces taper in both the chordwise and spanwise directions compounding the gap problem. Similar gap problems are encountered when performing core replacement on complex contoured parts. (2) Core Fill Method. This method uses glass floc filled paste adhesive to replace the removed honeycomb core and is limited to damage of 1.5 inches in diameter or less. Refer to paragraph 7-8a for step-by-step instructions. For damage beyond this limit, replace the core using one of the other methods listed in paragraph 7-8. (3) Paste Adhesive Method. This method uses paste adhesive to bond the replacement core sections to the part core sidewalls and to the opposite skin inner surface (if applicable). It is the quickest and easiest method for replacement core bonding because the gaps between the replacement core and the repair cavity are taken up by the paste adhesive. In addition, an elevated temperature cure of the splice adhesive is not required prior to final core machining. This method has limited use on flight control surfaces due to repair weight limitations. It is also limited by the comparatively low bond strength of the paste adhesive. The procedure for core replacement using the paste adhesive method is described and illustrated in paragraph 7-8b. (4) Film/Foam Method. The film/foam method uses foaming adhesive for the replacement core to part core sidewall bond and film adhesive for the patch bond. The film/foam method is the lightest of the core bonding methods but the most difficult and time consuming to perform. A weight comparison between the paste adhesive method and the film/foam method is shown in Figure 6-14. As can be seen, little weight difference exists between the two methods for the smaller hole diameters. However, the difference becomes significant as the diameter becomes larger. The film/foam method should be used only when weight limitations or strength limitations dictate. For core replacement on contoured (tapered and/or complex contoured) parts, remove the damage so that both skins have the same size and shape damage cleanup hole. This eliminates the difficult machining and fitting required to deal

PART CORE CELL AXIS IS 90 TO PART CENTERLINE

REPLACEMENT CORE CELL AXIS PARALLEL TO PART CORE CELL AXIS

COMPOSITE SKIN

GAP AREA PART CORE

CENTERLINE OF PART

OPPOSITE SKIN INNER SURFACE TO REPLACEMENT CORE GAP CAUSED BY ALIGNING CORE CELL AXES

PART CORE CELL AXIS IS 90 TO PART CENTERLINE

REPLACEMENT CORE CELL AXIS 90 TO OPPOSITE SIDE SKIN GAP COMPOSITE SKIN

GAP

REPLACEMENT CORE

CENTERLINE OF PART

PART CORE SIDEWALL GAPS CAUSED BY MISMATCH OF CORE CELL AXES

PART CORE CELL AXIS IS 90 TO PART CENTERLINE REPAIR CAVITY

OPPOSITE SIDE INNER SKIN COMPOSITE SKIN

PART CORE

PART CORE SIDEWALLS

CENTERLINE OF PART

NOMENCLATURE

Figure 6-13. Replacement Core Fit

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2.0
PASTE ADHESIVE

1.5
WEIGHT (POUNDS)

1.0

0.5

FILM/FOAM

0 0 2 4 6
DIAMETER (INCHES)

10

12

Figure 6-14. Weight Versus Hole Diameter for Two Core Replacement Methods with the gaps between the replacement core and contoured part surface. If damage is through one skin only, the undamaged skin must be removed to the same size and shape as the damaged cleanup hole. For core replacement on uncontoured parts and/or parts with slight tapers, removal of the opposite side undamaged skin material is not required. The procedure for core replacement using the film/foam method is described and illustrated in paragraph 7-8c. c. Core Machining. Machining honeycomb core replacement sections can be difficult due to the fragile nature of honeycomb core. Core densities of 3.5 pounds per cubic foot (PCF) or less provide little support for machining. The thin foil used in the construction of aluminum core easily "rolls over" when machining 90 degrees to the cell axis. In addition, the core has little strength 90 degrees to the cell axis and is easily distorted if it is not stabilized during machining. The core is strongest along its cell axis. (1) Vertical Cuts. These cuts are used to cut replacement core sections from honeycomb core stock material. The cuts are made along the core cell axis using a core slicer or an end sharpened core knife. A mylar template defining the damage cut out shape and containing the part ribbon direction should be used as a guide in cutting the core section. The core slicer or knife tends to dull rapidly and should be regularly resharpened to facilitate cutting. Core densities higher than 6.0 PCF require a significant application of force for slicing. (2) Angle Cuts. These cuts are made at an angle to the core cell axis and require core stabilization. Core stabilization is provided by bonding or tacking the replacement core in place on the part prior to machining. The part surface is then used as a guide in machining the core to the required shape. Machining is performed using a 0 degree router motor, a router holder and the burr special core cutter (Table 8-3, Item 3). (a) After the core is stabilized in place, use a hand held hacksaw blade to perform an initial rough cut on core (to within 0.5 inch of the part surface) to remove excess material. (b) Install the burr cutter in router motor. Adjust router motor in router holder so that cutting edge of burr cutter is flush with outer moldline (OML) surface of part. (c) Using the part surface as a guide, carefully machine core flush with OML surface of part. Start by machining around the core periphery. Use caution during machining not to cut into the part skin or to undercut core. (d) Use a straight edge which extends beyond the machined core and onto the part surface to check that the surface of the replacement core is flush with the surrounding part surface. If the core surface is higher than the part surface, finish sand using 180-240 grit abrasive paper and a sanding block. If the core surface is lower than the part surface, bring it flush by surface filling with paste adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 3, 5a or 5b). (e) Inspect the core cells for areas of rolled over core cell walls. Finish sand any rolled over areas using 180-240 grit abrasive paper and a sanding block. (f) Vacuum the machined core surface to remove sanding residue.

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d. Ply Orientation and Layup of Advanced Composite Repair Plies and Patches. (1) General. To ensure the fibers in an advanced composite laminate perform their function of carrying load and providing part stiffness, it is essential that the fibers be properly oriented with the 0 degree fiber direction of the laminate. In addition the individual plies in a laminate must be placed in the proper stacking sequence to ensure the required laminate mechanical properties are obtained. (2) Definitions.
FIBER DIRECTION FIBERS LAMINA

A. Unidirectional Lamina Fiber Direction (a) Lamina. The lamina or ply is the single layer in a laminate. Fibers in the lamina are either unidirectional (all fibers in the same direction) or woven into cloth. (b) Lamina Fiber Direction. The fiber direction of a unidirectional lamina is coincident with the fibers in that lamina (Figure 6-15, View A). For woven cloth, the fiber direction of the lamina is the warp direction of the weave (Figure 6-15, View B). (c) Laminate 0 Degree Fiber Direction. The 0 degree laminate fiber direction is usually coincident with the primary load direction of the part or patch. (d) Ply Angles. The angle of each ply or lamina represents its orientation in degrees between the fibers in that ply (lamina fiber direction) and the 0 degree fiber direction of the (laminate) part or patch. A 90 degree ply is shown in Figure 6-16, View A. (e) Positive and Negative Angles. Positive angles are defined as being clockwise from the 0 degree fiber direction when looking down on the layup tool surface. Negative angles are counterclockwise from the 0 degree fiber direction. Not all aircraft manufactures use this convention during fabrication of parts. Use this convention for defining positive and negative angles unless otherwise specified by the part specific SRM. A -45 degree ply and a +60 degree ply are shown in Figure 6-16, View B and View C. (f) Woven Material Ply Angles. For dry woven carbon cloth materials specified for repair patches in Section V of this manual, -45 degree plies and 90 degree plies are usually not specified. The fill direction has

LAMINA FILL DIRECTION

WARP DIRECTION (FIBER DIRECTION)

B. Woven Lamina Fiber Direction Figure 6-15. Lamina and Lamina Fiber Direction

approximately the same number of fibers as in the warp direction. For each 0 degree woven ply, a 90 degree ply is incorporated into the weave. For each 45 degree ply, a -45 degree ply is incorporated into the weave also. Woven plies may be designated by a small w next to the ply orientation code. A (45)w indicates a woven ply with the warp direction oriented at 45 degrees to the part 0 degree direction. (g) Laminate. A laminate is made up of several lamina oriented in different directions with respect to the laminate 0 degree fiber direction (Figure 6-17). (3) Lamination. During the lamination process, it is essential that the correct ply orientation and stacking sequence be maintained.

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FIBERS
+ 45
0 DEGREE FIBER DIRECTION (PRIMARY LOAD DIRECTION)

LAMINA

- 45 90
90

0 0

FIBERS (WARP DIRECTION FOR WOVEN CLOTH)

90 - 45 + 45

LAMINA (OR PLY)

VIEW LOOKING DOWN

LAMINATE

A. Fiber Orientation of a 90 Degree Ply


0 DEGREE FIBER DIRECTION (PRIMARY LOAD DIRECTION)

-45

0 LAMINATE 0 DEGREE FIBER DIRECTION

Figure 6-17. Typical Laminate


FIBERS (WARP DIRECTION FOR WOVEN CLOTH)

LAMINA (OR PLY)

BOWED 0/90 PLIES INCORRECTLY STACKED

TWISTED +45/-45 PLIES INCORRECTLY STACKED

VIEW LOOKING DOWN

B. Fiber Orientation of a -45 Degree Ply


0 DEGREE FIBER DIRECTION (PRIMARY LOAD DIRECTION)

NOTE: IN ADDITION TO BOWING AND TWISTING, PREMATURE FAILURE CAN OCCUR WHEN LOAD IS APPLIED

Figure 6-18. Stacking Sequence Effects

+60

FIBERS (WARP DIRECTION FOR WOVEN CLOTH)

(a) Ply Orientation Tolerance. Typical tolerance for ply alignment is 1 degree. A ply misorientation of 5 degrees can result in a 20% reduction in strength while a 10 degree misorientation can result in as much as a 50% reduction in strength. (b) Stacking Sequence. Lamina must be laid down (stacked) in the proper sequence. Incorrectly stacked lamina can result in warped or bowed panels and premature failure when load is applied. Figure 6-18 provides a few examples of stacking sequence effects on a flat laminate. In general, the upper half of the laminate should be a mirror image of the lower half.

LAMINA (OR PLY)

VIEW LOOKING DOWN

C. Fiber Orientation of a +60 Degree Ply Figure 6-16. Fiber Orientations

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(4)

Ply Cutting Template Manufacture.

(a) Determine the number of plies, ply orientations and the ply stacking sequence from the part specific SRM. Determine the size of the plies from the part specific SRM. For patches, determine ply size based upon the damage cleanup hole shape and required patch overlap. Refer to the part specific SRM for guidance on determining patch overlap requirements. Mark the ply periphery on the part surface. (b) Determine part 0 degree and other ply directions as specified in the part specific SRM and mark on part near repair area. NOTE If part is relatively flat and 0.040 inch thick acetate will conform to surface, manufacture of an intermediate template from vacuum bag film is not required. (c) Tape a piece of 0.002 inch thick vacuum bag film over the part in the repair area. Slice bag film as required to prevent wrinkling over contoured areas. (d) Trace periphery of plies onto vacuum bag film using a permanent ink marker (Table 8-12, Item 14). Mark part 0 degree direction and other degree directions on the bag film inside the ply periphery trace. For tapered patches, trace periphery of each patch ply starting with the largest ply. Remove bag film from part. (e) Manufacture the template from 0.040 inch thick acetate (Table 5-5, Item 21). Place the bag film containing the ply periphery trace on a flat surface. Place the acetate over the bag film and mark ply cutting line(s) on the acetate from the ply periphery trace(s). Mark the 0 degree and other degree direction marks onto the acetate also using the above marking pen. Cut the acetate along the ply cutting line using scissors. e. Standard Wet Layup Process. Wet layup is a process in which dry woven carbon cloth is impregnated with a liquid adhesive and then cured to form a laminate. The wet layup process is used to manufacture substructure details, and to make repair patches for complex contoured surfaces which cannot accept a flat precured repair patch. There are several disadvantages to this process; it is messy to perform, there is little control over the resin content, and the laminates exhibit reduced mechanical

properties due to the large degree of porosity present. Porosity is caused by air entrapped in the laminating resin and by poor fiber wetting during impregnation. This porosity cannot be removed under the vacuum pressure that is normally used for consolidation of the laminate. Because of this limitation, wet layup repairs are limited to lightly loaded structures. (1) Background. Following impregnation of dry carbon cloth with liquid resin and cutting of individual plies, two methods for ply layup are described: the individual ply technique and the flat ply collation technique. The individual ply technique applies to the fabrication of patches or repair details where part geometry (tight radii or complex contours) dictates that each resin impregnated ply be applied individually to the part or tool surface. The second technique, flat ply collation, is the preferred method. This technique allows all resin impregnated plies to be layed up on a flat plate and then transferred to the part or tool surface for forming and curing. (2) Procedure. (a) Dry Cloth Impregnation. 1 Determine the required number of plies and ply orientations from the part specific SRM; cut one piece of dry woven carbon cloth large enough to provide all the required plies. 2 Have the following items available:

a Layup Tool. Either a premanufactured tool, the damaged part or another part identical to the damaged one may be used as a layup tool. Lightly sand the surface of the layup tool to remove any protrusions. Wipe sanded area with a clean dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. b Flat Surface. This surface will be used during impregnation of the carbon cloth. It can also be used for ply layup when the flat ply collation method is used. It should be at least 12 inches larger than the carbon cloth cut in step 1 above. 3 Cut two layers of vacuum bag film at least 12 inches larger in all directions than the carbon cloth cut in step 1 above. 4 Tape one of the layers of vacuum bag film onto the flat surface.

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CAUTION
PLY MATERIAL FIBER OR WARP DIRECTION FOR WOVEN CLOTH

Pressure must be applied to layup within the pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperatures in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the resin gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing resin. Reduced strength will result if the incorrect mix ratio is used, if an excessive amount of air is introduced into the adhesive during mixing, or if mixing is inadequate. NOTE Mixing resin and cloth impregnation must be done in a controlled environment per Figure 5-11. Calculate the amount of resin required for the patch being made. Approximately 35 grams of resin are required per square foot (one ply) of dry woven cloth. Material has a limited pot life. Mix only the amount of material that can be used within the pot life shown in Table 5-8. 5 Prepare wet layup adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 6 Impregnate Cloth.

0 +45
0

+45

TEMPLATE ALIGNMENT FOR CUTTING A 0 PLY

TEMPLATE ALIGNMENT FOR CUTTING A +45 PLY

Figure 6-19. Cutting Template Alignment

(b) Layup Tool Preparation. 1 If wet layup is to be cocured onto part, perform surface preparation as described in paragraph 6-7h(3). Using an adhesive spreader, apply a thin layer of adhesive onto layup area just prior to laying up first ply. 2 If layup is to be precured and secondarily bonded, tape a layer of release film over the layup tool/part. Release film should be at least 1 inch larger than the largest ply of the repair patch/detail. Using an adhesive spreader, apply a thin layer of adhesive to the release film in the layup area. (c) Ply Cutting. 1 Place the template manufactured in paragraph 6-7d(4) on the vacuum bag material containing the resin impregnated carbon cloth being used for laminate fabrication. Align the orientation for the ply being cut with the fibers or warp direction of the ply material (Figure 6-19). 2 Trace around the periphery of the template using a permanent ink marker. Mark each ply with its orientation and ply number. 3 Cut each individual ply using scissors.

a Using an adhesive spreader (Table 8-12, Item 19), apply a thin layer of resin, approximately the same size as the dry carbon cloth, onto the vacuum bag film taped to the flat surface. b on the adhesive. c Apply adhesive to the dry side of the woven cloth and work adhesive into cloth using the adhesive spreader. d Place the second layer of vacuum bag film cut in step 3 over the woven cloth. Using a clean adhesive spreader or a roller, work adhesive into the cloth and remove any air bubbles. Use care to minimize distortion of the woven material during resin impregnation. Place pre-cut woven dry cloth

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(d) Ply Layup. Plies may be layed using either the flat ply collation technique (plies layed up on a flat tool plate) or the individual ply technique (plies layed up individually on a part surface or tool). NOTE Make a ply layup log similar to the one shown in Figure 6-20, View A prior to beginning layup. Mark on the log (as shown in Figure 6-20, View B) as each ply is layed up to prevent stacking sequence errors. 1 Layup: Individual Ply Technique.

e Transfer collated plies from the flat tool plate to the layup tool or part. Form the plies to the surface contour of the layup tool or part and remove wrinkles using the adhesive spreader. (e) Vacuum Bagging Wet Layup. 1 Cover wet layup plies with one layer of porous release fabric, followed by the required amount of Style 120 fiberglass bleeder cloth. Use one ply of bleeder for every three plies in the laminate. 2 Cover the bleeder cloth with one layer of release film. The release film should extend at least 0.5 inch beyond the edge of the laminate. Manually perforate the release film with pinholes on four inch centers. 3 If a heat blanket is used to cure the laminate, vacuum bag the layup as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). If an oven is to be used to cure the laminate, vacuum bag the layup per paragraph 6-7j(5) but omit the heat blanket, heat blanket control thermocouple and copper sheet from the layup. (f) Curing Wet Layup.

a Remove one of the pieces of vacuum bag film from the first ply of the laminate and place the resin impregnated surface of the ply on the prepared layup tool/part. Ensure the proper ply orientation is maintained. See paragraph 6-7d(3). b Form the ply to the surface contour of the layup tool/part and remove ply wrinkles using a clean adhesive spreader (Table 8-12, Item 19). c Remove the second piece of vacuum bag film from the surface of the installed ply. d Repeat steps a-c above for the remaining plies. Place plies in the proper stacking sequence over layup tool or part, maintaining the specified ply orientation for each ply in the layup. See paragraph 6-7d(3). 2 Layup: Flat Ply Collation Technique.

1 Allow the layup to dwell at 75F minimum under vacuum for a minimum of 2 hours for a heat blanket cure, and 8 hours for an oven cure. 2 If a heat blanket is used to cure layup, leave layup on part under vacuum and continue with cure using Cure Cycle 2 from Table 6-1. 3 If an oven is used to cure the laminate, disassemble vacuum bag after the 8 hour hold and very carefully remove the gelled laminate from part. Use care in removal of the laminate. Although the resin has gelled, it is still weak. Perform a free standing post cure of the laminate in the oven. Use Cure Cycle 2 from Table 6-1 with the following exception: delete the 2 hour hold at 75F and the application of vacuum pressure. Operate the oven per paragraph 6-7j(4)(b). (g) After Curing.

a Cut a layer of release film at least 1 inch larger than the largest ply of the laminate. Tape to the flat surface. b Remove one of the pieces of vacuum bag film from the first ply of the laminate. Place the resin impregnated surface of the ply onto the release film taped to the flat surface in step a above. Ensure the proper ply orientation is maintained. See paragraph 6-7d(3). c Remove the second piece of vacuum bag film from the surface of the installed ply. d Repeat steps a-c above for the remaining plies until all plies have been placed in the proper stacking sequence on the flat surface, while maintaining the specified ply orientation for each ply in the layup. See paragraph 6-7d(3).

1 Disassemble (if required) and trim laminate to specified dimensions (if applicable). 2 Visually inspect surface of wet layup laminate for resin starved areas or voids and fill with additional adhesive as necessary.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

PLY LAYUP LOG PART NOMENCLATURE: PART NUMBER: DATE: PERSONNEL: PLY NO. ORIENT MATL QA

A. Layup Log

PLY LAYUP LOG PART NOMENCLATURE: PART NUMBER: DATE: 1/20/93 JONES, SMITH ORIENT (45)w (0)w (45)w MATL WOVEN C/EP WET LAYUP WOVEN C/EP WET LAYUP WOVEN C/EP WET LAYUP QA TRAILING EDGE FLAP

135007-1001

PERSONNEL: PLY NO. 1 2 3

B. Completed Layup Log

Figure 6-20. Ply Layup Log

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 6-1. Two Part Adhesive Cure Cycles MATERIAL CURE CYCLE HOLD TIME AT 75 F CURE TEMPERATURE SOAK TIME APPROX. CYCLE TIME REMARKS / NOTES

EA934 EA956 EA9321 EA9396 EA9394 EA934 EA956 EA9321 EA9396 EA934 EA956 EA9321 EA9396 EA9394 EA9394

---

75 F minimum

5 days

5 days

2 hours

190 10 F

1 hour

4 hours 30 minutes

, , ,

3a

---

135 10 F

1 hour

2 hours

,
This cycle sets the adhesive only, a subsequent cure cycle must be performed 3b --200 15 F 1 hour 1 hours 45 minutes 5 hours 10 hours 30 minutes 7 hours 2 hours 30 minutes

,
Wet layup cure cycle

EA956 EPIBOND 87803 EPOCAST 1651

2 hours

250 10 F

1 hour

, , , , , , , ,

6 hours

280 10 F

2 hours

4 hours

150 10 F

2 hours 1 hour 30 minutes

7a

---

150-160 F

, , , , , ,
11

This cycle sets the adhesive only, a subsequent cure cycle must be performed EA9390 7b --215 +10/-15 F 2 hours 2 hours 30 minutes 2 hours 3 hours 30 minutes 3 hours 55 minutes 3 hours 30 minutes

7c

---

245 15 F

6363

---

215 +10/-15 F

NOTES: These adhesives can be cured at room temperature. Apply pressure (20 inches of mercury vacuum minimum or contact pressure) for the first 8 hours. Use a temperature rise rate of 2-6F/min and a maximum cool down rate of 5F/min. Apply pressure (20 inches of mercury vacuum minimum or contact pressure). Hold at 75F before applying heat for the time specified in this table.

Heat cure may be performed during a subsequent patch bond cure cycle. Use a temperature rise rate of 1-3F/min and a maximum cool down rate of 2F/min. For use on F/A-18 E/F repair only. This cure applicable only after a double vacuum bag debulking cycle has take place. Apply a minimum of 25 inches of mercury vacuum. For use on V-22 repair only. 11 Apply vacuum pressure (20 inches of mercury vacuum minimum).

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

PART 0 DIRECTION

PLY 1 (45)w PLY 2 (0)w PLY 3 (45)w

45

PLY 1 (45)w

CUTTING TEMPLATE PRIOR TO CUTTING (0.040 ACETATE)

PLY 2 (0)w

PLY 3 (45)w

A. Cutting Template and Cut Plies


PERIPHERY OF LARGEST PATCH DAMAGE CLEANUP AREA/ FILLER MATERIAL

0 45

PLY 1 (45)w PLY 2 (0)w PLY 3 (45)w

NOTE: WARP FIBER DIRECTION SHOWN. FILL FIBERS OMITTED FOR CLARITY. TRAILING EDGE

B. Stacked Plies Prior to Installation Figure 6-21. Three Ply (45,0,45)w Repair Patch (h) Standard Wet Layup Patch Example. An example of a 3 ply (45, 0, 45)w repair patch using woven material is shown in Figure 6-21. The cutting template and cut plies are shown in Figure 6-21, View A. The stacked and formed plies being individually layed up on a part trailing edge are shown in Figure 6-21, View B. Warp fibers are shown. Fill fibers have been omitted for clarity. A completed ply layup log for this example is shown in Figure 6-20, View B. f. Double Vacuum Debulk (DVD) Wet Layup Process. This section describes the technique for removing entrapped air that causes porosity in wet layup laminates. The resin used in this technique must have a fairly long pot life due to the use of heat and the time required to perform the process. EA9390 resin has proven to be one of the few laminating resins capable of meeting this requirement. After the dry cloth has been impregnated with EA9390 resin, the plies cut, and the plies flat ply collated, it is debulked using a double vacuum bag debulking tool (Figure 6-22 or Figure 6-23). In this technique a rigid box is placed over the vacuum bag (inner vacuum bag) containing the wet layup laminate and heat blanket. If the wooden box (Figure 6-22) is used, an outer vacuum bag is placed over the box and vacuum applied. If the V-22 DVD tool is used, (Figure 6-23), an outer vacuum bag is not required as the outer box seals to the base plate allowing vacuum to be applied. In both cases, when this second vacuum (or double vacuum) is applied, the compaction pressure induced on the laminate by the inner vacuum bag is relieved while maintaining vacuum on the inner bag. With double vacuum applied, the laminate is heated to the debulk temperature and held for a specified time. This allows trapped gases to be removed without being trapped by the compressing

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

1.0 Inch

1.0 Inch

Minimum Minimum Distance Distance Between Between Rigid Box Heat Blanket & & Heat Blanket Patch Edge

0.5 Inch

2.0 Inch Minimum Distance Between Rigid Box & Vacuum Bag Sealant
Outer Vacuum Bag Breather Wooden Box (See Figure 6-22B) Inner Vacuum Bag
Breather Release Film (Manually Perforate)

Thermocouple(s)

Vacuum Probes
Vacuum Bag Sealant (Place Outside Rigid Box)

Bleeder Plies Porous Release Fabric Wet Layup Laminate Thermocouple(s) Porous Release Fabric Release Film (Not Perforated) Aluminum Sheet Heat Blanket Breather/Insulation Vacuum Bag Sealant (Place Outside Rigid Box) Base Plate (0.5 inch thick aluminum plate)

A. Wooden Box DVD Tool Schematic


Heat Blanket to Laminate Edge Distance - 1 Inch Minimum

SIDEBOARDS

HEAT BLANKET

LAMINATE

SIDEBOARDS

Minimum Distance Between Rigid Box and Heat Blanket Edge

Maximum Length of Heat Blanket 1" Side Board Length


Side Board Thickness

1.0" THICK PLYWOOD

BOX TOP

NAILS

SIDE BOARDS (WOODEN 2 X 4S)


AIRHOLES (APPROXIMATELY 0.25 INCH DIAMETER)

B. Wooden Box Configuration Figure 6-22. DVD Wooden Box Tool

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Wooden Box (See Figure 6-22B) Inner Vacuum Bag


Breather Nonporous Fiber Reinforced Teflon Fabric Perforated on 2 Inch Centers Bleeder Plies Porous Fiber Reinforced Teflon Fabric Repair Patch Porous Fiber Reinforced Teflon Fabric Nonporous Fiber Reinforced Teflon Fabric Aluminum Caul Sheet Thermocouple(s) Heat Blanket Breather/Insulation Vacuum Bag Sealant Vacuum Channel

Base Plate

A. V-22 DVD Tool Schematic


Porous Fiber Reinforced Teflon Fabric Nonporous Fiber Reinforced Teflon Fabric Aluminum Caul Sheet Thermocouple(s) Heat Blanket Breather/Insulation Vacuum Bag Sealant
Base Plate
Vacuum Channel

B. V-22 Tool Base Plate Preparation

C. V-22 DVD Tool Base Plate Figure 6-23. V-22 DVD Tool

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(inner) vacuum bag. Next, compaction of the laminate is accomplished by venting the outer vacuum bag (Figure 6-22) or the outer box (Figure 6-23) to the atmosphere so that only the inner vacuum is applied to the repair patch. Following debulking and compaction, the laminate is removed from the debulking tool and formed to a tool or part surface. A vacuum bag is then applied over the laminate (and heat blanket if applicable) and vacuum applied. Heat is then applied to cure the laminate using an oven or heat blanket. (1) Background. Two fabrics are used for repair, 8 harness satin weave and plain weave. These fabrics vary in weight and thickness (see paragraph 5-1b(1)(b) and Figure 5-1). Since these fabric differ, different amounts of resin per square foot are required to impregnate the fabrics. Also, the number of bleeder plies is specific to the fabric type in order to obtain the correct resin ratio and laminate thickness. Another process variation is the compaction time. The compaction time is the period after venting of the outer box, when only one vacuum is applied to the laminate. An 8 harness fabric requires less compaction time than the plain weave fabric. (During this procedure, refer to Figure 6-22 for Double Vacuum Bag Debulking Tool Schematic and Figure 6-23 for Rigid Box Configuration. (2) If a heat survey is required, perform according to paragraph 6-7m before beginning this process. (3) DVD Tool Base Plate. Setup as follows: CAUTION Use only high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4) under the vacuum bag to prevent contamination of laminate. NOTE The items numbers for vacuum bag materials in the following paragraphs refer to Table5-6. (a) DVD Wooden Box Tool (Figure 6-22). 1 Base plate. This plate (see Figure 6-22, View A) should be made from at least 0.5 inch thick aluminum. 2 Place two plies of insulation (breather cloth, Item 8) on top of the base plate. The breather cloth should be at least 0.5 inch larger than the heat blanket that will be used.

3 Place a heat blanket on top of the breather cloth. Select a heat blanket to maintain a heat blanket to laminate edge of at least 1 inch (Figure 6-22, View B). 4 Cut a piece of 0.063 inch thick aluminum sheet the same size as the heat blanket and center on top of heat blanket. Using a few pieces of high temperature tape (Item 4), and extending past breather cloth, tape aluminum sheet to base plate. 5 Cut a layer of release film (Item 2) one inch larger than heat blanket and center on top of the aluminum sheet. Tape edge of film to base plate. 6 Cut one layer of porous release fabric (Item 3) at least 0.5 inch larger than laminate. Place porous release fabric over the release film and tape in place. 7 Place a bead of vacuum bag sealant (Item 6) around the perimeter of the base plate for sealing the inner bag. Ensure the sealant is placed at least 2 inches beyond the perimeter of the rigid box (Figure 6-22, View A). (b) V-22 DVD Tool (Figure 6-23). The base plate (Figure 6-23, View A) comes with insulation, heat blanket, thermocouple, and an aluminum caul sheet installed. Prepare base plate as follows (see Figure 6-23, View B). 1 Using tape (Item 4), apply thermocouples to bottom of aluminum caul sheet. Place one at the center of the caul sheet for control purposes and a minimum of two more for monitoring 5 to 7 inches from the center of the caul sheet. 2 Cut one layer of non-porous release fabric the same size as the heat blanket and apply to aluminum caul sheet. 3 Cut one layer of porous release fabric (Item 3) at least 0.5 inch larger than laminate. Place porous release fabric over the non-porous release fabric and tape in place. 4 Place a bead of vacuum bag sealant (Item 6) around the perimeter of the base plate within the sealant tape boundary lines marked on the base plate (Figure 6-23, View C).

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 6-2. DVD Material and Process Differences (8 Harness Vs. Plain Weave Fabric)
REPAIR ACTION EA9390 Adhesive Required Bleeder Plies Required 8 HARNESS WEAVE FABRIC 25-29 grams/square foot of fabric One ply of bleeder for every 2 plies of laminate. Example: 3 plies of laminate use 1 ply of bleeder; for 5 plies of laminate use 2 bleeder plies. Debulk at 100-120 F for 60-65 minutes. PLAIN WEAVE FABRIC 21-23 grams/square foot of fabric One ply of bleeder for every 4 plies of laminate. Example: 4-7 plies of laminate use 1 ply of bleeder; for 8-11 plies of laminate use 2 bleeder plies. Debulk at 120-130 F for 60 minutes for laminates 16 plies. Debulk at 120-130 F for 90-95 minutes for laminates > 16 plies. Maintain at 120-130 F and compact for 30-35 minutes for laminates 16 plies. Maintain at 120-130 F and compact for 60-65 minutes for laminates > 16 plies. Heat at 3 F per minute (maximum) to 200225 F. Hold at 200-225 F for 115-125 minutes. Maintain full vacuum on the vacuum bag.

Debulk Cycle (Double Vacuum)

Compaction Cycle (Single Vacuum)

Maintain at 100-120 F and compact for 15-20 minutes.

Pre-Curing Laminate

Heat at 3-5 F per minute to 230-260 F. Hold at 230-260 F for 150 minutes. Maintain full vacuum on the vacuum bag.

(4)

DVD Wet Layup Procedure. CAUTION

Reduced strength will result if the incorrect mix ratio is used, if an excessive amount of air is introduced into the adhesive during mixing, or if mixing is inadequate. Impregnating cloth must be completed within 40 minutes of mixing resin. Double vacuum bag debulking must begin within 75 minutes of mixing resin. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the resin gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing resin. NOTE Mixing resin and cloth impregnation must be done in a controlled environment per Figure 5-11. (a) Impregnate dry woven cloth as described in paragraph 6-7e(2)(a) with the following exceptions:

1 Use EA9390 wet layup adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 2). Determine the amount of mixed EA9390 adhesive required to impregnate the dry woven carbon cloth for the laminate being manufactured. The amount of adhesive required per square foot of dry woven cloth is based on the weave of the fabric used as shown in Table 6-2. Prepare adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Do not apply a thin layer of adhesive onto the vacuum bag film taped to the flat surface. (b) Cut individual plies per paragraph 6-7e(2)(c). (c) Layup the plies using the Flat Ply Collation Technique described in paragraph 6-7e(2)(d)2. (d) Complete installation of inner bag on both tool base plates as follows: 1 Center the wet layup laminate on the porous release fabric installed on the base plate. 2 Connect thermocouples to the temperature/vacuum controller and check for proper operation. Thermocouple readings should approximate the ambient air temperature. If the thermocouple reading does not, replace thermocouple.

6-31

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

30

Minimum Vacuum Level (in-Hg)

25

20 Minimum Vacuum Level 15

10

0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500

Elevation (feet above sea level)

Figure 6-24. Minimum Vacuum Level for DVD Process 3 If using the wooden box, apply a control thermocouple and a minimum of two monitoring thermocouples using tape (Item 4) on the porous release fabric near the edge of the laminate but within 0.5 inch from the edge as shown in Figure 6-22, View A. 4 Cut a second layer of porous release fabric (Item 3) at least 0.5 inch larger than laminate, place on top of laminate, and tape in place. 5 Cover stackup with the proper number of Style 120 fiberglass (Item 7) bleeder plies. The number of bleeder plies required is based on the fabric weave and number of plies in the laminate as described in Table 6-2. 6 Cover the bleeder plies with a layer of release film (Item 2) cut at least 0.5 inch larger than the laminate and tape in place. 7 Manually perforate the release film with pin holes on 2 inch centers. 8 Apply breather material (Item 8) over the layup to within 12 inch of the vacuum bag sealant tape on the base plate. 9 Connect heat blanket to controller. 12 If using wooden box, make small slits in the bagging film over the two bases and install vacuum connector and vacuum gage. (e) Perform leak check of inner bag. 1 Wooden Box.

a Apply vacuum to the inner bag. Verify that the vacuum meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24. Make sure there are no wrinkles in the vacuum bag over the laminate. Wrinkles will leave markoff on the laminate. b Disconnect vacuum source and take initial reading on vacuum gage. Wait 5 minutes and take final reading. The vacuum level must not drop more than 5 inches of mercury over a 5 minute interval. c Repair or replace inner bag until bag can meet the leak check requirements. 2 V-22 DVD Tool.

10 If using wooden box, place vacuum connector base and vacuum gage base on pads of breather cloth placed on top of breather cloth. 11 Inner vacuum bag. Place vacuum bag material (Item 1) over the layup and press into vacuum bag sealant to seal the bag.

a Connect vacuum source to DVD tool. Apply vacuum to the vacuum bag by turning the "INNER BAG SUPPLY" valve to the "VACUUM" position. Ensure "OUTER BOX SUPPLY" valve is in the "VENT" position. Verify that the vacuum meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24. Make sure there are no wrinkles in the vacuum bag over the laminate. Wrinkles will leave markoff on the laminate.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

b Turn the "INNER BAG SUPPLY" valve to the "OFF" position. Take initial reading. Wait 5 minutes and take final reading. The vacuum level must not drop more than 5 inches of mercury over a 5 minute interval. c Repair or replace bag until bag can meet the leak check requirements. (f) Installation of outer vacuum bag (wooden box) or outer box (V-22 DVD tool). 1 Wooden Box. (Figure 6-22). a b Apply vacuum to inner vacuum bag. Center rigid box over the laminate.

NOTE Before closing outer box, ensure the O-ring seal and mating surfaces are clean and the Oring is properly retained inside the outer box groove. b Place outer box over the base plate and properly seat using the guide pins. c Apply vacuum to outer box by first turning the "INNER BAG SUPPLY" valve to "OFF". Then turn "OUTER BOX SUPPLY" valve to "ON", and when the vacuum level in the outer box is within 1 inch of mercury of the inner bag, turn "INNER BAG SUPPLY" valve to "VACUUM". (g) Debulk Cycle. With vacuum applied to both bags, perform debulking at the temperature and times specified in Table 6-2 for the weave of fabric and the laminate thickness being used. Ensure the vacuum in both bags meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24 during the debulking cycle. 1 Heat the laminate to the required temperature at 2-5F per minute. 2 Upon the coldest thermocouple reaching the debulk temperature, begin a soak for the required time. Continuously monitor and record all thermocouples to ensure the temperature range is maintained during this soak period. (h) Compaction Cycle. 1 After completion of the double vacuum debulking cycle, remove the vacuum hose and vent the outer vacuum bag to atmosphere by releasing vacuum on the outer bag. Ensure the outer bag vacuum gage reads zero. If using the V-22 DVD tool, turn the "OUTER BOX SUPPLY" valve to the "VENT" position. 2 Perform compaction (single vacuum) for the time and temperature shown in Table 6-2 based on the fabric weave and the laminate thickness. Ensure vacuum in the inner bag meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24 during the compaction cycle. 3 Following completion of the compaction cycle turn off heat blanket, vent inner vacuum bag to atmosphere. If using the V-22 DVD tool, turn the "INNER BAG SUPPLY" valve to "OFF".

c Place a bead of outer vacuum bag sealant (Item 6) just outside the perimeter of the rigid box on top of the inner vacuum bag material. Ensure sealant is inside the periphery of the inner vacuum bag sealant (Figure 6-22A). d Cover the entire rigid box with two layers of breather cloth (Item 8). e Place vacuum connector base and vacuum gage base on pads located on top of the breather cloth. f Place outer vacuum bag film (Item 1) over the breather on the wooden box and press into vacuum bag sealant to seal the bag. Make small slits in the bagging film over the two bases and install vacuum connector and vacuum gage. g After ensuring vacuum has been applied to inner bag, apply vacuum to outer bag. Verify that the vacuum level in the outer bag meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24 without any audible leaks. If this cannot be met, repair or replace the outer vacuum bag using new bagging materials. 2 V-22 DVD Tool.

a Apply vacuum to the vacuum bag by placing the "INNER BAG SUPPLY" valve to the "VACUUM" position.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

4 After completion of the compaction cycle, remove the outer box and inner bag from the base plate. CAUTION The laminate should be unbagged, layed up on the tool/part vacuum bagged and the cure cycle initiated as soon as possible but no later than 10 minutes after completion of the compaction cycle. 5 Remove breather, bleeder, release film and laminate from the tool as soon as possible. Leave the porous release fabric on both sides of the patch to prevent contamination of the patch during subsequent handling. (i) Cure Cycle. If the laminate is to be cocured, proceed to Method 3. Otherwise, after accomplishing steps 1-5 below (see Figure 6-25), the laminate will be cured using Method 1 or 2 below. 1 Apply release film (not perforated) on the layup tool/part surface. Ensure release film is 1 inch larger than the largest ply of the laminate. If a heat blanket is used, release film should extend one inch beyond edge of heat blanket. Tape in place. 2 Remove porous release fabric from both sides of the patch and apply the debulked laminate to the release film at the required location on the layup tool/ part. Heat lamp(s) operating at 110 10F may be used to assist in forming the laminate to the layup tool/part. 3 Position at least two monitoring thermocouples around the perimeter of the laminate and tape in place. (Do not place the thermocouples on the laminate stack). If Method 2 Heat Lamp Gel is to be used, ensure the thermocouples accurately measure the temperature by using tape approximately the same color as the part surface to secure thermocouples. 4 Connect the thermocouples to a temperature measuring device. (The temperature/vacuum controller, paragraph 8-6, can be used for temperature measuring). Check to ensure proper operation. 5 Place a layer of release film (not perforated) over the laminate the same size as in step 1 above. 6 Proceed to Method 1 or 2 as applicable to accomplish precuring the laminate.

7 Method 1: Pre-Curing Laminate. This method uses a heat blanket to precure the laminate for subsequent secondary bonding (see Figure 6-25, View A). As an alternate and if the layup tool/part will fit in an oven, an oven may be used instead of the heat blanket for curing the laminate. If an oven is used, omit copper sheet and heat blanket from the layup and place thermocouples near the edge of the laminate. Operate the oven per paragraph 6-7j(4)(b). NOTE Refer to paragraph 6-7j(5) for vacuum bag and heat blanket installation. a Cover the layup with a 0.020 inch thick aluminum or copper sheet. b in place. c Place a control thermocouple on top of the heat blanket over the center of the repair. d cloth. e Seal the assembly in a vacuum bag. Apply full vacuum to the bag. Ensure vacuum meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24. f Heat to the temperature and rise rate specified in Table 6-2 for the weave of fabric being used. g Hold at the temperature and for the time specified in Table 6-2 for the weave of fabric being used. Begin timing when coldest thermocouple reaches the minimum cure temperature for the cure cycle specified. Ensure vacuum meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of Figure 6-24 during the time at temperature. h Cool to 140F while maintaining vacuum. Do not exceed a cool down rate of 5F per minute. i Release vacuum and debag part. Cover with 2 layers of breather Cover with a heat blanket and tape

j Perform NDI of laminate as described in paragraph 6-7l(3). 8 Method 2: Heat Lamp Gel Followed by Free-Standing Oven Post Cure. This method is used to gel the laminate for subsequent oven curing. Use this method when surface contact with a heat blanket is not possible. See Figure 6-25, View B.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

2 Inches Minimum Between Patch and Heat Blanket

0.25"

Vacuum Bag 2 Plies Breather Cloth


Control Thermocouple(s) Heat Blanket

TOOL OR PART SURFACE

Aluminum/Copper Sheet Release Film (Not Perforated) Laminate Monitoring Thermocouple(s) Release Film (Not Perforated)
Vacuum Bag Sealant

A. Method 1: Pre- Cure Stacking Sequence With Heat Blanket

Vacuum Bag

1 Ply Breather Cloth Release Film (Not Perforated) Laminate Release Film (Not Perforated)
PART SURFACE (Hat Stiffened Skin)

Vacuum Bag Sealant

0.25 Inch

See Detail A for Thermocouple Location


Thermocouple

B. Method 2: Heat Lamp Gel Stacking Sequence

Detail A

4" 3"

2 Inches Minimum Between Patch and Heat Blanket

Vacuum Bag
2 Plies Breather Cloth Control Thermocouple(s) Heat Blanket

Laminate

PART SURFACE

4 Plies Breather Cloth Release Film (Manually Perforated) Porous Release Fabric Laminate Monitoring Thermocouple 6363 Paste Adhesive Scrim Cloth 6363 Paste Adhesive
Vacuum Bag Sealant

C. Method 3: Co-Cure Stacking Sequence (Typical) Figure 6-25. Cure Stacking Sequences

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Cover with 1 layer of breather cloth.

b Seal the assembly in a vacuum bag. Apply a minimum of 20 inches of mercury to the bag. c Heat laminate to 150-160F at 35F per minute with a heat lamp(s). See paragraph 6-7j(4)(c) for a discussion of proper heat lamp usage. d Hold at 155 5F for 90 minutes.

g Apply the laminate containing adhesive to the part surface containing the adhesive and scrim cloth. Tape patch in place using high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24). h Cover the layup with the piece of porous release fabric prepared in step c. Tape in place. i Position at least two monitoring thermocouples at the edge of the laminate and tape in place. (Do not place the thermocouples on the laminate stack). j Cover the layup with the manually perforated release film prepared in step d. Tape in place. k Cover the layup with 4 plies of Style 120 glass breather cloth cut at least 1 inch larger than the heat blanket that will be used. l Obtain a heat blanket at least two inches larger than the largest ply of the laminate. Center over the layup and tape in place. m Cover with 2 layers of breather cloth. n Seal the assembly in a vacuum bag. Apply a minimum of 25 inches of mercury vacuum to the bag. o Heat at 1-3F/minute to 200-225F.

e Cool to 100F while maintaining a minimum of 20 inches of mercury). f Release vacuum and debag part. Carefully remove laminate from tool or part. g Free Standing Post Cure. Place gelled laminate into an air circulating oven and heat to 245 15F at 3-5F per minute. Hold at this temperature for 150 minutes. Begin timing when the coldest thermocouple reaches 230F. No vacuum bag is required. Operate the oven per paragraph 6-7j(4)(b). h Perform NDI of laminate as described in paragraph 6-7l(3). 9 Method 3: Co-curing to Part. This method is used to simultaneously cure the laminate and the adhesive to the part surface. See Figure 6-25, View C. a Prepare the surface of the aircraft or component for bonding per paragraph 6-7h(3). b Cut a piece of scrim cloth 0.25 inch larger than the largest ply of the laminate. c Remove porous release fabric from both sides of patch. Cut one piece of porous release fabric approximately 3 inches larger than the largest ply of the laminate. d Cut one piece of release film approximately 4 inches larger than the largest ply of the laminate. Manually pin hole perforate on 4 inch centers. e Prepare paste adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 23) per paragraph 5-5a. Apply to part and laminate bonding surfaces using an adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). f Apply the scrim cloth prepared in step b above to the part surface as described in paragraph 6-7i(3).

p Hold at 200-225F for 120 5 minutes. Begin timing when coldest thermocouple reaches 200F. Maintain a minimum of 25 inches of mercury vacuum on the vacuum bag. q Cool laminate to below 140F with a maximum cool down rate of 5 F/minute while maintaining a minimum of 25 inches of mercury vacuum on the vacuum bag. r part. s Perform NDI of laminate and laminate to part bondline as described in paragraph 6-7l(3). g. Precured Patch Material Cure Processes. (1) As with film adhesives, prepreg materials have the base resin and curing agent pre-mixed. During the Release vacuum bag and debag

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preimpregnation of fibers with resin by manufacturers of prepreg materials, the resin is advanced to the B stage resulting in a thin solid sheet. These sheets are cut into individual plies and stacked or laminated to form the patch. Successful manufacture of patch material requires the following to be achieved during the cure process: removal of trapped air and other gases (degassing) bleeding of excess prepreg resin compaction of fibers and resin fiber to fiber and ply to ply bonding formation of a solid, void free laminate completion of the chemical reaction between base resin and curing agent (2) Unlike adhesive cure cycles, patch or laminate cure cycles require high pressure, typically 100 pounds per square inch (psi), for compaction. This ensures that low void content, high strength laminates will result. Vacuum pressure or reduced pressure cures result in porous, void filled laminates with reduced strength and poor inspectability. The effects of a vacuum cure, 25 psi cure and 100 psi cure on void content and strength are shown in Figure 6-26. Vacuum pressure or reduced pressure cure cycles for patch material manufacture are unacceptable for use. (a) As heat and pressure are applied to the repair, the resin melts and the viscosity decreases to a minimum point resulting in flow of the material. This flow allows resin bleed and transport of trapped gases to take place. An intermediate temperature hold step is usually incorporated into the cure cycle to allow sufficient time for resin bleed and gas transport to occur. After this step, the temperature is increased to the final cure temperature and the reaction begins to proceed rapidly. During this rise to final temperature, the viscosity increases as cross-linking occurs until a point is reached where flow ceases. This point is termed the gel point and corresponds to a viscosity about the consistency of cold grease. Once gelation has occurred, further void transport or resin bleed is not possible. It is essential to carefully control cure cycle parameters (hold times and temperatures, temperature rise rates and applied pressure) to prevent early gelation and resultant voided laminates. After the final cure temperature is reached, cross-linking continues as the chemical reaction progresses. A typical carbon/epoxy laminate cure cycle is shown in Figure 6-27. A post cure is normally performed at the final cure temperature for an extended period of time (typically 4 hours) to ensure the chemical reaction has reached completion and the required strength is obtained. (b) The above process is accomplished using an autoclave. While the mechanics of operating an autoclave are fairly straightforward, the cure process is not. Cure cycle anomalies can have a marked effect on laminate strength. Curing of patches in situ on parts in an autoclave can result in significant part damage. In addition, a witness panel (interlaminar

CARBON/EPOXY LAMINATE (0/90) ILSS (PSI)


14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

VOID CONTENT PERCENT


3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

100 PSI

25 PSI CURE PRESSURE

VACUUM

ILSS

VOID CONTENT

Figure 6-26. The Effect of Cure Pressure on Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) and Void Content shear test panel) is required to be cured along with the patch and tested to verify cure process adequacy. This process is currently limited to depot activities. h. Surface Preparation For Bonding. The simplicity and high degree of bond durability of this process has contributed significantly to the repairability of advanced composite parts. Unlike metallic parts, the surface preparation does not require an elaborate and process sensitive procedure using chemicals that are difficult to work with and dispose of to obtain a successful bond.
CAUTION DO NOT use solvent to remove sanding residue. Solvent can spread a thin film of contamination over the entire bond surface if not wiped off before evaporating. Since solvent evaporates quickly, it usually evaporates before the surface can be wiped dry. (1) The surface preparation for resin matrix composites consists of sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper and repeated dry wiping with clean, dry rymplecloth until no further evidence of sanding residue appears on the cloth. (a) Use rymplecloth (Table 5-5, Item 2) for wiping instead of cheesecloth. Rymplecloth is a purified cheesecloth that has been bleached to remove cotton seed oil and fiber sizing. This will reduce the potential for contamination of surfaces to be bonded. (b) Cover surfaces prepared for bonding with clean barrier material (Table 5-5, Item 4) taped in place to prevent contamination while preparing for layup.
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RISE TO HOLD AT RISE TEMP INTERMEDIATE TO TEMP TEMP

SOAK

COOL DOWN

350
TEMPERATURE (F) PRESSURE (PSIG)

240

75
VACUUM

INCREASE AUTOCLAVE PRESSURE TO 100 PSI VENT VACUUM BAG TO ATMOSPHERE

100 85

0
TIME

Figure 6-27. Typical Carbon/Epoxy Laminate Cure Cycle (2) The Patch Surface. (a) Precured Graphite/Epoxy Patches. NOTE If the patch is precured and contains peel ply material, the peel ply should be left on the patch until the surface preparation step to prevent contamination. 1 Cautiously remove the peel ply from both surfaces of the patch to prevent pulling fibers out of the patch material. If fiber removal starts during peel ply removal, change the peel ply removal direction so that peel ply is being removed 90 degrees to the patch outer ply fibers. 2 If the patch is cut from precured carbon/ epoxy square sheet stock (Table 5-2, Items 5a or 5b), the edge of the patch must be tapered. This taper is required to reduce adhesive peel stresses at the edge of the patch. First, cut the patch from precured carbon/epoxy square sheet stock to the dimensions required for the repair patch. Then, taper the patch edge as shown in Figure 6-28. Use a 90 degree router motor and an 80-100 grit abrasive disk. 3 Sand (by hand or with a orbital sander) both surfaces of the patch with 150-180 grit abrasive paper. Ensure that the majority of any peel ply impressions on the patch surface are removed as these impressions can act as recesses that will trap air and other vapors. Sand carefully to minimize removal of load carrying fibers. Ensure 100% coverage of the patch surfaces during sanding. 4 The patch still requires sanding even if peel ply was not used during patch manufacture (peel ply impression will not be present on patch surface). This will remove any potential contamination from the patch manufacturing process and will roughen the surface ensuring a high quality, durable bond. 5 Wipe the sanded surfaces with a clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. Inspect the cloth for evidence of sanding residue. Repeat wiping process until no further evidence of sanding residue exists on the cloth. For each repeat wipe use a new, clean, dry rymplecloth. 6 From this point forward, handle the patch wearing clean white cotton gloves (Table 8-12, Item 12). Cover the patch with clean barrier material (Table 5-5, Item 4) until ready for layup. (b) F-18 Titanium Foil Patches. These patches are supplied pre-primed in sealed kits. All that is required is solvent wiping to prepare the bonding surface. The wiping procedure is given below. For repairs to F-14 boron/epoxy components, a procedure for the preparation of titanium patches for bonding is given in the part specific SRM.

Solvent

1 Saturate a piece of rymplecloth with the solvent (Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6). 2 Wipe the patch with the moistened rymplecloth. Immediately after wiping with solvent, wipe

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0.5 INCH

blanket. Tape the edges of the barrier material to the paint system on the part surface. Use preservation tape (Table 5-5, Item 16). i. Patch Installation. This section describes the processes used to layup adhesives and precured patches. Surfaces to be bonded (patch as well as part) and uncured adhesive materials are sensitive to contamination, moisture and heat during this process. The utmost care is required to minimize exposure to these elements during the material preparation and layup to ensure the repair strength is not degraded. Perform repair material preparation and layup in an environmentally controlled area. If an environmentally controlled area as defined in paragraph 9-2a(3) is not available for layup, as in the case of an on-aircraft repair, prepare the repair materials in an environmentally controlled area and expedite layup of the repair materials, heat blanket and vacuum bag to minimize exposure. (1) Patch Installation. If the required overlap between the patch and the part is not attained, reduced strength of the repair will result. Since the adhesive is first applied to the part surface followed by the patch, it is critical that the adhesive be correctly located on the part surface. Refer to the part specific SRM to obtain the required patch overlap. In addition, orientation sensitive patches must be properly aligned with the part being repaired during patch installation to ensure the required strength and stiffness are obtained. Generally the patch 0 degree fiber direction is aligned with the part primary load direction. (a) Patch alignment may be specified by orienting the patch 0 degree fiber direction with respect to the part 0 degree fiber direction. Patch alignment may also be specified by orienting the patch 0 degree fiber direction with respect to a prominent feature on the part surface (such as a defined line of fasteners). Consult the part specific SRM for determination of part 0 degree fiber direction or other means of aligning patch. Typical tolerance for patch alignment is 1 degree. (b) Thin metallic bonded patches and precured six ply quasi-isotropic patches are not orientation sensitive from a strength or stiffness standpoint. Patch alignment during installation is not a requirement for these types of patches.

.010 .010 INCH

Figure 6-28. Patch Edge Taper Dimensions the patch with a dry rymplecloth until there is no solvent residue left on the surface. 3 Wipe the opposite side of the patch in the same manner using a new piece of clean, dry rymplecloth. 4 From this point forward, handle the patch wearing clean white cotton gloves. Cover the patch with clean barrier material until ready to use. (3) Part Surface. NOTE Prior to surface preparation for bonding, the part should have been cleaned as described in paragraph 6-2 to remove contaminants, the damage removed as described in paragraph 6-3, the paint removed in the patch bond area as described in paragraph 6-5, the repair joint machined as described in paragraph 6-6 and the laminate dried as described in paragraph 6-7a. (a) Sand the part surface in the area where the patch is to be applied using 150-180 grit abrasive paper. Ensure the majority of any peel ply impressions on the part surface are removed. Sand carefully to minimize removal of load carrying fibers. Ensure 100% coverage of the patch bond area. (b) Wipe the sanded surfaces with a clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. Inspect the cloth for evidence of sanding residue. Repeat wiping process until no further evidence of sanding residue exists on the cloth. For each repeat wipe use a new, clean, dry rymplecloth. (c) Cut a clean piece of barrier material larger than the area to be covered by the vacuum bag/heat

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CAUTION Perform the repair material preparation in an environmentally controlled area. If the repair is to be performed on-aircraft, expedite the layup of repair materials, heat blanket and vacuum bag to minimize exposure. (2) Patch). Film Adhesive Repairs (Externally Bonded

CAUTION Apply adhesive on part surface to obtain the required patch overlap or reduced strength will result. NOTE FM300 and FM300-2 film adhesive kits (Table 5-1, Items 6a and 6b) are embossed with a honeycomb core imprint on one side. Apply the embossed side to the part surface. (g) Apply the embossed surface (if applicable) of the film adhesive to the part surface. Apply the film adhesive over the repair area to ensure required patch overlap is achieved. CAUTION Part to patch alignment must be maintained within 1 degree. Wet layup patches and specially fabricated composite patches are orientation sensitive from a strength standpoint. Incorrect alignment of part and patch during layup will result in reduced strength. NOTE Precured carbon/epoxy patches (Table 5-2, Items 5a, 5b, and 6-16) are not orientation sensitive from a strength standpoint, but have a minimum bending resistance direction. If the part is curved, determine this direction by bending the patch by hand. Orient the patch materials minimum bending resistance direction with the part curvature. (h) Determine the part 0 degree direction (or primary load direction) from the part specific SRM. Align the patch 0 degree direction (if applicable) with the part 0 degree direction during layup. CAUTION Use only high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4) under the vacuum bag to prevent contamination of bondline. NOTE The bond surface of the carbon/epoxy patch is the flat surface not containing the taper.

(a) Remove film adhesive from 0F storage. Inspect label to ensure the material has not exceeded its shelf life. CAUTION Ship and store material at 0F or below. If shipping temperature or storage temperature is suspect, perform a material evaluation test as described in paragraph 5-6a prior to use. (b) Allow adhesive to thaw at room temperature until moisture no longer condenses on the sealed bag. (This will be at least 2 hours for adhesive kits and at least 4 hours for large rolls). Material exposed to temperatures above 0F for more than 24 hours must be considered suspect and should be tested as described in paragraph 5-6a before using. CAUTION Wear clean white cotton gloves (Table 8-12, Item 12) to prevent bondline contamination when handling patch and adhesive material. (c) Using the patch as a guide, cut the film adhesive 0.25 inch larger than the patch periphery. Note out-time and return unused material to 0F storage as described in paragraph 5-5b(5). (d) Remove the barrier material from the patch bond area. Use care during tape removal not to damage the composite surfaces. (e) Repeat wipe of bond surfaces with clean, dry rymplecloth. (f) Remove the separator film from both sides of the film adhesive.

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NOTE
ADHESIVE PATCHES

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

Ensure expiration of the shelf life marked on paste adhesive containers has not been exceeded. (c) Using the patch as a guide, cut a piece of scrim cloth (Table 5-1, Item 21) 0.25 inch larger than the repair patch periphery. If stacked patches are required for the repair, cut separate layers of scrim cloth 0.25 inch larger than each succeeding patch in the stack. (d) Apply solvent (Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6) to a clean, dry rymplecloth. Wipe clean the adhesive comb (Figure 8-22). Allow to air dry for 30 minutes. CAUTION Vacuum pressure must be applied to patch layup within the pot life limits listed in Table 5-7; reduce this time by 50% when the ambient temperature exceeds 90F. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Therefore, heat blanket selection and cutting of all vacuum bag materials required for repair should be done prior to mixing the adhesive. (e) Prepare approximately 50 grams of paste adhesive for patch bond as described in paragraph 5-5a. CAUTION Apply adhesive on part surface to obtain the required patch overlap or reduced strength will result. (f) Using a spatula, apply a thin layer of paste adhesive on the part surface. The adhesive should extend a minimum of 0.25 inch beyond the patch surface. Apply additional adhesive over any exposed honeycomb core. (g) Draw adhesive comb over the part surface to remove excess adhesive. After each stroke, remove the excess adhesive from the comb with a clean, dry rymplecloth. Ensure the comb remains perpendicular to the surface during use. Avoid resin starving any areas of the part surface during the combing operation. (h) Apply the scrim cloth that was cut in paragraph (b) above to the paste adhesive on the part surface. Press the scrim cloth into the part surface with the spatula and work out any wrinkles.

COMPOSITE SKIN

FILLER

Figure 6-29. Layup of Stacked Patches and Adhesive (i) Center the patch over the film adhesive previously applied to the part surface. Tape patch and adhesive in place. Check to ensure the required patch overlap is achieved. (j) Sometimes multiple stacked patches are required. In that case, stack the largest patch over the film adhesive previously applied to the part surface. Follow by application of increasingly smaller patches. Apply a layer of film adhesive between each patch in the stack (see Figure 6-29). (k) Layup the heat blanket and vacuum bag materials as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). (l) To prevent degradation of the adhesive, initiate the cure process per paragraph 6-7k(2) as soon as possible but not later than two hours after the layup is complete. If repair is performed on-aircraft, initiate cure within 15 minutes of layup. (3) Patch). Paste Adhesive Repairs (Externally Bonded

(a) General. To ensure the paste adhesive adequately wets the surfaces to be bonded, it is important to apply paste adhesive to both surfaces. Bondline thickness is important to control when using paste adhesives to preclude reduced strength and unacceptable porosity. After applying adhesive to the part and patch surfaces, an adhesive comb (see Figure 8-22) is used to remove excess adhesive and provide the correct amount of adhesive on the surfaces to be bonded. Scrim cloth (Table 5-1, Item 21) is applied over the adhesive on the part surface prior to installing the patch to prevent excessive adhesive squeeze out during the cure cycle. (b) Remove paste adhesive from refrigerated storage. Allow the material to reach room temperature before opening the containers.

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NOTE The bond surface of the carbon/epoxy patch is the flat surface not containing the taper. (i) Using a spatula, apply a thin layer of paste adhesive to the bond surface of the patch. (j) Draw adhesive comb over the bond surface of the patch to remove excess adhesive. After each stroke, remove the excess adhesive from the comb with a clean, dry rymplecloth. Ensure the comb remains perpendicular to the surface during use. Avoid resin starving any areas of the patch surface during the combing operation. CAUTION Part to patch alignment must be maintained within 1 degree. Wet layup patches and specially fabricated composite patches are orientation sensitive from a strength standpoint. Incorrect alignment of part and patch during layup will result in reduced strength. NOTE Precured carbon/epoxy patches (Table 5-2, Items 5a, 5b, and 6-16) are not orientation sensitive from a strength standpoint, but have a minimum bending resistance direction. If the part is curved, determine this direction by bending the patch by hand. Orient the patch materials minimum bending resistance direction with the part curvature. (k) Determine the part 0 degree direction (or primary load direction) from the part specific SRM. Align the patch 0 degree direction (if applicable) with the part 0 degree direction during layup. CAUTION Use only high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4) under the vacuum bag to prevent contamination of bondline. (l) Apply the patch containing adhesive to the part surface containing the adhesive and scrim cloth. Ensure the patch is aligned on part surface to maintain the required patch overlap. Tape patch in place using high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24).

(m) If multiple stacked patches are required, stack the largest patch on the part surface followed by increasingly smaller size patches. Apply scrim cloth and adhesive between each patch in the stack. See Figure 6-29. (n) Layup the heat blanket and vacuum bag materials as described in paragraph 6-7j(5) or layup the heat/vacuum blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(6). (o) Remove any residual adhesive on the adhesive comb by wiping with clean, dry rymplecloth. Apply methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) to another clean, dry rymplecloth. Wipe the adhesive comb clean. Allow to air dry for 30 minutes. Ensure adhesive comb is free of adhesive residue. j. Methods For Applying Pressure and Heat to Cure Bonded Repairs. Curing of bonded repairs (adhesives, patches and repair details) requires the application of pressure and (in most cases) heat. Proper application of pressure and heat is essential in ensuring the strength of the repair is achieved, in preventing damage to parts and obtaining a good fit of repair details. (1) Pressure is required to conform repair patches to part contours, to degas wet layup patches, to reduce air entrapment in patch bondlines and to prevent shifting of repair details during the cure. For field repairs, pressure is obtained primarily by application of a vacuum bag. Positive pressure is applied through the use of shot bags and clamps. (2) Vacuum Pressure. Pressure is achieved on a repair by evacuating atmospheric air from a sealed bag over the repair. This creates a vacuum in the bag and allows atmospheric pressure to be exerted on the bag. The amount of resulting pressure is a function of how much vacuum is achieved in the bag. This depends on the effectiveness of the seal between the bag and the part. A vacuum gauge is required to be installed in the vacuum bag to measure the vacuum since vacuum pump vacuum gauges do not provide a true measure of bag vacuum. A minimum bag vacuum of 20 inches of mercury without audible leaks is required. 20 inches of mercury vacuum is equivalent to approximately 10 psi. (a) Vacuum Bags. Two types of vacuum bags are used for repair; partial vacuum bags and envelope vacuum bags. Vacuum bag materials consist of a thin flexible film, sealant tape, release materials, bleeder material (if required) and breather material.

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1 Porous release fabric is applied directly over the patch and adhesive material to allow resin and gas passage while preventing bleeder and/or breather plies from bonding to the repair. 2 Non-porous release film is used to prevent bagging materials from bonding to the repair. 3 Bleeder material is used to absorb excess resin when curing wet layup or prepreg patches. 4 Breather material is used over the layup to hold the vacuum bag off the part, providing a path for air and other gases to be drawn off by the vacuum system. 5 The vacuum bag film is sealed to the part using vacuum bag sealant tape. 6 A kit (Table 5-6) containing the above materials to fabricate vacuum bags for performing repairs is available in the supply system. Materials in the kit are limited to cure temperatures of 350F or lower. (b) Partial Vacuum Bag. This bag is used to locally provide pressure for curing the repair. It is also used for heat blanket repairs and provides uniform contact between the heat blanket and part surface. Since the heat blanket heats by conduction, this uniform contact ensures that the proper heat transfer takes place. When damage is through both skins, a partial vacuum bag is required on both sides of the part. If a leak path exists which cannot be isolated using a partial vacuum bag and a minimum vacuum of 20 inches of mercury cannot be maintained, use an envelope vacuum bag. (c) Envelope Vacuum Bag. This bag is used when an oven is the heat source for curing repairs since it prevents disbonds or delaminations from occurring in composite parts. It is also used for oven drying parts. The vacuum bag material and breather material used in an envelope vacuum bag completely surround the part. (3) Positive Pressure. Positive pressure is used for expanding some foaming adhesives, for clamping edge members and for holding repair details in place during the curing process. (a) Shot bags (see Figure 6-30) can apply pressure to flat as well as to contoured surfaces. To prevent the bag from bonding to the repair, release film should be placed between the bag and the repair details. The amount of pressure that can be applied is limited since one 6 inch by 4 inch, 25 pound shot bag only exerts approximately 1 psi.

SELF ADJUSTING SPRING CLAMP

C-CLAMP

SHOT BAG

Figure 6-30. Methods for Applying Positive Pressure (b) Clamps (see Figure 6-30) are useful tools for applying pressure but are limited to paste adhesive bond applications. C-clamps are commonly used items but require careful use to prevent laminate damage due to overtightening. They require retightening during the cure due to resin squeeze out. Spring clamps are self-adjusting and prevent the problems encountered with c-clamps. All clamps shall use pads on the contact faces to aid in pressure distribution and reduce the possibility of damaging the laminate. A wooden tongue depressor or 18 inch thick silicone rubber pads may be used for pad material. Release film should be used between the part surface and these pads. Use care as heat absorption by the clamps can effect a heat loss to the system during the elevated temperature curing of repairs. 1 Distance. To distribute pressure evenly, clamps should be placed approximately every 112-2 inches on the parts being bonded. 2 Method for Tightening C-Clamps. Determine the number of c-clamps needed and the approximate placement. Clamping sequence (and adhesive and scrim cloth application) is important in controlling bondline thickness and providing void free bondlines. (See paragraph 6-7i(3) for a discussion on controlling the amount of paste adhesive applied to repair details using an adhesive comb and for scrim cloth application). A typical clamping sequence is shown in Figure 6-31. The c-clamps are applied first at the center of the parts being bonded and then

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C-CLAMPS

TIGHTEN UNTIL BODY DOES NOT ROTATE

CLAMPING SEQUENCE AND PLACEMENT (VIEW FROM ABOVE) #4 #4 11 -2 2 INCHES #3 #3

#1
PASTE ADHESIVE

#1

#2
NOTE All clamps shall be used with pads on the contact faces for pressure distribution and laminate protection (Not shown here for clarity)

#2

SECTION A-A

#5

#5

Figure 6-31. C-Clamp Sequence and Placement placed alternatively on each side. When applying a c-clamp, tighten until it feels snug and the body of the clamp does not rotate when pulled from side to side. Take care not to overtighten as damage to the laminate will result. During the cure process, the c-clamps must be retightened every 5 minutes until resin gelation. (4) Heat. Heat is required for curing most patch and adhesives materials. It accelerates the reaction (for most two part adhesive systems) and activates the cure process (for film adhesives). Heat can be applied by means of heat blankets, ovens or heat lamps. In most repairs in the field, heat is provided by a heat blanket. (a) Heat Blankets. Heat transfer occurs via conduction. Lack of contact between the heat blanket and the area to be cured will result in inadequate heating. The heat blanket must conform to and be in 100% contact with the part contour. Heat blankets consist of heating elements embedded in silicone rubber. Heat/vacuum blankets allow application of the heat blanket without a vacuum bag. They are much less flexible than standard heat blankets and are usable only on relatively flat surfaces. Heat blankets and heat/vacuum blankets are generally hot in the center and cold on the edges. Temperature variations in excess of 50F from the center of the blanket to the blanket edge can exist (see Figure 6-32). To reduce this effect, a minimum patch edge to heat blanket edge distance of two inches must be maintained (see Figure 6-33). In addition, a 0.020 inch thick copper sheet is used as a thermal diffuser between the heat blanket and the part surface to reduce the cold edge effect and the effects of the heat blanket hot/cold spots. Heat/vacuum blankets specified for F/A-18 bonded repairs, P/N AM-D-0-MDA1S1 series, have a design deficiency due to missing heating elements within the heat zone and are unacceptable for curing repairs above 200F. They may be used for drying as described in paragraph 6-7a. 1 To allow for heat blanket cold edge effects, place the heat blanket control thermocouple near the center of the heat blanket. Place a minimum of two monitoring thermocouples near the edge of the patch. See Figure 6-33. Failure to place the control thermocouple near the center of the heat blanket may result in an over temperature condition at the center of the repair area. 2 When bonding precured patches at cure temperatures of 200F and above, the control thermocouple should be placed directly on top of the patch near the patch center (see Figure 6-34). When curing wet layup patches at cure temperatures of 200F and above, place the control thermocouple on top of the heat blanket (see Figure 6-25, View A and View C) to prevent thermocouple mark off. When the control thermocouple is placed on top of the heat blanket, the materials beneath the thermocouple (copper sheet, breather material, release film) act as insulators. A heat survey must first be performed IAW paragraph 6-7m to ensure the required cure cycle parameters can be met. 3 When curing wet layup patches at temperatures below 200F, the control thermocouple may be placed on top of the heat blanket without performing a heat survey. The insulating effect of materials underneath the heat blanket are not as pronounced for cure temperatures below 200F.

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HEAT BLANKET TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION F-18 TE FLAP - 300 F SET POINT


INCREASING PART THICKNESS

12 11 10 9 8
INCHES

REPAIR PATCH 280 271 286 295 300 286 CONTROL 273 292 299 PART SURFACE GENERIC HEAT BLANKET

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 239

275 277 258 ---

9 10 11 12

INCHES

Figure 6-32. Temperature Variations Underneath a Typical 12 Inch x 12 Inch Heat Blanket

HEAT BLANKET

E
PATCH

MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE

CONTROL THERMOCOUPLE

MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE

E
MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE

HEAT BLANKET POWER CABLE

E = HEAT BLANKET TO PATCH EDGE DISTANCE


(2 INCHES MINIMUM)

Figure 6-33. Heat Blanket Selection/Thermocouple Placement (Typical)

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VACUUM CONNECTOR

INSULATION

RUBBER SEAL VACUUM CONNECTOR BASE VACUUM BAG SEALANT

;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

VACUUM BAG FILM BREATHER CLOTH HEAT BLANKET 0.020 " COPPER SHEET BREATHER CLOTH RELEASE FILM POROUS RELEASE FABRIC CONTROL THERMOCOUPLE PRECURED PATCH ADHESIVE COMPOSITE SKIN

Figure 6-34. Heat Blanket Layup - Partial Vacuum Bag Cross Section WARNING Heat lamps are not to be used near aircraft fuel tanks or when other explosive mixtures are present. CAUTION It is difficult to control the heat applied with a heat lamp during extremes in temperatures or windy conditions. Use of heat lamps in these conditions shall be avoided. (c) Heat Lamps. Heat lamps transfer heat via radiation and are used for heat application when use of an oven or surface contact with a heat blanket is not possible. Heat lamps are used to heat components to assist in flow of injection adhesives as well as to reduce the set time of paste adhesives and wet layup patches. They are not to be used for curing wet layup patches or patch bond adhesives and are limited to temperature applications of 160F or below on advanced composite parts. 1 Variables that effect part temperature when using heat lamps are discussed below. a Lamp Distance. When the heat lamp is moved away from the surface, a larger area is heated but the temperature is reduced. When the heat lamp is moved closer to the surface, a smaller area is heated and the temperature is increased. (See Figure 6-35, View A). Adjust the distance from the surface to ensure required surface temperature is obtained. b Airflow. Airflow across the surface has a significant cooling effect. (See Figure 6-35, View B). If required, block the airflow by erecting a temporary shelter with materials on hand, such as sheet metal, vacuum bag film, etc.

(b) Ovens. Heat transfer occurs via convection which results in a more uniform temperature distribution on the part when compared to the heat distribution obtained using a heat blanket. Use of forced air ovens for repair subjects the entire part to the cure temperature of the repair and must be used with caution if part damage is to be avoided. Skin delaminations, bonded detail disbonds and excessive part distortion are all possible if proper precautions are not taken. Composite parts subjected to oven cure temperatures above the service temperature of the material the part was made from require 100% NDI of the part to ensure part integrity has not been compromised. See paragraph 2-1b and 2-1c for a discussion on material service temperatures. 1 Oven Requirements/Operation. Ovens have a temperature sensor to feed temperature data back to the oven controller. The oven temperature can differ from the actual part temperature depending upon the location of the oven sensor and the location of the part in the oven. The thermal mass of the part in the oven is generally greater than the surrounding oven and during rise to temperature, the part temperature can lag the oven temperature by a considerable amount. To deal with these differences, at least two thermocouples must be placed on the part and connected to a temperature sensing device (separate chart recorder, hot bonder, etc.) located outside the oven. When operating the oven during a cure cycle, adjust the oven set point based upon part temperature data to ensure the cure cycle parameters are met. Do not use an oven set point higher than the cure cycle upper temperature limit of the material being cured. 2 Vacuum Requirements. If a vacuum bag is required for curing patches or repairs, the oven must allow for vacuum hose penetration. A separate vacuum pump with a gage hooked up outside the oven is required.

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c Impingement Angle. The angle of the heat lamp should be perpendicular to the surface, or the part will heat unevenly (see Figure 6-33, View C). d Heat Sink. The presence of c-clamps or substructure members may create a heat sink drawing heat away from the part. (See Figure 6-35, View D). Reposition heat lamp or add additional heat lamps as required to obtain the required temperature. e Curvature. A curved surface will heat unevenly, as shown in Figure 6-35, View E. Place additional heat lamps over the repair area to obtain the required temperature. f Shadow. The presence of obstructions can cast a shadow on the repair area causing uneven heat distribution (see Figure 6-35, View F). Reposition heat lamp or add additional heat lamps as required to obtain the required temperature. g Emissivity. Emissivity of the surface effects surface temperature. A shiny or light color surface has a low emissivity, which results in a cooler surface temperature when heated, as opposed to a dark surface which has a high emissivity and will result in a higher surface temperature when heated. h Heat Reflection. The presence of vacuum bag material (i.e. breather cloth) can insulate and reflect energy away from the part being heated. i Ambient Temperature. If the ambient temperature is warm, it will take less energy to heat the part than if the ambient temperature is cool. Adjust the heat lamp placement accordingly. 2 Using Heat Lamps.

d Connect the thermocouple to a temperature measuring device. (The temperature/vacuum controller, paragraph 8-6, can be used for temperature measuring). Check to ensure proper operation. e Turn on heat lamp(s) and continually monitor the temperature to ensure the required temperature is achieved. (5) Vacuum Bag and Heat Blanket Installation. For vacuum bag materials to perform their required functions, they must be applied in the correct sequence (see Figure 6-34). (a) Heat Survey. Before beginning a repair process, perform a heat survey (as described in paragraph 6-7m below) if required. (b) Select a heat blanket large enough to maintain a patch edge to heat blanket edge distance E of at least 2 inches. See Figure 6-33. (c) Connect thermocouples to the temperature/vacuum controller and check for proper operation before placing on the part. Refer to paragraph 8-6 for operation of the controller. Thermocouple readings should approximate the ambient air temperature. If the thermocouple reading does not, replace thermocouple. CAUTION Use only high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4) under the vacuum bag to prevent contamination of bondline. NOTE The item numbers for vacuum bag materials in the following paragraphs refer to Table 5-6. (d) Tape heat blanket control thermocouple on top of patch near the patch center. If performing wet layup operation, place heat blanket control thermocouple on top of heat blanket instead of patch to prevent mark off from thermocouple wire. Tape a minimum of two monitoring thermocouples on the part surface near the patch edge (see Figure 6-33). (e) Cut porous release fabric (Item 3), release film (Item 2) and breather cloth (Item 8) one inch larger than the heat blanket. (f) Center the porous release fabric over the patch(es)/repair area. Tape in place.

a Perform Heat Survey. Before using heat lamps for a repair process, a heat survey shall be performed on component(s) as described in paragraph 6-7m below. b Place heat lamp(s) in the same position as determined by the heat survey in paragraph 6-7m to obtain the required temperature. c Using high temperature tape, tape thermocouple sensors or thermocouples in the repair area at the minimum and maximum temperature, as determined by the heat survey in paragraph 6-7m. To ensure the thermocouple accurately measures the surface temperature of the part, use tape approximately the same color as the part surface to secure the thermocouples.

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When the heat lamp is farther from the surface, a larger area is heated, but the part surface is cooler than when the heat lamp is placed close to the surface T2 > T1

Surface will heat unevenly due to impingement angle (Lamp should be placed perpendicular to surface)

d1 T1 Larger area heated, surface is cooler d2


T4 T5 T5 > T4

T2 Smaller area heated, surface is hotter

A. Distance Effect

C. Impingement Angle Effect

Airflow across a surface will have a cooling effect T2 > T1

The presence of c-clamps or substructure creates heat sinks

T1

T2 Metallic Spar

T1 Airflow

T2 No Airflow

T1

T2

T2 > T1

T2 > T1

B. Airflow Effect

D. Heat Sink Effect Figure 6-35. Heat Lamp Temperature Effects (Sheet 1 of 2)

(g) If performing wet layup operation, center the bleeder ply(s) over the porous release fabric. (h) Center the release film over the porous release fabric or bleeder plies (if applicable) and tape in place. Center one layer of breather cloth on top of the release film. (i) Cut a 0.020 inch thick copper sheet the same size as the heat blanket and center on top of breather cloth. Tape in place. (j) copper sheet. Center the heat blanket on top of the

(l) Cut two layers of breather cloth to fit inside the periphery of the vacuum bag sealant border. Center the breather cloth on top of the heat blanket. (m) Make two pads of two layers each from breather cloth. They should be approximately 3 inches square. Place the pads on the breather cloth approximately 2 inches from the edge of the heat blanket. (n) Set the base plates of the vacuum connector and vacuum gauge on top of the pads. NOTE If thermocouple wires or heat blanket power cables contain outside insulation in addition to individual wire insulation, the outside insulation must be removed to prevent vacuum leaks. Remove 1 inch of outside insulation in the area where wires interface with bag sealant.

(k) Place a border of vacuum bag sealant (Item 6), 3-4 inches away from the previously positioned materials. Leave the backing paper on the sealant. Press sealant onto part surface. Inspect the sealant overlap areas (see Figure 6-36, View A) to ensure that no gaps exist.

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Surface will heat unevenly due to part curvature

Place additional heat lamps to heat surface evenly (See CAUTION below)

T1

T2 T2 > T1 T2 > T3

T3

T1

T2 T1 = T2 = T3

T3

CAUTION Use of multiple heat lamps could result in an over-temperature condition. Use additional thermocouples to monitor the temperature in areas where heat lamps may overlap.

E. Curvature Effect
Presence of obstructions can cast a shadow on repair area causing uneven heat distribution Place additional heat lamps to heat surface evenly (See CAUTION below)

SHADOW

T1

; ;;; ; ;; ; ;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;


T2

VACUUM CUP T1

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

; ;;; ;; ; ; ;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;


T2

T1 > T2

CAUTION Use of multiple heat lamps could result in an over-temperature condition. Use additional thermocouples to monitor the temperature in areas where heat lamps may overlap.

;;;;;;;;;;;;

T1 = T2

F. Shadow Effect Figure 6-35. Heat Lamp Temperature Effects (Sheet 2 of 2) (o) Remove the sealant backing paper. Pull the individual thermocouple wires approximately 34 inch apart (if applicable) and press the wires into the vacuum bag sealant. Place a small piece of the vacuum bag sealant on top of the wires and press into the vacuum bag sealant border (see Figure 6-36, View A, Detail A). NOTE Bagging films tend to dry out and become brittle if left exposed to a dry environment. Reseal unused bagging film in its original vaporproof bag after use. (p) Cut a piece of vacuum bag film (Item 1) large enough to fit over the layup and to extend approximately 2 inches beyond the border of the vacuum bag sealant (Figure 6-36, View B). (q) Cover the layup with the bagging film and press it into the vacuum bag sealant to seal the bag. Start along one edge of the sealant. Pull the film tight to prevent wrinkles and continue pressing it into the remaining edges of the sealant. (r) Make small slits in the bagging film over the center of the vacuum connector and vacuum gauge bases. Install the vacuum connector and gauge into their respective bases and tighten. Connect the vacuum hose to the vacuum connector. (s) Apply vacuum pressure to the bag. Smooth the wrinkles in the bag as air is evacuated while continuing to work the bagging film into the vacuum bag sealant. Check for audible leaks and repair them as necessary. The vacuum bag gauge must read at least 20 inches of mercury. If a minimum of 20 inches of mercury cannot be obtained and/or audible leaks cannot be eliminated, rebag the repair using new bagging materials. 6-49

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REMOVE 1 INCH OF OUTSIDE INSULATION LEAVE INDIVIDUAL WIRE INSULATION INTACT

APPLY ADDITIONAL SEALANT OVER INDIVIDUAL WIRE INSULATION

THERMOCOUPLE WIRE OR HEAT BLANKET POWER CABLE

SEPARATE WIRES 3/4 INCH & PRESS INTO SEALANT

VACUUM BAG SEALANT

DETAIL A

POROUS RELEASE FABRIC RELEASE FILM BREATHER CLOTH TAPE

SEE DETAIL A HEAT BLANKET POWER CABLE MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE

VACUUM BAG SEALANT BORDER

MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE HEAT BLANKET CONTROL THERMOCOUPLE COPPER SHEET/ HEAT BLANKET ADHESIVE/ PATCH

SEALANT OVERLAP AREA

A. Layup Bagging Materials, Copper Sheet, Heat Blanket and Vacuum Bag Sealant Figure 6-36. Heat Blanket Layup - Partial Vacuum Bag (Sheet 1 of 2)

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APPLY VACUUM BAG FILM

VACUUM CONNECTOR BASE PLATE

2 LAYERS OF BREATHER CLOTH

B. Apply Breather Cloth, Connector Bases and Bagging Film Figure 6-36. Heat Blanket Layup - Partial Vacuum Bag (Sheet 2) (t) Apply multiple layers of breather material on top of the vacuum bag to act as insulation. (u) Connect thermocouples and heat blanket power cable to the controller as described in paragraph 8-6. (6) Heat/Vacuum Blanket Installation. See Figure 6-37. CAUTION NOTE DO NOT use heat/vacuum blankets P/N AM-D-O-MDA1S1 series (either circular or square) for cures above 200F or inadequate repair strength will result. These blankets have a design deficiency and can only be used for cure temperatures below 200F and for part drying. NOTE Heat/vacuum blankets utilize vacuum sealing grooves on underside of blanket. The edge of the heat zone is inside these grooves. (a) Heat Survey. Before beginning a repair process, perform a heat survey (as described in paragraph 6-7m below) if required. The item numbers for vacuum bag materials in the following paragraphs refer to Table 5-6. Control thermocouples are molded into the heat/vacuum blankets. (c) Connect monitoring thermocouples to the controller and check for proper operation before placing on the part. Refer to paragraph 8-6 for operation of the controller. Thermocouple readings should approximate ambient air temperature. If thermocouple reading does not, replace thermocouple. (d) Tape a minimum of two monitoring thermocouples on the part surface near the patch edge. (b) Select a heat blanket large enough to maintain a patch edge to heat zone edge distance of at least 2 inches. CAUTION Use only high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4) under the heat/vacuum blanket to prevent contamination of bondline.

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HEAT / VACUUM BLANKET

MONITORING THERMOCOUPLES
VACUUM LINE VACUUM GAGE TO VACUUM PUMP PATCH/ PATCHES

POWER CABLE

APPLY VACUUM BAG SEALANT

VACUUM GAGE TO VACUUM PUMP

A
HEATING AREA INSIDE SQUARE

HEATING AREA INSIDE RING

HEAT / VACUUM BLANKET


POWER CABLE

PATCH/ PATCHES

F-14 Heat/Vacuum Blanket P/N A51S64830-1

F-18 Heat/Vacuum Blanket P/N AM-D-O-MDAISI

NOTE This Heat/Vacuum Blanket is acceptable for cure temperatures up through 350 F.

CAUTION Due to a design deficiency with (both square and circular) P/N AM-D-O-MDA1S1 series Heat/ Vacuum Blankets, limit cure temperatures to 200 F or below.

HEAT / VACUUM BLANKET

HEATING AREA

COPPER SHEET BREATHER CLOTH RELEASE FILM POROUS RELEASE FABRIC

SEALING GROOVES PATCH ADHESIVE

SECTION A-A

COMPOSITE SKIN

Figure 6-37. Heat/Vacuum Blanket Installation

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(e) Cut porous release fabric (Item 3), release film (Item 2) and breather cloth (Item 8) to the same size as the heat/vacuum blankets heat zone. (f) Center the porous release fabric over the patch(es)/repair area. Tape in place. (g) Center the release film over the porous release fabric and tape in place. Center one layer of breather cloth on top of the release film. (h) Cut a 0.020 inch thick copper sheet the same size as the heat zone of heat/vacuum blanket and center it on top of the breather cloth. Tape in place. (i) If using AM-D-O-MDA1S1 series heat/ vacuum blankets, remove the rubber plug from the heat blanket and feed the monitoring thermocouples through the hole in the blanket during blanket installation. Seal the hole with vacuum bag sealant (Item 6). (j) Center the heat/vacuum blanket over the copper sheet. Connect thermocouples, blanket power cable and vacuum hose to the blanket and controller (paragraph 8-6). (k) Apply vacuum pressure to the heat/ vacuum blanket. Check for audible leaks. The heat/vacuum blanket vacuum must read at least 20 inches of mercury without audible leaks. To achieve a seal between the heat/ vacuum blanket and the part, the use of vacuum bag sealant around the sealing groove periphery may be required. (l) Apply multiple layers of breather material on top of the heat/vacuum blanket to act as insulation. (7) Envelope Bag Installation.

NOTE The item numbers for vacuum bag materials in the following paragraphs refer to Table 5-6. If an envelope bag is to be used as part of the drying process, disregard paragraph (b) below and proceed to the next step. (c) Layup the patch and adhesive (if required) as described in paragraph 6-7i. Cut porous release fabric (Item 3) and release film (Item 2), one inch larger than patch. Center release fabric over patch(es) and tape in place. Center release film over the porous release fabric and tape in place. (d) Tape a minimum of three thermocouples to the part surface near the repair area for control and monitoring purposes. NOTE If the part is wider than the available vacuum bag film, overlap the edges of two pieces of film and splice together with vacuum bag sealant. (e) Cut a piece of porous release fabric (Item 3), breather cloth (Item 8) and vacuum bag film (Item 1) large enough to completely surround the part and provide a 4 inch border on all sides of the part. CAUTION Use tooling aids (fairing bars, edge supports or caul plates) to prevent crushing of parts or collapse of edge members due to application of vacuum pressure. Consult the applicable aircraft SRM or obtain Fleet Support Team (FST) depot engineering assistance to determine tooling aid requirements. NOTE To prevent premature failure of the vacuum bag due to bridging, support the areas on the part where the vacuum bag is unsupported by either packing with breather cloth, applying caul plates or installing spacers. (f) Install tooling aids as required to prevent part damage. Inspect the part to be bagged for potential bag bridging locations. Provide support as required to prevent a bag break.

(a) Heat Survey. Before beginning a repair process, perform a heat survey (as described in paragraph 6-7m below) if required. (b) Connect thermocouples to the controller and check for proper operation before placing on the part. Refer to paragraph 8-6 for operation of the controller. Thermocouple readings should approximate ambient air temperature. If reading does not, replace thermocouple. CAUTION Use only high temperature tape (Table 5-5, Item 24 or Table 5-6, Item 4) under the vacuum bag to prevent contamination of bondline.

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POROUS RELEASE FABRIC FAIRING BAR VACUUM BAG SEALANT

PART BEING REPAIRED

BREATHER CLOTH VACUUM BAG FILM EDGE SUPPORT

SECTION A-A

TOOLING AIDS

VACUUM CONNECTOR PAD & BASE

VACUUM BAG SEALANT

; ; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;; ; ;
PART BEING REPAIRED TOOLING AIDS

VACUUM BAG FILM

Figure 6-38. Typical Envelope Bag Installation (g) Surround the part being bagged with porous release fabric and breather cloth. Make two pads of two layers each from breather cloth. They should be approximately 3 inches square. Place the pads on the breather cloth at each end of the envelope bag border. (h) Place the vacuum connector and vacuum gauge bases on the pads. (i) Surround the part with the vacuum bag film. To form the bag as shown in Figure 6-38, seal the bag along three edges using the vacuum bag sealant. (j) Make small slits in the vacuum bag film over the center of the vacuum connector and vacuum gauge bases. Install the vacuum connector and gauge into their respective bases and tighten. Connect the vacuum hose to the vacuum connector. (k) Apply vacuum pressure to the bag. Smooth the wrinkles in the bag as air is evacuated while continuing to work the bagging film into the vacuum bag sealant. Check for audible leaks and repair them as necessary. The vacuum bag gauge must read at least 20 inches of mercury. If a minimum of 20 inches of mercury cannot be obtained and/or audible leaks cannot be eliminated, rebag the repair using new bagging materials. (l) Prior to installing the part in the oven, remove the vacuum gauge and connect a vacuum sensor line. Connect the sensor line to the oven vacuum gauge. If using an oven not equipped with a part vacuum gauge, run the vacuum sensor line outside of the oven and install the gauge to the end of the sensor line outside the oven. k. Adhesive Cure Processes. Epoxy resins are used for adhesives and prepregs for both the manufacture and repair of advanced composite structures. They consist essentially of a base resin and a curing agent. The cure process involves an irreversible chemical reaction between these two main constituents. This reaction is typified by the polymerization of epoxy molecules into large molecular chains and a joining or cross-linking of these chains into a strong three dimensional network. The process is exothermic, i.e. heat liberating. The inadequate curing of a patch or adhesive material will result in insufficient crosslinking of molecular chains and low strength repairs.

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TEMPERATURE (F)

(1) Two Part Adhesive Cure Process. For most two part adhesives, the cure is initiated by mixing, in prescribed amounts, the base resin (part A) and the curing agent (part B). Both parts are initially a liquid. Most two part adhesive systems can be cured at either room temperature or by heat application. NOTE The following information applies to those two part adhesive systems identified by Note in Table 6-1. (a) The chemical reaction between the base resin and the curing agent occurs at room temperature and is exothermic. Once these resin systems have been mixed, they have a limited pot life (usable working life). During the cure process, the resin system progresses from a liquid to a weak gel and then into a strong, highly structured solid. Pressure (either positive or vacuum) is applied during the cure to facilitate resin flow, degassing, compaction and to ensure bonded details remain in contact while the chemical reaction is in progress. The resin system can be sanded after 8 hours. Full strength of the resin system is not achieved until 5-7 days after the initial mixing of the base resin and the curing agent (unless heat is applied). (b) The cure process can be shortened by applying heat to accelerate the reaction. To prevent a runaway reaction, allow the exotherm to be exhausted at room temperature before any heat is applied. In some cases, the cure strength can be increased by raising the cure temperature. For example, wet layup patches manufactured from EA956 laminating resin and cured at 250F are 25% stronger than those cured at 190F. Some two part resin systems require heat to be applied for the cure to take place. (c) Cure cycle requirements are provided in Table 6-1. Cure cycles defined in part specific SRMs take precedence over Table 6-1 and should be referred to for further guidance. A typical two part adhesive heat cure cycle is shown in Figure 6-39. (d) Two Part Adhesive Room Temperature Cure Cycle. CAUTION DO NOT allow the temperature to fall below 75F during the cure process or strength will be compromised. (This cure cycle applies only to materials identified in Table 6-1).

HOLD AT ROOM TEMP CURE TEMP

RISE TO TEMP

SOAK

COOL DOWN

75 0
TIME

Figure 6-39. Typical Two Part Adhesive Heat Cure Cycle

1 Weigh and mix part A and part B in the correct amount as described in paragraph 5-5a. Ensure that both parts are thoroughly mixed. 2 Apply the adhesive to the repair area. Ensure that pressure is applied to the repair before the adhesive pot life is exceeded. Use one of the methods specified in paragraph 6-7j. 3 Allow the material to set at room temperature under pressure for a minimum of 8 hours. 4 After 8 hours at room temperature, pressure may be removed even though the full cure strength will not achieved for another 112 hours. (e) Two Part Adhesive Heat Cure Cycle (Heat Blanket Method). 1 Weigh and mix part A and part B in the correct amount as described in paragraph 5-5a. Ensure that both parts are thoroughly mixed. 2 Apply the adhesive to repair area. Install a heat blanket and vacuum bag or heat/vacuum blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5) or 6-7j(6) before the adhesive pot life is exceeded. 3 If required per Table 6-1, allow the material to set at room temperature under 20 inches of mercury vacuum minimum for the time specified in Table 6-1. 4 Heat the repair area to the temperature specified in Table 6-1 for the type of material being cured, at a rate of 2-6F per minute. Maintain the vacuum pressure specified in Table 6-1 during the entire cure cycle.

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CAUTION To prevent blistering, delaminations or disbonds from occurring, DO NOT set or adjust temperature controller higher than the upper limit for the cure temperature range specified in Table 6-1. NOTE Apply additional insulation (vacuum bag breather material) over heat blanket as required to assist in obtaining the desired cure temperature. 5 Adjust the temperature controller to bring all thermocouples (control and monitoring) within the Table 6-1 cure temperature range. 6 Upon the coldest thermocouple reaching the cure temperature range, begin a timed soak at temperature as specified in Table 6-1. Continuously monitor and record all thermocouples to ensure the cure temperature range is maintained during the soak period. 7 After the soak at temperature is complete, cool to 150F at a rate not to exceed 5F per minute. 8 Upon reaching 150F, the heat blanket and vacuum bag materials (or heat/vacuum blanket) may be removed. (2) Film Adhesive Cure Process. Film adhesives are provided in a solid film. (a) The chemical reaction for curing the film adhesive requires the application of heat to activate the curing agent. During the initial application of heat and pressure, the film melts and the viscosity decreases allowing the adhesive to flow (to wet out the surfaces being bonded and/or to allow filleting with honeycomb core). As the rise to cure temperature continues, the chemical reaction progresses and the viscosity begins to increase. As the final cure temperature is approached (within 50F), the reaction progresses in earnest; heat is liberated by the reaction and resin gelation occurs. It is important during the rise to temperature to remain within the rise rate parameters. This ensures adequate adhesive flow is achieved. During the soak at cure temperature, the cure progresses to completion resulting in a strong, highly structured solid. Pressure (positive or vacuum) is applied for the same purposes as discussed paragraph 6-7k(1)(a).
LAP SHEAR STRENGTH (PSI) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

LAP SHEAR STRENGTH (220 F/WET) FM300 ADHESIVE

350 F 1 HR

300 F 4 HR

275 F 4 HR CURE CYCLE

250 F 4 HR

225 F 4 HR

Figure 6-40. The Effect of Undercuring on Adhesive Strength

(b) To reduce the possibility of causing thermal damage to parts during a repair cure cycle, a reduced temperature, extended time cure cycle as shown in Table 6-3 may be employed. While it is possible to achieve adequate adhesive strength with this reduced temperature, extended time cure, make certain that undercuring does not occur. Undercuring (curing below the lower limit of the cure cycle) can be caused by heat blanket cold edge effects or substructure heat sinking. Undercuring can result in unacceptably low strength values (see Figure 6-40). However, even when a reduced temperature, extended time cure cycle is employed, care must be exercised to ensure the minimum cure temperature is obtained without overheating the part. Carefully monitor the heat blanket thermocouples to ensure the required cure temperatures are attained without exceeding the maximum temperature limit specified in Table 6-3. (c) Cure cycle requirements are provided in Table 6-3. Cure cycles defined in the part specific SRMs take precedence over Table 6-3 and should be referred to for further guidance. A typical film adhesive cure cycle is shown in Figure 6-41. (d) Film Adhesive Cure Cycle (Heat Blanket Method). 1 Install a heat blanket and vacuum bag as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). 2 Apply a minimum of 20 inches of mercury vacuum and maintain during the remainder of the cure cycle. 3 Heat the repair area to the temperature specified in Table 6-3 for the type of material being cured, at a rate of 2-6F per minute.

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Table 6-3. Film/Foaming Adhesive Cure Cycles


MATERIAL CURE CYCLE CURE TEMPERATURE SOAK TIME APPROX. CYCLE TIME REMARKS / NOTES

1a FM300 1b

350 10 F

1 hour

4 hours 15 minutes

,
Reduced temperature, extended time cure , ,

305 15 F

4 hours

6 hours 45 minutes

FM300-2

245 15 F

2 hours

4 hours 15 minutes

, ,

3a Reliabond 3981 Metlbond 3291 Reliabond 350 3b

350 10 F

1 hour

4 hours 15 minutes

,
Reduced temperature, extended time cure

320 10 F

1 hour 30 minutes

4 hours 30 minutes

4a FM404 4b

350 10 F

1 hour

4 hours 15 minutes

,
Reduced temperature cure , , , Positive pressure cure , ,

305 15 F

1 hours

2 hours 45 minutes

5a FM410-1

245 15 F

1 hour

3 hours

Vacuum cure 5b 245 15 F 1 hour 3 hours

, ,

NOTES: All cure cycles use a temperature rise rate of 2-6 F/minute and a maximum cool down rate of 5 F/minute Apply a minimum of 20 inches of mercury vacuum during entire cure cycle Recommended for repair Apply positive pressure only A subsequent FM300 patch bond cure cycle is required if this cure cycle is used Apply 5-10 inches of mercury vacuum during entire cure cycle A subsequent FM300-2 patch bond cure cycle is required if this cure cycle is used

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RISE TO TEMP TEMPERATURE (F) CURE TEMP

SOAK

COOL DOWN

75 0
TIME

(a) As heat is applied during the cure process, the film softens, the blowing agent liberates an inert gas (and heat) and film expansion takes place. The expanded foam is then cured into a strong, highly structured foam. For FM404 foaming adhesive, use only positive pressure during the expansion process as the application of vacuum pressure results in overexpansion and significantly reduced strength. (b) As with the film adhesive cure, it is desirable to perform a reduced temperature, extended time cure. However, make certain that undercuring does not occur. Undercuring (curing below the reduced temperature cure lower limit) results in low strength, underexpansion and sometimes total lack of expansion of the foaming adhesive. (c) Cure cycle requirements and overall cycle times are provided in Table 6-3. Cure cycles defined in part specific SRMs take precedence over Table 6-3 and should be referred to for further guidance. (d) Foaming Adhesive Positive Pressure Cure Cycle. CAUTION Use only positive pressure when expanding FM404 foaming adhesive. DO NOT use vacuum pressure or overexpansion and significantly reduced strength will result. Apply a heat blanket to both sides of honeycomb sandwich parts thicker than 1.0 inch. This will ensure adequate heat to expand the foaming adhesive. Ensure 100% contact is achieved between heat blanket and part contour during cure. 1 Install a heat blanket per paragraph 6-7j(5) and apply positive pressure as described in paragraph 6-7j(3). 2 Heat the repair area to the temperature specified in Table 6-3 for the type of material being cured, at a rate of 2-6F per minute. CAUTION To prevent blistering, delaminations or disbonds from occurring, DO NOT set or adjust temperature controller higher than the upper limit for the cure temperature range specified in Table 6-3.

Figure 6-41. Typical Film Adhesive Cure Cycle CAUTION To prevent blistering, delaminations or disbonds from occurring, DO NOT set or adjust temperature controller higher than the upper limit for the cure temperature range specified in Table 6-3. NOTE Apply additional insulation (vacuum bag breather material) over heat blanket as required to assist in obtaining the desired cure temperature. 4 Adjust the temperature controller to bring all thermocouples (control and monitoring) within the cure temperature range specified in Table 6-3. CAUTION Undercuring and a weak bond will result if the coldest thermocouple does not reach the lower limit for the cure temperature specified in Table 6-3. 5 Upon the coldest thermocouple reaching the cure temperature range, begin a timed soak at temperature as specified in Table 6-3. Continuously monitor and record all thermocouples to ensure the cure temperature range is maintained during the soak period. 6 After the soak at temperature is complete, cool to 150F at a rate not to exceed 5F per minute. 7 Upon reaching 150F, the heat blanket and vacuum bag materials may be removed. (3) Foaming Adhesive Cure Process. At room temperature the uncured material is a solid, tacky film.

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NOTE Apply additional insulation (vacuum bag breather material) over heat blanket as required to assist in obtaining the desired cure temperature. 3 Adjust the temperature controller to bring all thermocouples (control and monitoring) within the Table 6-3 cure temperature range. CAUTION Undercuring and a weak bond will result if the coldest thermocouple does not reach the lower limit for the cure temperature specified in Table 6-3. 4 Upon the coldest thermocouple reaching the cure temperature range, begin a timed soak at temperature as specified in Table 6-3. Continuously monitor and record all thermocouples to ensure the cure temperature range is maintained during the soak period. 5 After the soak at temperature is complete, cool to 150F at a rate not to exceed 5F per minute. 6 blanket(s). 7 If Cure Cycle 4b, 5a, or 5b in Table 6-3 was used, perform the final cure of the foaming adhesive during the patch bond adhesive cure. l. Repair Verification. Uncured epoxy materials are sensitive to temperature, moisture and contamination. Proper handling must be verified to ensure material integrity has not been compromised prior to use. They require a carefully controlled application of heat and pressure for cure. Monitoring of repair materials (to include initial receipt, shelf-life and handling), verification of the cure process and nondestructive inspection of the repair and repair area must be performed to verify the adequacy of the repair. Some common handling and processing errors are shown in Table 6-4. (1) Uncured Epoxy Materials. Upon reaching 150F, remove heat

(c) Ensure the film adhesives used have been stored at 0F or below in MIL-B-131 heat sealed, watervaporproof bags. (d) Ensure the materials used reach room temperature before opening the containers or sealed bags (a minimum of 2 hours for film adhesives). (e) Ensure the materials used are prepared in a controlled temperature, humidity and contamination free environment as described in paragraph 9-2. (f) If materials are applied to the part in an uncontrolled environment, ensure the material application and vacuum bag installation are expedited to minimize exposure. (g) Ensure that unused uncured materials remaining after completing the repair are returned to cold storage (0F for film adhesives) as soon as possible. Ensure film adhesives are placed in MIL-B-131 watervaporproof bags and heat sealed prior to replacement in 0F storage as described in paragraph 5-5b(5). (2) Cure Process Verification.

(a) The cure process is verified by reviewing the cure cycle data. If the temperature controller printer is inoperative or if a printer is not available, manually record the temperature at 2 minute intervals during rise to temperature and during cool down, and at 15 minute intervals during the soak. Ensure the rise rate is between 2-6F per minute, soak time and temperature requirements (per Table 6-1 or 6-3) were met, and the cool rate did not exceed 5F per minute. (b) For patch bonds, inspect the adhesive squeeze out at the patch periphery. Adhesive squeeze out should be hard with a smooth fillet (see Figure 6-42). (3) Nondestructive Inspection. Inspect the patch and patch to part bondline for delaminations, voids or disbonds. Any area of the part subjected to cure temperatures above the service temperature of the material the part was made from must also be inspected nondestructively. If an oven was used, perform 100% inspection of the part. If a heat blanket was used, inspect the entire area under the heat blanket. Inspect for skin delaminations or skin to bonded detail disbonds per paragraph 3-3. See paragraph 2-1b and 2-1c for a discussion of material service temperatures.

(a) Initial Receipt. If film adhesives were received without dry ice in the shipping container, ensure a material evaluation test as described in paragraph 5-6 has been performed prior to use. (b) Shelf-Life Determination. Ensure that the film adhesive used is within shelf-life.

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Table 6-4. Common Bonded Repair Errors


COMMON ERRORS RESULTS

Incomplete mixing/incorrect mix ratio of 2 part adhesives

- Weak repair

Failure to apply pressure before 2 part adhesive gels

- Inadequate bond pressure - Poor fit of repair details - Weak/porous repair

Cool down from cure temperature too fast (exceeds 5 F/minute)

- Microcracking of laminate - Weak repair

Poor fitup of repair details - or Loss of pressure during cure

- Inadequate bond pressure - Weak/porous repair - Migration of repair details

Rise to temperature too slow

- Early gelation - Inadequate flow - Weak/porous repair

Rise to temperature too fast

- Excess heat liberated during cure - Possible thermal damage to part - Weak repair

Cure temperature too low - or Cure time too short

- Undercured material - Weak repair

Cure temperature too high - or Failure to exhaust exotherm (2 part adhesive) before applying heat Storing adhesive/prepreg at ambient temperature - or Using expired shelf-life materials Failure to thaw adhesive/prepreg before opening sealed bag - or Storing adhesive/prepreg in unsealed bags Inadequate drying - or Failure to dry part before repair

- Thermal damage to part - Thermal degradation of repair materials - Weak repair

- Excess resin advancement - Poor flow characteristics - Weak bond

- Condensation of moisture on material - Weak porous repair

- Skin to core unbond/laminate blistering - Weak/porous repair

Improper surface preparation - or Bond surface contaminated after surface preparation

- Contaminated bond surface - Poor bond durability - Weak bond

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ADHESIVE HARD

PATCH

ADHESIVE TACKY OR SOFT

(b) Install the required number of thermocouples as described above and connect to temperature measuring device. Ensure proper operation of all thermocouples. (3) Apply heating device (if required). If a heat blanket and vacuum bag are used, apply as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). If a heat/vacuum blanket is used, apply as described in paragraph 6-7j(6). Install an envelope bag if used per paragraph 6-7j(7). If a heat lamp is used, position the heat lamp using guidance provided in paragraph 67j(4)(c). If an oven is used, ensure oven is at ambient temperature before installation part and note position of part in oven. (4) Begin heating to the hold temperature using the specified cure cycle (Table 6-1 or Table 6-3). Record temperatures at 1 minute intervals during the rise to hold temperature. (5) Ensure thermocouples in the bond area reach the minimum required hold temperature without exceeding the maximum hold temperature for at least 15 minutes. Record temperatures at 5 minutes intervals during the hold phase. (6) Evaluate the recorded temperature data. If the required rise rate and hold temperature are achieved, note the location of the hottest and coldest thermocouples. In general, only the hottest and coldest thermocouples will be required for the required for the subsequent cure cycle. Use the hottest thermocouple as the control and the coldest thermocouple(s) for monitoring purposes. (7) If the required rise rate or hold temperature can not be achieved within the limits of specified cure cycle, the heat survey was unsuccessful and must be repeated. During subsequent heat survey attempts, use of a larger heat blanket, additional insulation, and additional heating devices may improve results. If a successful heat survey still is not achieved, contact cognizant depot engineering for assistance. 6-8. INJECTION REPAIR PROCESSES. Advanced composite structures often experience damage in the form of ply delaminations and matrix cracks. The damage may be either open or closed to an edge (see Figure 6-43). Delaminations and cracks which are not open to an edge are difficult to repair via the injection method. The method often suggested to repair this type of damage is to drill a series of holes around the cracked/delaminated area and inject those holes with resin (see Figure 6-44). This method is usually unsuccessful. Matrix cracks and delaminations are often too small and are not interconnected. The currently available resin systems do not possess sufficient flow

CURE MAY BE ACCEPTABLE

UNDERCURED

POOR FLOW (RESIN ADVANCED/ HEAT UP TOO SLOW)

LACK OF FILLET (POOR FIT UP/LACK OF PRESSURE)

Figure 6-42. Inspection of Adhesive Squeeze Out Following Cure m. Heat Survey. A heat survey is performed on parts requiring an elevated temperature heat cycle during the repair process. The survey is performed without the material being cured to determine if the required cure cycle parameters (rise rate and hold temperature) can be achieved. It is required when specified by a part specific structural repair manual, engineering direction or when the ability to obtain the proper cure cycle parameters is in question (e.g., repair near the edge of a part, repair over substructure heat sinks, low ambient temperature, etc.). (1) General Requirements.

(a) Use the same heating device(s), insulation, vacuum bag installation (if used) and ambient temperature conditions that will be used to perform the repair. (b) Use sufficient thermocouples taped to the part surface (approximately one for every 4-5 square inches of heat affected area) to determine the temperature distribution. Use additional thermocouples near the edge of part, over a heat sink, in thicker sections, etc. (c) Temperatures shall be measured and recorded using a temperature measuring device (the temperature/vacuum controller, paragraph 8-6, can be used for temperature measuring). If the temperature measuring device does not record temperature, a log of time versus temperature shall be created and the data manually recorded. (d) Draw a sketch of the part, heating device and thermocouple locations to aid in evaluating the heat survey. (2) Perform Heat Survey As Follows:

(a) If a precured patch is to be secondarily bonded, apply patch to part without adhesive using high temperature tape. If patch requires curing or is cocured, omit patch and adhesive (if applicable) from layup.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

capability to infiltrate them (see Figure 6-45). Hence, application of injection repair techniques is limited to delaminations which are either open to an edge or involve a clearly defined blister. a. General. There are two types of injection repair: positive pressure injection and vacuum injection. Positive pressure injection involves drilling holes into the delaminated area and injecting them with resin. It is used when a leak path exists, i.e. a delamination open to an edge or a blister. The vacuum injection method involves using a vacuum to remove air from the delaminated area, allowing resin to flow into the void. It is used in areas where little or no airflow is possible and the delamination is too close to an edge to allow drilling injection holes, such as small area delaminations in and around fastener holes. b. Adhesive Characteristics. Injection repairs utilize a low viscosity liquid adhesive to facilitate flow into tight matrix cracks and delaminations. The viscosity of most adhesives at room temperature is too high for successful injection. Adhesive viscosity is reduced at higher temperatures; however, heating the adhesive causes an increase in the rate of polymerization, reducing the work life of the material. Figure 6-46 is a graph representing the viscosity of a liquid adhesive, EA956, versus time (in minutes) at a constant temperature of 125F. As the adhesive is mixed and brought up to temperature, the viscosity drops to its minimum value in about 20 minutes. After reaching minimum viscosity, gelation occurs rapidly. After about 10 minutes at 125F, the resin becomes too viscous for successful injection to occur. There is a tradeoff between insuring a reasonable viscosity for injection and insuring an adequate pot life to complete the injection. Heating the adhesive to its minimum viscosity temperature before injection may result in gelation occurring too quickly. Instead, heat the delaminated area to the minimum viscosity temperature prior to performing the injection to facilitate adhesive flow and ensure sufficient work life prior to adhesive gelation. c. Damage Classification. NDI must first be performed on the component to determine location, depth and perimeter of the damage. The information obtained from NDI will determine which injection repair method is to be used. d. Positive Pressure Injection Repair. This method is used when positive airflow through the laminate is possible. The method involves drilling injection holes, heating the delaminated area to the minimum viscosity temperature of the adhesive (120-130F for EA956), and injecting the resin into an injection hole using positive pressure. The adhesive is injected into one hole until it flows out free of bubbles, either from another injection hole (in the case of

MAP OF ULTRASONIC SCAN

CLOSED TO AN EDGE

MAP OF ULTRASONIC SCAN

DELAMINATION
3 INC H
2 H C IN

OPEN TO AN EDGE

Figure 6-43. Types of Delaminations

INJECT WITH ADHESIVE APPLY PRESSURE HEAT TO CURE ADHESIVE

Figure 6-44. Injection Repair

INTRAPLY MATRIX CRACKS

INTERPLY DELAMINATION

INJECTION REPAIRS ARE UNSUCCESSFUL DUE TO: TIGHT MATRIX CRACKS MATRIX CRACKS NOT INTERCONNECTED

Figure 6-45. Impact Damage Injection Repair

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1,000,000 500,000

6-9.

BOLTED REPAIR PROCESSES.

100,000

50,000

10,000 5,000

a. Patch Preparation. Cutting, forming and shaping a metallic repair patch must be accomplished before attaching the patch to the damaged structure. For bolted metallic repairs on the F/A-18, the repair patches are stocked preshaped and predrilled. On other aircraft, the patches must be formed from sheet stock. The methods used to fabricate, shape and drill the repair patch will depend upon the type of patch material. Refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-9 for metal working practices for the metal being used. For bolted repairs on carbon composite structures, an aluminum alloy (7075-T76) or titanium alloy (6Al-4V) is preferred. The use of stainless steels as a substitute for aluminum or titanium is generally acceptable. (1) Grinding. (a) Precautionary Measures. WARNING
80

VISCOSITY, CENTIPOISE

1,000 500

EA956 ISOTHERM AT 50 C (122 F) HEAT AT 1 C/MIN (1.8 F/MIN) TO 50 C (122 F) PARALLEL PLATE SHEAR 10 RAD/SEC, 20% STRAIN
0 20 40 60

100

TIME, MINUTES
27 35 50 81 95 122 TEMPERATURE C F

Figure 6-46. EA956 Isothermal Rheological Response

A fire hazard exists when grinding titanium as dry titanium dust can be easily ignited. No open flame or spark producing operation shall be performed in an area containing titanium dust or chips. Wear goggles to protect eyes when grinding metals. 1 Use a liberal amount of coolant to rapidly quench all sparks during grinding. 2 Titanium dust should not be allowed to accumulate in the work area. Therefore, all external surfaces of the machinery should be kept clean and clear of titanium dust. 3 A fire extinguisher with dry powder should be accessible whenever a grinding operation is performed. (b) Equipment. Use only machines equipped with controllable speed and a coolant flow regulator to grind titanium. All grinding wheels used should be silicone carbide. These grinding wheels should be kept sharp by redressing thus preventing load up and surface feature irregularities, such as discoloration, smearing or glazing. (2) Cutting. This task uses practices and tooling available at the intermediate level.

a blister) or out of an open edge. A lack of bubbles indicates that the air in the delamination has been replaced by adhesive. The maximum time allowed for this to occur is the gel time of the adhesive, about 15-20 minutes for EA956. External pressure is then applied to the delaminated area, and the adhesive cured per Table 6-1, Cure Cycle 1 or 2. NDI is performed again after the repair is complete to insure successful injection. e. Vacuum Injection Repair. This method is used when little or no airflow is possible, such as delaminations around fastener holes. The delaminated area is heated to the minimum viscosity temperature of the adhesive, then adhesive is added to a vacuum chamber which has been placed over the delaminated area. The adhesive is maintained at this minimum viscosity temperature under vacuum to allow outgassing of air and/or volatiles, then vented to atmosphere to force the resin into the delaminated area. The vacuum chamber is then removed and a fastener or clamp is installed to provide positive pressure for curing the adhesive. NDI is performed on the delaminated area when the repair is complete to ensure successful injection.

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(a) Standard cutting saws and shears can be used if kept sharp and within adjustment. (b) While using a band saw, the blade may have a tendency to tear and clog. If the saw blade is allowed to ride across the metal, the surface tends to work harden. Therefore, fairly heavy pressure is required on the metal during sawing. (c) If rough edges remain after cutting, the affected area requires filing to prevent cracking. All burrs, grooves, scratches and sharp corners must be filed smooth before forming and assembly. (d) Do not cut titanium with cadmium plated tools. Cadmium will cause corrosion in titanium alloys. b. Blind Side Drilling. Locating and drilling blind holes can be difficult. These holes must be accurately transferred from the original structure to the replacement part or repair. Four different methods of blind side drilling are described below. Each method has distinct features that offers advantages over an alternate method depending upon surface geometry, number of holes being drilled and part rigidity. The methods described are the hole finder method, blind hole transfer punches, measuring and scaling method, and the hydrocal method. The hole finder and blind hole transfer punches are generally used on relatively flat parts such as replacement skins. Holes in parts with compound curvature or extrusions can be accurately transferred using the measuring and scaling method. The hydrocal method is used when close tolerances must be maintained. When drilling through composites, guidelines specified in paragraph 6-4 should be followed. Always use the Align-A-Drill where possible. The Align-A-Drill, along with a sharp carbide dagger drill, will help reduce splintering on the drill exit side by controlling the breakout force of the drill. (1) Hole Finder Method. The hole finder can be constructed in a variety of special shapes, sizes and materials. Temporary, one time use tools can be quickly assembled from scraps of a hardened aluminum alloy and a rivet of the desired size. If a large number of holes are to be drilled, use a prefabricated tool or construct the hole finder from steel with a steel drill bushing. Figure 6-47 shows a general design for constructing and using a hole finder. The following procedures describe how to locate blind holes with a hole finder. (a) Replacement part with some pilot holes. 1 Fabricate the hole finder using Figure 6-47 as a guide.

2 structure.

Place the replacement part on the

3 Install temporary fasteners in any full size holes in the replacement part. If no full size holes are drilled, secure the part in place with tape. 4 Use the hole finder to check the alignment of each pilot hole with the corresponding hole in the structure. 5 Remove the part from the structure and enlarge several pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. 6 Reinstall the replacement part on the structure with temporary fasteners in the full size holes. Recheck the part for hole alignment. CAUTION Make sure drill bit does not damage substructure. 7 Using the hole finder, locate and drill any remaining pilot hole locations on the replacement part. 8 Remove the replacement part from the structure and enlarge the remaining pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. 9 Deburr any holes drilled in metal.

(b) Replacement part without pilot holes. 1 Fabricate the hole finder using Figure 6-47 as a guide. 2 structure. 3 Install temporary fasteners in any full size holes in the replacement part. If no full size holes are drilled, secure the part in place with tape. CAUTION Make sure drill bit does not damage substructure. Place the replacement part on the

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

HOLE FINDER

EXISTING HOLES REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT PART

A
0.625 INCH

HOLE LOCATIONS ARE TRANSFERRED TO NEW PART

A
PILOT HOLE 0.098 INCH NUMBER 40 DRILL

SPACER ONE GAUGE THICKER THAN REPAIR PATCH 2 INCHES

AS REQUIRED RIVET SIZE THAT MATCHES EXISTING HOLES STRAPS 0.050 INCHES THICK

DRILL HOLE FOR RIVET UNDER SIZEPRESS RIVET IN PLACESTAKE RIVET IN STRAP

SECTION A-A

Figure 6-47. Hole Finder Method 4 Using the hole finder, locate and drill several pilot hole locations on the replacement part. 5 Remove the replacement part from the structure and enlarge the pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. 6 Reinstall the replacement part on the structure with temporary fasteners in the full size holes. Recheck the part for hole alignment. CAUTION Make sure drill bit does not damage substructure. 7 Using the hole finder, locate and drill any remaining pilot hole locations on the replacement part. 8 Remove the replacement part from the structure and enlarge the remaining pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. 9 Deburr any holes drilled in metal.

(2) Blind Hole Transfer Punches. The blind hole transfer punch method is a simple, easy method of accurately transferring blind holes into a part. This method uses prick punches inserted into the existing fastener holes. The replacement part is positioned over the punches such that the hole centerline is transferred to the new part. Figure 6-48 graphically depicts this hole transfer method. This should only be used on metal replacement parts. (a) Gauge fastener holes to determine the hole sizes in the existing structure. (b) Find the part number of the blind hole transfer punches from Figure 6-48 corresponding in size to the hole diameter. (c) Insert the proper punches into the fastener holes to be transferred. 6-65

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

NEW PART

DRAW INTERSECTING LINES THROUGH EXISTING HOLES, PAST AREA OF PATCH OR DOOR

TD157D-1

EXISTING STRUCTURE
WITH REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT PART IN POSITION, PLACE SCALE ALONG UNCOVERED PART OF LINES AND PROJECT THEM ON REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT PART. DRILL PILOT HOLE.

EXISTING 0.098 HOLES

Figure 6-49. Measuring and Scaling Method and extruded shapes. This technique uses either a line passing through the center of a hole with markings measured a predetermined distance from the centerpoint or two lines passing through the center of a hole to locate blind holes. Figure 6-49 illustrates this method as described below.
TOOL NO. TD157D-18 TD157D-19 TD157D-20 TD157D-21 TD157D-22 TD157D-23 TD157D-24 TD157D-25 TD157D-26 TD157D-27 TD157D-28 TD157D-29 TD157D-30 TD157D-31 TD157D-32 TD157D-33 A 0.434 0.496 0.1240 0.1905 0.1865 0.165 0.1865 0.199 0.215 0.180 0.173 0.375 0.280 0.195 0.376 0.505 B 0.500 0.563 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 1.25 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.200 0.250 0.165 0.315 0.315

A
TOOL NO. TD157D-1 TD157D-2 TD157D-3 TD157D-4 TD157D-5 TD157D-6 TD157D-7 TD157D-8 TD157D-9 TD157D-10 TD157D-11 TD157D-12 TD157D-13 TD157D-14 TD157D-15 TD157D-16 TD157D-17 A 0.096 0.1265 0.157 0.1915 0.250 0.312 0.588 0.1875 0.250 0.312 0.186 0.238 0.245 0.253 0.303 0.308 0.370 B 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.365 0.315 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.313 0.313 0.313 0.375 0.375 0.438

(a) Using a marking pen or pencil, complete one of the following: 1 Draw a line through the center of each existing fastener hole in the structure. Mark off a measured distance on each line from the center of each existing hole. 2 At each fastener hole, draw two lines intersecting at the hole center. (b) Position and align the new part on the

Figure 6-48. Blind Hole Transfer Punch Method (d) Align the new part over the transfer punches. (e) Lightly tap the part over each transfer punch. (f) Remove the part from the structure and pilot drill each transfer punch location. (g) Enlarge the pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. (h) Deburr the holes in the new part. (3) Measuring and Scaling Method. The measuring and scaling method provides an accurate method of transferring blind holes from parts with complex curvature

structure. (c) Install temporary fasteners in any full size fastener holes in the replacement part to secure the part in position. If no full size fastener holes exist in the replacement part, tape the part in position. (d) Place a straight edge along each of the uncovered lines previously marked and transfer these lines onto the replacement part. If the two intersecting lines method in step (a)2 was used, the fastener locations on the replacement part are at the intersecting lines on the replacement part. If the measuring method in step (a)1 was used, mark the fastener hole locations on the replacement part by transferring the measured distance onto the projected lines. (e) If any pilot or full size holes exist in the replacement part, inspect and compare the alignment of each hole location in the new part to the holes in the original structure. If only pilot holes exist in the new part, adjust the

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

part so as many of the pilot holes as possible are located in the center of the existing holes in the structure. If adjusted, repeat paragraph (d) above to ensure all hole centerlines are properly located. (f) If the new part has previously drilled pilot holes, complete the following: 1 Remove the part from the structure.

Solvent

(e) Clean repair area with rymplecloth saturated with solvent (Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6). (f) to be drilled. Apply tape over any drain holes in the area

2 Enlarge the pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. 3 Reinstall part with temporary fasteners.

(g) Apply petrolatum (Table 5-5, Item 26) over an area approximately 3 inches wide on each side of the fastener rows. The petrolatum acts as a release agent to keep the Hydrocal from sticking to the part. (h) Install drill bushings into the fastener and index holes. Ensure bushing size corresponds with hole size. (i) as follows: 1 For fastener holes requiring threaded fasteners, install the proper size bolt into the bushing. Washers may be used under the bolt heads to get the correct grip length, if required. Engage the nuts and tighten. 2 For fastener holes requiring permanent fasteners, install a temporary sheet metal fastener through the bushing and tighten. (j) Mix hydrocal (Table 5-5, Item 22) and water using a 2:1 ratio to a putty consistency. Mix an amount sufficient to cover 2 inches on each side of the bushings and be approximately 0.5 inches thick. (k) Apply an initial layer of the hydrocal mixture on the surface around the bushings. (l) Apply a layer of cheesecloth on the hydrocal mixture. (m) Apply an additional layer of the hydrocal mixture over the cheesecloth. (n) Clean any putty mixture from around the fastener heads. (o) Allow the putty mixture to cure at room temperature for one hour. (p) Inspect the hydrocal mixture to ensure the material has solidified. (q) Remove all fasteners from the bushings. 6-67 Install fasteners through the drill bushings

(g) If the new part is made from advanced composites, pilot drill 0.098 inch diameter holes at the intersection marks. If the new part is metal, center punch the intersection mark. CAUTION DO NOT centerpunch advanced composites. (h) Remove the part from the structure. (i) Enlarge the pilot holes to full size. Use several intermediate size drills to bring holes to final size. Be careful to keep drills centered on the fastener holes. (j) If the replacement part is metal, deburr holes. If the part is advanced composites, no additional steps are required. (4) Hydrocal Method. This method can successfully transfer blind holes and maintain a Class II tolerance (+0.0025/-0.000 inch). This method uses Hydrocal plaster to form a rigid drill blanket from the part being repaired or replaced. Figure 6-50 illustrates how this method is used with the following procedures: (a) Remove fasteners from the damaged part. (b) Inspect the fastener holes to insure the holes are within tolerance. (c) Identify the nearest fastener holes outside the damaged region. Locate a fastener location outside of the damage region at each end of each fastener line to be transferred. These will be the index holes for the hydrocal blanket. Refer to Figure 6-50. (d) Remove fasteners from the index holes.

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

INDEX HOLES

(r) Carefully remove the hydrocal drill blankets from the surface.
INDEX HOLES

(s) Remove the damaged part. (t) as required. Clean the damaged and surrounding area

(u) Inspect the fastener holes in the mating structure to insure the holes are within tolerance. (v) Position and temporarily secure the replacement part on the structure. Trim the new part as required.
INDEX HOLES INDEX HOLES

(w) Once part is trimmed to size and properly positioned, align the hydrocal drill blankets on the surface using the index holes. (x) Insert fasteners through the index hole bushings and tighten.

Composite Materials

(y) Drill fastener holes in new part. (z) Remove the fasteners from the drill blanket and remove the drill blanket. (aa) If the holes were transferred to metal structure, remove the part and deburr the holes.
INSTALL DRILL BUSHINGS AND FASTENERS THOUGH INDEX HOLES AND HOLES TO BE DRILLED

c.

Drilling/Reaming Patch and Skin.

(1) General. Fastener holes must be drilled in the patch and skin to complete a bolted repair. Through these fastener holes, the repair plate will be attached to the damaged area with mechanical fasteners. For efficient load transfer, a Class II tolerance (+0.0025/-0.000 inch) is generally recommended for structural repairs in composites. Refer to paragraph 4-3b for additional information. The following procedures and the guidelines in paragraph 6-4g for drilling and reaming are suggested for obtaining the best quality holes. (2)
INSTALL HYDROCAL DRILL BLANKETS APPROXIMATELY 0.5 INCH THICK AND 2 INCHES ON EITHER SIDE OF BUSHINGS

Procedures.

(a) Layout the fastener pattern on a cardboard template. Use weapons system specific SRMs for specific patch geometry and fastener patterns.

Figure 6-50. Hydrocal Drill Blanket Method

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(b) Ensure all damage has been removed, if required. Reference paragraph 6-3 for damage removal guidelines. (c) Position the cardboard template on the shaped metal patch for a lap patch repair, or on the damaged skin for a flush patch repair. Tape the template into position. (d) Drill pilot holes through the template into the adjoining material. Be careful not to damage substructure if drilling through composite skin. Remove the template when all pilot holes are drilled. (e) Position the repair plate in the corresponding location on the damaged structure. Secure the plate in place. (f) Match drill one corner pilot hole through the pilot drilled structure and the adjoining material. Secure with a temporary fastener. (g) Match drill the opposite corner pilot hole through the pilot drilled structure and the adjoining material. Secure with a temporary fastener. (h) Match drill the remaining pilot holes through the pilot drilled structure and the adjoining material. Secure with temporary fasteners. (i) Remove repair plate from the structure.

(o) Reattach and secure the repair to the structure through the interior holes of the repair patch. Do not install temporary fasteners in any of the corner holes. (p) Match drill the corner pilot holes through the enlarged fastener holes. (q) Ream all holes, as required. (r) Remove the repair plate from the structure.

(s) Deburr all holes. (t) Countersink fastener holes, as required.

d. Patch and Fastener Installation. Once fastener holes in the metal repair plate and the composite skin are drilled (or reamed) to full size, the metal plate can be installed on the skin with mechanical fasteners. A variety of fastener types may be used to effect the repair. Different installation and inspection procedures are required for the different type of fasteners. This section briefly describes the different fasteners commonly used in a bolted composite repair and the installation and inspection requirements for each type fastener. Also listed are some general guidelines and practices that can be applied to composite bolted repairs. Refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-8 for more information on these and other fasteners. (1) General Practices. (a) Install fasteners wet with sealant.

(j) Enlarge the pilot holes on the piece pilot drilled in (d) above. Leave the four corner fastener holes as pilot holes. Use a drill press, if available, for lap repair fastener holes through the metal plate. Otherwise, use the Align-A-Drill. Refer to paragraph 6-4j for procedures to use the Align-A-Drill. (k) Reattach the repair to the structure through the corner pilot holes with temporary fasteners. (l) Match drill the underlying pilot holes through the enlarged fastener holes. (m) Remove repair plate from the structure. (n) Enlarge the remaining pilot holes in the initially drilled structure. Use the Align-A-Drill or a drill press as described in paragraph 6-4j.

(b) Fay surface seal the mating surfaces of the metal plate and skin with sealant. (c) Do not use any hole filling rivets. Expandable rivets may cause delaminations around the fastener hole. (d) Use titanium (preferred) or corrosion resistant steel (CRES) fasteners in carbon composite structures. (e) Ensure the proper torque is used on all screws or bolts. (f) Use 100 degree countersink tension head fasteners when the countersink is in the carbon/epoxy laminate. The head of a tension fastener is 2040% larger than the head of the same diameter shear fastener. The larger head helps prevent fastener pull through and provides a larger bearing surface.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(2)

Fastener Types.

(3)

Fastener Installation.

(a) Conventional Fasteners, Hi-Lok. Hi-Loks are two-piece fasteners using a threaded pin and a collar. Advantages of Hi-Lok fasteners include their light weight, high fatigue resistance and high strength. Another advantage for using Hi-Loks is the fastener cannot be overtorqued. The collar has a regulated break-off groove which shears off at a predetermined torque, leaving the lower portion of the collar seated with the proper torque without additional torque inspections. Refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-8 for additional information on conventional fastening systems. (b) Blind Fasteners. Blind fasteners are designed for applications where only one side of the repair area is accessible. These fasteners are secured in place by a collar that deforms and bears up against the backside material. If the backside material is composite, a Composi-Lok or Composi-Lok II must be used. The Composi-Lok fasteners have a larger upset surface or footprint when installed. This larger bearing area helps prevent localized delaminations around a fastener hole. Part numbers and other descriptive information are listed in Table 5-4 for both conventional blind fasteners and Composi-Lok blind fasteners. Figure 5-5 shows some basic design differences between the Visu-Lok (Jo-Bolt) and Composi-Lok fastener. 1 Visu-Lok. This blind fastener, commonly called a jo-bolt, is for installation where the backside material is metal. The fastener consists of a preassembled nut, threaded bolt and sleeve. 2 Visu-Lok II. The Visu-Lok II is similar to the Visu-Lok except a drive nut is located on the stem of the fastener. This feature reduces logistical elements since only two nose pieces are required to install all diameters and head styles. 3 Composi-Lok. Composi-Loks are specifically designed for fastening carbon/epoxy composite joints with one side access. The Composi-Lok is similar in design to the Visu-Lok. However, once installed, the sleeve upset is larger, distributing the bearing loads over a larger area. 4 Composi-Lok II. The Composi-Lok II is similar to the Composi-Lok except a drive nut is located on the stem of the fastener. As with the Visu-Lok II fastener, the drive nut reduces installation time and reduces tooling required. With two nose adaptors, all diameters and head styles can be installed.

(a) Hi-Loks. Hi-Loks are designed to be installed with either specially designed Hi-Lok tooling or standard hand or power tools with Hi-Lok adapters. Refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-8 for additional information on Hi-Lok installation. Use the following procedures for installing Hi-Lok fasteners. 1 Secure the structures to be joined with temporary fasteners. 2 Measure the panel thickness and determine grip length of pin to be installed. 3 surface. 4 Ensure pin protrusion limits are per NAVAIR 01-1A-8. 5 Install collar with pneumatic tooling or ratchet wrench HLH103, HLH104, HLH110, HLH111 or HLH500. Refer to Figures 6-51 and 8-15. 6 Torque ratchet wrench until wrenching device shears from collar. (b) Blind Fasteners. The tooling required for installing Visu-Lok or Composi-Lok blind fasteners is listed in Tables 8-7 through 8-10. Also, extensions may be added to the pneumatic tool if additional length is required. Figure 8-12 shows the extensions available. Additionally, the Visu-Lok pistol pneumatic installation tool can be converted to a Visu-Lok II/Composi-Lok installation tool using the steps in Figure 8-13. 1 Secure the structures to be joined with temporary fasteners. NOTE Take numerous measurements around the fastener hole. If the skin is tapered, the grip length must be determined by the depth at the centerline of the hole. 2 Use a fastener grip gauge (Figure 8-7) inserted through the fastener hole measuring the material thickness to determine the blind bolt length required. 3 Install the blind bolt wet with sealant. The sealant should be spread around the nut of the fastener. Insert pin wet with sealant on the grip

6-70

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;

A. The installation of the Hi-Lok fastener is completed on one side of the assembly after the pin has been inserted through the hole from the other side.

C. Progressive tightening takes place as torque is applied.

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;

B. For non-interference fit applications, the hex wrench tip of the power driver is inserted into the hex recess of the pin. This keeps the pin from rotating as the collar is driven.

D. At the designed torque level built into the High-Lok Collar, the hex portion of the collar is sheared off automatically by the driving tool. Removal of the installation tool from the Hi-Lok pin completes the installation. Figure 6-51. Hi-Lok Installation: Pneumatic Tooling NAVAIR 01-1A-8. Use the following procedure to remove Hi-Lok fasteners. 1 Hi-Lok Hand Removal Tooling. See Figure 8-16, View A. a Match the size of the HLH128 collar removal tool with the size of collar being removed. b Place the tool over the collar until it bottoms on the structure. c Rotate the cam-jaw until the serrations grip the collar base. d Connect a flexible handle and extension HLH130 and HLH132, or HLH131 and HLH133 to the collar removal tool. 6-71

4 Using pneumatic or hand tools listed in Tables 8-7 through 8-10 for the corresponding fastener, install the blind fasteners. Hold installation tooling perpendicular to the surface while installing the fastener. 5 Inspect the bolts for acceptable installation per the requirements of Table 6-5. Use the break-off gauge listed in Table 6-5 and as shown in Figure 6-52. (4) Fastener Removal.

(a) Hi-Lok Fastener Removal. Remove the fastener by unthreading the collar from the pin. The Hi-Lok pins may be reused if the threads have not been damaged. Hi-Loks should not be removed with a hammer and chisel. For additional information on removing fasteners, refer to

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 6-5. Blind Fastener Inspection Requirements

VISU-LOK & VISU-LOK II


VISU-LOK PART NUMBER VISU-LOK II PART NUMBER GAGE NEEDED DIAMETER MONOGRAM GAUGE -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -5 -6 -8 -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -5 -6 -8 MGF-5 MGF-6 MGF-8 MGF-10 MGF-12 MGFA-5 MGFA-6 MGFA-8 MGFA-10 MGFA-12 MGP-5 MGP-6 MGP-8 MGP-5 MGP-6 MGP-8 MGP-10 MGP-12 MGP-5 MGPA-6 MGPA-8 MGPA-10 MGPA-12 MGP-5 MGPA-6 MGP-8 STANDARD GAUGE 4F5 4F6 4F8 4F10 4F12 A4F5LS A4F6LS A4F8LS A4F10LS A4F12LS 3P5 3P6 3P6 3P5 3P6 3P8 3P10 BREAK-OFF LIMITS

PLT110 PLT150 PLT170

PLT5110 PLT5150 PLT5170

+.020/-.068 +.015/-.073 +.010/-.088 +.010/-.083 +.010/-.093 +.082/-.006 +.072/-.016 +.072/-.026 +.072/-.031 +.072/-.031 +.088/+.000 +.098/+.010 +.098/+.010 +.088/+.000 +.098/+.010 +.135/+.047 +.146/+.043 +.152/+.049 +.088/+.000 +.103/+.015 +.130/+.032 +.130/+.027 +.130/+.027 +.088/+.000 +.103/+.015 +.135/+.047

PLT120

PLT5120

PLT130

PLT5130

PLT210 PLT250 PLT270

PLT5210 PLT5250 PLT5270

PLT220

PLT5220

A3P5 A3P6 A3P8 A3P10 A3P12 3P5 3PA6 3P8

PLT230

PLT5230

COMPOSI-LOK & COMPOSI-LOK II


MONOGRAM PART NUMBER FASTENER SIZE PROTRUDING HEAD LEAF GAUGE SCREW BREAK-OFF LIMITS
FASTENER SIZE

COMPOSI-LOK IIa
MONOGRAM PART NUMBER PROTRUDING HEAD LEAF GAUGE SCREW BREAK-OFF LIMITS

FLUSH HEAD BARREL GAUGE

FLUSH HEAD BARREL GAUGE

5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 7/32 (-7) 1/4 (-8) 9/32 (-9) 5/16 (-10) 11/32 (-11) 3/8 (-12)

MGFCL-5 MGFCL-6 MGFCL-7 MGFCL-8 MGPCL MGFCL-9 MGFCL-10 MGFCL-11 MGFCL-12

5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 7/32 (-7) 1/4 (-8) 5/16 (-10) 11/32 (-11) 3/8 (-12)

MGFCL-5a MGFCL-6 MGFCL-7 MGFCL-8 MGFCL-10 MGFCL-11 MGFCL-12 MGPCL +.103 +.000

+.103 +.000

6-72

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

HIGH BREAK-OFF CHECK MUST NOT ROCK

;; ;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ; ;;; ;;;; ;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;; ;;;
L H L H
LOW BREAK-OFF CHECK GAUGE MUST ROCK
HEAD TO SHANK COREBOLT (STEM)

FASTENERS MAY BE DRILLED OUT USING EITHER OF TWO BASIC METHODS DETERMINED BY MATERIAL TYPE AND BLIND SIDE CLEARANCE

Figure 6-53. Fastener Removal Methods hole. The fastener removal kit can be used for two different removal methods; the head-to-shank method and the corebolt method. Figure 6-53 illustrates these two methods. The head-to-shank method is for removing blind fasteners fabricated with aluminum alloy, alloy steel, CRES or titanium, or for removing blind fasteners that do not have blind side clearance restrictions. Use the corebolt method when blind side clearance is restricted. Blind fasteners may be removed with common hand tools if the fastener removal kit is unavailable. However, extreme care must be taken not to damage the laminate surrounding the fastener hole. If the fastener removal kit is not used, the fastener hole must be inspected for damage. If damage is detected, a fastener hole repair as described in paragraph 7-6 must be performed or an oversized fastener must be installed. 1 Removal Using Fastener Removal Kit.

L H

H L

;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;; ;;; ;


HIGH BREAK-OFF CHECK MUST NOT ROCK LOW BREAK-OFF CHECK GAUGE MUST ROCK

Figure 6-52. Blind Fastener Inspection e Insert a hex allen wrench of the proper size in the hex recess in the threaded end of the pin. f Rotate the handle and tool counterclockwise until the collar is loosened. 2 Common Figure 8-16, View B. Hand Tooling. See

a Determine the material, diameter and head style of the fastener to be removed. b Select the proper tools in Table 6-6 for the predetermined fastener type and size. Refer to Table 8-11 for identification of the fastener removal kit items. Insert drill bit in RM3098 drill motor until the drill shank bottoms out and tighten. c Secure RC3076 receptacle to the RM3098 drill motor. This unit has left hand threads. d Insert depth gauge over the drill bit and into the RC3076 receptacle. e Depth Gauge Adjustment: Head-To-Shank Method. Insert the depth gauge over the nose piece. Turn housing until the bottom of the depth gauge contacts the receptacle face. See Figure 6-54.

a Insert a hex allen wrench of the proper size in the hex recess in the threaded end of the pin. b Secure pliers around the collar.

c Holding the hex allen wrench stationary, rotate the pliers counterclockwise to loosen the collar. (b) Blind Fastener Removal. Removing blind fasteners can cause additional damage to the fastener hole if proper precautions are not taken. By using the Fastener Removal Kit (Table 8-11), blind fasteners may be removed without inflicting additional damage around the fastener

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 6-6. Tool Selection to Remove Blind Bolts Using RK3042B Fastener Removal Kit
BOTH METHODS HEAD TO SHANK METHOD COREBOLT METHOD

BOLT DIAMETER (INCHES)

INDEX PIN PN

DEPTH GAUGE PN

DRILL PN

FLUSH NOSE ADAPTER PN

HEX NOSE ADAPTER PN

RIVET SET PN

DRILL PN

FLUSH NOSE ADAPTER PN

5/32

RC3036-05

RC3031-05

RC3050-05

RM3081-05

RM3082-05

RM3099-05

RC3089-05

RM3085-05

3/16

RC3036-06

RC3031-06

RC3050-06

RM3081-06

RM3082-06

RM3099-05

RC3089-06

RM3085-06

7/32

RC3036-07

RC3031-07

RC3050-07

RM3081-07

RM3082-07

RM3099-07

RC3089-07

RM3085-07

1/4

RC3036-08

RC3031-08

RC3050-08

RM3081-08

RM3082-08

RM3099-07

RC3089-08

RM3085-08

9/32

RC3036-09

RC3031-09

RC3050-09

RM3081-09

* RM3082-09

RM3099-07

-----

5/16

RC3036-10

RC3156-10

RC3050-10

RM3153-10

* RM3152-10

RM3099-10

RC3089-10

RM3085-10

11/32

* RC3036-11

RC3156-11

RC3050-11

* RM3153-11

* RM3152-11

RM3099-10

-----

3/8

* RC3036-12

RC3156-12

RC3050-12

* RM3153-12

* RM3152-12

RM3099-10

RC3089-12

* RM3085-12

* Requires RC3067-2 11/16 Vacuum Pad Bushing When Using RM3000 Vacuum Pad

f Depth Gauge Adjustment: Corebolt Method. Insert the depth gauge over the nose piece. With calipers or scale set to proper depth, adjust set screw to get proper gap on depth gauge. g Tighten lockring against housing to prevent any further rotation. Remove the depth gauge and receptacle from the drill motor. h Screw the nose adapter in the drill motor housing and tighten. The units have left hand threads. NOTE If the blind fastener to be removed is a hex head fastener, the vacuum pad may not be required. The hex nut nose piece will keep the drill centered. i Connect an air hose to the drill motor and to the power pack. See Figure 8-14.
NO GAP GAP RC3031 OR RC3156 DEPTH GAUGE HOUSING

LOCK RING

;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;;
;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;

;; ;; ;; ;;

DRILL MOTOR RM3098

j Connect an air hose to the vacuum pad and power pack. See Figure 8-14. Figure 6-54. Depth Gauge Adjustment k Connect the power pack to an 80 psi minimum air supply.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

INDEX PIN RC3036

p Repeat the previous step until the index pin can be rotated for a complete revolution and the pin drops into the fastener recess each 14 turn. q Insert the nose of the drill through the vacuum pad and carefully engage the nose in the fastener recesses. NOTE Run the drill motor at full speed before allowing the drill bit to touch the fastener. r Run the drill motor at full speed. Apply pressure to the drill motor and drill the fastener until the gap between the nose flange and the receptacle is closed. See Figure 6-56. An increase in the drill motor RPM should be heard when the gap is closed. s Repeat steps l-r for all fasteners of the same diameter that require removal. t If fasteners of different diameter require removal, repeat steps a-r for these fasteners. u Remove the drill and vacuum pad.

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Figure 6-55. Vacuum Pad Indexing
11 32

VACUUM PAD RM3000

BLIND BOLT

l If the blind bolt to be removed is or 38 inch diameter, connect RC3067-2 vacuum pad bushing to RM3000 vacuum pad. m If the blind fastener being removed is located near an edge, insert the shaft of the RM3091 close edge attachment in the bushing on the vacuum pad and tighten. n Insert the index pin identified in step b through the center of the vacuum pad. Engage the index pin in the fastener head countersink recesses. See Figure 6-55. Allow the vacuum pad to contact and secure itself to the aircraft surface.

v Select the rivet set from Table 6-6 corresponding to the proper fastener diameter. Insert the rivet set in the RM3173 rivet gun. CAUTION

o Recheck the vacuum pad alignment by rotating the index pin 14 turn. If properly aligned, the index pin will drop into the fastener recess. If the vacuum pad requires repositioning, depress the poppet valve button on the vacuum pad handle to temporarily disconnect the vacuum supply. Reposition the pad using the index pin.

Care must be exercised not to damage the composite structure. w Using the RM3099 rivet set, knock out bolt core using moderate throttle control. See Figure 6-57.

;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; ;;

DRILL MOTOR RM3098

;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; ;;

;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;
VACUUM PAD RM3000 NO GAP BLIND BOLT

GAP

Figure 6-56. Blind Fastener Drilling

6-75

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

RM3099 RIVET SET

c Using the pilot drill selected in step b, drill through the shank of the blind fastener, severing the blind head. See Figure 6-59. d Pick out the countersink remains from the fastener with a punch. See Figure 6-59. e. Sealing Repairs. Sealants are applied to bolted repairs on composite structure for prevention of water/ moisture intrusion, chemical damage, dissimilar metal contact and fuel leaks, as well as to provide contour smoothness. (1) Preparation.

;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;


a turn over 500 RPM.

BLIND BOLT

Figure 6-57. Blind Bolt Knockout

2 Removal of Tightly Clamped Blind Fasteners (Using Common Hand Tools). Select a drill motor that does not Sealing Compound 5

b Determine the pilot and shank drill bits required from Table 6-7 that corresponds to the size of blind fastener being removed. c With a round carbide burr, grind an indentation in the center of the fasteners to be removed. d Using the pilot drill selected in step b, drill on the fastener centerline of each fastener to be removed. Drill to below the head-to-shank juncture. See Figure 6-58. e Using the shank drill selected in step b, drill in each fastener hole to the depth of the pilot hole. See Figure 6-58. f With a hammer and minimal size punch, sever the head and drive out the shank and blind head. 3 Removal of Blind Fasteners Which Turn When Drilling (Using Common Hand Tools). a Prevent the blind fastener from turning. Engage the countersunk installation tool nose adapter in the fastener head recesses for a countersunk fastener. Use a wrench for securing protruding head blind fasteners. b Determine the pilot drill bit required from Table 6-7 that corresponds to the size of blind fastener being removed.

(a) Thoroughly mix the accelerator to a smooth paste before combining with base material. (b) Determine the amount of each part to mix. Follow the procedures described in paragraph 5-5a for weighing and mixing the two components. Mix the two components thoroughly to a smooth homogenous mixture. (2) Application. All bolted repair patches shall be installed with sealant. Sealant is to be applied between the contact surfaces of the patch and parent skin (fay surface sealing) so that squeeze-out can be used to form a fillet. In addition, permanent fasteners should be installed wet with sealant. See Figure 6-60. (a) Fay Surface Sealing. For this type of sealing, sealant is applied between the contact surfaces of the patch and the parent skin.

Solvent 1

4 Solvent clean patch and parent skin.

2 If required, cut pieces of scrim cloth to fit patch(es). Cut holes in scrim at each fastener hole with a knife. 3 Apply sealant to one mating surface using pneumatic sealant gun equipped with sealant gun nozzle. Apply two continuous beads of sealant centered between fastener hole pattern and each edge of part.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 6-7. Pilot and Shank Drill Sizes for Blind Fastener Removal
FASTENER DIAMETER 0.1635 0.1980 0.2590 0.3105 PILOT DRILL SIZE SHANK DRILL SIZE

0.0980 (No. 40) 0.1285 (No. 30) 0.1590 (No. 21) 0.1730 (No. 17)

0.1540 (No. 23) 0.1890 (No. 12) 0.2460 (D) 0.2950 (M)

WITH PILOT DRILL, DRILL TO BELOW HEADSHANK JUNCTURE

DRILL TO DEPTH OF PILOT HOLE

SEVER HEAD AND DRIVE OUT SHANK AND BLIND HEAD

;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;


Figure 6-58. Removal of Tightly Clamped Blind Fasteners
PREVENT NUT FROM TURNING BY ENGAGING DRIVING TOOL NOSE ADAPTER. HOLD NOSE WITH HAND TOOL HANDLE OR VISE GRIP PLIERS. WITH SHANK DRILL, DRILL THROUGH THE BOLT SHANK, SEVERING THE HEAD. PICK NUT OUT OF HOLE WITH PUNCH.

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;
Figure 6-59. Removal of Loose Blind Fasteners

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

FILLET SEAL

FAY SURFACE SEAL

BOLTED REPAIR PATCH

PARENT SKIN

INSTALL FASTENERS WET WITH SEALANT

Figure 6-60. Sealing of Bolted Repairs 4 Place parts in assembly position immediately after sealant application. Install enough temporary fasteners to pull faying surfaces into contact and squeeze out excess sealant before installing permanent fasteners. Install permanent fasteners with wet sealant. 5 Fair sealant squeeze-out into fillet around patch periphery. 6 Remove any sealant which extrudes through fastener holes, faying surfaces and/or butt joints onto exterior with a solvent moistened rymplecloth immediately after installation of patch. (b) Fastener Sealing. All permanent fasteners used for bolted repair patches shall be installed wet with sealant. Solvent 4 (c) Fillet Seal. Once the repair patch has been installed, a final seal around the patch may be required. If the repair is a lap repair installed on the outer moldline of the aircraft, the periphery of the patch should be faired in with the surrounding area.

1 Clean the parent skin around the patch periphery with solvent. 2 After the solvent wiped surface is dry, apply masking tape around the patch. The tape should be parallel with the patch edges and allow a gap of approximately 0.25 inches. 3 Apply sealing compound over the skin adjacent to the patch. Using a squeegee, fair the sealant between the patch and the edge of the tape. 4 Remove tape from skin.

Solvent

1 Solvent clean dimples, countersinks and surrounding area. 2 Apply small bead or layer of sealant around fastener shank, countersink, dimple or conical area of fastener head with sealant gun or brush. 3 Install Fastener. Remove sealant which extrudes out around fastener immediately with solvent moistened rymplecloth.

6-78

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SECTION VII REPAIR PROCEDURES


Clean Part Prepare Area for Filler Application Set Filler

Define Damage

Prepare & Apply Filler

Refinish

Paint Removal

Figure 7-2. Process Flow Diagram for Surface Repair, Procedure 1

Figure 7-1. Surface Damage

7-1. DESCRIPTION. This section provides detailed procedures for repairing damaged advanced composite parts. Each repair includes an equipment list, materials list and process flow diagram for accomplishing the repair. The processes in the flow diagram are listed in the order in which they are to be performed to ensure that the repair is performed correctly. These processes are discussed in detail in Section VI, Repair Processes and should be reviewed and understood prior to beginning the repair. 7-2. PARTIAL THICKNESS SKIN REPAIR.

Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves White Cotton Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 10

a. Procedure 1. Surface Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to scratches, gouges, surface ply rips and missing fibers which are 1 ply or less in depth and having a damage area that does not exceed .25 inches by 2 inches. This repair is intended to restore the aerodynamic smoothness of the part and to prevent further propagation of damage. However, this is a non-structural repair. Therefore, adherence to the above limits is necessary to ensure that the structural integrity of the part is not compromised. (Damage which exceeds these limits must be repaired as described in paragraph 7-2b or 7-2c). This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific structural repair manual (SRM) or Fleet Support Team (FST) engineering for further guidance. Typical surface damage is shown in Figure 7-1.

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Adhesive, Paste Release Film, 1 Mil Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-1, Item 3, 5a, or 5b Table 5-6, Item 2

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-2 for the Process Flow Diagram for Surface Repair.

7-1

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(3)

Procedure.

b. Procedure 2. Partial Thickness Damage: Bonded Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to surface damage that exceeds the limits specified in paragraph 7-2a(1) without penetrating the composite skin, and to the repair of unsuccessful adhesive injection delamination repairs. This repair is generally limited to laminates less than 0.125 inch thick. Skin gouges and unsuccessful delamination repairs in laminates thicker than 0.125 inch are usually repaired at depot level and require FST engineering disposition. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-2, Item 9 Table 8-2, Item 6

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. (b) Define Damage. Measure the depth, length and width of the surface damage to ensure compliance with the limitations of paragraph (1) above. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. A black color on the sandpaper indicates that sanding into the laminate has occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. Sanding should be stopped immediately. (c) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (d) Prepare Area for Filler Application. Prepare area for filler application by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle the prepared surface of the part wearing clean white cotton gloves until after filler application is complete. If filler is not to be applied immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (e) Prepare and Apply Filler. 1 Prepare a small amount of adhesive filler (10-15 grams) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Apply filler in the damaged area using a spatula. Bring flush with outer moldline surface of part. Add additional filler as required to allow for shrinkage. (f) Tape release film over filler with high temperature tape and allow to set at room temperature until it can be sanded (approximately 8 hours). As an alternative, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). (g) Refinish. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Sanding Disk Holder Sanding Disks, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Temperature/Vacuum Controller Heat Blanket Adhesive Comb Face Shield White Cotton Gloves Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Figure 8-22 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

7-2

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Release Film, 1 Mil Wooden Spatula Glass Fibers, Cut 0.1 Inch Long Adhesive, Paste Scrim Cloth Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Copper Sheet Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-6, Item 7

Clean Part

Dry Repair Area

Fabricate Repair Patch

Define Damage

Prepare Area for Filler Application

Prepare Surfaces for Bonding

Damage Removal

Prepare & Apply Filler

Bond Patch

Reinspect

Table 5-1, Item 5a or 5b Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-5, Item 13 Table 5-2, Items 3-16
Paint Removal

Set Filler

Refinish

Figure 7-3. Process Flow Diagram for Partial Thickness Bonded Repair, Procedure 2 (d) Reinspect. Reinspect the damage removal area using NDI to ensure no skin delaminations remain below the damage area. (e) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. A black color on the sandpaper indicates that sanding into the laminate has occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. Sanding should be stopped immediately. (f) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (g) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2) using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture. (h) Prepare Area for Filler Application. Prepare area for filler application by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle the prepared surface of the part wearing clean white cotton gloves until after filler application is complete. If filler is not to be applied immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-3 for the Process Flow Diagram for Partial Thickness Bonded Repair. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define both the depth and extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a.

Composite Materials

(c) Damage Removal. Remove partial thickness damage as described in paragraph 6-3c and as shown in Figure 6-3.

7-3

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(i)

Prepare and Apply Filler.


A L L COMPOSITE SKIN L A

1 Estimate the amount of glass floc filled adhesive filler required. a Approximate the depth (h), the length (I) and the width (w) of the damage area in inches. b Multiply the depth times the length times the width times thirty (h x I x w x 30) to estimate the amount of filler required in grams. 2 Prepare the estimated amount of glass fiber filled adhesive filler required as described in paragraph 5-5a. Use a filler mix ratio (mrF) = 14. 3 Apply filler in the damaged area using a spatula. Bring flush with outer moldline surface of part. Remove air bubbles as required. 4 for shrinkage. Add additional filler as required to allow
ADHESIVE L

PATCH EDGE

DAMAGE REMOVAL PERIPHERY

6 PLY PATCH

OUTER SKIN SURFACE

;;;;;;;;;;
L = PATCH OVERLAP (1.5 INCHES MINIMUM) FILLER MATERIAL SECTION A-A

Figure 7-4. Partial Thickness Bonded Repair NOTE Cure of filler will be achieved during patch bond step. (j) Tape release film over filler with high temperature tape and allow to set at room temperature until it can be sanded (approximately 8 hours). As an alternative, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler, but disregard Note . Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). (k) Fabricate Repair Patch. Refer to paragraph 5-2b and the part specific SRM for patch selection. Carbon/ epoxy precured patches come in two forms: large, square sheets from which the correct size patch is machined and circular patches in assorted diameters which are to be used without further machining. 1 If using a square sheet, cut patch to the required dimensions from the carbon/epoxy precured sheet using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. Patch periphery shall extend a constant 1.5 inches (minimum) beyond the damage cleanup periphery. See Figure 7-4. 2 If using a circular patch, select a patch size which will allow a 1.5 inch (minimum) overlap between the patch edge and damage cleanup hole perimeter. 3 Remove peel ply from both sides of patch. Use care not to inadvertently remove fibers from patch during peel ply removal. 4 If required, taper edges of patch to the dimensions shown in Figure 6-27 using a 90 degree router motor and a 1 inch diameter, 80 grit abrasive sanding disk. Two ply patches and precured circular patches do not require tapering. CAUTION Ensure a minimum of 1.5 inch overlap is achieved during the layup of a bonded external patch. Insufficient overlap will result in reduced strength. Load levels in the repair area may dictate a longer overlap. Refer to the part specific SRM for further guidance. (l) Prepare Surfaces For Bonding.

1 Sand filler flush with outer moldline surface using an orbital sander and 180-240 grit abrasive paper. 2 sanding dust. Vacuum the repair area to remove

7-4

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

3 Wipe area with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 4 Prepare repair area and both surfaces of patch for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (m) Apply Adhesive and Patch. Refer to paragraph 5-2a and the part specific SRM for adhesive selection. For this repair select a 2 part paste adhesive. Refer to paragraph 6-7i(3) for additional patch bond procedures. 1 than the patch. CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. 2 Prepare approximately 50 grams of adhesive for patch bond as described in paragraph 5-5a. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the part surface using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). Adhesive shall extend a minimum of 14 inch beyond patch periphery. 4 the part surface. Apply the scrim cloth to adhesive on Cut a piece of scrim cloth 14 inch larger

6 Apply bond side of patch containing adhesive on part surface containing scrim cloth/adhesive. Ensure patch is aligned on part to maintain minimum patch overlap. 7 If multiple stacked patches are required, stack the largest patch on the part surface followed by increasingly smaller size patches. Repeat scrim cloth and adhesive application for each stacked patch applied. Tape in place with high temperature tape. (n) Bond Patch. 1 Layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). If a heat blanket is not used to cure the adhesive, omit heat blanket, copper sheet and heat blanket control thermocouple from layup. 2 Cure Adhesive. Cure adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7k(1), using the appropriate Cure Cycle from Table 6-1. 3 Disassemble the vacuum bag (and heat blanket if used). (o) NDI Patch Bond(s). 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). See Figure 6-41. 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. (p) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

NOTE The bond surface of the carbon/epoxy patch is the flat surface not containing the taper. 5 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the bond surface of the patch using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3).

7-5

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

c. Procedure 3. Partial Thickness Damage: Bolted Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to surface damage in monolithic composite skins that exceeds the limits specified in paragraph 7-2a(1) without penetrating the composite skin. It is also applicable to the repair of unsuccessful adhesive injection delamination repairs. Typical repairs are limited to a 4.0 inch diameter area. The blind fasteners used in this repair must be designed for use on composite materials. The rationale for these fasteners is described in paragraph 6-9d(2)(b). This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Grip Length Gauge Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Dagger Drill Bits Twist Drill Bits Align-A-Drill Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Alignment Pin Temporary Fasteners C-Clamps Microstop Cage Coolant Adapter Countersink Cutter Carbide Inserts Countersink Pin Drill Bushing, Coolant Composite Blind Bolt Installation Tooling Blind Fastener Removal Kit Face Shield Orbital Sander Respirator 7-6 Specification Figure 8-7 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-4, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 1 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 5 Table 8-6, Items 5 and 6 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-5, Item 4 Table 8-4, Item 6 Table 8-4, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 11 Table 8-5, Item 3 Table 8-7 or 8-8 Table 8-11 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 10-2

Latex Gloves 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Sanding Disks, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Sanding Disk Holder Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 9 Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-12, Item 10

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Scrim Cloth High Temperature Scrim Cloth Sealing Compound High Temperature Sealing Compound Cutting Fluid Rubber Primer Patch Material, Aluminum or Titanium Stock Composite Blind Fastener Masking Tape Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 21 or Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-1, Item 22 Table 5-1, Item 16 Table 5-1, Item 19 Table 5-5, Item 12 Table 5-1, Item 20 Table 5-2, Items 47-54

Table 5-4, Item 2, 3a or 3b Table 5-5, Item 10

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-5 for the Process Flow Diagram for Partial Thickness Bolted Repair. (3) Procedure. Refer to Figure 7-6 for repair arrangement. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials.

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Drill Pilot Holes in Patch

Remove Paint & Prepare Surface for Sealant

NOTE Holes for repair fasteners must be a minimum of 4 fastener diameters from existing fasteners and have a minimum edge distance of 3 fastener diameters. See Figure 7-6. (g) Lay out fastener hole pattern on patch.

Define Damage

Mate Drill Skin Holes

Prepare & Apply Sealant & Scrim

Damage Removal

Enlarge Patch & Skin Holes

Install Patches & Fasteners

(h) Position patch over damaged area, using reference marks on skin as a guide. Outline patch perimeter on skin and transfer reference marks from skin to patch. (i) Remove patch. Identify any skin fasteners covered by the repair patch. CAUTION

Reinspect

Countersink Fastener Holes in Patch

Refinish

Fabricate Patch

Figure 7-5. Process Flow Diagram for Partial Thickness Bolted Repair, Procedure 3 (b) Define Damage. Define both the depth and extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Mark centerlines to be used as reference marks for positioning patch.

DO NOT damage inner surface of opposite skin or internal structure during machining or drilling. (j) If applicable, remove any existing fasteners covered by the repair plate as described in paragraph 6-9d(4). Transfer hole locations to the repair patch using the hole finder method described in paragraph 6-9b(1). NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (k) Drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the repair patch with a twist drill bit. (l) Position patch over damaged area, aligning skin and patch reference marks. Mark pilot holes on skin using the patch as a template. (m) Remove patch and check to ensure fastener hole to edge of damage cleanup is a minimum of 3 fastener diameters. If any fastener hole has less than 3 fastener diameters, repeat paragraph (l) above, relocating patch to obtain required edge distance. (n) Position patch over damage and temporarily secure with tape, aligning skin and patch reference marks. (o) Assemble and adjust the Align-A-Drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Install a 0.128 inch dagger drill bit in the assembly.

Composite Materials

(c) Remove partial thickness damage as described in paragraph 6-3c and as shown in Figure 6-3. (d) Reinspect. Reinspect the damage removal area using NDI to ensure no skin delaminations remain below the damage area. (e) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. (f) Fabricate patch from aluminum or titanium as described in paragraph 6-9a and in NAVAIR 01-1A-9. See Figure 7-6 for generic patch layout. Refer to the part specific SRM for specific patch geometry/material and fastener hole pattern layout. 1 2 3 Lay out patch on required material. Cut out patch and chamfer edges. Form contour in patch if required.

7-7

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

30

0.02 INCH

SECTION A-A 1

BLIND FASTENER 3

LEGEND
1 FASTENERS MUST HAVE MINIMUM SPACING OF 4D AND MAXIMUM OF 6D A A 2 FASTENERS MUST HAVE MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCE OF 3D 3 FASTENER TO EDGE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 3D NOTE: DRILL PILOT HOLES (0.128 INCH DIAMETER) IN PATCH FIRST. ENLARGE HOLES TO FINAL SIZE AFTER TRANSFERRING PILOT HOLES TO COMPOSITE SKIN.

EDGE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP EDGE OF DAMAGE

Figure 7-6. Partial Thickness Bolted Repair, Generic Patch Layout (t) Composite Materials 7 Remove temporary fasteners and patch. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (u) With the exception of the 4 corner pilot holes, enlarge the remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the patch to 0.199 inch diameter. Use a twist drill bit and either a drill press or a drill guide and drill bushing to ensure moldline perpendicularity control. Deburr holes. (v) Fabricate and install countersink filler in skin fasteners removed in step (j) above (see Figure 7-7). (w) Position patch on skin and install 4 temporary fasteners through remaining pilot holes to secure patch.

(p) Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill at corner of patch using patch as a template. Install a temporary fastener in pilot hole. (q) Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill at opposite end of patch using patch as a template. Install a temporary fastener in pilot holes. (r) Drill two 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill at two remaining patch corners using patch as a template. Install temporary fasteners. (s) Drill remaining pilot holes in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill using patch as a template. Install a temporary fastener in each hole after drilling.

Composite Materials

7-8

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(x) Using patch as a template, enlarge pilot holes in skin to 0.199 inch diameter. Use drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with hole. Install a temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. (y) Remove temporary fasteners and patch.

PATCH COUNTERSINK FILLER SEALANT/SCRIM CLOTH SKIN

SUBSTRUCTURE

NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (z) Enlarge the 4 remaining pilot holes in patch as described in paragraph (u) above. (aa) Position patch on skin. Secure patch using temporary fasteners.
0.199 +0.006/-0.000 INCH DIAMETER

100 0.5

Composite Materials

7
0.018 INCH MAXIMUM 0.465 0.004 INCH DIAMETER

(ab) Using patch as a template, enlarge the 4 remaining pilot holes in skin to 0.199 inch diameter. Use drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with hole. (ac) Remove temporary fasteners and patch. (ad) Countersink holes in patch as required. NOTE Using a grip length gauge, determine fastener grip length by gauging material thickness after drilling holes full size. (ae) Place patch in place and measure the fastener grip length required in each fastener hole. (af) Chemical conversion treat patch if required. Refer to part specific SRM for further guidance.

0.115 INCH

COUNTERSINK FILLER

NOTES 1. The outer diameter and conical surface of the washer shall be concentric with the hole diameter. Maximum angular deviation 0.5. 2. Break all sharp edges. 3. A-286 CRES AMS 5737.

Figure 7-7. Fabrication/Installation of Countersink Filler

(ah) Prepare repair area for sealant application 1 inch beyond periphery of patch as described in paragraph 6-7h. (ai) Cut scrim and apply sealant to faying surfaces.

Composite Materials

(ag) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b.

1 For repair of composites in an operating environment less than 250F, use the following. a size as patch. Cut a piece of scrim cloth the same

7-9

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

b Prepare sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). c area and patch. 2 For repair of composites in an operating environment of 250-450F, use the following. a Cut a piece of high temperature scrim cloth the same size as patch. Apply sealing compound to repair

7-3.

DELAMINATION REPAIR.

a. Procedure 4. Delamination Open to An Edge. (1) Application. This repair is applicable when positive airflow through the delamination is possible. Repairs of this type are usually limited to a damage area that does not exceed 12 inch by 4 inches. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Pressure Regulator Heat Lamp Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Stop Twist Drill, Carbide, 1 8 Inch Diameter Temperature/Vacuum Controller Injection Gun Metallic Retainer Barrel, 212 Ounce Injection Cartridge, 212 Ounce, Disposable Injection Nozzle, Disposable C-Clamps Face Shield (an) Allow sealing compound to cure for 4 hours. Trim excess. (ao) When repairing weight critical structures, add weight of repair(s) and zone location(s) on applicable nameplate. (ap) Refinish. Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Specification Table 8-12, Item 18 Table 8-12, Item 6 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-5, Item 2 Common Support Equipment Table 8-4, Item 2 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 24 Table 8-12, Item 25 Table 8-12, Item 26 Table 8-12, Item 27, 28 or 29 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Rubber Primer

b Apply rubber primer to repair area, patch mating surface and fastener holes. Allow 30 minutes for primer to dry. c Prepare sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). d Apply high temperature sealing compound to patch and faying surfaces. (aj) Apply applicable scrim cloth over repair area and position patch on skin. (ak) Cut slits in scrim cloth at each fastener hole. (al) Install composite blind fasteners wet with applicable sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9d(3)(b). Inspect the fasteners to determine if the stem is within break-off limits and the fastener is secure. If the fastener is outside the limits of Figure 7-8, remove and replace the fastener. (am)Fillet seal the periphery of patch with sealing compound and fair with moldline as described in paragraph 6-9e(2)(c).

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Specification Table 5-6, Item 4

7-10

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;
3 2 2
FASTENER SIZE 0.1635 0.1980 0.2590 0.3105 PART NO. MBF2012-5 MBF2012-6 MBF2012-8 MBF2012-10 A

A 1

A 1

1
0.103 0.103 0.103 0.103

MONOGRAM GAUGE NO. MGFCL-5 MGFCL-6 MGFCL-8 MGFCL-10

FASTENER SIZE 0.1635 0.1980 0.2590 0.3105

PART NO. MBF2011-5 MBF2011-6 MBF2011-8 MBF2011-10

1
0.103 0.103 0.103 0.103

MONOGRAM GAUGE NO. MGFCL MGFCL MGFCL MGFCL

LEGEND
1 2 3
MAXIMUM STEM PROTRUSION ABOVE REFERENCE SURFACE STEM BREAK OFF BELOW REFERENCE SURFACE IS UNACCEPTABLE AND REQUIRES REPLACEMENT OF FASTENER MAXIMUM FLUSH HEAD PROTRUSION TOLERANCE OF +.010/-.006

Figure 7-8. Composite Blind Fastener Inspection and Acceptability Limits Solvent 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Adhesive, Liquid Rymplecloth Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Release Film, 1 Mil Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-6, Item 2 Composite Materials 7 (b) Define Damage. Define both the depth and extent of the delamination using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-9 for the Process Flow Diagram for Delamination Open to an Edge Repair. (3) Procedure.

(d) Drill 18 inch diameter holes at each end of the delamination. Minimum spacing between holes is 12 inch. Drill to delamination depth plus 0.005 inch using drill stop. Vacuum clean dust and debris from holes.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials.

Solvent

(e) Flush the delaminated area by squirting solvent into the injection holes. Allow solvent to evaporate a minimum of 30 minutes.

7-11

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Flush Delamination

Mix & Inject Adhesive

Define Damage

Heat Delaminated Area

Cure Adhesive

3 Attach a regulated source of compressed air to sealant gun. Set air regulator for 20 psi and inject adhesive, using sealant gun and nozzle, into one hole and fill until adhesive flows from out of the delaminated edge. Allow the adhesive to flow until it is free of bubbles. 4 Remove heat lamp. Wipe off excess adhesive with clean, dry rymplecloth. (i) Cure Adhesive.

Drill Injection Holes

Reinspect Delamination by NDI

No

Does Delam Still Exist?

Yes

1 Apply pressure using C-clamps, release film and backup plates as illustrated in Figure 7-10. Allow adhesive to set at ambient temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternative, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 2 Cure adhesive using Cure Cycle 1 or 2 from Table 6-1. The release film, C-clamps and backup plates may be removed after the adhesive has set. If using Cure Cycle 2, layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). (j) After cure, remove C-clamp and backup plate or debag. (k) Reinspect the delaminated area using NDI.

Refinish

Yes

Is Damage Negligible per SRM?

No

Consult FST Engineer

Figure 7-9. Process Flow Diagram for Delamination Open to An Edge Repair, Procedure 4

(f) Heat the delaminated area to 120-130F using a heat lamp as described in paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). Monitor the temperature to ensure 130F is not exceeded.

1 If no delamination exists after repair, or if delamination is within SRM limits for negligible damage, refinish per paragraph (l) below. 2 If delamination exceeds negligible damage limits, contact FST engineering for disposition.

Two Part Liquid Adhesive

(l)

Refinish.

(g) Prepare 15-20 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. Ensure that both parts are adequately mixed. (h) Inject Adhesive (see Figure 7-10). 1 Attach nozzle. 2 Maintain part at 120-130F. Pour adhesive into injection cartridge.

1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

7-12

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

DRILL 1/8 INCH HOLES AT LEAST 1/2 INCH APART INJECT LIQUID ADHESIVE INTO ONE HOLE UNTIL ADHESIVE FLOWS CLEAR FROM THE DELAMINATION

INJECTION GUN SKIN METAL BACKUP PLATE C-CLAMP

TO 20 PSI PRESSURE SOURCE SKIN DELAMINATION METAL BACKUP PLATE

ADHESIVE RELEASE FILM

Figure 7-10. Delamination Repair Open to An Edge b. Procedure 5. Delamination Not Open to An Edge (Blister). (1) Application. This repair is applicable to a clearly defined blister through which positive airflow is possible. It is generally limited to blisters no larger than 2 inches in diameter. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Weights, Shot Bags Pressure Regulator Heat Lamp Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Stop Twist Drill, Carbide, 18 Inch Diameter Temperature/Vacuum Controller Injection Gun Specification Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-12, Item 18 Table 8-12, Item 6 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-5, Item 2 Common Support Equipment Table 8-4, Item 2 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 24

Metallic Retainer Barrel, 212 Ounce Injection Cartridge, 212 Ounce, Disposable Injection Nozzle, Disposable C-Clamps Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-12, Item 25 Table 8-12, Item 26 Table 8-12, Item 27, 28 or 29 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Adhesive, Liquid 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Release Film, 1 Mil
12

Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-6, Item 2 ZZ-T-831

Inch Surgical Rubber or Plastic Tubing

7-13

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Verify Leak Path

Mix & Inject Adhesive


RUBBER TUBING

SEALANT GUN NOZZLES

Define Damage

Heat Delaminated Area

Cure Adhesive

TO 20 PSI PRESSURE SOURCE

Drill Injection Holes

Reinspect Delamination by NDI

No

Does Delam Still Exist?

TAPE

Yes

Refinish

Yes

Is Damage Negligible per SRM?

WATER CONTAINER

No
Is

Figure 7-12. Verification of Leak Path: Delamination Repair

Consult FST Engineer

No

Damage W/In Partial Thickness Damage Limits?

Yes

(b) Define Damage. Define both the depth and extent of the delamination using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Repair IAW Procedure 2

Figure 7-11. Process Flow Diagram for Delamination Not Open to An Edge Repair, Procedure 5 Composite Materials 7

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-11 for the Process Flow Diagram for Delamination Not Open to an Edge Repair. (3) Procedure.

(d) Drill 18 inch diameter holes at each end of the delamination. Minimum spacing between holes is 12 inch. Drill to delamination depth plus 0.005 inch using drillstop. (e) Vacuum clean dust and debris from holes. (f) Verify that a leak path exists between the delamination and the holes drilled using the following procedure (see Figure 7-12). 1 Fit injection nozzles into the holes at each end of the delamination. Tape over intermediate holes with high temperature tape. 2 Attach a piece of tubing to one nozzle and submerge the other end in a container of water.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials.

7-14

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

DRILL 1/8 INCH HOLES AT LEAST 1/2 INCH APART INJECT ADHESIVE INTO ONE HOLE UNTIL ADHESIVE FLOWS CLEAR FROM OTHER HOLE(S) ADHESIVE INJECTION GUN

TO 20 PSI PRESSURE SOURCE

COMPOSITE SKIN

Figure 7-13. Delamination Repair Not Open to an Edge (Blister)

3 Attach other nozzle to sealant gun cartridge without plunger and place cartridge in sealant gun. Attach a regulated source of compressed air to sealant gun. CAUTION Air pressure must not exceed 20 psi if delaminations exist in area of honeycomb core. Air pressure of 40 psi may be applied to delaminations between mating skins or between skin plies not in area of honeycomb core. 4 Apply pressure with air regulator set for 20 psi through sealant gun into the delamination. 5 Check water for bubbles to make sure airflow exists. If airflow exists go to paragraph (g) below. If airflow does not exist, go to steps 6 and 7 below. 6 Tape over existing holes and reinspect using NDI to map delaminated area. 7 Repeat paragraphs (d)-(f)5 above. If airflow still does not exist, proceed to paragraph 7-2b, Procedure 2. (g) Remove nozzle and tape from holes. (h) Heat the delaminated area to 120-130F using a heat lamp as described in paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). Monitor temperature to ensure 130F is not exceeded.

Two Part Liquid Adhesive

(i) Prepare 15-20 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. Ensure that both parts are adequately mixed. (j) Inject Adhesive. (See Figure 7-13). 1 Attach nozzle. 2 Tape over intermediate injection holes with high temperature tape. 3 Maintain part at 120-130F. Pour adhesive into injection cartridge.

4 Attach a regulated source of compressed air to sealant gun. Set air regulator for 20 psi and inject adhesive, using sealant gun and nozzle, into one hole and fill until adhesive flows clear from another hole. Remove tape from one hole at a time. Inject adhesive into each hole until it flows freely from the other holes and is free of bubbles. 5 Remove heat lamp. Wipe off excess adhesive with clean, dry rymplecloth.

7-15

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(k) Cure Adhesive. 1 Room Temperature Cure Cycle.

7-4.

DISBOND REPAIR.

a. Procedure 6. Skin to Core Disbond. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to a disbond through which positive airflow is possible. It is generally limited to disbonds no larger than 112 inches in diameter. Disbonds larger than 112 inches in diameter may be treated as penetration damage and repaired in accordance with paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Specification Table 8-12, Item 18 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-4, Item 2 Table 8-12, Item 25 Table 8-12, Item 26 Table 8-12, Item 27, 28 or 29 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

a Apply pressure for a minimum of 8 hours using weights or shot bags as described in paragraph 6-7j(3)(a). b Allow to dwell at room temperature for a minimum of 5 days. 2 Elevated Temperature Cure Cycle.

a Layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). b Cure the adhesive as specified in Table 6-1, Cure Cycle 2. (l) After cure, remove shot bags, or debag.

Pressure Regulator Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Twist Drill, Carbide, 18 Inch Diameter Metallic Retainer Barrel, 212 Ounce Injection Cartridge, 212 Ounce, Disposable Injection Nozzle, Disposable Face Shield

(m) Reinspect the delaminated area using NDI. (n) If delaminations still exist after repair, refer to the part specific SRM to determine if damage is within negligible damage limits or partial thickness damage limits. 1 If delamination is not within partial thickness damage limits, contact FST engineering for disposition. 2 If delamination is within partial thickness damage limits, repair in accordance with paragraph 7-2b, Procedure 2. 3 If delamination is within SRM limits for negligible damage, refinish per paragraph (p) below. (o) If no delaminations exist after repair, refinish per paragraph (p) below. (p) Refinish. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the applicable SRM.

Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Adhesive, Liquid Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2

7-16

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Verify Leak Path

Cure Adhesive
RUBBER TUBING

SEALANT GUN NOZZLES

Define Damage

Mix & Inject Adhesive

Reinspect Disbond by NDI

TO 20 PSI PRESSURE SOURCE

Drill Injection Holes

No

Does Disbond Still Exist?

Yes

Seal Hole

Yes

Is Damage Negligible per SRM?

TAPE

Refinish No Consult FST Engineer No


Is Damage W/In Penetration Damage Limits?
WATER CONTAINER

Figure 7-15. Verification of Leak Path: Disbond Repair

Yes Repair IAW Procedure 17

(c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Figure 7-14. Process Flow Diagram for Disbond Repair, Procedure 6


12

Inch Surgical Rubber or Plastic Tubing Fiberglass Cloth Style 120

ZZ-T-831 Table 5-6, Item 7

Composite Materials

(d) Drill 18 inch diameter holes in the disbond area. Minimum spacing between holes is 12 inch. (e) Vacuum clean dust and debris from holes.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-14 for the Process Flow Diagram for Disbond Repair (3) Procedure.

(f) Verify that a leak path exists between the disbond and the holes drilled using the following procedure (see Figure 7-15). 1 Fit injection nozzles into the holes at each end of the disbond. Tape over intermediate holes with high temperature tape. 2 Attach a piece of tubing to one nozzle and submerge the other end in a container of water. 3 Attach other nozzle to sealant gun cartridge without plunger and place cartridge in sealant gun. Attach a regulated source of compressed air to sealant gun.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the disbond using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a.

7-17

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

DRILL 1/8 INCH HOLES AT LEAST 1/2 INCH APART INJECT ADHESIVE INTO ONE HOLE UNTIL IT FLOWS CLEAR FROM OTHER HOLE(S) FIBERGLASS WET LAYUP INJECTION GUN
0.75" 0.75"

TO 20 PSI PRESSURE SOURCE

COMPOSITE SKIN

ADHESIVE

HONEYCOMB CORE

Figure 7-16. Disbond Repair CAUTION Air pressure must not exceed 20 psi. 4 Apply pressure with air regulator set for 20 psi through sealant gun into the disbond. 5 Check water for bubbles to make sure airflow exists. If airflow exists go to paragraph (g) below. If airflow does not exist, proceed to steps 6 and 7 below. 6 Tape over existing holes and reinspect using NDI to map disbonded area. 7 Repeat paragraphs (d)-(f)5 above. If airflow still does not exist, proceed to paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17. (g) Remove nozzle and tape from holes. 3 Attach a regulated source of compressed air to sealant gun. Set air regulator for 20 psi and inject adhesive, using sealant gun and nozzle, into one hole and fill until adhesive flows clear from another hole. Remove tape from one hole at a time. Inject adhesive into each hole until it flows freely from the other holes and is free of bubbles. 4 dry rymplecloth. (j) Wipe off excess adhesive with clean,

Cure Adhesive.

1 Tape over all injection holes with high temperature tape. 2 Invert the component so that adhesive may fill the disbond area and not flow down into honeycomb core. Inverting the component may cause some adhesive to flow out of taped injection holes. A small amount of outflow is acceptable. If outflow becomes excessive, cover the area with release film and tape a metal plate beneath the area. Allow adhesive to set at ambient temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternative, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 3 Cure adhesive using Cure Cycle 1 or 2 from Table 6-1. The component may be placed right side up after the adhesive has set. If using Cure Cycle 2, layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). (k) After cure, remove tape and release film (if used) or debag.

Two Part Liquid Adhesive

(h) Prepare 15-20 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. Ensure that both parts are adequately mixed. (i) Inject Adhesive. (See Figure 7-16). 1 Attach nozzle. 2 Tape over intermediate injection holes with high temperature tape. Pour adhesive into injection cartridge.

7-18

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(l)

Reinspect the disbond using NDI.

b. Procedure 7. Skin to Closure Member Disbond and Delaminations. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to disbonds and delaminations between a composite skin and a composite closure member which are open to the part edge. The closure member may be a channel, rib, or spar; however, this procedure applies to nonmetallic closure members only. Disbonds between composite skin and metallic substructure members require engineering disposition due to potential for contamination or corrosion of the metallic member. This repair is usually limited to disbonds not larger than 4 inches in length which are contained within 12 inch of the part edge. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required

(m) If the disbond still exists after repair, refer to the part specific SRM to determine if damage is within negligible disbond damage limits or within penetration damage repair limits. 1 If disbond is not within penetration damage repair limits, contact FST engineering for disposition. 2 If disbond is within penetration damage repair limits, repair in accordance with paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17. 3 If no disbond exists or if disbond is within SRM limits for negligible damage, seal per paragraph (n) below. (n) Sealing Injection Holes. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. 2 Cut one ply of fiberglass cloth into a 0.75 inch square piece for each injection hole. 3 Mix enough liquid adhesive per paragraph 5-5a, to impregnate fiberglass squares and apply to part surface. 4 liquid adhesive. Impregnate fiberglass squares with

Nomenclature Heat Lamp C-Clamps Temperature/Vacuum Controller Syringe, Hypodermic Needles, Hypodermic, 20 Gauge, 112 Inch Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Specification Table 8-12, Item 6 Table 8-12, Item 5 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 21 Table 8-12, Item 23 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

5 Apply liquid adhesive on the part surface over injection holes. 6 Apply impregnate fiberglass centered over injection holes. 7 Allow to set at ambient temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate the heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 8 Lightly sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. (o) Apply finish system in accordance with the applicable SRM.

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Adhesive, Liquid Solvent Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Release Film, 1 Mil Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-6, Item 2

7-19

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Heat Disbond/ Delamination Area Mix & Inject Adhesive

Cure Repair
SYRINGE

CHANNEL OR RIB (NON-METALLIC)

Define Damage

NDI Disbond/ Delamination


DISBOND FILLED WITH ADHESIVE COMPOSITE SKIN HONEYCOMB CORE

Flush Disbond/ Delamination With Solvent

Does No Disbond/Delam Yes Still Exist?

A. Inject Adhesive With Hypodermic Syringe


Is Disbond/ Delam Negligible per SRM?
CHANNEL OR RIB (NON-METALLIC)

Refinish

Yes

TAPE

No Consult FST Engineer


C-CLAMP

Figure 7-17. Process Flow Diagram for Skin to Closure Member Disbond and Delamination Repair, Procedure 7

;;; ;;; ;;;

DISBOND FILLED WITH ADHESIVE

METAL COMPOSITE SKIN BACKUP PLATES

HONEYCOMB CORE

B. Apply Pressure With C-Clamp Figure 7-18. Skin to Closure Member Disbond Repair

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-17 for the Process Flow Diagram for Skin to Closure Member Disbond and Delamination Repair. (3) Procedure.

Solvent

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent and location of the disbond/delamination using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

(d) Flush the disbond/delamination with solvent using a hypodermic syringe. Allow solvent to evaporate a minimum of 30 minutes. (e) Heat the delaminated/disbonded area to 120-130F using a heat lamp as described in paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). Monitor temperature to ensure 130F is not exceeded.

Two Part Liquid Adhesive

(f) Prepare 15-20 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. Ensure that both parts are adequately mixed.

7-20

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(g) Inject Adhesive. (See Figure 7-18). 1 Attach needle. 2 Maintain part at 120-130F. Pour adhesive into hypodermic syringe.

EDGE DAMAGE

4 INCH MAXIMUM LENGTH

3 Inject adhesive into disbond/ delamination. Allow the adhesive to flow until it is free of bubbles. 4 Remove heat lamp. Wipe off excess adhesive with clean, dry rymplecloth. 5 Cover the injection area with high temperature tape. (h) Cure Adhesive.

0.25 INCH DAMAGE LIMITS

0.25 INCH REPAIR

1 Apply pressure using C-clamps and tape as required. See paragraph 6-7j(3)(b) and Figure 7-18. Allow adhesive to set at ambient temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternative, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 2 Cure adhesive using Cure Cycle 1 or 2 from Table 6-1. The C-clamps may be removed after the adhesive has set. If using Cure Cycle 2, layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). (i) (j) using NDI. 1 If no disbond/delamination exists after repair or if disbond/delamination is within SRM limits for negligible damage, refinish per paragraph (k) below. 2 If the disbond/delamination is beyond SRM limits, contact FST engineering for disposition. (k) Refinish. After cure, remove C-clamps or debag. Reinspect the disbond/delamination

Figure 7-19. Edge Damage and Repair 7-5. EDGE DAMAGE REPAIR.

a. Procedure 8. Edge Damage Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to edge damage not to exceed 4 inches in length and which is contained within 0.25 inch of the part edge. Delaminations are allowed beyond this point but must be open to an edge and able to be successfully repaired using adhesive injection. (Edge damage to honeycomb sandwich assemblies which exceed this limit must be repaired as described in paragraph 7-5b, Procedure 9). The above limits may differ from the limits of the particular part in question. Typical edge damage is shown in Figure 7-19. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-2, Item 8 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4

1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the applicable SRM.

Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Fitter Abrasive Sleeve, 80 Grit 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly

7-21

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Define Damage

Damage Removal

(c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

No

Do Delams Exist?

Composite Materials
Yes

Refinish

Repair IAW Procedure 4

(d) Damage Removal. Remove damage along the damage layout line by hand using a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit sanding drum. Break the sharp edge on the skin following damage removal by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper. (e) If delaminations are present and open to an edge, perform injection repair as described in paragraph 7-3a, Procedure 4. (f) Refinish.

Figure 7-20. Process Flow Diagram for Edge Damage Repair, Procedure 8 Rubber Drum, 1.5 Inch Diameter, 1.0 Inch Wide Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Table 8-2, Item 8 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the applicable SRM. b. Procedure 9. Edge Damage Rebuild. (1) Application. This repair is applicable when the damage limitations of paragraph 7-5a have been exceeded. This repair is limited to edges in lightly loaded areas due to the use of wet layup patch material. A scarf joint is incorporated to reduce inner moldline protrusion for fit up with mating part surfaces. If fit up is not a consideration, the scarf joint is unnecessary and should not be used. Edge damage requiring rebuild in other than lightly loaded areas (such as hinge locations or load bearing fastener holes) requires FST engineering disposition and generally is forwarded to depot for repair. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Typical damage is shown in Figure 7-21. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 5

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Specification Table 5-5, Item 23

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-20 for the Process Flow Diagram For Edge Damage Repair. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define both the depth and extent of the delamination using NDI. Lay out the visually apparent damage parallel to the part edge. Use a radius not less than 0.5 inch. Layout the extent of delaminations (if any) as determined by NDI, with a second line. Refer to paragraph 6-3a.

7-22

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper High Temperature Tape Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Adhesive, Liquid Adhesive, Paste Scrim Cloth Figure 7-21. Typical Edge Damage Copper Sheet Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Router Holder Sanding Disks, 80, 150 & 180 Grit, 1.0 & 2.0 Inch Diameter Sanding Disk Holder Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Core Slicer Burr Special Surgical Razor C-Clamps Heat Blanket Temperature/Vacuum Controller White Cotton Gloves Marking Pen Scissors, Padded Handle Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Adhesive Comb Table 8-1, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 6 Table 8-2, Item 9 Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy, 6 Ply, 30 Inch x 30 Inch Dry Woven Carbon Cloth, 8 Harness Satin Weave Aluminum Honeycomb Core, 18 Inch Cell, 0.0015 Foil, 4 Inches Thick Acetate, Clear, 0.040 Inch Thick 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-1, Item 5a Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 13 Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-2, Item 5a

Table 5-2, Item 1 Table 5-3, Item 2

Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-2, Item 6

Table 5-5, Item 21 Table 5-5, Item 11

Table 8-3, Item 1 Table 8-3, Item 3 Table 8-12, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 5 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 14 Table 8-12, Item 13 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10 Figure 8-22

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-22 for the Process Flow Diagram for Edge Damage Rebuild. (3) Procedure. Typical steps required to rebuild edge damaged parts are shown in Figure 7-23. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. 7-23

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Prepare OML Patch/Part for Bond

Fabricate Wet Layup IML Patch Prepare IML Patch/Skin for Bond

Define Damage

Bond OML Patch Prepare/Bond Repair Core in Place Machine Repair Core Flush with IML Surface Fabricate/Bond OML Skin Spacer

1 Machine a scarf joint on the IML skin only. In the edge band area, stop the scarf joint at the IML to OML adhesive bondline (see Figure 7-23, Section A-A). Use a hand held 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit 2.0 inch diameter sanding disk as described in paragraph 6-6c. Use a scarf slope of 20 to 1 as shown in Figures 6-7, 6-8 and 7-24. 2 Inspect the scarf surface as described in the criteria of paragraph 6-6c(6). (g) Drying. Dry the repair area to remove subsurface moisture using an oven and an envelope vacuum bag per paragraph 6-7a(3)(b). Operate the oven using the guidelines provided in paragraph 6-7j(4)(b). Prior to applying vacuum bag, tape 0.063 inch thick aluminum support plates to exposed honeycomb core sidewall areas to prevent edgewise crushing of core. (See Figure 7-25). NOTE If part curvature precludes the use of a precured patch for the OML patch, a wet layup patch must be fabricated using an undamaged part as a tool. (h) Fabricate OML Repair Patch.

Damage Removal

Bond IML Patch

Paint Removal

Trim Edges

Machine Scarf Joint on IML Skin Dry Repair Area Fabricate OML Patch

NDI Repair

Refinish

Figure 7-22. Process Flow Diagram for Edge Damage Rebuild, Procedure 9

Composite Materials (d) Damage Removal.

7 1 Refer to paragraph 5-2a and the part specific SRM for patch selection. For this repair select a 6 ply, precured, 30 inch X 30 inch, carbon/epoxy patch.

1 Cut the damaged skin on both moldline surfaces along the damage layout line defined above using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. 2 Cut damaged core using a core slicer along the damage layout line as described in paragraph 6-3d(2)(a). Perform slicing operation along the cell axis. 3 Remove damaged skin/core material.

Composite Materials CAUTION

(e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (f) Machine Repair Joint. For this repair, interference between an externally bonded patch on the part IML surface and the mating surface on the aircraft necessitates the use of a flush repair. Select a scarf joint due to ease of machining.

Ensure a minimum of 1.5 inch overlap is achieved during the layup of a bonded external patch. Insufficient overlap will result in reduced strength. Load levels in the repair area may dictate a longer overlap. Refer to the part specific SRM for further guidance. NOTE Precured carbon/epoxy patches are not orientation sensitive from a strength standpoint, but have a minimum bending resistance direction. If the part is curved, determine this direction by bending the patch by hand. Orient the patch materials minimum bending direction with the part curvature.

Composite Materials 7-24

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

2 Cut a patch from the carbon/epoxy precured patch using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. Patch periphery should extend onto part OML surface a constant 1.5 inches (minimum) beyond the damage cleanup edge to provide the required patch overlap. In addition, extend the OML patch 1.0 inch beyond edges of the part to provide a surface for replacement core bonding and layup of IML wet layup patch (see Figure 7-23, View C). 3 Remove peel ply from both sides of patch. Use care not to inadvertently remove fibers from patch during peel ply removal. 4 Taper edge of patch using a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit sanding disk to the dimensions shown in Figure 6-27. (i) Prepare OML Patch and Skin for Bond. Prepare OML skin surface and both sides of patch for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (j) Apply Adhesive and OML Patch. Refer to paragraph 5-2a and the part specific SRM for adhesive selection. For this repair select a 2 part paste adhesive. Refer to paragraph 6-7i(3) for additional patch bond procedures. CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. 1 than the patch. 2 Prepare approximately 50 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive in patch bond area on OML surface of part using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). Extend the adhesive 14 inch past the patch bond periphery. Cut a piece of scrim cloth 14 inch larger

Apply scrim cloth on part surface. NOTE

The bond surface of the carbon/epoxy patch is the flat surface not containing the taper. 5 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on bond surface of patch using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). (See Figure 7-26). 6 Apply bond side of patch containing adhesive on part OML surface containing scrim cloth/ adhesive. Ensure patch is aligned on part to maintain a minimum overlap of 1.5 inches. 7 Tape patch in place with high temperature tape. (k) Bond OML Patch. 1 Layup Vacuum Bag. Prior to applying vacuum bag, tape 0.063 inch thick aluminum support plates to exposed honeycomb core sidewall areas to prevent edgewise crushing of core. Layup vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5) and as shown in Section B-B of Figure 7-23. If an oven is used to cure the adhesive, omit heat blanket, copper sheet and heat blanket control thermocouple from layup. Envelope bag the part per paragraph 6-7j(7). 2 Cure OML Patch Bond. Cure OML patch bond adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7k(1) using the appropriate Cure Cycle from Table 6-1. 3 Disassemble the vacuum bag (and the heat blanket if used). (l) Prepare/Bond Repair Core In Place.

1 Obtain a section of repair core. Ensure that it is at least as thick as the original core, of the same or higher density and of the same material. 2 Cut the repair core to match the damage cut out area. Clean the repair core and bond in place using paste adhesive as described in paragraph 7-8b, Procedure 23. (m) Machine Core Flush with IML Inner Surface. 1 Machine the repair core flush with the IML inner surface using the scarf tip and the part shape as

7-25

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

IML SURFACE EXTENT OF DAMAGE

A. Define Damage Extent


SCARF IML SKIN

D. Cut Repair Core and Bond/Splice in Place

A A

B. Remove Damage/Machine Scarf Joint

E. Machine Core Flush Wtih IML Inner SurfaceBond L Shaped Spacer to OML Patch
IML PATCH

OML PATCH

C. Bond OML Patch to OML Surface

F. Fabricate Wet Layup IML Patch and Bond in Place

Figure 7-23. Edge Damage Rebuild (Sheet 1 of 2)

7-26

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

IML SKIN

TERMINATE SCARF OF IML SKIN AT ADHESIVE BONDLINE

IML TO OML ADHESIVE BONDLINE OML SKIN

SECTION A-A EDGE BAND AREA SCARF

VACUUM BAG FILM PATCH

ALUMINUM SUPPORT PLATE

ADHESIVE

TAPE

VACUUM BAG SEALANT ORIGINAL PART

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CONTROL THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM BAG FILM POROUS RELEASE FABRIC RELEASE FILM BREATHER CLOTH 0.020 " COPPER SHEET HEAT BLANKET

BREATHER CLOTH

SECTION B-B VACUUM BAG / HEAT BLANKET LAYUP FOR OML PATCH BOND

IML PATCH

SEE DETAIL A ORIGINAL PART

0.5 INCH

EDGE OF PART/TRIM LINE

OML PATCH

REPAIR CORE

SECTION C-C IML PATCH

SCARF OUTLINE PERIPHERY SCARF TIP 0.5 INCH

PLY 3 2 1

IML PATCH ORIENTATION (45)w (0)w (45)w Material: Woven C/EP

DETAIL A WET LAYUP IML PATCH DETAILS

Figure 7-23. Edge Damage Rebuild (Sheet 2)

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Figure 7-24. Machine Scarf a guide. Use the burr special cutter and router holder as described in paragraph 6-7c(2) (see Figure 7-27). 2 Machining the repair core to match the part ramp areas requires finesse as the router holder has limited use in this area. Use a 90 degree router motor and a 150-180 grit sanding disk to approximate the ramp shape shown in Figure 7-28. Finish sand the core by hand using a sanding block to match ramp shape and to remove any cell wall roll over. 3 Vacuum the machined core to remove any sanding residue. (n) Fabricate and Bond OML Skin Spacer. Determine the thickness of OML skin. Manufacture an L shaped spacer from a piece (or pieces) of precured 6 ply patch material to approximate the OML skin thickness. 1 Cut the spacer to the required shape using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel (see Figure 7-23, View E). 2 Bond in place using paste adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7i(3). Use C-clamps or shot bags to apply pressure as described in paragraph 6-7j(3). (o) Fabricate Wet Layup IML Patch. 1 Manufacture a ply template and cutting template for IML patch plies as follows: a Ply Template. Tape 0.002 inch thick vacuum bag material over scarfed surface and trace periphery of each ply using a fine point permanent marking pen. Cut film as required to prevent wrinkling over contoured

Figure 7-25. Aluminum Support Plate areas. Edge(s) of patch plies which do not extend over the scarf surface should terminate 0.5 inch beyond edge of part (see Figure 7-23, Section C-C). Edges of patch plies that layup on the scarf surface extend to the outer periphery of the scarfed ply being replaced. The last ply (ply #3) extends onto the part surface 0.5 inch beyond the scarf outline periphery. (See Figure 7-23, Detail A). Mark part 0 degree and 45 degree direction on the template using arrows. Refer to part specific SRM to determine 0 degree and 45 degree orientation. b Cutting Template. Manufacture the cutting template from 0.040 inch thick clear acetate. Place the ply template on a flat surface. Place a sheet of acetate over the ply template and transfer the ply template lines onto the acetate using a fine point permanent marking pen. Cut along the periphery of the largest ply on the acetate using scissors. 2 paragraph 6-7e. Perform wet layup of dry cloth per

3 Place the cutting template on the vacuum bag film containing the impregnated cloth and align the arrow for the orientation of the ply being cut with the warp direction of the carbon cloth. 4 Cut the impregnated carbon cloth along the periphery of the cutting template using a surgical razor (see Figure 7-29). 5 Cut along the periphery of the next largest ply on the cutting template using scissors. 6 Cut the remaining repair plies from the impregnated carbon cloth using the above procedures (see Figure 7-30).

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Figure 7-26. OML Patch Adhesive 7 Cut a layer of 0.001 inch thick release film 2 inches larger than the repair area and tape in place over repair area. 8 Apply a coat of liquid adhesive onto the release film in the repair area (see Figure 7-31). NOTE Use care in handling cut plies during layup to prevent loss of woven material at ply edges. 9 Layup patch plies using the damaged area as a layup tool. Use the Individual Ply Technique for layup and curing of the patch as described in paragraph 6-7e(2).

Figure 7-27. Machining Repair Core

Figure 7-28. Machining Ramp in Repair Core 10 Use care not to wrinkle the vacuum bag material during layup or markoff on the patch surface will result. Smooth out wrinkles during application of vacuum as shown in Figure 7-32. Remove IML patch from part after cure. (p) Prepare IML Patch and Skin for Bond. Prepare IML skin surface and bond surface of repair patch for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (q) Apply Patch and IML Adhesive. Refer to paragraph 5-2a and the part specific SRM for adhesive selection. For this repair, select a 2 part paste adhesive.

Figure 7-29. Cutting Impregnated Carbon Cloth

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Figure 7-30. Impregnated Carbon Cloth Repair Plies CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. 1 Cut a piece of scrim cloth 14 inch larger than the IML patch. 2 Prepare approximately 50 grams of paste adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive in patch bond area on IML surface of part using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). The adhesive should extend 14 inch past the patch bond periphery and over the honeycomb core. 4 Apply scrim cloth on part surface. Figure 7-31. Ply Layup

an oven is used to cure the adhesive, omit heat blanket, copper sheet and heat blanket control thermocouple from layup. Envelope bag the part per paragraph 6-7j(7). 2 Cure IML Patch Bond. Cure IML patch bond adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7k(1) using the appropriate Cure Cycle from Table 6-1. 3 Disassemble the vacuum bag (and heat blanket if used). (s) Trim Edges. Using the part-as a guide, trim the OML and IML patches as described in paragraph 6-4f(3) to match part dimensions. (t) NDI Patch Bond.

1 Visually inspect the adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). See Figure 6-41. 2 Perform NDI of both patch bondlines and any area of the part subjected to temperatures exceeding the service temperature of the part material. (u) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

5 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on bond surface of patch using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). 6 Apply the bond side of patch containing adhesive to the part IML surface containing scrim cloth/adhesive. Ensure patch is aligned on part to maintain minimum an overlap of 0.5 inch as shown in Figure 7-23. 7 Tape the patch in place with high temperature tape. (r) Perform IML Patch Bond.

1 Layup Vacuum Bag. Layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). If

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Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter C-Clamps Heat Blanket Temperature/Vacuum Controller Weights, Shot Bags White Cotton Gloves Marking Pen Scissors, Padded Handle Figure 7-32. Vacuum Bag Layup c. Procedure 10. Flush Corner Repair. Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Heat Lamp Adhesive Comb Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-2, Item 6

Table 8-12, Item 5 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 14 Table 8-12, Item 13 Table 8-12 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 6 Figure 8-22 Table 8-12, Item 10

(1) Application. This repair is applicable to structure consisting of carbon/epoxy skins bonded to carbon/epoxy ribs with damage to the trailing edge corner of the assembly. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions, laminate thickness and repair weight considerations. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner HEPA Filter Orbital Sander Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Bit, 18 Inch Diameter 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Router Holder Temporary Fasteners Sanding Disks, 80, 150 & 180 Grit, 1.0 & 2.0 Inch Diameter Sanding Disk Holder Repair Rib Tool Surgical Razor Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-4, Item 1 or 2 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 6 Table 8-6, Item 3 Table 8-2, Item 9

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Adhesive, Liquid Adhesive, Paste Release Liquid Scrim Cloth Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit High Temperature Tape Dry Woven Carbon Cloth, 8 Harness Satin Weave Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy, 6 Ply, 30 Inch x 30 Inch Release Film, 1 Mil Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-1, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 5b Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-2, Item 1 Table 5-2, Item 5b

Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 21 Table 5-5, Item 11

Table 8-2, Item 10 Local Manufacture Table 8-12, Item 1

Acetate, Clear, 0.040 Inch Thick 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock

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Clean Part

Ensure Proper Fit-Up of Splice Plates Mark Splice Plates for Alignment
Prepare Splice Plates & Bonding Surfaces for Bond

Bond LML Skin Spacer

(b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Define Damage

Machine Edge to Match Part

Damage Removal

Perform Leak Check

Composite Materials (d) Damage Removal.

Paint Removal

Bond Splice Plates to Part


Prepare Parent Rib, Repair Rib & Rib Spacers for Bond

Dry Repair Area

Fabricate Repair Rib

Fabricate UML & LML Patches

1 Cut through the rib and the damaged skin on both moldline surfaces along the damage layout line defined above. Use a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. 2 material. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (f) Fabricate Repair Rib. Remove the damaged rib and skin

Fabricate Splice Plates

Bond Together: Parent Rib, Repair Rib & Rib Spacer

Prepare UML , LML & Patches for Bond

Fabricate Rib Spacers

Prepare Skin Spacer & Mating Surfaces for Bond

Bond Patches to UML & LML

Fabricate Skin Spacers Drill Holes in Splice Plates & Parent Skin

Bond UML Skin Spacer

NDI Repair

Fill in Trailing Edge with Chopped Fibers

Refinish

1 Cut one piece of dry woven carbon cloth large enough to provide 3 plies of the required ply orientation (45, 0, 45)w. The required repair rib length needs to provide a 1.5 inch overlap between the repair rib and the parent rib. Make the rib twice this required length to allow for trimming and for fabrication of two rib spacers. Size rib caps 1.0 inch wider than parent rib cap for trimming. 2 Fabricate a cutting template for repair rib plies based upon the above dimensions using the procedures described in paragraph 6-7d(4). Use the ply orientation specified in Figure 7-35. 3 Prepare the Repair Rib Tool. If a tool is not available, fabricate a tool from a wood block as shown in Figure 7-35. Use an identical undamaged spare part to obtain dimensions for fabricating tool. a Lightly sand the surface of the tool to remove any protrusions. Wipe sanded area with a clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. b Tape a layer of release film over the layup tool. The release film should be several inches larger than the largest ply.

Figure 7-33. Process Flow Diagram for Flush Corner Repair, Procedure 10

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-33 for the Process Flow Diagram for Flush Corner Repair. (3) Procedure. Typical steps required to rebuild damaged corners are shown in Figure 7-34. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b.
CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials.

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UPPER MOLDLINE SURFACE CARBON/EPOXY RIB

1.5" Overlap
LOWER MOLDLINE SURFACE

A. Damage to Skin and Rib Removed


RIB REPLACEMENT SECTION

1.5" 0.75" 3.0"

C. Repair Rib Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and C-Clamps

TEMPORARY FASTENER SPLICE PLATE

RIB SPACERS

B. Splice Plate Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and Fasteners

D. Rib Spacers Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and C-Clamps

Figure 7-34. Flush Corner Repair Sequence (Only Bonding on Upper Moldline is Shown for Clarity)(Sheet 1 of 2) 4 Prepare liquid adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. Approximately 27 grams of adhesive will wet one square foot (one ply) of dry woven cloth. 5 Impregnate woven carbon cloth per paragraph 6-7f(4)(a). 6 Using the cutting template manufactured above, cut impregnated plies as described in paragraph 6-7e(2)(c). 7 Layup the plies using the Flat Ply Collation Technique described in paragraph 6-7e(2)(d). 8 Apply the layup to the DVD tool and perform debulking using the 8 Harness Weave Fabric debulk cycle per paragraph 6-7f(4)(d) through paragraph 6-7f(4)(e). Use one ply of Style 120 fiberglass cloth for bleeder material. 9 Form the DVD layup to the repair rib tool, vacuum bag the layup to the tool, and pre-cure the laminate in an oven using Method 1 per paragraph 6-7f(4)(f). 10 Following cure, disassemble vacuum bag and carefully remove angle. 11 Perform NDI of angle per applicable part specific SRM. 12 Using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel, trim repair rib length to ensure the required 1.5 inch overlap is achieved. Save excess material for the rib spacer.

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SHOT BAG CAUL PLATE

F. Skin Spacer Edges Machined to Match Part Dimensions

SKIN SPACER

E. Skin Spacer Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and Shot Bags G. Final Repair Configuration Figure 7-34. Flush Corner Repair Sequence (Only Bonding on Upper Moldline is Shown for Clarity)(Sheet 2) (g) Fabricate Splice Plates. 1 Splice plates shall be at least 3 inches in width to ensure a minimum of a 1.5 inch overlap exists for splice plate to parent skin bond and splice plate to skin spacer bond. 2 From carbon/epoxy 6 ply precured patch material, cut two laminate pieces to the shape illustrated in Figure 7-34, View B. Use a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel. 3 Drill three 18 inch diameter holes in both splice plates for temporary fastener installation. Centerline of holes shall be 0.75 inch from edge of splice plate (Figure 7-34, View B). 4 Remove peel ply from splice plates. Allow pieces to be 14 inch larger than the part. Use a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel. Do not taper edge. (j) Drill Holes in the Parent Skin.

1 Lay splice plate on upper moldline (UML) skin and mark the skin for drilling. 2 parent skin. 3 (LML) surface. (k) Prepare Temporary Fasteners. CAUTION DO NOT allow release liquid to come into contact with repair or repair details. 1 Apply release liquid to temporary fasteners in areas that will be in contact with the splice plate during adhesive cure. 2 Cure applied release liquid per manufacturers instructions. Repeat steps 1-2 for lower moldline Mate drill 18 inch diameter holes into

(h) Fabricate Rib Spacers. From the excess repair rib material saved above, cut two laminate pieces same width as the parent rib and as long as necessary to ensure a good fit-up with the parent rib. Use a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel. (i) Fabricate Skin Spacers. From carbon/ epoxy 6 ply precured patch material, cut two laminate pieces to the shape illustrated in Figure 7-34, View E.

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Rib Cap = Parent Rib Cap + 1.0 Inch

Vacuum Bag Sealant

1.0"

45 0

L=

Ti

es

eq

ui

re

Le

ng

th

Allow Room for Vacuum Connector Base Plate

Rib Prior to Trim Final Repair Rib

1.0" Typical Between Sealant and Edge of Part

REPAIR RIB TOOL (Aluminum or Wood Block) Cap = Parent Rib Cap + 1.0 Inch

Figure 7-36. Marking Splice Plate for Alignment (n) Repeat steps (k)-(m) for LML surface. (o) Prepare mating surfaces of splice plates and UML and LML inner surfaces for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If splice plates are not to be bonded immediately, cover them and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with tape to prevent contamination. (p) Bond Splice Plate to UML Inner Surface (see Figure 7-34, View B). 1 Prepare adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Cut a piece of scrim cloth the same size as the splice plate-to-skin bond area. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the UML inner surface using a spatula and adhesive comb (where practical) per paragraph 6-7i(3). 4 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the splice plate in the area that mates with UML skin. Use a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 5 splice plate. Apply scrim cloth to adhesive on the

0.090 r 90 Ply # 3 2 1 Orientation (45)w (0)w (45)w

Material: W133/EA9390

REPAIR RIB LAYUP

Figure 7-35. Repair Rib Layup and Tool (l) Ensure Proper Fit-Up. Use temporary fasteners to fasten together the parent skin and splice plate. (m) Mark Splice Plate for Alignment. 1 While clamped-up, use a yellow pencil to mark the splice plate. a Mark where the splice plate extends past the parent skin (see Figure 7-36). b Draw lines pointing toward the drilled holes (see Figure 7-36). 2 While clamped-up, apply high temperature tape to the part of the splice plate which extends past the parent skin. Trim off any excess tape.

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6 Align the drilled holes of the splice plate with the drilled holes in the parent skin. Fasten with temporary fasteners. 7 Remove excess squeeze out.

8 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the rib spacer and repair rib mating surface, using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 9 spacer. Apply scrim cloth on surface of the rib

8 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp with Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 9 Remove temporary fasteners.

10 Lay rib spacer on UML surface of repair rib. 11 Fasten with c-clamps (see Figure 7-34, View D). See paragraph 6-7j(3)(b) for use of c-clamps. 12 Remove excess squeeze out.

10 Repeat steps 1-9 for LML surface. 13 Repeat steps 7-12 for LML surface of (q) Prepare Parent Rib Inner Surface, Repair Rib and Rib Spacers for Bond. Prepare parent rib inner rib surface, repair rib and rib spacers for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If repair rib and rib spacers are not to be bonded immediately, cover them and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (r) Bond Together the Parent Rib, Repair Rib and Rib Spacer (see Figure 7-34, View C and View D). 1 Prepare 50 grams of adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Cut a piece of scrim cloth slightly larger than the repair rib. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on repair rib and parent rib mating surfaces, using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 4 rib. 5 Insert the repair rib into the parent rib and align with edge of part. 6 Fasten with c-clamps (see Figure 7-34, View C). See paragraph 6-7j(3)(b) for use of c-clamps. 7 Cut a piece of scrim cloth slightly larger than the rib spacer. Apply scrim cloth on surface of repair repair rib. 14 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp with Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 15 Remove c-clamps. (s) Prepare Skin Spacer and Mating Surfaces for Bond. Remove peel ply from spacer surface and tape from splice plate. Prepare spacer and mating surfaces (splice plates and rib spacers) for bonding by sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If skin spacer is not to be bonded immediately, cover it and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (t) Bond Skin Spacer to UML Surfaces (see Figure 7-34, View E). 1 Prepare 50 grams of adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Cut pieces of scrim cloth slightly larger than the mating surfaces of the splice plate and rib spacer. 3 Apply tape to outer side of skin spacer to facilitate anchoring to parent skin. (See Figure 7-37).

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Figure 7-37. Adhesive Applied to Mating Surface of Skin Spacer

Figure 7-38. Skin Filler Taped to Repair Rib and Splice Plate (w) Machine edges of skin spacer flush with part. (See Figure 7-34, View F). (x) Perform Leak Check. Install a vacuum bag over the patch bond area per paragraph 6-7j(5) except omit heat blanket and copper sheet. Apply a minimum of 20 inches of mercury without audible leaks. If this cannot be achieved, remove vacuum bag and repair leaks by applying additional paste adhesive to skin spacer/part surface gap. Repeat leak check as required. (y) Drying. Dry the repair area to remove subsurface moisture per paragraph 6-7a. Use a heat blanket and vacuum bag as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). (z) Cut UML and LML patches from carbon/ epoxy precured patch material using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. Patch periphery should extend onto part UML/LML surface a constant 1.5 inches beyond original damage cleanup edge to provide required patch overlap. (aa) Remove peel ply from both sides of patch. Use care to not inadvertently remove fibers from patch during peel ply removal. (ab) Taper edge of patches using a 90 degree router motor and an 80 grit sanding disk to the dimensions shown in Figure 6-27.

4 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the rib spacer, splice plate and skin spacer mating surface, using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). (See Figure 7-37). 5 Apply scrim cloth pieces on surface of the rib spacer and splice plate. 6 Lay the skin spacer on top of rib spacer and splice plate, flush with the parent skin. Anchor with tape. (See Figure 7-38). 7 Tape release film over skin spacer.

8 Apply pressure with caul plate and shot bags as illustrated in Figure 7-34, View E. Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. 9 Remove caul plate and shot bags.

10 Remove tape and squeeze out. (u) Prepare a mixture of chopped fibers and paste adhesive per paragraph 5-5a, with mrF = 14. Fill in trailing edge with mixture. (v) Repeat step (t)1-10 for LML surface.

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(ac) Prepare Patch Surfaces and Mating Surfaces for Bond. Prepare patches and mating surface of skin spacers for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patches are not to be bonded immediately, cover them and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with tape to prevent contamination. CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. 1 Prepare 50 grams of adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 than the patch. 3 Apply tape to outer side of patch to facilitate anchoring to parent skin. 4 Apply a thin layer of adhesive in patch bond area on UML surface of part using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). Extend the adhesive 14 inch past the patch bond periphery. 5 Apply scrim cloth on part surface. Cut a piece of scrim cloth 14 inch larger

2 Cure UML and LML Patch Bond. Cure patch bond adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7k(1) using the appropriate Cure Cycle from Table 6-1. 3 heat blanket. 4 Remove tape. Sand adhesive squeeze out flush with edge of part. (ae) NDI Patch Bonds. 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41). 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. (af) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. d. Procedure 11. Flush Trailing Edge Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to structure consisting of carbon/epoxy skins bonded to carbon/epoxy ribs with damage to the trailing edge skin and rib member. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions, laminate thickness and repair weight considerations. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. (2) Process Flow Diagram. The process flow diagram for this procedure is identical to Figure 7-33. (3) Procedure. The procedure for this repair is the same as Procedure 10 except it has been expanded to include a full trailing edge repair as shown in Figure 7-39. Disassemble the vacuum bag and the

6 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on bond surface of patch using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). 7 Apply bond side of patch containing adhesive onto part UML surface containing scrim cloth/ adhesive. Ensure patch is aligned on part, even with the part dimensions (see Figure 7-34, View G). Anchor with tape. 8 Repeat steps 1-7 for LML surface.

(ad) Bond Patches to UML and LML Surfaces (see Figure 7-34, View G). 1 Layup Vacuum Bag. Layup vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5).

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A. Damage to Skin and Rib Removed

RIB REPLACEMENT SECTION

B. Repair Rib Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and C-Clamps

SPACERS

C. Spacers Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and C-Clamps

FASTENER

SPLICE PLATE

SPACERS

D. Splice Plates Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and Fasteners Figure 7-39. Flush Trailing Edge Repair Sequence (Only Bonding on Upper Moldline is Shown for Clarity)(Sheet 1 of 2)

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SHOT BAGS

CAUL PLATE

SKIN FILLER

E. Skin Filler Bonded in Place With Paste Adhesive and Shots Bags

F. Skin Filler Machined to Match Part Dimensions

G. Final Repair Configuration

Figure 7-39. Flush Trailing Edge Repair Sequence (Only Bonding on Upper Moldline is Shown for Clarity)(Sheet 2)

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7-6.

FASTENER HOLE REPAIR.

a. Procedure 12. Countersink Repair. (1) Application. This procedure is limited to oversized, elongated, or damaged fastener hole countersink areas only. Oversized, elongated, or damaged countersinks that involve the fastener hole in addition to the countersink area must be repaired using one of the methods provided in paragraph 7-6b, Procedure 13, 7-6d, Procedure 15 or 7-6e, Procedure 16. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Weights, Shot Bags Clamps Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Clean Part

Prepare Area for Filler Application

Set Filler

Define Damage

Prepare and Apply Filler

Refinish

Figure 7-40. Process Flow Diagram for Countersink Repair, Procedure 12

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-40 for the Process Flow Diagram for Countersink Repair. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. (b) Define Damage. Visually inspect damaged fastener hole countersink area to ensure damage does not extend into fastener hole. (c) Prepare Surfaces For Filler Application. 1 Lightly sand countersink area using 180 grit abrasive paper to remove sealant/paint and other foreign debris. Vacuum area to remove sanding residue.

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Adhesive, Liquid Release Film Dry Woven Carbon Cloth 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Release Liquid Cotton Tipped Applicator Solvent Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-2, Item 1, 2a or 2b Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-5, Item 18 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 3 Obtain the fastener used in the fastener hole being repaired. Coat the entire fastener with liquid release agent. Apply a second coat, waiting 15 minutes after each application to ensure solvent in release agent completely evaporates. 2 Clean fastener hole and countersink area using a cotton tipped applicator, rymplecloth and solvent. Thoroughly clean the area with repeated wiping until no residue is left on the cotton tipped applicator or the rymplecloth. Allow the solvent to evaporate a minimum of 30 minutes. Solvent 4

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

CAUTION To prevent damage to part, ensure fastener has been coated with release agent prior to installation in fastener hole. 4 Insert the release agent coated fastener into the hole containing the damaged countersink until the head is approximately 0.25 to 0.375 inch above surface of skin. (d) Prepare Filler. Prepare a small quantity (15 grams) of adhesive/chopped carbon fiber mixture per paragraph 5-5a, with mrF=5 (5 parts by weight of chopped carbon fiber). (e) Apply Filler. 1 Apply filler to the countersink area under the fastener head. Apply sufficient material so that squeeze out will occur when the fastener is seated in position. 2 Seat fastener in fastener hole flush with panel surface using thumb pressure. Use care not to push fastener head below panel surface. Do not remove excess squeeze out of filler. (f) Set Filler.

b. Procedure 13. Fill And Drill Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to damaged, misdrilled or elongated fastener holes. It is limited to lightly loaded fastener holes used on nonstructural access covers and doors. For repairs to load bearing fastener holes, use the swagged grommet or captive bushing method per paragraph 7-6d, Procedure 15 or 7-6e, Procedure 16. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Marking Pen Weights, Shot Bags C-Clamps Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Drill Bushing, Coolant Drill Bit Countersink Cutter, Piloted Microstop Cage Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 14 Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 3 Table 8-4, Item 1 or 2 Table 8-4, Items 6-14 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

1 Apply release film, a 0.063 inch thick aluminum caul plate and contact pressure to the repair using either an external weight or C-clamp. 2 Allow filler to set at room temperature for 8 hours before removing weights or c-clamp. If c-clamps were used, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 3 Remove caul plate and release film. Very carefully remove installed fastener so as not to cause damage. (g) Refinish. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. Use care not to apply finish system in fastener hole or countersink area.

Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Adhesive, Liquid Release Film, 1 Mil Dry Woven Carbon Cloth, 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-2, Item 1, 2a or 2b Table 5-5, Item 11

7-42

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Prepare Hole for Filler Application

Redrill/ Countersink Hole


FASTENER/HOLE

TRANSFER LINES & REFERENCE POINTS TO MYLAR TEMPLATE

Define Damage

Prepare and Apply Filler

Refinish

Fabricate Mylar Template

Set Filler

REFERENCE POINTS & LINES MARKED ON PART

Figure 7-41. Process Flow Diagram for Fill and Drill Fastener Hole Repair, Procedure 13 Figure 7-42. Template Fabrication Cotton Tipped Applicator Solvent High Temperature Tape Mylar, Clear, Type A, 0.005 Inch Thick Table 5-5, Item 18 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-5, Item 19
RELEASE FILM SECURE WITH TAPE

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-41 for the Process Flow Diagram for Fill and Drill Fastener Hole Repair. (3) Procedure.

BACKING PLATE (ALUMINUM)

Figure 7-43. Fastener Hole Sealing

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Inspect damaged fastener hole for delaminations using NDI. If delaminations are present, first repair the delaminations per paragraph 7-6c, Procedure 14. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. (d) Fabricate Mylar Template. 1 Establish the centerline of the fastener hole using reference points and lines marked on the part as shown in Figure 7-42, using a permanent ink marking pen. Ensure the reference points are far enough away from the fastener hole to not be affected by the repair process.

2 Transfer the hole centerline and the reference points to a piece of mylar. Use this mylar as a guide in redrilling the fastener hole following filling. (e) Prepare Fastener Hole For Filler Application. 1 Lightly sand countersink area using 180 grit abrasive paper to remove sealant, paint and other debris. Vacuum area to remove sanding residue.

Solvent

2 Clean fastener hole and countersink area using a cotton tipped applicator, rymplecloth and solvent. Thoroughly clean the area with repeated wiping until no residue is left on the cotton tipped applicator or the rymplecloth. Allow the solvent to evaporate for a minimum of 30 minutes. 3 Seal the backside of the fastener hole by securing release film and an 0.063 inch thick aluminum backup plate with overlapped layers of high temperature tape as shown in Figure 7-43. 7-43

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(f) Prepare Filler. Prepare a small quantity (30 grams) of adhesive/chopped carbon fiber mixture per paragraph 5-5a with mrF=5 (5 parts by weight of chopped carbon fiber). (g) Apply Filler. 1 Carefully apply the adhesive/fiber mixture into the fastener hole and fill to the top. Apply mixture in layered amounts to avoid air entrapment. 2 Fair mixture with a spatula and wipe off excess with clean, dry, rymplecloth. (h) Set Filler. 1 Apply release film, an 0.063 inch thick aluminum plate and contact pressure over the repair area using either an external weight or C-clamps. 2 Allow filler to set at room temperature for 8 hours before removing weights or C-clamps. If C-clamps were used, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). (i) Redrill/Countersink Hole.

c. Procedure 14. Fastener Hole Delamination Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to fastener holes with delaminations exposed to the edge of the hole only and uses the vacuum injection technique. For fastener holes with delaminations open to the edge of the part, repair per paragraph 7-3a, Procedure 4. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Heat Lamp Thermocouple or Temperature Sensor Temperature/Vacuum Controller Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Vacuum Cup and Lid Torque Wrench Bolt, Nut & Washers Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Marking Pen Specification Table 8-12, Item 6 Paragraph 8-6 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 20 Locally Fabricated per Figure 8-20 Table 8-12, Item 15 Local Availability Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 14 Table 8-12, Item 10

1 Lightly sand any squeezed out filler flush with part surface using 180 grit abrasive paper. 2 Using the template fabricated above, carefully locate a drill guide containing the correct drill bushing for the hole to be redrilled. Secure the drill guide to the part with a C-clamp.

Composite Materials

Rubber Coated Apron

3 Redrill and countersink the repaired fastener hole per paragraph 6-4g. Use a countersink microstop to prevent countersinking too deep. (j) Refinish.

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Pressure Sensitive Tape Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Adhesive, Liquid Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 9 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-5, Item 1

1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

7-44

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Install Vacuum Cup/Perform Leak Test


Prepare Adhesive & Perform Vacuum Injection

Clean Up/ Redrill Hole if Required

Table 7-1. Clamp-Up Bolts and Torque Values


HOLE DIAMETER (IN) 3/16 BOLT SIZE TORQUE VALUES (IN-LBS) 10 20 50 70

Define Damage

#8-36 #10-32 1/4-28 5/16-24

NDI Repair
1/4 5/16

Obtain/Prepare Bolt, Nut & Washers Prepare Surfaces for Adhesive Application

Cure Adhesive

Refinish
3/8

(d) Obtain/Prepare Bolt, Nut and Washers. 1 Obtain the required bolt, nut and washers given in Table 7-1. Washer outer diameter shall be of sufficient size to extend a minimum of 0.060 inch beyond the area of delamination as determined by NDI. Select bolt grip length to ensure no more than three washers per side are used. 2 Coat bolt, nut, washers and backing plate with liquid release agent. Apply a second coat, waiting 15 minutes after each application to ensure solvent in release agent completely evaporates. (e) Prepare Surfaces For Adhesive Application. 1 Lightly sand around fastener hole in the area where the vacuum cup will be applied and in the countersink area using 180 grit abrasive paper to remove sealant, paint and other debris. Vacuum area to remove sanding residue.

Figure 7-44. Process Flow Diagram for Fastener Hole Delamination Repair (Vacuum Injection), Procedure 14

0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Release Liquid Cotton Tipped Applicator Solvent Mylar, Clear, Type A, 0.005 Inch Thick

Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-5, Item 18 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-5, Item 19

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-44 for the Process Flow Diagram for Fastener Hole Delamination Repair (Vacuum Injection). (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Inspect fastener holes using NDI to determine extent of delamination. Mark the perimeter of the delamination on the part surface and on a mylar template using a marking pen. Ensure delamination meets the criteria of paragraph 7-6c(1) above. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Solvent

2 Clean fastener hole and countersink area using a cotton tipped applicator, rymplecloth and solvent. Thoroughly clean the area with repeated wiping until no residue is left on the cotton tipped applicator or the rymplecloth. Allow the solvent to evaporate for a minimum of 30 minutes. 3 Seal the backside of the fastener hole by securing a 0.063 inch thick aluminum plate with vacuum bag sealant. Apply vacuum bag material over the aluminum plate and secure to backside of part using vacuum bag sealant as shown in Figure 7-45. Plug adjacent holes that may provide a leak path for the vacuum system with vacuum bag sealant.

7-45

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

PLEXIGLASS LID VACUUM CUP VACUUM CONNECTOR & PLUNGER TAPE MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE RESIN

(i)

Perform Vacuum Injection.

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;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
VACUUM BAGGING FILM BACKING PLATE (ALUMINUM)

VACUUM BAG SEALANT TAPE MONITORING THERMOCOUPLE COMPOSITE SKIN VACUUM BAG SEALANT

1 Remove lid from vacuum cup using care not to affect the cup to part seal. 2 Pour the prepared adhesive into the fastener hole until filled. Pour remaining adhesive into cup. 3 bag sealant. 4 Apply 25-30 inches of mercury vacuum and hold until no more air bubbles escape or until 8-10 minutes pass, whichever occurs first. Monitor the adhesive continuously during the 8-10 minute period by looking through the lid. If excessive foaming of the adhesive occurs, control the foaming by alternately disconnecting and reapplying the vacuum hose to the cup, but do not vent the cup to atmospheric pressure. In no case exceed 10 minutes. 5 After the 8-10 minute vacuum dwell, disconnect vacuum hose and vent the cup to atmospheric pressure by activating the vacuum connector plunger. Leave the cup vented to atmosphere for 5 minutes. 6 Reconnect the vacuum hose and apply 25-30 inches of mercury vacuum. Hold for 5 minutes. Monitor the adhesive and control foaming per step 4 above. 7 After the second vacuum dwell, disconnect the vacuum hose and vent cup to atmospheric pressure by activating the vacuum connector plunger. Remove the vacuum cup, backup plate, bagging film and sealant tape. 8 Clean up excess adhesive on part surface using clean, dry rymplecloth. Do not wipe inside fastener hole. CAUTION DO NOT exceed the torque values listed in Table 7-1 or damage to part may result. (j) Cure Adhesive. Replace the lid and reseal with vacuum

Figure 7-45. Vacuum Cup Installation

(f)

Install Vacuum Cup/Perform Leak Test.

1 Obtain a vacuum cup and lid. If one is not available, fabricate one per Figure 8-20. 2 Apply vacuum cup, with lid installed on part surface over the affected fastener hole using vacuum bag sealant as shown in Figure 7-45. 3 Apply 25-30 inches of mercury vacuum to cup. Ensure a minimum of 25 inches of mercury is attained without any audible leaks. Reseal as required to eliminate leaks and obtain the required vacuum. NOTE Position the heat lamp(s) such that the thermocouples are not in the shadow of the vacuum cup. (g) Heat Repair Area. 1 Perform a heat survey of the repair area per paragraph 6-7m. Adjust the position and number of heat lamps to obtain a part temperature of 125 5F. After successfully completing the heat survey, proceed with the repair. 2 Heat the repair area to a temperature of 125 5F using heat lamp(s) as described in paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). Monitor the temperature of the repair area using thermocouples. To prevent early gelation of the adhesive, ensure the repair area temperature does not exceed 130F. Maintain 125 5F part temperature throughout the injection procedure. (h) Prepare Adhesive. Prepare a small quantity (30 grams) of liquid adhesive per paragraph 5-5a.

1 Install release agent coated bolt, washers and nut as shown in Figure 7-46. Remove any adhesive from bolt threads with clean, dry, rymplecloth prior to installing nut. 2 Torque the nut and bolt to the applicable torque value listed in Table 7-1 using a torque wrench to obtain the required clamp-up pressure.

7-46

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

BOLT

(l) NDI Repair. Inspect repaired fastener hole to verify delamination was successfully injected. (m) Refinish. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. d. Procedure 15. Fastener Hole Repair: Swagged Grommet. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to damaged, misdrilled or elongated fastener holes in advanced composite panels such as removable access covers. This repair is limited to a maximum cleaned up damage of 0.030 inch on the hole radius. Damage which exceeds this limit may be repaired using the method provided in paragraph 7-6e, Procedure 16. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required

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3

WASHERS (MAXIMUM OF 3 PER SIDE)

NUT (TORQUE PER TABLE 7-1)

Figure 7-46. Application of Clamp-Up Pressure Room Temperature Cure Cycle. a place for 8 hours. b Remove bolt, nut and washer. Allow to dwell with nut and bolt in

c Allow to dwell at room temperature for a minimum of 5 days. 4 Elevated Temperature Cure Cycle.

Nomenclature a Allow to dwell with nut and bolt in place for 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). b Remove bolt, nut and washer. Layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). c Cure the adhesive as specified in Table 6-1, Cure Cycle 2. d After cure, debag. Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Alignment Pin Dagger Drill Bits Overhose Assembly Marking Pen 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Sanding Disks, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Sanding Disk Holder Microstop Cage Countersink Cutter, Piloted Counterbore Cutter, Removable Pilot

Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 5 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 14 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-2, Item 9 Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 6-14 Table 8-4, Item 15

(k) Clean Up/Redrill Hole If Required. 1 Lightly sand any residual adhesive left on part surfaces using 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding residue from part surface. 2 Visually inspect fastener hole for residual adhesive. Redrill hole if required.

7-47

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Counterbore IML

Set Adhesive

(b) Define Damage. Visually inspect and measure hole damage. The damage must be no more than 0.030 inch maximum on the radius.

Define Damage

Prepare Surfaces for Bonding Prepare & Apply Adhesive to Hole & Grommet

Grind Grommet Flush With OML


Ream/ Countersink Grommet if Required

Composite Materials (c) Remove Damage.

Damage Removal

Countersink OML of Fastener Hole

1 Locate original hole centerline using the drill guide and alignment pin. Secure drill guide in place. 2 While maintaining the original hole centerline increase the hole diameter 0.0625 inch using a dagger drill. (d) Measure the panel thickness for determining the proper grommet length.

Install & Flare Grommet

Refinish

Figure 7-47. Process Flow Diagram for Fastener Hole Repair: Swagged Grommet, Procedure 15 Grommet Installation Tool Respirator White Cotton Gloves Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Local Availability Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Composite Materials

Materials Required Nomenclature Rymplecloth Solvent Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Cotton Tipped Applicator Adhesive, Paste Double Sided Adhesive Tape, Pressure Sensitive Grommet Specification Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 18 Table 5-1, Item 5a Table 5-5, Item 20

(e) Countersink OML side of cover as described in paragraph 6-4g using a countersink cutter and microstop cage.

Composite Materials (f)

Spotface IML Surface.

1 Place a countersink cutter with the same pilot diameter as the fastener hole being repaired into a microstop cage. Center the countersink pilot in the hole on the IML surface of the cover. 2 With a marking pen or pencil, trace around the perimeter of the microstop cage.

Local Manufacture See Figure 7-48

3 Remove the countersink cutter from the microstop cage. 4 Remove pilot from the counterbore cutter. Place counterbore cutter into the microstop cage. 5 Center the microstop cage over the hole with its perimeter aligned with the circle marked in paragraph 2 above. To stabilize the counterbore during cutting, place double sided tape over the marked circle. Carefully place microstop cage onto the tape maintaining alignment.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-47 for the Process Flow Diagram for Fastener Hole Repair: Swagged Grommet. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b.

7-48

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

6 Spotface IML side of cover to a depth of 0.020 +0.005/-0.000 inch with counterbore cutter and microstop cage.

ORIGINAL HOLE DIAMETER + 0.0625 INCH

Solvent

(g) Prepare surfaces for bonding. Clean bonding surfaces of grommet and fastener hole using a cotton tipped applicator, rymplecloth and solvent. Thoroughly clean the area with repeated wiping until no residue is left on the cotton tipped applicator or the rymplecloth. Handle the grommet and part from this point forward wearing clean white cotton gloves to prevent contamination of bonding surfaces. (h) Prepare a small amount of adhesive (15 grams) as described in paragraph 5-5a and apply adhesive to the grommet and fastener hole mating surfaces. (i) Install and flare grommet into countersink (see Figure 7-48) with grommet installation tool. See part specific SRM for any torque requirements. (j) Set Adhesive. Leave grommet installation tool in place and allow adhesive to set at room temperature for 8 hours. Following removal of installation tool, allow adhesive to set at room temperature for an additional 16 hours before performing grinding operation. (k) Grind excess grommet material flush with OML surface using a router motor and 80 grit abrasive disk. Use care not to sand into laminate surface or overheat the laminate during grinding. (l) If required, ream and/or countersink the grommet to comply with applicable SRM hole diameter. (m) Refinish. 1 Sand area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

0.3 INCH MINIMUM

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MATERIAL 321 CRES 1 INCH WALL 32

0.020 INCH THICK FLANGE

A. Grommet Inserted

B. Swagging Operation Initiated

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COLLAR

MANDREL

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C. Swagging Operation Complete

D. Grommet Installed

Figure 7-48. Swagged Grommet Installation

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MACHINE EXCESS MATERIAL FLUSH

7-49

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

e. Procedure 16. Fastener Hole Repair: Captive Bushing. (1) Application. This repair is applicable to damaged or elongated fastener holes in structural composite panels such as removable access covers. This repair is limited to a maximum damage of 0.060 inch on the radius. Damage which exceeds this limit requires FST engineering disposition. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Piloted Reamer, Solid Carbide, 0.381 Inch Diameter Piloted Reamer, Solid Carbide, 0.4435 Inch Diameter Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Drill Guide Drill Motor, 2000 RPM 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Carborundum Wheel Arbor, Drill Chuck Sanding Disk Holder Sanding Disks, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Countersink Cutter, Piloted Carbide Inserts Countersink Cutter Pin Microstop Cage Counterbore Cutter, Removable Pilot Bearing Press Face Shield White Cotton Gloves 7-50 Specification Table 8-4, Item 5a

ORIGINAL HOLE DIAMETER + 0.125 0.001INCH

0.5

0.020

0.1 INCH MINIMUM


FLANGE BUSHING

0.5

MATERIAL PH 13 - 8 Mo 1 32 INCH WALL


O.D. TO PROVIDE 0.0016 - 0.0026 INCH INTERFERENCE WITH FLANGE BUSHING I.D.
COUNTERSINK BUSHING

Table 8-4, Item 5b

Figure 7-49. Captive Bushing Repair Components Respirator Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 NSN 3460-01-313-9680 NSN 3460-01-009-6115 Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-2, Item 9 Table 8-4, Items 6 and 7 Table 8-4, Items 9 and 10 Table 8-4, Item 11 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 15 Common Support Equipment Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 8-12, Item 12

Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Materials Required Nomenclature Adhesive, Paste Cotton Tipped Applicator Solvent Dry Ice Flange & Countersink Bushings -4 (14 Inch) Flange & Countersink Bushings -5 (5/16 Inch) Wooden Spatula Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Release Liquid Specification Table 5-1, Item 5a or 5b Table 5-5, Item 18 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Local Availability NSN 3120-01-291-9129 See Figure 7-49 NSN 3120-01-290-4879 See Figure 7-49 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 17

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-50 for the Process Flow Diagram for Captive Bushing Repair.

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Spotface IML

Install Bushings

(e) Prepare Countersink Bushing. 1 Temporarily install countersink bushing and scribe outer diameter of bushing flush with inner moldline surface of panel. See Figure 7-51, View A.

Define Damage

Prepare Flange Bushing

Cure Adhesive

Damage Removal

Perform Surface Preparation Mix & Apply Mix & Apply Adhesive to Adhesive to Hole & Hole & Bushings Bushings

Ream Bushing if Required

2 Remove bushing and rough cut length to scribe line (flush with IML surface) with router motor and carborundum wheel. Grind bushing to exact length using router motor and 80 grit abrasive disk. (f) Spotface IML Surface.

Countersink OML of Fastener Hole

Refinish

1 Place a countersink cutter with the same pilot diameter as the fastener hole being repaired into a microstop cage. Center the countersink pilot in the hole on the IML surface of the cover. 2 With a marking pen or pencil, trace around the perimeter of the microstop cage. 3 Remove the countersink cutter from the microstop cage. 4 Remove the pilot from the counterbore cutter. Place counterbore cutter into the microstop cage. 5 Center the microstop cage over the hole with its perimeter aligned with the circle marked in step 2 above. 6 Spotface inner moldline side of cover to a 0.020 +0.005/-0.000 depth with counterbore cutter and microstop cage. (g) Prepare Flange Bushing.

Prepare Countersink Bushing

Figure 7-50. Process Flow Diagram for Captive Bushing Repair, Procedure 16

(3)

Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. (b) Define Damage. Visually inspect and measure the hole damage. The damage must be no more than 0.060 inch maximum on the radius.

Composite Materials

1 Determine length of flush bushing to allow proper seating of countersink bushing. 2 Rough cut bushing to approximate length using router motor and carborundum wheel. See Figure 7-51, View B. Grind flange bushing to exact length using router motor and 80 grit abrasive disk. (h) Prepare Surfaces for Bonding.

(c) Remove Damage. Using a reamer, increase the hole diameter by 0.131 inches. Ensure that the original hole centerline is maintained. (d) Countersink moldline side of cover or panel to accept countersink bushing using the appropriately sized countersink cutter and microstop cage. NOTE Two flange and countersink bushings are listed. For other fasteners hole sizes, flange and countersink bushings may be fabricated per Figure 7-49.

Solvent

1 Clean bonding surfaces of bushings and fastener hole using a cotton tipped applicator,

7-51

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

TRIM BUSHING FLUSH

SPOTFACE

A. Countersink Bushing D. Completed Repair C. Bushings Installed B. Flange Bushing Inserted Inserted Figure 7-51. Captive Bushing Repair Flange and Countersink Bushing Installation rymplecloth and solvent. Thoroughly clean the area with repeated wiping until no residue is left on the cotton tipped applicator or the rymplecloth. Handle bushings and part from this point forward wearing clean white cotton gloves to prevent contamination of bonding surfaces. 2 Obtain a bolt, washer and nut which will be used to clamp-up and retain bushings during cure. Coat the bolt, washer and nut with liquid release agent. Apply a second coat, waiting 15 minutes after each application to ensure solvent in release agent completely evaporates. (i) Prepare Adhesive. Prepare a small amount (15 grams) of adhesive per paragraph 5-5a. (j) Apply adhesive to flange bushing and countersink bushing bonding surfaces and fastener hole bonding surfaces as shown in Figure 7-52. (k) Install Bushings. 1 Install flange bushing into hole. 4 After cure, disassemble bolt, washer and nut or debag. Solvent 4 (m) If required, ream bushing to comply with applicable SRM hole diameter. (n) Refinish. 1 Sand squeezed out adhesive flush with moldline surfaces. Inner moldline end of flush bushing to be flush to 0.010 and subflush with surface of shoulder bushing as shown in Figure 7-51, View D. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with applicable SRM. Use care not to apply finish system in fastener hole or countersink area. 2 Room Temperature Cure Cycle.

2 Press countersink bushing into flange bushing. To aid in installation, countersink bushing may be frozen in a mixture of dry ice and solvent. A bearing press may also be utilized to facilitate installation. (l) Cure Adhesive.

1 Clamp assembly together with slave bolt, washer and nut. Ensure bushings are seated flush with moldline surfaces. See Figure 7-51, View C.

7-52

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FLANGE BUSHING WASHERS NUT

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COUNTERSINK BUSHING TRIM BUSHING TO ALLOW MATE WITH COUNTERSINK BUSHING FASTENER FOR APPLYING CURE PRESSURE

;; ;; ;;

a Allow to dwell with nut, bolt and washer in place for 8 hours. b Remove bolt, nut and washer. Allow to dwell at room temperature for a minimum of 5 days before proceeding to paragraph (m) below. 3 Elevated Temperature Cure Cycle.

a Allow to dwell with nut, bolt and washer in place for 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). b Remove bolt, nut and washer. Layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). c Cure the adhesive as specified in Table 6-1, Cure Cycle 2 or 3b as applicable.

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

OUTER MOLDLINE

COUNTERSINK BUSHING

Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Adhesive Comb Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Figure 8-22 Table 8-12, Item 10

FLANGE BUSHING

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D

1 SPOTFACE DIAMETER

;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;

BONDING SURFACES

Materials Required Nomenclature Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Adhesive, Paste Specification Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-1, Item 5a, 5b or 23 Table 5-1, Item 6a or 6b Table 5-1, Item 1a, 1b or 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 13 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-2, Item 1, 2a or 2b Table 5-2, Items 3-16 Table 5-2, Items 17-41 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6

PANEL OR COVER

Figure 7-52. Installation View of Captive Bushing Repair 7-7. PENETRATION DAMAGE REPAIR.

Adhesive, Film Kit Adhesive, Liquid Wooden Spatula Copper Sheet Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Dry Woven Carbon Cloth Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy Preprimed Titanium Patch Solvent

a. Procedure 17. Penetration Damage Bonded Repair. (1) Application. This repair is applicable when an externally bonded patch is required. This includes partial thickness damage, penetration damage, unsuccessful disbond injections and damage involving honeycomb core. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system: The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander Overhose Assembly Sanding Disk Holder Sanding Disks, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Heat Blanket Temperature/Vacuum Controller White Cotton Gloves Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-2, Item 9 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-2, Item 6

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-53 for the Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bonded Repair. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. 7-53

Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 12

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Repair Core/ Substructure/ Bond Spacer Dry Repair Area


Select & Fabricate Repair Patch Prepare Surfaces for Bonding

Select & Prepare Adhesive

(i) Patch Selection. There are three basic types of repair patches that may be used: Precured carbon/ epoxy patches, wet layup patches and titanium patches. Refer to the part specific SRM for patch selection. See paragraphs 5-1b and 5-2b for additional information. CAUTION Ensure a minimum of 1.5 inch overlap is achieved during the layup of a bonded external patch. Insufficient overlap will result in reduced strength. Load levels in the repair area may dictate a different overlap. Refer to the part specific SRM for further guidance. (j) Patch Preparation.

Define Damage

Bond Patch(es)

Damage Removal

NDI Repair

Paint Removal

Refinish

Figure 7-53. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bonded Repair, Procedure 17

1 Carbon/Epoxy Precured Patches. These patches come in two forms: large, square sheets and circular patches.

Composite Materials

7 Composite Materials 7

(d) Damage Removal. Remove skin damage along the damage layout line using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. A black color on the sandpaper indicates that sanding into the laminate has occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. Sanding should be stopped immediately. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (f) If applicable, repair damage to core/ substructure members using one of the procedures in paragraph 7-8. (g) If applicable, fabricate and bond a skin spacer from precured carbon/epoxy patch material. Multiple layers of patch material bonded together may be used to meet thickness requirements. Cut filler patch to required dimensions using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. (h) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2), using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture.

a If using a square sheet, cut patch to required dimensions from carbon/epoxy precured sheet using a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel. Patch periphery shall extend a constant 1.5 inches (minimum) beyond damage cleanup periphery (see Figure 7-4). b If using circular patch, select patch size which will allow a 1.5 inch (minimum) overlap between the patch edge and damage cleanup hole perimeter. Refer to Table 5-2. CAUTION Use care not to remove fibers from patch during peel ply removal. c of patch. d If required, taper edges of patch to the dimensions shown in Figure 6-27 using a 90 degree router motor and a 1 inch diameter, 80 grit, abrasive sanding disk. Two ply patches and precured circular patches do not require tapering. e Prepare bonding surface of patch by sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared Remove peel ply from both sides

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. 2 Wet Layup Patches. This procedure is for secondary bonding of precured wet layup patches. a Fabricate and cure wet layup patch as described in paragraph 6-7e or 6-7f. Remove patch from tool or part after cure is complete. b Prepare bonding surface of patch by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. 3 Titanium Patches.

CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. b Prepare approximately 50 grams of adhesive for patch bond as described in paragraph 5-5a. c Apply a thin layer of adhesive in patch bond area of component using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). The adhesive should extend 14 inch beyond the patch bond periphery. d Apply scrim cloth to the bonding surface of the component. e Apply a thin layer of adhesive on bond surface of patch (or filler patch) using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). f Apply bond side of patch containing adhesive on part surface containing scrim cloth/adhesive. Ensure patch is properly oriented (if required) and aligned on part to maintain minimum overlap as described above. g Repeat substeps a-f for the next patch in a multi-patch layup. Tape in place with high temperature tape. 2 6-7i(2)). a Remove the sealed bag containing adhesive from 0F storage. Inspect date on container to make sure adhesive has not expired. b Allow adhesive to reach room temperature (approximately two hours) until moisture ceases to condense on outside surface of bag before opening. c Using patch as a template, cut a piece of film adhesive 14 inch larger than the patch bond area. If using filler patch, cut film adhesive the same size as filler patch bond area. Film Adhesive. (Reference paragraph

a Select the correct size preprimed titanium patch for the repair from those listed in Table 5-2. Insure a 1.5 inch overlap.

Solvent

b Prepare titanium patch for bonding by wiping bonding surface with rymplecloth moistened with solvent as described in paragraph 6-7h(2)(b). (k) Prepare Parent Skin for Bonding. Prepare repair area for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until after patch bonding is complete. Cover the repair area with clean barrier paper until ready for layup. (l) Select Adhesive. Either paste or film adhesive may be used for the patch bond. Refer to the part specific SRM for adhesive selection. See paragraphs 5-1a and 5-2a, for additional information. (m) Apply Adhesive and Patch. 1 Two Part Paste Adhesive. (Reference paragraph 6-7i(3)). a Cut a piece of scrim cloth 14 inch larger than the patch bond area.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

d adhesive.

Remove all separator plies from

(p) Refinish. CAUTION

e Apply film adhesive onto the repair surface with embossed side over honeycomb core (if applicable). f Center adhesive and patch (or filler patch) over repair area and tape into position. g Repeat substeps a-f for the next patch in a multi-patch layup. Tape in place with high temperature tape. (n) Perform Final Patch Bond. 1 Select the correct cure cycle for the adhesive being used from those listed in Table 6-1 or Table 6-2. 2 Layup the vacuum bag and heat blanket as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). If a heat blanket is not used to cure the adhesive, omit heat blanket, copper sheet and heat blanket control thermocouple from layup. 3 Cure Adhesive.

DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. b. Procedure 18. Backside Sealing for Installation of Externally Bonded Patches. (1) Application. This procedure is applicable for repair of skin damage in thin skinned stiffened composite structures for which there is no backside access. It applies only to damages between substructure members. It uses a nonstructural internally bonded patch to seal the backside and allow for the installation of a bonded load carrying structural patch. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Router Bit, Diamond Coated, 0.25 Inch Diameter Orbital Sander Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Bit, #40 White Cotton Gloves Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 1

a If using two part paste adhesive, cure patch bond as described in paragraph 6-7k(1) using the applicable Cure Cycle from Table 6-1. Ensure that the adhesive is allowed to dwell at room temperature under pressure for the time specified in Table 6-1 (if required). b If using film adhesive, cure as described in paragraph 6-7k(2) using the applicable Cure Cycle from Table 6-2. 4 Disassemble the vacuum bag (and heat blanket if used). (o) NDI Patch Bond(s). 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41). 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. Perform NDI on any area of the part subjected to temperatures exceeding the service temperature of the part material.

Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 6

Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 12

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Safety Wire, 0.020 Inch Diameter Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Local Availability Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10
Damage Removal Define Damage Clean Part

Prepare & Apply Adhesive

Perform Leak Check

Install Backside Patch

Dry Repair Area

Materials Required Nomenclature Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy, 6 Ply, 30 Inch x 30 Inch Sheet, Precured Fiberglass Laminate Release Liquid Release Film, 1 Mil Adhesive, Paste Scrim Cloth Wooden Spatula Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Solvent Specification Table 5-2, Item 5a or 5b

Prepare & Apply Skin Spacer

Install OML Patch IAW Procedure 17

Paint Removal

Set Spacer

NDI Repair

Table 5-2, Item 55 Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 5a or 5b Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 sufficient space is available between substructure members to allow installation of backside patch. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.
Prepare Backside Patch & IML Skin for Bond

Fabricate Backside Patch & Skin Spacer

Sand Spacer Flush With OML

Refinish

Figure 7-54. Process Flow Diagram for Backside Sealing for Installation of Externally Bonded Patches, Procedure 18

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-54 for the Process Flow Diagram for Backside Sealing for Installation of Externally Bonded Patches. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Use a circular configuration. Ensure

Composite Materials

(d) Damage Removal. Remove damage along damage layout line using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated router bit as described in paragraph 6-3b. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (f) Fabrication. Backside Patch and Skin Spacer

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Figure 7-55. Safety Wire and Slotted Backside Patch Figure 7-56. Installation of Backside Patch 1 Obtain a sheet of fiberglass precured sheet material and a sheet of carbon/epoxy precured patch material. a Cut backside patch from precured fiberglass sheet to the required dimensions using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. Patch periphery shall extend a constant 0.5 inches beyond the damage cleanup periphery. b Cut skin spacer from carbon/epoxy precured sheet, 0.1 inch smaller in diameter than skin cutout. Use sufficient layers bonded together to approximate skin thickness. Ensure peel ply has been removed from both sides of spacer material. Use care not to inadvertently remove fibers from patch during peel ply removal. 2 Mark center of backside patch. Using a diamond coated cutting wheel, machine a 0.100 inch wide slot from the patch edge to a point slightly before the center point. See Figure 7-55. 3 Perform backside patch fit check. Slide slot of patch onto edge of damage cleanup hole and twist the patch into the repair cavity. If patch will not fit through the cutout, the length of the slot can be increased. 4 Remove backside patch from cavity. Drill a #40 hole 0.5 inch forward of the deepest part of the slot. 5 Cut approximately two feet of safety wire. Coat the wire with release agent. 6 Thread one end of the safety wire through the #40 hole and bend the other end through the slot to form a tight loop as shown in Figure 7-56. (g) Prepare Backside Patch, Spacer and Skin for Bond. Prepare the underside of the repair cavity and both sides of patch for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch or spacer is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (h) Apply Adhesive and Backside Patch. 1 See Figure 7-56. Insert backside patch into repair cavity.

2 Cut a piece of scrim cloth the same size as the patch. 3 Prepare approximately 50 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. 4 Apply a thin layer of adhesive to the underside of the repair area skin a minimum of 12 inch all around the edge of the damage cleanup hole. 5 Apply a thin layer of adhesive to the upper surface of the patch in the overlap area only. See Figure 7-57. 6 Apply scrim cloth to the patch, pushing the safety wire through it.

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Figure 7-57. Application of Adhesive 7 Use the safety wire to pull the patch into contact with the underside of the repair skin. Twist the patch slightly to ensure good surface contact between the patch and the skin. Look for squeeze out around the cutout edge. See Figure 7-58. 8 Obtain a piece of wood (pine or equivalent) with a minimum cross section of 12 inch by 12 inch, and wrap it with release film. Center it across the repair cutout with an end of the safety wire on each side. Twist the safety wire together to tighten the stick against the skin surface to apply pressure to the bondline. Insure patch is centered in repair cutout. See Figure 7-59.

Figure 7-58. Backside Patch Pulled Into Position

2 Fill the slot opening and the safety wire hole with paste adhesive and a small piece of scrim cloth. To ensure an adequate seal, make sure that slot and hole are completely filled with adhesive. 3 Allow adhesive in slot and hole to set for a minimum of two hours. CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. 4 Prepare a second batch of paste adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a, in a quantity sufficient to bond skin spacer to backside patch. 5 Apply paste adhesive to the spacer and backside patch using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 6 Add additional adhesive as required.

Solvent

9 Remove excess adhesive from repair area by wiping with rymplecloth moistened with solvent. (i) Allow adhesive on patch bond to set at room temperature for 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive/ filler may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). After setting, cut one end of the safety wire and pull the wire carefully from the patch. Remove wood. (j) Prepare and Apply Skin Spacer.

1 Prepare a small amount (10 grams) of glass floc filled paste adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. Use a mrF = 14.

(k) Tape release film over filler with high temperature tape, add external weight, and allow to set at room temperature until it can be sanded (approximately 8 hours).

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

c. Procedure 19. Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External Patch. (1) Application. This procedure is applicable for repair of skin penetration damage occurring in thick monolithic composite structures. It uses an externally bolted patch and can be used on structures with single side access. It is a quicker and easier repair to perform than the external/internal bolted patch repair. It is limited to a maximum damage cleanup hole diameter of 4.0 inches. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Figure 7-59. Application of Pressure Equipment Required (l) Sand flush with outer moldline surface using an orbital sander and 180-240 grit abrasive paper. Wipe the area with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. (m) Apply vacuum bag and perform leak check per paragraph 7-5c(3)(x). (n) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2), using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture. (o) Install outer moldline patch as described in paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17. (p) NDI Patch Bond(s). 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41). 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. (q) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. Nomenclature Grip Length Gauge Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Overhose Assembly Dagger Drill Bits Twist Drill Bits Align-A-Drill Router Bit, Diamond Coated, 1.0 Inch Diameter Router Bit, Diamond Coated, 0.25 Inch Diameter 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Orbital Sander Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Alignment Pin Temporary Fasteners C-Clamps Microstop Cage Carbide Inserts Countersink Cutter Countersink Cutter Pin Coolant Adapter Specification Figure 8-7 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-4, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 1 Table 8-2, Item 2

Table 8-2, Item 1

Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 5 Table 8-6, Items 5 and 6 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 6 Table 8-4, Item 11 Table 8-5, Item 4

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Drill Bushing, Coolant Composite Blind Bolt Installation Tooling Blind Fastener Removal Kit Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-5, Item 3 Table 8-7 or 8-8 Table 8-11 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Clean Part

Pilot Drill Patch

Remove Paint & Prepare Surfaces for Sealant Application

Define Damage

Mate Drill Skin

Prepare & Apply Sealant & Scrim Install Patches & Fasteners

Damage Removal

Enlarge Patch & Skin Holes

Materials Required Nomenclature Patch Material, Aluminum or Titanium Stock Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Rymplecloth Scrim Cloth High Temperature Scrim Cloth Sealing Compound Cutting Fluid High Temperature Sealing Compound Primer, Rubber Masking Tape Composite Blind Fastener Specification Table 5-2, Items 47-54
Fabricate Patch Countersink Patch Fastener Holes Refinish

Figure 7-60. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External Patch, Procedure 19 (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Mark centerlines to be used as reference marks for positioning patch. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 21 or Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-1, Item 22 Table 5-1, Item 16 Table 5-5, Item 12 Table 5-1, Item 19 Table 5-1, Item 20 Table 5-5, Item 10 Table 5-4, Item 2, 3a, or 3b Composite Materials CAUTION DO NOT damage inner surface of opposite skin or internal structure during machining or drilling. (d) Remove the damage as described in paragraph 6-3b. Vacuum the cavity to remove machining residue. (e) Fabricate patch from aluminum or titanium as described in paragraph 6-9a and in NAVAIR 01-1A-9. See Figure 7-61 for generic patch layout. Refer to the part specific SRM for specific patch geometry/material, and fastener hole pattern layout. 1 2 3 Lay out patch on required material. Cut out patch and chamfer edges. Form contour in patch if required. 7

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-60 for the Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External Patch. (3) Procedure. Refer to Figure 7-61 for Repair Arrangement. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

BLIND FASTENER

CARBON/EPOXY SKIN A

SEALING TAPE PLASTIC BAG (REF)

2 1

A B

SCRIM CLOTH SLITS

CAVITY SKIN (REF)

CENTERLINE MARKS SKIN

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

SEALING TAPE SKIN (REF) SECTION A-A

PLASTIC BAG

SKIN (REF) SECTION B-B

RYMPLECLOTH

Figure 7-62. Sump Removal and Installation


A

DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE SKIN PATCH

(f) Install sump (see Figure 7-62) as required to contain composite residue. Moistened rymplecloth may be used as an alternative.
SCRIM CLOTH

NOTE
SECTION A-A

LEGEND
1 FASTENERS MUST HAVE MINIMUM SPACING OF

Holes for repair fasteners must be a minimum of 4 fastener diameters from existing fasteners and have a minimum edge distance of 3 fastener diameters. See Figure 7-61. (g) Lay out pilot hole pattern on patch. (h) Position patch over damaged area, using reference marks on skin as a guide. Outline patch perimeter on skin and transfer reference marks from skin to patch. (i) Remove patch. Identify any skin fasteners covered by the repair patch. (j) If applicable, remove any existing fasteners covered by the repair plate as described in paragraph 6-9d(4). Transfer the fastener hole locations to the repair patch using the hole finder method described in paragraph 6-9b(1).

4D AND MAXIMUM OF 6D
2 FASTENERS MUST HAVE MINIMUM EDGE

DISTANCE OF 3D
3 FASTENER TO EDGE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE

MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 3D NOTE: DRILL PILOT HOLES (0.128 INCH DIAMETER) IN PATCH FIRST. ENLARGE HOLES TO FINAL SIZE AFTER TRANSFERRING PILOT HOLES TO COMPOSITE SKIN.

Figure 7-61. Repair Arrangement, Bolted Repair, External Patch

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (k) Drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the repair patch with a twist drill bit. (l) Position patch over damaged area aligning skin and patch reference marks. Mark pilot holes on skin using patch as a template. (m) Remove patch and check to ensure fastener hole to edge of damage cleanup hole is a minimum of 3 fastener diameters. If any fastener hole has less than 3 fastener diameters, repeat paragraph (l) above, relocating patch to obtain required edge distance. (n) Position and temporarily secure patch over damage with tape, aligning skin and patch reference marks. (o) Assemble and adjust the Align-A-Drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Install a 0.128 inch diameter dagger drill in the assembly.

using patch as a template. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with holes. Install a temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. (t) Remove temporary fasteners and patch after all holes are drilled. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drill operations. (u) With the exception of the 4 corner pilot holes, enlarge the remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the patch to 0.199 inch diameter. Use a twist drill bit and either a drill press or a drill guide and drill bushing to ensure moldline perpendicularity control. Deburr holes. (v) Fabricate and install countersink filler in skin fasteners removed in step (j) above (see Figure 7-7). (w) Position patch on skin. Install 4 temporary fasteners through remaining pilot holes to secure patch.

Composite Materials Composite Materials 7

(p) Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill at the corner of patch using patch as a template. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with hole. Install a temporary fastener in pilot hole. (q) Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill at opposite corner of patch, using patch as a template. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with hole. Install a temporary fastener in pilot hole. (r) Drill two 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill at two remaining patch corners, using patch as a template. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with holes. Install a temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. (s) Drill remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill

(x) Using patch as a template, enlarge pilot holes in skin to 0.199 inch diameter. Use drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with hole. Install temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. (y) Remove temporary fasteners and patch. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (z) Enlarge the 4 remaining pilot holes in patch as described in paragraph (u) above. (aa) Position patch on skin. Secure patch using temporary fasteners.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

c area and patch. Composite Materials 7

Apply sealing compound to repair

(ab) Using patch as a template, enlarge the 4 remaining pilot holes in skin to 0.199 inch diameter. Use drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill. Use alignment pin to align drill guide with hole. (ac) Remove temporary fasteners and patch. (ad) Countersink holes in patch as required. NOTE Using a grip length gauge, determine fastener grip length by gauging material thickness after drilling holes full size. (ae) Place patch in place and measure the fastener grip length required in each fastener hole. (af) Chemical conversion treat patch if required as specified in the part specific SRM.

2 For repair of composites in an operating environment of 250-450F, use the following. a Cut a piece of high temperature scrim cloth the same size as patch.

Rubber Primer

b Apply rubber primer to repair area, patch mating surface and fastener holes. Allow 30 minutes for primer to dry. c Prepare sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). d Apply high temperature sealing compound to patch and faying surfaces. (ak) Apply scrim cloth over repair area and position patch on skin. (al) Cut slits in scrim cloth at each fastener

Composite Materials

hole. (am)Install composite blind fasteners wet with applicable sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9d(3)(b). Inspect the fasteners to determine if the stem is within break off limits and the fastener is secure. If the fastener stem is outside the limits called out in Figure 7-8, remove and replace the fastener. (an) Fillet the seal periphery of patch as described in paragraph 6-9e(2)(c) with applicable sealing compound and fair with moldline. (ao) Allow sealing compound to cure 4 hours. Trim excess. (ap) When repairing weight critical structures, add weight of repair(s) and zone location(s) on applicable nameplate. (aq) Refinish. Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

(ag) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (ah) Remove sump or rymplecloth and vacuum repair cavity. (ai) Prepare repair area for sealant application 1 inch beyond periphery of patch as described in paragraph 6-7h. (aj) Cut scrim and apply sealant to faying surfaces. 1 For repair of composites in an operating environment less than 250F, use the following. a size as patch. b Prepare sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). Cut a piece of scrim cloth the same

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d. Procedure 20. Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External/Internal Patch. (1) Application. This procedure is applicable for repair of skin damage occurring in thick monolithic composite structures. It uses both internal and external patches to eliminate joint eccentricity caused by the use of a single external patch. It can be used on structures with single side access and is limited to a maximum damage cleanup hole diameter of 4.0 inches. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Router Attachment Router Guide Overhose Assembly Sanding Drum Abrasive Sleeve Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Router Bit, Diamond Coated, 0.25 Inch Diameter C-Clamps Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Align-A-Drill Temporary Fasteners, 6.0 MM & 14 Inch Diameters Wedgelock Extractor Tool Dagger Drill Bit, 0.234 Inch Diameter Drill Bushing, Coolant Alignment Pin Specification Table 8-1, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 5

Coolant Adapter Reamer, 0.2510 Inch Diameter Drill Motor, 250 RPM Assembly Pins, Threaded, 1/4-28 Standard Aircraft Machined Bolt Orbital Sander Torque Wrench Micrometer Ball Gauge Grip Length Gauge Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-5, Item 4 Table 8-4, Item 5 Local Availability Local Availability per Figure 7-75 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 15 Table 8-12, Item 3 Local Availability Local Availability Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Materials Required Table 8-1, Item 2 Table 8-1, Item 3 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 8 Table 8-2, Item 7 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-2, Item 1 Nomenclature Bolted Repair Patch Kit Rymplecloth Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper High Temperature Tape Adhesive, Paste Wooden Spatula Release Liquid Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 1 Table 8-6, Item 1-4 Scrim Cloth Table 8-6, Item 7 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-5, Item 3 Table 8-5, Item 5 Fasteners Sealing Compound Fasteners, Structural Screw, Flush, Sealing Head, Titanium, 14 Inch Diameter Solvent Washer, Cres Template Material Plate Nuts Specification Table 5-2, Items 42-45 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-1, Item 5a or 5b Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 AN960C416 Local Manufacture NSN 5310-00-584-7769 & 5310-00-779-3597 Table 5-6, Item 5 NAS6304 Table 5-1, Item 16 Table 5-4, Item 1

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Install Liquid Shim


Ream Patch, Backing Plates & Skin Holes to Final Size

Prepare & Apply Sealant & Scrim Install Patches & Fasteners

DAMAGE

Define Damage

Damage Removal

Install Backing Plates & Bond Center Plug


Remove Paint & Prepare Surfaces for Sealant

Refinish

Mate Drill Skin

MARK DAMAGE TO THE SMALLEST DIAMETER. MAXIMUM DAMAGE SHALL NOT EXCEED 4 INCHES.

Figure 7-63. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External/Internal Patch, Procedure 20 (2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-63 for the Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, External/Internal Patch. (3) Procedure.

CLEAN UP

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. 1 Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Use a circular configuration as shown in Figure 7-64. NOTE

CLEAN UP DAMAGE

Figure 7-64. Damage Definition and Cleanup 3 Prior to removing damage, check hole edge and patch edge to part fastener line clearances for the affected part, as defined in the part specific SRM to ensure backing plates will not interfere with substructure. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Composite Materials Each repair kit contains an outer patch, two inner backing plates and a selection of four different thickness center plugs (see Figure 7-65). Each item of the repair kit is marked with an alignment arrow to facilitate assembly. 2 Select applicable diameter center plug to be used as a template. Lay out the exact perimeter for damage cleanup. (d) Remove Damage.

1 Cut the damaged skin to within 18 inch of the damage layout line defined above using a 0 degree router motor, diamond coated router bit and a template as described in paragraph 6-3b(1).

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CENTER PLUGS EXISTING FASTENERS GRAPHITE EPOXY SKIN

OUTER PATCH

ALIGNMENT ARROW

Figure 7-65. Repair Kit Components

0.75 INCH MINiMUM EDGE DISTANCE (TYP)

2 Finish sand the damage cleanup hole edge to the damage outline. Use a 90 degree router motor, a sanding drum and an 80 grit abrasive sleeve for finish sanding. 3 Check hole size to insure backing plates can be inserted through hole. 4 Insert moistened rymplecloth to collect excess dust and debris. (e) Transfer Holes from Patch to Skin. NOTE Both wingnut and hexnut temporary fasteners are specified for this repair. Wingnut fasteners, although easier to work with, may cause interference with one another when fastener holes are closely spaced. In this case hexnut fasteners may be used. Temporary fasteners are available in regular (3.99 inch) and extended (4.38 inch) lengths. 1 Attach applicable center plug to the outer repair patch with two 6.0 MM diameter temporary fasteners, making sure that the center plug alignment arrow is pointing in the same direction as the outer patch alignment arrow. See Figure 7-66. 2 Position patch over hole so that the patchs longitudinal axis is parallel to the adjacent fastener pattern on the part. See Figure 7-66. Mark an arrow on the parent skin in the same direction as arrow on top of the outer patch, so that patch can be correctly located.

ATTACH CENTER PLUGS TO OUTER PATCH AND POSTION PATCH OVER HOLE. MARK EACH FASTENER HOLE AND THE EDGES OF PATCH. MARK AN ARROW ON THE SKIN IN THE SAME DIRECTION AS ALIGNMENT ARROW ON TOP OF THE OUTER PATCH.

Figure 7-66. Patch and Center Plug Aligned on Part

3 Mark each fastener hole and the patch outline onto the parent skin using the outer patch as a guide. 4 Remove patch and check fastener hole location. Maintain a 34 inch minimum edge distance from the edge of the damage cleanup hole. If any fastener hole has less than 34 inch edge distance, repeat steps 2 and 3, relocating patch to obtain required edge distance. Contact FST engineering for disposition if edge distance requirement cannot be met. 5 Center drill guide over one of the fastener holes marked in step 3 nearest the damage hole. Clamp drill guide to skin using a C-clamp. 6 Assemble and adjust the Align-A-Drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Install a 0.234 inch diameter dagger drill. Install Align-A-Drill assembly in drill guide as shown in Figure 7-67. 7 Drill one 0.234 inch diameter hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g.

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Figure 7-68. Locating Drill Guide

Figure 7-67. Align-A-Drill Setup 8 Remove drill guide and C-clamp. Reposition outer patch onto skin, insuring that the alignment arrows on skin and patch are correctly aligned. 9 Install a 6.0 MM diameter temporary fastener through patch and skin hole drilled in step 7. Do not secure fastener. 10 Insert alignment pin into a hole near the 6.0 MM diameter temporary fastener. 11 Locate drill guide over the alignment pin and secure using the 6.0 MM diameter temporary fastener installed in step 9. Remove alignment pin as shown in Figure 7-68. 12 Drill hole per step 7. Install 6.0 MM diameter temporary fastener after drilling, see Figure 7-69. 13 Continue locating and drilling until all fastener holes in patch are drilled in skin. If temporary fastener installed in previously drilled hole interferes with drilling process, fastener may be removed. Reinstall after hole is drilled.

Figure 7-69. Transferring Holes From Patch to Skin

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(f)

Install Liquid Shim.

Solvent

1 Remove patch from skin and thoroughly clean the inner moldline surface of the skin with clean rymplecloth moistened with solvent. 2 Lightly hand sand inner moldline skin surface in the area of backing plates and around fastener holes with 180 grit abrasive paper. Wipe off sanding dust with clean, dry rymplecloth. 3 Apply high temperature tape to the backing plate surface that contains the nut plate rivet countersinks. Apply release agent to tape. 4 Apply release agent to the 6.0 MM diameter temporary fasteners and 14 inch washers. 5 Cut out tape over the 4 end holes and the two center holes of each backing plate to aid in assembling of repair. 6 Prepare approximately 50 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. 7 Apply adhesive to the release tape surface of backing plates. Position washers treated with release agent between the temporary fasteners and outer skin surface. NOTE Backing plates have unsymmetrical fastener patterns and to be correctly assembled, must have their alignment arrows pointing the same direction as arrow on the outer patch. 8 Insert the two backing plates through the repair hole as shown in Figure 7-70. (NOTE: adhesive not shown). 9 Attach fastener to a center hole of each backing plate to aid in guiding the plate into position. 10 Locate backing plates on the inner moldline skin surface and clamp in place with 6.0 MM diameter temporary fasteners. Tighten fasteners snug. See Figure 7-71. Figure 7-70. Insertion of Backup Plates Into Cavity

Solvent

11 Remove squeezed out adhesive from fastener holes and from backing plates using clean rymplecloth moistened with solvent. 12 Measure gap between outer moldline surface of skin and top of plug (see Figure 7-72). Gap shall be 0.010-0.050 inch to allow for shimming of plug with adhesive. 13 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for 8 hours before removing the 6.0 MM diameter temporary fasteners. As an alternate, the adhesive/ filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate the heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 14 Select the required combination of center plugs to fill cavity between the backing plates and outer patch. NOTE The wedgelock extractor tool may be used to aid in the removal of temporary fasteners. 15 Temporarily remove fasteners that secure the backing plate. Position the center plugs in place with alignment arrows pointing in the correct direction. 16 Position outer patch over the plug and backing plates and secure with 6.0 MM diameter temporary fasteners, insuring that alignment arrow is pointing in the same direction as the one on the skin. 7-69

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Figure 7-71. Backup Plates Held in Place With Temporary Fasteners 17 Clean up cured adhesive from the fastener holes by drilling with a 0.234 inch diameter dagger drill. Drill completely through backing plate, removing 6.0 MM diameter temporary fastener before drilling and replacing after hole is drilled. (g) Ream Holes to Final Size.

Figure 7-72. Measuring Gap Between Center Plug and OML

5 Remove rymplecloth from repair cavity that was installed in paragraph (d)4. 6 Remove all foreign material from repair cavity using vacuum cleaner. (h) Inspect Reamed Holes. 1 Check hole tolerance in patch, backing plates and skin using a ball gauge and micrometer. If hole tolerance of 0.250 +0.003/-0.000 inch has been exceeded, contact FST engineering for disposition. 2 Measure edge distance of fastener holes to edge of cleanup hole. Nominal edge distance is 34 inch. If edge distance is less than 0.6 inch, contact FST engineering for disposition. (i) Prepare to Bond Center Plug.

Composite Materials NOTE

When reaming holes per steps below, limit reaming holes to one at a time. Make sure pilot of carbide reamer engages backing plate hole before reaming operation. Ream holes using 250 RPM drill motor. 1 Remove 6.0 MM diameter temporary fastener and ream a 0.250 +0.003/-0.000 inch diameter hole using drill motor with piloted reamer as shown in Figure 7-73 and described in paragraph 6-4g. 2 Insert 14 inch diameter temporary fastener after hole has been reamed to final size. 3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all holes have been reamed to final size. 4 Remove 14 inch diameter temporary fasteners, patch, center plugs and backing plates. Deburr patch plugs, backing plates and mating structures.

Solvent

1 Remove release tape from backing plates. Clean the patch, center plug and backing plates with clean rymplecloth moistened with solvent. 2 Attach the plate nuts to backing plates.

3 Tape over center plug and backing plate holes with high temperature tape to prevent release agent from getting on backing plate fay sealing surface.

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Figure 7-74. Installation of Backing Plates

Figure 7-73. Reaming Operation 4 Apply release agent to plate nuts that mate with center plug and fasteners. 5 Install backing plates through hole in skin, making sure that alignment arrows on the skin and backing plates are pointing in the same direction (see Figure 7-74). 6 Manufacture threaded assembly pins from any 1/4-28 standard aircraft machined bolt as shown in Figure 7-75. 7 Install threaded assembly pins in the 4 end holes of backing plates to aid in holding plates during assembly. Pull backing plates into position using assembly pins (see Figure 7-76). 8 Install NAS6304 fasteners with AN960 washers under fastener heads to hold backing plates in position. Remove assembly pins. 9 Apply tape over gap between backing plates in damage cleanup hole. (j) Install Center Plug.
MINIMUM 2 INCH LENGTH WITH BOLT HEAD REMOVED

NOTCH IN HEAD OF BOLT FOR USING SCREWDRIVER (OPTIONAL)

THREADED ASSEMBLY PIN, ANY 1/4-28 STANDARD AIRCRAFT MACHINED BOLT

Figure 7-75. Threaded Assembly Pin

1 Coat threaded assembly pins with release agent. Insert into center plug and backing plate holes. 2 Prepare approximately 20-30 grams of adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a.

Figure 7-76. Backing Plates Pulled into Position

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Figure 7-77. Center Plug and Backing Plates Correctly Installed 3 Install center plug with location arrow in correct alignment. Fill all gaps between the center plug and skin and center plug and backing plates with adhesive as shown in Figure 7-77). 4 surface of skin. 5 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate the heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 6 Remove threaded assembly pins, NAS6304 fasteners and AN960C washers. 7 Sand cured adhesive flush with outer moldline surface of skin, using 180 grit abrasive paper. (k) Install Patches and Fasteners. 1 Remove paint under OML repair patch as described in paragraph 6-5b. 2 Temporarily install the outer patch on skin with alignment arrow pointing in the same direction as arrow on skin. Insert assembly pins in the end holes of patch to aid in holding patch. 3 Check fastener holes to determine fastener grip length using grip length gauge. Record grip length next to fastener holes. Fair the center plug flush with outer size as patch.

Figure 7-78. Finished Repair

Cut a piece of scrim cloth to the same

5 Prepare sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). 6 Remove pins and outer patch. Fay seal mating surfaces of patch and skin with sealing compound. Apply scrim cloth over repair area. Position outer patch on skin with alignment arrow pointing in the same direction as arrow on skin. Install outer patch with alignment arrow pointing in the same direction as arrow on skin. 7 hole. 8 compound. 9 Start fastener threads in plate nuts by hand. Tighten fasteners to 50-70 in-lbs using torque wrench and a diagonally opposite pattern. 10 Remove excess sealing compound with clean rymplecloth and fair sealing compound with moldline. Check bolts and tighten to 50-70 in-lbs, if required, per step 9. 11 Finished repair is shown in Figure 7-78. (l) Refinish. Apply finish system in accordance with the applicable SRM. Install fasteners wet with sealing Cut slit in scrim cloth at each fastener

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

e. Procedure 21. Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch. (1) Application. This procedure is applicable for flush patch repairs in thick monolithic composite structures. It applies only to damage between substructure members and in areas that do not contain ply ramps. It uses internally applied split patch plates and a splice plate for load continuity. It is limited to a maximum damage cleanup hole diameter of 4.0 inches. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Grip Length Gauge Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Dagger Drill Bits Twist Drill Bits Align-A-Drill Router Bit, Diamond Coated 1.0 Inch Diameter Router Bit, Diamond Coated 0.25 Inch Diameter 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Alignment Pin Temporary Fasteners C-Clamps Microstop Cage Carbide Inserts Countersink Cutter Countersink Cutter Pin Drill Bushing, Coolant Specification Figure 8-7 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-4, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 1 Table 8-2, Item 2

Visu-Lok Installation Tooling Coolant Adapter Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Overhose Assembly Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-9 or 8-10 Table 8-5, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 10

Materials Required Nomenclature Fiberglass Cloth, Style 120 Rivet Patch Material, Aluminum or Titanium Stock Scrim Cloth Rymplecloth Solvent Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Adhesive, Paste Specification Table 5-6, Item 7 MS 20426AD Table 5-2, Items 47-54

Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-1, Item 5a or 5b Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 12 Table 5-4, Item 8 Table 5-4, Item 9 Table 5-5, Item 10 Table 5-1, Item 16

Table 8-2, Item 1

Release Film, 1 Mil Cutting Fluid

Table 8-1, Item 1 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 5 Table 8-6, Items 5 and 6 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 6 Table 8-4, Item 11 Table 8-5, Item 3

Blind Fastener, Flush Head Blind Fastener, Protruding Head Masking Tape Sealing Compound

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-79 for the Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch. (3) Procedure. Refer to Figure 7-80 for the repair arrangement. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b.

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Clean Part

Mate Drill Internal Patches & Splice Plate

Install Internal Patches, Splice Plate & Fasteners

(d) Remove damage as described in paragraph 6-3b(1) or 6-3b(2) using a 0 degree router motor. Vacuum cavity to remove machining residue. (e) Fabricate cardboard patch template.

Define Damage

Enlarge Skin, Internal Patch & Splice Plate Holes

Prepare & Apply Filler

NOTE Holes for repair fasteners must be a minimum of 4 fastener diameters from fasteners and have a minimum edge distance of 3 fastener diameters. See Figure 7-80. 1 Layout pilot holes and patch outline on template. Locate pilot hole centerlines taking into account the fastener diameter edge distance limitations shown in Figure 7-80. Refer to part specific SRM for patch geometry and fastener hole pattern layout. 2 Center template over damaged area using reference marks on skin as a guide. Transfer reference marks from skin to template. (f) Insert sump (see Figure 7-62) as required to contain composite residue. Moistened rymplecloth may be used as an alternative.

Damage Removal

Countersink Skin Fastener Holes Prepare Surfaces for Sealant Prepare & Apply Sealant & Scrim

Set Filler

Fabricate Internal Patches & Splice Plate

Refinish

Pilot Drill Skin

Figure 7-79. Process Flow Diagram for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch, Procedure 21

CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Use a circular configuration. Mark centerlines to be used as reference marks for positioning patch (see Figure 7-81). (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. CAUTION DO NOT damage inner surface of opposite skin or internal structure during routing operation.

(g) Align the centerlines of template and skin. Tape the template to the skin. (h) Using a 0.128 inch diameter dagger drill, drill through template and lightly touch the skin with the drill to mark the hole pattern. (i) Remove template from skin and cut cardboard template on splice line. (j) Fabricate repair patches and splice plate from aluminum or titanium using guidelines specified in paragraph 6-9a and in NAVAIR 01-1A-9. See Figure 7-82 for generic patch and splice plate assembly. Refer to part specific SRM for specific patch geometry/material and fastener hole pattern layout. 1 material. 2 internal patches. Cut out and deburr splice plate and Mark the template outline on patch

Composite Materials

3 Form contour in splice plate and internal patches where required.

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LEGEND A
BLIND FASTENERS

1 2

1 FASTENERS MUST HAVE MINIMUM SPACING OF

4D AND MAXIMUM OF 6D
2 FASTENERS MUST HAVE MINIMUM EDGE

DISTANCE OF 3D
3 FASTENER TO EDGE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE

A
3

MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 3D NOTE: DRILL PILOT HOLES (0.128 INCH DIAMETER) IN SKIN FIRST. ENLARGE HOLES TO FINAL SIZE AFTER TRANSFERRING PILOT HOLES TO PATCH.

FILLER COMPOUND

COMPOSITE SKIN

SCRIM CLOTH/ SEALANT SPLICE PLATE INTERNAL PATCH PROTRUDING HEAD FASTENERS INTERNAL PATCH

BLIND FASTENER

SECTION A-A

Figure 7-80. Repair Arrangement for Penetration Damage Bolted Repair, Internal Patch (k) Pilot drill skin. 1 Assemble and adjust the Align-A-Drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Install a 0.128 inch diameter dagger drill in the assembly. 2 Locate drill guide over one of the hole locations marked in paragraph (h) above. Temporarily secure the drill guide with a C-clamp at the damage hole edge.

SKIN FASTENER PATTERN

ROUTED DAMAGED AREA

CENTERLINE MARKS

Composite Materials

3 Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g. Figure 7-81. Fastener Pattern Layout 4 Locate drill guide over second hole location marked in paragraph (h) above and secure with a temporary fastener in previously drilled hole.

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MS20426AD-( ) RIVET (2 REQUIRED)

C-CLAMPS

INTERNAL PATCHES

TEMPORARY FASTENER

PILOT HOLES (TYP)

CENTER LINES

SPLICE PLATE

INTERNAL PATCHES AND SPLICE PLATE ASSEMBLY RIVETED

Figure 7-83. Internal Patch Aligned and Secured Figure 7-82. Internal Patch and Splice Plate Assembly NOTE 5 Drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g. 6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 until all pilot holes have been drilled. (l) Rivet splice the plate to the small half of internal patch. Refer to Figure 7-82. (m) Position splice and internal patch assembly on the internal side of repair area, align centerline marks and secure with C-clamps. Refer to Figure 7-83. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (n) Using the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in skin, mate drill the pilot holes through the internal patch assembly using a twist drill. Install a temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. Remove C-clamps. (o) Remove temporary fasteners and the small internal patch assembly. (p) Position the large half of the internal patch inside the repair cavity. Align the centerlines of skin and large plate. Secure in place with C-clamps. Composite Materials 7 When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (q) Using the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in skin, mate drill the pilot holes through the large internal patch using a twist drill. Install temporary fasteners in each hole after drilling. (r) Remove internal patch from repair cavity.

(s) With the exception of the 4 corner pilot holes, enlarge the 0.128 inch diameter holes in the skin to 0.199 inch diameter using drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (t) Position both internal patches on the internal side of skin and secure in place with temporary fasteners through the 4 corner holes. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations.

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(u) With the exception of the 4 corner pilot holes, enlarge the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the internal patches to 0.199 inch diameter using drill guide, drill bushing and twist drill. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. Install temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. (v) Remove the temporary fasteners and the internal patches from repair cavity.

INTERNAL PATCH AND SPLICE PLATE ASSEMBLY ROTATED TO POSITION REMAINING INTERNAL PATCH

Composite Materials

7
TEMPORARY FASTENER PIVOT POINT OF ASSEMBLY SCRIM CLOTH INSTALLED ON BOTH PLATES

(w) Enlarge the 4 remaining pilot holes in the skin to 0.199 inch diameter using a drill guide and Align-A-Drill with dagger drill as described in paragraph (s) above. (x) Position both internal patches on the internal side of the repair and secure with temporary fasteners. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (y) Enlarge the 4 remaining pilot holes in the internal patches to 0.199 inch diameter using a twist drill. (aa) Measure fastener grip length using a grip length gauge and write the grip length around the corresponding hole on the template. (ab) Remove temporary fasteners and internal patches from repair area. (ac) Deburr internal patch fastener holes.

Figure 7-84. Fay Surface Sealing

(af) Thoroughly clean inner moldline surface of the skin with clean rymplecloth moistened with solvent. (ag) Lightly hand sand inner moldline skin surface in the area of internal patches and around fastener holes with 180 grit abrasive paper. Wipe off sanding dust with clean, dry rymplecloth. (ah) Treat metal internal patches and splice plate for corrosion prevention if required as specified in part specific SRM. (ai) Cut a piece of scrim cloth to fit each internal patch. (aj) Prepare sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9e(1).

Composite Materials

(ad) Countersink fastener holes in skin as described in paragraph 6-4g. (ae) Remove sump or rymplecloth from repair cavity and vacuum clean.

(ak) Apply sealing compound to faying surfaces and place scrim cloth over sealing compound on internal patches. (al) Cut slits in scrim cloth at each fastener hole. (am)Position splice and internal patch assembly on internal side of repair and install a temporary fastener in the corner to hold in place. Refer to Figure 7-84.

Solvent

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(an) Using a temporary fastener, swing internal patch away from repair opening. Use care not to damage scrim cloth. (ao) Position larger half of internal patch on internal side of repair and secure with two temporary fasteners. (ap) Swing back other internal patch and align with fastener holes and install two temporary fasteners. (aq) Remove temporary fastener just prior to installing applicable blind fastener. Use protruding head blind fasteners to tie splice and internal patches together in damage cutout area. 1 Install blind fasteners wet with sealing compound as described in paragraph 6-9d(3)(b). 2 Inspect fasteners to determine if the stem is within break off limits and the fastener is secure. If the fastener is outside the limits in Figure 7-8, remove and replace the fastener. (ar) Remove exposed scrim cloth and clean sealing compound from damage cutout area. (as) Prepare approximately 80 grams of adhesive/chopped fiberglass as described in paragraph 5-5a. Use a fiber mix ratio (mrF) of 14 (14 parts by weight of chopped fiberglass). (at) Apply filler compound into damage cutout area. Work out the air bubbles and smooth to approximate moldline contour. Add additional filler as required to allow for shrinkage. (au) Set Filler. Tape release film over filler and allow to set at room temperature until it can be sanded (8 hours). As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate the heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). (av) Sand flush with surface using 180 grit abrasive paper and an orbital sander. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. (aw) Refinish. Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

7-8.

SUBSTRUCTURE REPAIRS.

a. Procedure 22. Honeycomb Core Repair: Core Fill Method. (1) Application. This procedure uses glass floc filled paste adhesive to replace the damaged honeycomb core and is limited to damage of 1.5 inches in diameter or less. For damage beyond this limit, repair the damaged core using either paragraph 7-8b, Procedure 23 or paragraph 7-8c, Procedure 24. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander Weights, Shot Bags 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Sanding Disk Holder Sanding Disks, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Heat Blanket Temperature/Vacuum Controller Face Shield Respirator White Cotton Gloves Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 6

Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-2, Item 9 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

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Clean Part Define Damage Damage Removal Paint Removal

Prepare & Apply Filler Set Filler Dry Repair Area Sand Filler Flush

Bond Patch(es) NDI Repair Refinish

CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the depth and extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Use a circular configuration. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. (d) Damage Removal.

Figure 7-85. Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Core Fill Method, Procedure 22

Composite Materials Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Adhesive, Paste Fiberglass Cloth, Style 120 Wooden Spatula Copper Sheet Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Rymplecloth Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-1, Item 5a Table 5-6, Item 7 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 13 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 1

1 Remove skin damage along the damage layout line using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. If damage is through both skins, remove the damage so that both skins have the same size and shape damage cleanup hole. 2 Remove the damaged core using a 90 degree router motor and small sanding disk as described in paragraph 6-3d. See Figure 7-86, View B. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. Black color on the sandpaper indicates that sanding into the laminate occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. Sanding should be stopped immediately. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. CAUTION Support removed core areas, exposed core and core edges to prevent the vacuum bag from damaging or crushing the core. (f) If damage is through both skins, cover the hole on the lower skin with release film and tape in place. Apply a metal plate formed to the part contour over the film and tape in place on the part surface.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-85 for the Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Core Fill Method. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b.

7-79

NAVAIR 01-1A-21
;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

A. Damaged Skin and Core

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

D. Sand Filler Flush With OML Surface


PATCH

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

B. Remove Damaged Skin and Core to Opposite Side Skin

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

E. Bond Patch(es) With Film or Paste Adhesive Using Heat Blanket and Vacuum Bag

FILM OR PASTE ;;; ;;; ; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;; ;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;ADHESIVE ;;;;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

C. Apply Paste Adhesive to Cavity

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

Figure 7-86. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Core Fill Method

Two Part Adhesive

3 Prepare glass floc by cutting fiberglass cloth into small fibers approximately 132 inch long. 4 Prepare the estimated amount of filler required as described in paragraph 5-5a(1), with mrA=100, mrB=50 and mrF=14.

Two Part Residual Adhesive CAUTION

2 5 Apply the filler to the repair cavity in 100 gram increments using a spatula. Wait 2 hours between applications. 6 Bring the filler flush with the outer moldline surface, adding extra filler as required to allow for shrinkage during the cure process. See Figure 7-86, View C. (h) Set Filler. Tape release film over filler with high temperature tape and allow to set at room temperature for 8 hours.

Allow a minimum of 2 hours between 100 gram applications in the repair cavity. (g) Prepare and Apply Filler. 1 core in inches. 2 Obtain the multiplication factor corresponding to the damage size from Figure 7-87. Multiply this factor times the damage depth (h) to obtain the amount of filler required. Measure the depth of the damaged

7-80

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(n) NDI Patch Bond(s).


d

1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41). 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. Perform NDI on any area of the part subjected to temperatures exceeding the service temperature of the part material. (o) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. b. Procedure 23. Honeycomb Core Repair: Paste Adhesive Method. (1) Application. This procedure uses paste adhesive to bond replacement honeycomb core sections to part core sidewalls and opposite skin inner surface (if applicable). This method is used to repair damage greater than 1.5 inches in diameter and has limited use on flight control surfaces due to repair weight limitations. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance regarding weight limitations on flight control surfaces. If repair weight exceeds SRM limits, Procedure 24 should be considered for use as it provides a lighter weight repair for similar damage. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander Weights, Shot Bags Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 16

AMOUNT OF FILLER (GRAMS) = (MULTIPLICATION FACTOR) x h MULTIPLICATION FACTOR 20 30 60

d 0.75 1.0 1.5

EXAMPLE: THE AMOUNT OF FILLER REQUIRED FOR A 1.0 INCH DIAMETER HOLE 3.0 INCHES DEEP IS DETERMINED AS FOLLOWS: AMT = 30 x h = 30 x 3.0 = 90 GRAMS

Figure 7-87. Estimating Filler Material for Core Fill Method

(i)

Sand Filler Flush.

1 Sand filler flush with outer moldline surface (as shown in Figure 7-86, View D) using an orbital sander and 180 grit abrasive paper. 2 sanding dust. 3 Wipe area with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding dust. (j) Fabricate Repair Patch(es). Refer to paragraph 5-2 and the part specific SRM for patch selection. (k) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2), using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture. (l) Prepare Repair Area for Bonding. Lightly hand sand with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (m) Prepare and bond patch(es), using one of the procedures described in paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17. See Figure 7-86, View E. Vacuum the repair area to remove

7-81

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Core Slicer 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Router Holder Burr Special Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Injection Gun Metallic Retainer Barrel, 212 Ounce Injection Cartridge, 212 Ounce, Disposable Injection Nozzle, Disposable 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Heat Blanket Temperature/Vacuum Controller Face Shield Respirator White Cotton Gloves Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-3, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 6 Table 8-3, Item 3 Table 8-2, Item 6

Clean Part

Fabricate Replacement Core


Prepare Opposite Skin Inner Surface for Bonding (if Applicable)

Prepare Surfaces for Bonding

Define Damage

Bond Patch(es)

Damage Removal

Prepare & Bond Replacement Core Plug

NDI Repair

Table 8-12, Item 24 Table 8-12, Item 25 Table 8-12, Item 26 Table 8-12, Item 27, 28 or 29 Table 8-1, Item 1 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Paint Removal

Machine Core Flush With OML

Refinish

Dry Repair Area

Fabricate Repair Patch(es)

Figure 7-88. Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Paste Adhesive Method, Procedure 23
Aluminum Honeycomb Core Copper Sheet Mylar, Clear, Type A, 0.005 Inch Thick Table 5-3, Items 1-6 Table 8-12, Item 13 Table 5-5, Item 19

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-88 for the Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Paste Adhesive Method. (3) Procedure.

Materials Required Nomenclature Masking Tape Adhesive, Paste Wooden Spatula Solvent Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Rymplecloth Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Specification Table 5-5, Item 10 Table 5-1, Item 5a or 5b Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 1

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the depth and extent of the damage using NDI. Layout the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

7-82

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(d) Damage Removal. (See Figure 7-89, View B).

4 Orient the template on the replacement core. Match the replacement core ribbon direction on the template. Using a core slicer and slicing along the cell axis, cut the replacement core to the damage cutout shape using the template as a guide as described in paragraph 6-7c(1). 5 Carefully insert the replacement core into the cavity to check the fit. Align the ribbon direction with the part ribbon direction. The core should fit tightly inside the repair cavity.

Composite Materials

1 Remove skin damage along the damage layout line using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. If damage is through both skins, remove the damage so that both skins have the same size and shape damage cleanup hole. 2 Remove the damaged core using a core slicer as described in paragraph 6-3d(2). CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. A black color on the sandpaper indicates that sanding into the laminate has occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. Sanding should be stopped immediately. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (f) If damage is through both skins, cover the hole on the lower skin with release film and tape in place. Apply a metal plate formed to the part contour over the film and tape in place on the part surface. (g) Fabricate Replacement Core. 1 Determine part core density and ribbon direction by referring to the part specific SRM. 2 Select a replacement core material of the same or higher density and the same material. Ensure that it is at least 1.0 inch thicker than the maximum depth of the core cavity. If a core splice exists in the area being repaired (as indicated by the presence of core splice material), select the higher density core section to be the replacement core. 3 Fabricate a template containing the damage cutout shape using mylar. Mark the part core ribbon direction on the mylar.

Solvent NOTE

Wear clean white cotton gloves when handling cleaned honeycomb core to prevent contamination due to skin oils. 6 Remove replacement core and clean by flushing with a squirt bottle filled with solvent. Allow to air dry until solvent has completely evaporated. Wrap cleaned core in wax-free barrier paper or release film until ready for assembly. (h) Prepare Opposite Skin Inner Surface. If the opposite side skin was not removed, prepare the opposite skin inner surface for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until bonding is complete. If replacement core plug is not to be bonded immediately, cover the area with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (i) Bond Replacement Core Plug. 1 5-5a. 2 Using a spatula, apply paste adhesive approximately 0.1 inch thick to opposite skin inner surface (if applicable) and on part core cell walls in repair cavity (the surface that mates with the replacement core). 3 Apply paste adhesive to bottom and sides of replacement core using a spatula. (See Figure 7-89, View C). If damage is through both skins, apply adhesive to sides of replacement core only. Prepare paste adhesive per paragraph

7-83

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SHOT BAG CAUL PLATE RELEASE FILM


NOTE: PART CORE CELL AXIS AND REPLACEMENT CORE CELL AXIS ARE NOT PARALLEL

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ; ;;; ;; ;;; ; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ; ; ;;; ; ;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;

A. Damaged Skin and Core

D. Apply Postive Pressure and Allow to Set at Room Temperature

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;; ;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ; ; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;; ;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

B. Remove Damaged Skin and Core to Opposite Side Skin

E. Machine Core Flush With OML Surface

APPLY PASTE ADHESIVE TO CORE SIDEWALLS AND END

;;; ;;; ; ;; ;; ;; ;TO ;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;REPAIR;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;CAVITY; ; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;AND;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;SIDEWALLS ;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;OPPOSITE ;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;; ;;; SIDE ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;SKIN ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;SHOULD ;;;;;;; NOTE: ;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; FIT TIGHTLY ;;;; ;;; ;;;; CORE ;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

PATCH FILM OR PASTE ;;; ;;; ; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;; ;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;ADHESIVE ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ; ;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;; ; ;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;; ;;;; ;;; ; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;;;;

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IN REPAIR CAVITY

APPLY PASTE ADHESIVE

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C. Install Core With Paste Adhesive

F. Bond Patch(es) With Film or Paste Adhesive Using Heat Blanket and Vacuum Bag

Figure 7-89. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Paste Adhesive Method

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

4 Carefully insert replacement core into repair cavity. Ensure part and replacement core ribbon directions are aligned. Push core against opposite side skin inner surface or metal plate as applicable. 5 Visually inspect part core to replacement core sidewall area for adequate filling of adhesive. If voids or gaps exist, fill a sealant gun with adhesive and inject more adhesive into gaps/voids. 6 Place a metal caul plate on top of replacement core. Apply external weight (3-5 pounds) on top of caul plate (See Figure 7-89, View D). Remove excess adhesive by wiping with rymplecloth. 7 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature until machinable (approximately 8 hours). As an alternate, the adhesive/filler may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/ filler. Operate the heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 8 Remove weight and caul plate. Remove the release film (and metal plate, if installed). (j) Machine Core. Machine core flush with OML surface of part using the procedures in paragraph 6-7c(2). Vacuum sanding dust from repair area and wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. See Figure 7-89, View E. (k) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2) using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture. (l) Fabricate Repair Patch(es). Refer to paragraph 5-2 and the part specific SRM for patch selection. (m) Prepare Surfaces for Bonding. Prepare repair area for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (n) Prepare and bond patch(es), using one of the procedures described in paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17 and Figure 7-89, View F. (o) NDI Patch Bond(s). 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41).

2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. Perform NDI on any area of the part subjected to temperatures exceeding the service temperature of the part material. (p) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM. c. Procedure 24. Honeycomb Core Repair: Film/Foam Method. (1) Application. This procedure uses foaming adhesive to bond replacement honeycomb core sections to the part core sidewalls and film adhesive for bonding the repair patches. This method is used to repair damages greater than 1.5 inches in diameter and is used on flight control surfaces where repair weight limitations dictate. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Heat Lamp Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Orbital Sander Weights, Shot Bags Core Slicer 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Router Holder Burr Special Specification Table 8-12, Item 6 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-3, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 6 Table 8-3, Item 3

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Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Heat Blanket Temperature/Vacuum Controller Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves White Cotton Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Table 8-2, Item 6

Clean Part

Tack Replacement Core Into Cavity Machine Core Flush With OML(s)

Fabricate Repair Patch(es) Prepare Surfaces for Bonding

Table 8-1, Item 1 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Paragraph 8-6a, b or c


Damage Removal Define Damage

Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 10
Fabricate Replacement Core

Dry Repair Area


Prepare Opposite Skin Inner Surface for Bonding (If Applicable)

Bond Patches

Paint Removal

NDI Repair

Materials Required Nomenclature High Temperature Tape Adhesive, Paste Wooden Spatula Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Rymplecloth Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Aluminum Honeycomb Core Mylar, Clear, Type A, 0.005 Inch Thick Adhesive, Foam Kit Adhesive, Film Kit Fiberglass Cloth Style 120 Solvent Specification Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-1, Item 3, 5a or 5b Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-5, Item 11 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-3, Items 1-6 Table 5-5, Item 19 Table 5-1, Item 8a or 8b Table 5-1, Item 6a or 6b Table 5-6, Item 7 Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6

Prepare & Bond Replacement Core Plug

Refinish

Figure 7-90. Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Film/Foam Method, Procedure 24

CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the depth and extent of the damage using NDI. Layout the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. (d) Damage Removal.

Composite Materials

1 Remove skin damage along the damage layout line using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. 2 For core replacement on contoured (tapered and/or complex contoured) parts, skin damage should be removed to the same size and shape in both skins. Using the repair cavity as a guide (Figure 7-91, View B), remove the opposite side skin to the same size and shape as the damage cleanup hole as described in paragraph 6-3b.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-90 for the Process Flow Diagram for Honeycomb Core Repair, Film/Foam Method. (3) Procedure.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. 7-86

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

3 For core replacement on uncontoured parts and/or parts without a taper, removal of opposite side undamaged skin material is not required. 4 Remove the damaged core using a core slicer as described in paragraph 6-3d(2). CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate when removing paint. A black color on the sandpaper indicates that sanding into the laminate has occurred and carbon fiber is being removed. Sanding should be stopped immediately. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (f) Fabricate Replacement Core Plug.

core to aid in controlling core gap during installation. Leave at least 1 inch between spacers. Spacers should be at least as long as the thickest section of core. 7 Perform a trial fit of replacement core in repair cavity to verify core fits in cavity with spacers installed. Core should extend a minimum of 0.25 inch above both moldline surfaces (if both skins removed). Remove core and rework if required to obtain proper gap. If core was reworked, perform another trial fit. 8 Reinstall core in repair cavity maintaining core ribbon direction and part to replacement core gap using spacers (Figure 7-91, View C). Ensure core extends a minimum of 0.25 inch above both moldline surfaces (if both skins removed). (g) Machine Core Plug. 1 Prepare a small quantity (15-20 grams) of glass floc filled paste adhesive to be used to tack replacement core in position for machining per paragraph 5-5a. Start with a mrF=14 and add glass floc until adhesive has the consistency of putty. 2 Apply a small amount of adhesive putty to tack replacement core to part skin surface at the damage cutout hole edge near part surface (Figure 7-91, View D). Apply enough adhesive tacks to stabilize core for subsequent machining (at approximately 1 inch intervals). Use care not to apply adhesive to spacers. 3 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature until machinable (approximately 8 hours). As an alternative, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp. Use Cycle 3a from Table 6-1 to set the adhesive/filler. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 4 Locally remove spacers in area being machined. Replace after local area has been machined to facilitate core stabilization during the remainder of the machining process. Machine core flush with OML surfaces of part using a 0 degree router motor, burr special cutter and the router holder as described in paragraph 6-7c(2); see Figure 7-91, View E. (h) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2), using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture.

1 Determine part core density and ribbon direction by referring to the part specific SRM. 2 Select a replacement core material of the same or higher density and the same material. Ensure that it is at least 1.0 inch thicker than the maximum depth of the core cavity. If a core splice exists in the area being repaired (as indicated by the presence of core splice material), select the higher density core section to be the replacement core. 3 Fabricate a template containing the damage cutout shape using mylar. Mark the part core ribbon direction on the mylar. 4 Using the core template, step back the damage cutout shape on the template a constant 0.100 inch if FM404 is used or a constant 0.150 inch if FM410-1 is used. This is to provide a gap between the core plug and the repair cavity to allow for installation of foaming adhesive. 5 Orient the stepped back template on the replacement core, matching template and replacement core ribbon directions. Tape in place. Cut replacement core to the stepped back damage cutout shape using the template, core slicer and the procedures as described in paragraph 6-7c(1). Ensure the cut is made along the cell axis. 6 Fabricate a sufficient number of 1 inch wide spacers, 0.1 inch thick for FM404 and 0.15 inch thick for FM410-1, to fit around the periphery of the replacement

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;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;

NOTE: PART CORE CELL AXIS AND REPLACEMENT ;;; ;;; ;;CORE ;;;; ;AXIS ;; ;; ;; ;; ;CELL ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;ARE;PARALLEL ;;; ; ; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

INSTALL REPLACEMENT CORE USING SPACERS TO MAINTAIN GAP

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A. Damaged Skin and Core

C. Remove Opposite Side Skin to Same Size and Shape as Damaged Skin
0.10 Inch Gap for FM404 0.15 Inch Gap for FM410-1

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

USE REPAIR CAVITY AS A GUIDE TO REMOVE OPPOSITE SIDE SKIN

ADHESIVE TACKS SPACED AT 1 INCH INTERVALS

B. Remove Damaged Skin and Core to Opposite Side Skin

D. Tack Replacement Core in Place

Figure 7-91. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Film/Foam Method (Sheet 1 of 2) (i) Remove Core Plug. immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (k) Bond Replacement Core. 1 Remove from 0F storage the sealed kits containing film adhesive and foaming adhesive as specified in paragraph 5-5b. Allow the kits to thaw at room temperature for 2 hours, minimum, before opening the sealed bags. 2 If opposite side skin was not removed, cut 2 layers of film adhesive using the replacement core as a guide. Install these layers in the repair cavity on the opposite skin inner surface. CAUTION Wear clean white cotton gloves when handling adhesive to prevent contamination due to skin oils.

1 Very carefully cut away adhesive tacks using a router motor and a diamond cutting wheel. Use care not to damage part skin/core, or replacement core. 2 Remove core from cavity. Carefully remove residual adhesive tack material from repair cavity/ replacement core without damaging core. 3 If opposite side skin was removed, tape release film to a metal plate formed to part contour. Cover hole on lower skin with the plate and tape in place on part surface. (j) Prepare Opposite Skin Inner Surface. If the opposite side skin was not removed, prepare the opposite skin inner surface for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until bonding is complete. If replacement core plug is not to be bonded

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

CAUTION: DO NOT USE VACUUM TO APPLY HEAT BLANKET WHEN EXPANDING FM404
REPLACEMENT CORE

HEAT BLANKET

RELEASE FILM

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;CUT ADHESIVE TACKS ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;REMOVE;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; AND;; ;; ;;;;;CORE ; ; ;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;AFTER;MACHINING ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;; ;;; ;;; ; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;;; ;; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ; ;;;; ; ;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;; ; ; ; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; METAL ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

PLATE

E. Machine Core Flush With OML Surface G. Expand Foaming Adhesive Using Heat Blanket

;; ;; ;; ;; 2 ;; ;; ; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;PRESS ;;LAYERS;OF;;; ;; ;; ;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;ADHESIVE;;; FOAMING;;; ;;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;SIDEWALLS ;;;;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;ONTO;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ; ;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;; ; ; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;;;;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; RELEASE ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; FILM ;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;

CLEAN MACHINED REPLACEMENT CORE AND INSERT INTO REPAIR CAVITY

FOAMING ADHESIVE PATCH FILM ADHESIVE

;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ; ;;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ; ;;;; ;;;; ;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;; ;;;;;; ;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

METAL PLATE

F. Layup Replacement Core and Foaming Adhesive

H. Bond Patch(es) With Film Adhesive Using Heat Blankets and Vacuum Bag

Figure 7-91. Procedure for Core Replacement Using the Film/Foam Method (Sheet 2) NOTE FM404 foaming adhesive has a very narrow temperature band for handling. At subfreezing temperatures the material readily breaks into small pieces. At temperatures above 40F it becomes extremely tacky. The material is most workable at 40F. The material may be reinserted in the freezer momentarily to bring the temperature of the material into a workable range. 3 Obtain a sheet of foaming adhesive to use for splicing the replacement core sidewalls to the part. Do not remove backing paper. Cut the sheet into pieces to be applied to the part core sidewalls using the replacement core as a guide. Two layers are to be applied. 4 Remove release paper from one side of foaming adhesive piece. Press the exposed adhesive onto the part core sidewall in the repair cavity (Figure 7-91, View F). Remove the remaining release paper. Repeat this process for the second layer of foaming adhesive. Solvent CAUTION Wear clean white cotton gloves when handling cleaned honeycomb core to prevent contamination due to skin oils. 5 Clean replacement core by flushing with a squirt bottle filled with solvent. Allow to air dry until solvent has completely evaporated. Wrap cleaned core in wax-free barrier paper or release film until ready for assembly. 6 Carefully insert the replacement core into the repair cavity. Maintain the proper ribbon direction and gap. Push the core against the metal plate or opposite side skin as applicable. Ensure the core is properly seated in the cavity and flush with the OML surface of part. 4

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NAVAIR 01-1A-21

NOTE Foaming adhesive will expand during heat application to fill the part to replacement core gap. 7 Visually inspect to verify that the adhesive was not wiped off the part core sidewalls during replacement installation. CAUTION Use only positive pressure when expanding FM404 foaming adhesive. DO NOT use vacuum pressure or overexpansion and significantly reduced strength will result. To prevent heat damage to part, 100% contact must be maintained between heat blanket and part contour. NOTE Heat blanket(s) must be supported with positive pressure to ensure 100% contact exists between the part surface and the surface of the heat blanket(s) when expanding FM404. 8 Expand the foaming adhesive using a heat blanket (Figure 7-91, View G) as described in paragraph 6-7k(3). Use Cure Cycle 4b from Table 6-2 for FM404 or Cure Cycle 5b from Table 6-2 for FM410-1. Final cure of the foaming adhesive will take place during film adhesive cure cycle. Heat blankets are required on both sides of part if part thickness is greater than 1 inch. 9 plate if installed. Remove the heat blanket(s) and metal

13 It the core surface is higher than the part surface, finish sand using 180-240 grit abrasive paper and a sanding block. 14 If the core surface is lower than the part surface, bring it flush by surface filling with paste adhesive as described in paragraph 7-8a, Procedure 22. 15 Vacuum clean the area to remove sanding dust. (l) Fabricate Repair Patch(es). Refer to paragraph 5-2 and the part specific SRM for patch selection. (m) Prepare Surfaces for Bonding. Prepare repair area for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (n) Prepare and bond patch(es), using film adhesive and the procedures described in paragraph 7-7a, Procedure 17. See Figure 7-91, View H. (o) NDI Patch Bond(s). 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41). 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verity bondline integrity. Perform NDI on any area of the part subjected to temperatures exceeding the service temperature of the part material. (p) Refinish.

10 Visually inspect the core sidewall bond area to ensure the foaming adhesive has properly expanded and that no gaps exist. 11 If foaming adhesive is underblown or if large voids exist, reapply the foaming adhesive in void areas and repeat paragraphs 8 through 10. Paste adhesive may be applied to small, shallow voids only. 12 Remove any residual foaming adhesive on the surface by hand sanding with 180-240 grit abrasive paper. Use a straight edge to check that the surface of the replacement core is flush with the surrounding part surface.

CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

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d. Procedure 25. Closure Rib Bonded Repair. (1) Application. This procedure applies only to thin, lightly loaded closure ribs. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Router Holder Burr Special Overhose Assembly Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Orbital Sander Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Heat Lamp Temperature/Vacuum Controller C-Clamps Heat Blanket Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves White Cotton Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Specification Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 6 Table 8-3, Item 3 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 6

Clean Part

Fabricate Spacers
Prepare Surfaces of Replacement Rib & Spacers for Bonding Bond Replacement Core Plug, Rib & Spacers

Prepare Surfaces for Bonding

Define Skin Damage

Bond External Patches

Remove Damaged Skin Define Substructure Damage

Perform NDI

Dry Repair Area

Refinish

Remove Damaged Substructure

Fabricate External Patches

Paint Removal

Fabricate Replacement Rib

Fabricate Replacement Core Plug

Figure 7-92. Process Flow Diagram for Closure Rib Bonded Repair, Procedure 25

Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 6 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 5 Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 10

Adhesive, Paste Scrim Cloth Adhesive, Liquid Dry Woven Carbon Cloth Wooden Spatula Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Copper Sheet Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy

Table 5-1, Item 5a Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-1, Item 1a or 1b Table 5-2, Item 1 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-5, Item 13 Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-2, Item 5a

Materials Required Nomenclature Plaster, Gypsum Release Liquid Specification Table 5-5, Item 22 Table 5-5, Item 17

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-92 for the Process Flow Diagram for Closure Rib Bonded Repair.

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Figure 7-93. Repair Details (3) Repair Details. Figure 7-93 depicts the details incorporated into the repair. (4) Procedure.

Figure 7-94. Damaged Closure Rib (f) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth. (g) Remove damaged closure rib, damaged core and opposite side skin (if applicable) using a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3d, and shown in Figure 7-95. (h) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b. (i) Fabricate Replacement Closure Rib.

(a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Skin Damage. Define the location and perimeter of the skin damage with NDI. Lay out the damage as shown in Figure 7-94. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

1 Obtain a spare component with an undamaged closure rib that is identical to the damaged one. 2 Apply release agent to spare component closure rib. 3 Mix plaster and water using a 2:1 ratio to a putty consistency. 4 Fill the closure rib with plaster and cure for 12 hours at 125F, using a heat lamp as described in paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 5 Remove plaster casting from rib. Sand casting smooth with 150-180 grit abrasive paper and dry thoroughly. 6 Apply release agent to dried casting.

Composite Materials

(d) Remove Skin Damage. Remove skin damage along the damage layout line using a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. (e) Determine extent of substructure damage. Define the location, depth and perimeter of the closure rib and honeycomb core damage (if applicable) using NDI. Additional skin may be removed in order to facilitate damage assessment. Lay out the damage.

7 Perform wet layup process as described in paragraph 6-7e, using the casting as the layup tool (see Figure 7-96). Consult the part specific SRM for guidelines on number of plies and ply orientations.

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REPAIR RIB

FWD
CASTING COATED WITH RELEASE AGENT

Figure 7-95. Damage Removed

Figure 7-96. Replacement Closure Rib Fabrication

Composite Materials

8 Trim finished rib using a 90 degree router motor and diamond coated cutting wheel to fit in existing rib at flange cutout. Make sure there is at least 1.0 inch overlap between replacement rib flange and existing rib flange. (j) Fabricate replacement core, if required, as described in paragraph 7-8b(3)g. (k) Prepare spacers and rib for bonding. 1 Obtain spacers to fit cutout areas of skin and closure rib. Two spacers are required; one of the same thickness as the closure rib and the other of the same thickness as the skin. Consult the part specific SRM for thickness requirements. Precured carbon/epoxy patch material may be machined to the required size and shape and used as spacers. 2 Prepare bonding surfaces of replacement rib and spacers for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If bonding is not to be performed immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. Figure 7-97. Positioning Replacement Core (l) Bond replacement core (if applicable), spacers and rib into place. 1 Cut pieces of scrim cloth to fit replacement rib and spacers bondlines. 2 Prepare approximately 80 grams of paste adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a. 3 If replacing core, apply paste adhesive to part core cell walls in repair cavity and sides of replacement core using a spatula. 4 If replacing core, insert replacement core into repair cutout. Push replacement core plug against part core sidewall as shown in Figure 7-97.

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Figure 7-98. Positioning Replacement Rib

Figure 7-99. Applying Pressure to Bondline With C-Clamps

5 Apply adhesive to replacement rib and spacer bonding surfaces. If replacing core, apply adhesive to rib web and core mating surfaces also. Apply scrim cloth to the paste adhesive on the replacement rib surfaces that mate with the existing rib and to the replacement rib where it mates with the spacers. 6 Position replacement rib against core as shown in Figure 7-98. Position spacers over replacement rib. Tape in place with high temperature tape. Apply pressure to bondline using C-Clamps as shown in Figure 7-99 and as described in paragraph 6-7j(3)(b). 7 Allow to set at room temperature for 8 hours. As an alternative, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp as described in paragraph 6-7j(4)(c) and Cure Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. 8 C-clamps. (m) Machine Core. If core was replaced, machine it flush with OML surfaces of part using the procedures in paragraph 6-7c(2). Vacuum sanding dust from repair area and wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth. See Figure 7-100. (n) Drying. Dry repair area as described in paragraph 6-7a(2), using a heat blanket to remove subsurface moisture. When adhesive has set, remove

(o) Fabricate Repair Patch. Refer to paragraph 5-2 and the part specific SRM for patch selection. Ensure that there is a minimum of 1.5 inches of overlap for all external patch bondlines. (p) Prepare Surfaces for Final Patch Bond. Prepare repair area and both surfaces of patches for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination. (q) Apply Adhesive and Patches. 1 Cut pieces of scrim cloth to fit bondline. CAUTION Pressure must be applied to layup within pot life shown in Table 5-8. For ambient temperature in excess of 90F, decrease this time by 50%. An unsatisfactory repair will result if the adhesive gels before adequate pressure is applied. Select heat blanket (if required) and all necessary vacuum bag materials prior to mixing adhesive. 2 Prepare approximately 80 grams of paste adhesive as described in paragraph 5-5a.

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Figure 7-100. Machine Replacement Core Flush With OML

Figure 7-101. Application of Adhesive to Repair Area

3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive onto patch and part bonding surfaces using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). Adhesive shall extend a minimum of 14 inch beyond patch periphery. See Figure 7-101. 4 Apply scrim cloth to the paste adhesive on the surface of the part. 5 Apply bond side of patch containing adhesive on part surface containing scrim cloth/adhesive. Ensure patch is aligned on part to maintain minimum patch overlap. See Figure 7-102. (r) Perform Final Patch Bond.

(s) Perform NDI. 1 Visually inspect adhesive squeeze out at patch edge as described in paragraph 6-7l(2)(b). (See Figure 6-41). 2 Perform NDI of patch to skin and patch to filler bond areas to verify bondline integrity. (See Figure 7-103). Perform NDI on any area of the part subjected to temperatures exceeding the service temperature of the part material. (t) The completed repair prior to refinishing is shown in Figure 7-104. (u) Refinish. CAUTION DO NOT sand into laminate near patch edge when sanding adhesive squeeze out. 1 Sand the area smooth with 180 grit abrasive paper. Vacuum sanding dust from repair area. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. 2 Apply finish system in accordance with the part specific SRM.

1 Layup the vacuum bag as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). If a heat blanket is not used to cure the adhesive, omit heat blanket, copper sheet and heat blanket control thermocouple from layup. 2 Cure Adhesive. Cure adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7k(1), using Cure Cycle 1 or 2 from Table 6-1. Ensure the adhesive is allowed to dwell at room temperature under pressure for the time specified in Table 6-1.

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e. Procedure 26. Substructure Bolted Repair. (1) Application. This procedure is applicable for repair of damage to thick monolithic skin and C-channel substructure. It uses internally applied split patch plates with sheet metal angles and plates mechanically fastened to the skin and substructure. It requires internal access from both sides of the part and is limited to a maximum damage cleanup hole diameter of 4.0 inches. This repair procedure is not necessarily applicable to a particular weapons system. The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions and laminate thickness. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Figure 7-102. Repair Patch Applied to Repair Area Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Dagger Drill Bits Twist Drill Bits Align-A-Drill Orbital Sander Router Bit, Diamond Coated, 1.0 Inch Diameter Router Bit, Diamond Coated, 0.25 Inch Diameter Figure 7-103. NDI Performed on Final Patch Bond 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Guide Alignment Pin Temporary Fasteners C-Clamps Microstop Cage Carbide Inserts Countersink Cutter Countersink Cutter Pin Drill Bushing, Coolant Visu-Lok Installation Tooling Figure 7-104. Repair Complete Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-4, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-2, Item 2

Table 8-2, Item 1

Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-5, Item 7 Table 8-5, Item 5 Table 8-6, Items 5 and 6 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-5, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 9 Table 8-4, Item 6 Table 8-4, Item 11 Table 8-5, Item 3 Table 8-9, MH75 Hand Tooling

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Clean Part

Remove Damaged Substructure

Pilot Drill Angle Web

Mate Drill Angle Flange

Mate Drill Upper & Lower Backing Plates & Angles


Enlarge Pilot Holes in Filler Patches, Backing Plates & Angles

Prepare & Apply Sealant & Scrim


Install Shear Tie, Angles, Backing Plates, Shims, Filler Patches & Fasteners

Define Skin Damage

Fabricate Patches, Backing Plates, Angles & Shear Tie

Mate Drill C-Channel Web

Enlarge Pilot Holes in Upper & Lower Skins, Backing Plates & Angle Enlarge Pilot Holes in Shear Tie, Upper & Lower Angles & C-Channel Web

Remove Damaged Skin Define Substructure Damage

Pilot Drill Skins in Backing Plate Mating Areas Mate Drill Backing Plates

Mate Drill Shear Tie

Fabricate & Mate Drill Shims Countersink Fastener Holes in Skin & Filler Patches

Prepare & Apply Filler

Pilot Drill Skin & C-Channel Flange

Pilot Drill Upper & Lower Filler Patches

Refinish

Figure 7-105. Process Flow Diagram for Substructure Bolted Repair, Procedure 26 Hi-Lok Installation Tooling Hi-Lok Removal Tooling Blind Fastener Removal Kit Buckeye Drill Grip Length Gauge Overhose Assembly Coolant Adapter Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron Figure 8-15 Figure 8-16 Table 8-11 Rockwell 21 A634E Figure 8-7 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-5, Item 4 Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10 Fiberglass Cloth Style 120 Masking Tape Release Film Visu-Lok Blind Bolts Hi-Lok Pins Hi-Lok Collars Cutting Fluid Cord, Nylon Table 5-6, Item 7 Table 5-5, Item 10 Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-4, Items 8, 9 and 10 Table 5-4, Items 4, 5 and 6 Table 5-4, Item 7 Table 5-5, Item 12 Table 5-5. Item 14

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-105 for the Process Flow Diagram for Substructure Bolted Repair. (3) Procedure. Refer to Figure 7-106 for the repair arrangement. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite parts. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Skin Damage. Define the extent of the skin damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. Use a circular configuration. Mark centerlines to be used as reference marks for positioning patch.

Materials Required Nomenclature Scrim Cloth Rymplecloth Sealing Compound Sealing Compound Sealing Compound Titanium Stock Adhesive, Paste Solvent Shim, Fiberglass Specification Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 16 Table 5-1, Item 17 Table 5-1, Item 18 Table 5-2, Items 49, 50 and 51 Table 5-1, Item 5a Table 5-5, Item 5 or 6 Table 5-2, Item 55

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BLIND FASTENER FILLER PATCH, 0.063 INCH TITANIUM BLIND FASTENER UPPER CARBON/EPOXY SKIN SCRIM CLOTH

4.0 INCH MAXIMUM DAMAGE CUTOUT

BACKING PLATES, 0.063 INCH TITANIUM SHEAR TIE, 0.071 INCH TITANIUM

BLIND FASTENER HI-LOK PIN C-CHANNEL

SHIM (AS REQUIRED) C-CHANNEL ANGLES, 0.040 INCH TITANIUM

WEB FLANGE BACKING PLATES, 0.063 INCH TITANIUM SHIM (AS REQUIRED) COLLAR

SCRIM CLOTH LOWER CARBON/EPOXY SKIN HI-LOK PIN FILLER PATCH, 0.063 INCH TITANIUM HI-LOK PIN

Figure 7-106. Repair Arrangement for C-Channel Substructure Bolted Repair

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NOTE Composite Materials 7 Holes for repair fasteners in angle and shear tie must be a minimum of 4 fastener diameters from existing fasteners and have a minimum edge distance of 2 fastener diameters. (j) Lay out pilot holes and angle/shear tie outline on templates. Locate pilot hole centerlines taking into account fastener diameter edge distance limitations. Refer to part specific SRM for angle/shear tie geometry and fastener hole pattern layout. (k) Fabricate repair details as follows using guidelines in paragraph 6-9a. 1 Using templates, mark outlines of patch, backing plates, angles and shear tie on titanium stock. Refer to Figure 7-106 and part specific SRM for stock sizes. 2 Cut out and deburr repair details.

(c) Remove damage from both skins as described in paragraph 6-3b(1) or (2). Ensure cleanup hole is the same size and shape in both skins. (d) Define Substructure Damage. Define the extent of the substructure damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (e) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

Composite Materials

(f) Remove damage from substructure as described in paragraph 6-3b(1) or (2) using a 90 degree router motor. Vacuum cavity to remove machining residue. (g) Remove existing fasteners within the repair area as described in paragraph 6-9d(4). (h) Install moistened rymplecloth to contain composite residue as required. NOTE Holes for repair fasteners must be a minimum of 4 fastener diameters from existing fasteners and have a minimum edge distance of 3 fastener diameters. (i) Fabricate cardboard patch and backing plate templates. 1 Lay out pilot holes and patch/backing plate outline on templates. Locate pilot hole centerlines taking into account fastener diameter edge distance limitations. Refer to part specific SRM for patch and backing plate geometry and fastener hole pattern layout. 2 Center templates over damaged cleanup holes on upper and lower skins using reference marks on skin as a guide. Transfer reference marks from skin to template.

3 Fabricate angles by bending the 0.040 inch thick titanium to fit the shape of the substructure. Use bend information as specified in NAVAIR 01-1A-9. 4 required. (l) Align the centerlines of the cardboard backing plate template and upper skin. Secure in place in position with masking tape. (m) Using a 0.128 inch diameter dagger drill, drill through template and lightly touch the skin with the drill to mark the hole pattern. (n) Pilot Drill Skin. 1 Assemble and adjust the Align-A-Drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Install a 0.128 inch diameter dagger drill in the assembly. 2 Locate drill guide over one of the hole locations marked in paragraph (m) above. Temporarily secure the drill guide with a C-clamp at the damage hole edge. Form/contour remaining details as

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(s) Repeat paragraphs (p)-(q) above for second half of lower skin backing plate. Composite Materials 7 (t) Rotate first backing plate back in position and align plates. Trim plates as required to obtain an even gap between the plates. Ensure all edge distance requirements are met. (u) Remove lower backing plates from cavity. (v) Repeat paragraphs (p)-(u) for upper skin backing plates. (w) Using lower repair angle template fabricated in paragraph (j) above, mark the two outer fastener holes that mate with the C-channel web on the lower repair angle. Drill the marked pilot holes using a 0.128 inch diameter twist drill. (x) Position lower repair angle on skin and substructure ensuring edge distance requirements are met. Temporarily secure in place with C-clamps.

3 Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g. 4 Locate drill guide over next hole location marked in paragraph (m) above and secure with a temporary fastener in previously drilled hole. 5 Drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in skin with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g. 6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 until all pilot holes have been drilled. (o) Repeat paragraphs (l), (m) and (n) for lower skin. (p) Position one half of lower skin backing plate on the internal side of the repair area, align centerline marks and secure with C-clamps.

Composite Materials NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (q) Using the lower skin 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes, mate drill one corner pilot hole through the backing plate using a twist drill. Install a temporary fastener in the pilot hole. 1 Mate drill the opposite corner 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole through the backing plate with a twist drill. Install a temporary fastener in the hole. 2 Mate drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole through the center of the backing plate with a twist drill. Install a temporary fastener in the hole. 3 Mate drill all remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes through the backing plate with a twist drill. Install temporary fasteners. (r) Remove all temporary fasteners except for one corner fastener. Rotate backing plate away from center of repair area.

(y) Using the angle as a template, mate drill the two 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes through the angle flange into the C-channel web using the Buckeye drill motor and a dagger drill. (z) Remove angle. (aa) Repeat paragraphs (w)-(z) above for the upper skin repair angle. (ab) Position and temporarily secure shear tie on C-channel web using C-clamps. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (ac) Using the pilot holes in the C-channel as a guide, mate drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes through the shear tie using the Buckeye drill motor and a twist drill. (ad) Remove shear tie from C-channel.

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(ae) Using lower repair angle template fabricated in paragraph (j) above, mark all fasteners that mate with the shear tie and lower repair angle. (af) Assemble upper and lower repair angles and shear tie off the aircraft with temporary fasteners. Drill the marked pilot holes using a 0.128 inch diameter twist drill in the assembly. (ag) Measure the distance between the upper and lower end fasteners at each corner of the shear tie. Using fastener spacing guidelines, determine if an additional fastener can be located between the upper and lower corner fasteners. If so, locate and drill a 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole at each end of the shear tie using a twist drill. (ah) Lay out 4 new fastener locations on both the upper skin and the lower skin using edge distance and fastener spacing guidelines. Two new holes should be at each angle/skin/spar cap mating location (see Figure 7-106). Do not center the new holes on the existing structure fastener line. Ensure the holes will be within edge distance and fastener spacing requirements for the attaching shear tie and angle arrangement. (ai) Disassemble the shear tie/angle arrangement.

5 Drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole through skin and C-channel flange with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g. 6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 until all pilot holes have been drilled in upper and lower skins and C-channel flanges. (ak) Assemble the shear tie and angles in the repair area and secure with temporary fasteners. (al) Using the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes drilled in paragraph (aj) above, mate drill all 8 pilot holes though the angles using a twist drill. Install temporary fastener in each hole after drilling.

Composite Materials

(am)Using the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the shear tie, mate drill the shear tie/C-channel web holes if drilled per paragraph (ag). Use a Buckeye drill motor and dagger drill. Remove the temporary fasteners, the angles and shear tie from repair area. (an) With the exception of holes in the skin that mate with the corner pilot holes on each backing plate, enlarge the 0.128 inch diameter holes in the upper skin to 0.199 inch diameter using drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (ao) Insert and align the upper skin backing plates inside the repair area. (ap) Secure the plates with 0.128 inch diameter temporary fasteners in the corner holes. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (aq) With the exception of the corner pilot holes, enlarge the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the upper skin backing plates to 0.199 inch diameter using drill guide, drill bushing and twist drill. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. Install temporary fastener in each hole after drilling.

Composite Materials

(aj) Pilot drill skin and C-channel flange. 1 Assemble and adjust the Align-A-Drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Install a 0.128 inch diameter dagger drill in the assembly. 2 Locate drill guide over one of the hole locations marked in paragraph (ah) above. Secure the drill guide with a temporary fastener using one of the previously drilled holes in the skin. 3 Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole through skin and C-channel flange with drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4g. 4 Locate drill guide over next hole location marked in paragraph (ah) above and secure with a temporary fastener in previously drilled hole.

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(ar) Remove the repair arrangement.

Composite Materials

(ba) Enlarge the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the upper angle that mates with the skin holes enlarged in paragraph (at). Mate drill the pilot holes through the two 0.199 inch diameter holes in the upper skin using a twist drill, drill guide and drill bushing. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (bb) Repeat paragraph (ba) above for the lower angle and lower skin, except enlarge holes to 0.191 inch diameter. (bc) Remove the angles.

(as) Enlarge remaining upper skin pilot holes that mate with backing plates to 0.199 inch diameter with the drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill. (at) Enlarge one upper skin pilot hole on each side of the damage cutout that mates with the C-channel flange to 0.199 inch diameter using the drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (au) Insert and align the upper skin backing plates inside the repair area. (av) Secure the plates with temporary fasteners through the 0.199 inch diameter holes. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (aw) Enlarge the 0.128 inch diameter corner pilot holes in the upper skin backing plates to 0.199 inch diameter using drill guide, drill bushing and twist drill. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (ax) Remove the repair arrangement. (ay) Repeat paragraphs (an)-(ax) for the lower skin area with the following exception: instead of enlarging holes to 0.199 inch diameter, enlarge holes to 0.191 inch diameter. (az) Insert and align the angles and shear tie in the repair area. Secure with temporary fasteners through the 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the skin. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations.

Composite Materials

(bd) Enlarge the 2 remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes through the upper skin/C-channel flange to 0.199 inch diameter using drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (be) Enlarge the 2 remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes through the lower skin/C-channel flange to 0.191 inch diameter using drill guide, Align-A-Drill and dagger drill as described in paragraph 6-4j. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (bf) Assemble the angles and shear tie off the aircraft with temporary fasteners. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (bg) Enlarge one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in the shear tie/upper angle that mates with the C-channel web to 0.199 inch diameter using a twist drill. (bh) Locate the 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in the shear tie/lower angle that mates with the C-channel web at the opposite corner of the shear tie hole enlarged in paragraph (bg). Enlarge to 0.199 inch diameter using a twist drill. (bi) Disassemble the angles and shear tie. (bj) Align and temporarily secure the angles and shear tie in the repair area.

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NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (bk) Locate the remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the upper angle that mate with the upper skin holes enlarged in paragraph (bd). Enlarge to 0.199 inch diameter using a twist drill, drill guide and drill bushing. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. (bl) Locate the remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the lower angle that mate with the lower skin holes enlarged in paragraph (be). Enlarge to 0.191 inch diameter using a twist drill, drill guide and drill bushing. Use alignment pin to locate drill guide. Composite Materials 7

(bs) Enlarge the two 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the C-channel web that mate with the 0.191 inch diameter fastener holes in the shear tie. Enlarge the remaining 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in the C-channel web that mate with the 0.199 inch diameter holes in the shear tie/angle. Use a Buckeye drill motor and a dagger drill to enlarge the holes. (bt) Measure fastener grip lengths in fastener holes common to angles, shear tie and C-channel web. Write the grip lengths on the shear tie template. Disassemble the angle/shear tie arrangement. (bu) Cut 4 pieces of nylon cord, approximately 32 inches in length.

Composite Materials

7 (bv) Locate the 2 most outboard repair fastener holes for each backing plate. Identify the corresponding 4 holes on the lower skin and the 4 holes on the upper skin. (bw) Thread a piece of cord through one of the outboard fastener holes for the forward backing plate on the upper skin. (bx) Insert the forward upper skin backing plate in the repair area. Thread the cord through the corresponding fastener hole on the plate. (by) Thread the cord back through the plate and upper skin in the remaining outboard fastener hole. Tie a knot in the cord. Push the backing plate inboard of the repair area inside the torque box. (bz) Repeat paragraphs (bw)-(by) for each separate backing plate. (ca) Assemble and temporarily secure the shear tie and angles in the repair area. (cb) Pull one backing plate into position by pulling on the cord. Align and temporarily secure. (cc) Repeat paragraph (cb) for the remaining backing plates.

(bm)Locate the two 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes on the C-channel web that mate with the angle/shear tie holes enlarged in paragraphs (bg) and (bh). Enlarge to 0.199 inch diameter using the Buckeye drill motor with a dagger drill. (bn) Disassemble the angle/shear tie arrangement. (bo) Assemble the angles and shear tie off the aircraft with temporary fasteners. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (bp) If 2 additional holes were drilled in the shear tie in paragraph (ag) above, enlarge them to 0.191 inch diameter. Enlarge the remaining shear tie/angle fastener holes to 0.199 inch diameter. Enlarge holes using a twist drill. (bq) Disassemble the angles and shear tie arrangement. (br) Align and temporarily secure the angles and shear tie in the repair area.

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(cd) Ensure all internal repair pieces will align properly. NOTE When drilling titanium, lubricate with immunol/ water solution during drilling operations. (ce) Lay out fastener hole pattern on upper skin filler patch and drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in patch with twist drill. (cf) Position filler patch on backing plates and angle. Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in backing plate and angle with twist drill using patch as a template. Install a temporary fastener in pilot hole. (cg) Drill one 0.128 inch diameter pilot hole in backing plate with twist drill on opposite side of patch using patch as a template. Install a temporary fastener in pilot hole. (ch) Drill 0.128 inch diameter pilot holes in backing plates and angle with twist drill bit for remaining fasteners holes using patch as a template. Install a temporary fastener in each hole after drilling. (ci) Enlarge pilot holes in upper skin filler patch and backing plates and angle to 0.199 inch diameter by mate drilling with twist drill. (cj) Fabricate Shim. 1 Determine the required shim thickness by measuring the thickness of the C-channel flange and subtracting the thickness of the backing plate (0.063 inch). 2 Fabricate shim of required thickness from fiberglass stock as shown in Figure 7-106. 3 Remove the upper skin filler patch from the repair area. 4 Clamp shim over full size fastener holes on the upper skin filler patch that mate with angle. 5 Mate drill through skin filler patch and shim using a twist drill. (ck) Repeat paragraphs (ce)-(cj) for the lower skin patch except enlarge pilot holes to 0.191 inch diameter. (cl) Remove filler patch, backing plates, angles, shims and shear tie.

(cm)Deburr holes in patch, backing plates, angles and shear tie.

Composite Materials

(cn) Countersink fastener holes in skin and in patch (as required). Refer to paragraph 6-4g(3) for guidelines. (co) Remove rymplecloth from repair cavity and vacuum cavity clean.

Solvent

(cp) Thoroughly clean the inner moldline upper and lower skin surfaces with clean rymplecloth moistened with solvent. (cq) Lightly hand sand inner moldline upper and lower skin surfaces in the area of backing plates and around fastener holes with 180 grit abrasive paper. Wipe off sanding dust with clean, dry rymplecloth. (cr) Cut a piece of scrim cloth to fit each lower skin backing plate. (cs) Prepare sealing compound PR1750 B-2 as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). (ct) Apply PR1750 B-2 sealing compound to the lower skin backing plates and place scrim cloth over sealing compound on backing plates. Refer to Figure 7-106. (cu) Cut slits in scrim cloth at each fastener hole with a knife. (cv) Repeat paragraphs (bw)-(by) for both lower skin backing plates. (cw) Repeat paragraphs (cr)-(cu) for the upper skin backing plates. (cx) Prepare sealing compound PR1755 B-1/2 as described in paragraph 6-9e(1). (cy) Pull lower skin backing plates into position. Ensure shims are located between the angle and the backing plates. Secure with temporary fasteners. Position lower filler patch in place. Remove nylon cord.

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(cz) Install angles and shear tie. Fay surface seal between the composite surface and the angle and between the composite surface and the shear tie with PR1755 B-1/2 sealant as described in paragraph 6-9e(2). Install fasteners wet with PR1755 B-1/2 sealant as described in paragraph 6-9d(3). (da) Measure fastener grip length using a grip length gauge and write the grip length around the corresponding hole on the applicable template. (db) Install Hi-Lok fasteners into filler patch and backing plates wet with sealant as described in paragraph 6-9d(3). (dc) Repeat paragraphs (cx), (cy), (da) and (db) for the upper skin backing plates and filler patch, using blind fasteners instead of Hi-Loks. Refer to paragraph 6-9d(3) for fastener installation guidelines. (dd) Wipe off excess sealing compound. (de) Allow PR 1755 B-1/2 sealing compound to cure for 2 hours. Before component can be issued for operational use, allow an additional 24 hours to cure PR1750 B-2 sealant after repair assembly. (df) Prepare approximately 40 grams of adhesive/chopped fiberglass as described in paragraph 5-5a. Use a fiber mix ratio (mrF) of 14. (dg) Apply filler compound into original fastener holes removed in paragraph (g) above and over filler patches. Work out air bubbles and smooth to approximate moldline contour. Add additional filler as required to allow for shrinkage. (dh) Set Filler. Tape release film over filler and allow to set at room temperature until it can be sanded (approximately 8 hours). As an alternate, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). (di) Sand filler flush with surface with 180 grit abrasive paper and an orbital sander. Wipe with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. (dj) Refinish. Apply finish system in accordance with the applicable SRM.

f.

Procedure 27. Skin and Partial Rib Repair.

(1) Application. This repair is applicable to structure consisting of carbon/epoxy skins bonded to carbon/epoxy ribs with single skin penetration and partial damage to substructure ribs. Sufficient substructure (parent) rib web must remain to provide overlap for repair angle bond (see Figure 7-108, Section A-A). The applicability of this repair depends upon additional factors such as loading conditions, laminate thickness and repair weight considerations. Consult the part specific SRM or FST engineering for further guidance. Equipment Required Nomenclature Vacuum Cleaner, HEPA Filter Weights, Shot Bags Drill Motor, 2000 RPM Drill Bit, #40 Orbital Sander 90 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM 0 Degree Router Motor, 20,000 RPM Overhose Assembly Router Holder Sanding Disks, 80, 150 & 180 Grit, 1.0 & 2.0 Inch Diameter Sanding Disk Holder Surgical Razor C-Clamps 90 Degree Clamp Adhesive Comb Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated, 80 Grit, 1.0 Inch Diameter Heat Blanket Repair Rib Tool Specification Table 8-12, Item 20 Table 8-12, Item 16 Table 8-5, Item 2 Table 8-4, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 5 Table 8-1, Item 1 Table 8-1, Item 4 Table 8-1, Item 6 Table 8-2, Item 9

Table 8-2, Item 10 Table 8-12, Item 1 Table 8-12, Item 5 Table 8-12, Item 35 Figure 8-22 Table 8-2, Item 6

Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Local Manufacture

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Temperature/Vacuum Controller White Cotton Gloves Marking Pen Scissors, Padded Handle Safety Wire, 0.020 Inch Face Shield Respirator Latex Gloves Rubber Coated Apron

Paragraph 8-6a, b or c Table 8-12, Item 12 Table 8-12, Item 14 Table 8-12, Item 13 Local Availability Table 8-12, Item 9 Table 10-2 Table 8-12, Item 11 Table 8-12, Item 10

Clean Part

Fabricate Repair Patch Prepare Parent Rib, Repair Angle & Rib Spacer for Bond Bond Together: Parent Rib, Repair Angle & Rib Spacer Prepare Internal Sealing Plates & UML Inner Skin for Bond Bond Internal Sealing Plates to UML Inner Skin

Prepare Skin Spacer & Bond Surfaces for Bond

Define Damage

Bond Skin Spacer to Bond Surfaces

Damage Removal

Sand Spacer Flush with OML Prepare Repair Patch & Bonding Surfaces for Bond

Paint Removal

Materials Required Nomenclature Silicon Carbide Abrasive Paper High Temperature Tape Rymplecloth Wooden Spatula Adhesive, Liquid Adhesive, Paste Scrim Cloth Vacuum Bag Repair Materials Kit Patch, Precured Carbon/Epoxy, 6 Ply, 30 Inch x 30 Inch Sheet, Precured Fiberglass Laminate Dry Woven Carbon Cloth, 8 Harness Satin Weave Acetate, Clear, 0.040 Inch Thick Release Liquid Release Film, 1 Mil 0.063 Inch Thick Aluminum Sheet Stock Specification Table 5-5, Item 23 Table 5-6, Item 4 Table 5-5, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 3 Table 5-1, Item 2 Table 5-1, Item 5b Table 5-6, Item 5 Table 5-5, Item 1 Table 5-2, Item 5b
Fabricate Rib & Skin Spacers Dry Repair Area Refinish Fabricate Internal Sealing Plates Leak Check NDI Repair Fabricate Repair Angle Bond Repair Patch to UML Skin

Figure 7-107. Process Flow Diagram for Skin and Partial Rib Repair, Procedure 27 (3) Procedure. Typical steps required to repair skin and partial rib damage are shown in Figure 7-108. (a) Clean Part. Remove dirt, grease and aircraft fluids from repair area as described in paragraph 6-2b. CAUTION

Table 5-2, Item 55 Table 5-2, Item 1 Table 5-5, Item 21 Table 5-5, Item 17 Table 5-6, Item 2 Table 5-5, Item 11

DO NOT use oil or oil based materials as NDI couplants on advanced composite components. Use only water or water based materials. (b) Define Damage. Define the extent of the damage using NDI. Lay out the damage as described in paragraph 6-3a. (c) Remove NDI couplant by wiping with clean, water moistened rymplecloth.

(2) Process Flow Diagram. Refer to Figure 7-107 for the Process Flow Diagram for Skin and Partial Rib Repair. Ensure sufficient undamaged parent rib web remains to provide a 1.0 inch overlap with repair angle (Figure 7-108, Section A-A). 7-106

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INTERNAL SEALING PLATES

A. Damage to Skin and Rib Removed

C. Repair Angle and Rib Spacer Bonded in Place with Paste Adhesive and C-clamps (C-clamps not Shown). Installation of Sealing Plates
REPAIR PATCH

RIB SPACER REPAIR ANGLE

SKIN SPACER

B. Installation of Repair Angle and Rib Spacer

D. Sealing Plates Bonded in Place with Paste Adhesive. Installation of Skin Spacer and Patch Figure 7-108. Skin and Partial Rib Repair Sequence (Sheet 1 of 2)

(d) Damage Removal. 1 Remove the damaged skin along the damage layout line defined above using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. 2 Define extent of damage to rib using NDI and layout damage per paragraph 6-3a. 3 Remove Damage to Rib. Complete damage removal to skin and rib as shown in Figure 7-108, View A. Use a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel as described in paragraph 6-3b. (e) Paint Removal. Remove paint from skin in the repair area by sanding as described in paragraph 6-5b.

(f)

Fabricate Repair Angle.

1 Cut one piece of dry woven carbon cloth large enough to provide 5 plies of the required ply orientation (45, 0, 45, 0, 45)w. Make the repair angle web long enough to match the height of the parent rib web and the repair angle cap wide enough to match the width of the parent rib cap. The minimum required repair angle length shall be long enough to ensure a 1.5 inch overlap exists between the ends of the repair angle and the parent rib, as shown in Figure 7-109 (damage cleanup hole diameter plus 3 inches). Make the repair angle larger than required, as shown in Figure 7-110, to provide extra material for trimming and for fabrication of the rib spacer. 2 Fabricate a cutting template for repair angle plies based upon the above dimensions using the procedures described in paragraph 6-7d(4). Use the ply orientation specified in Figure 7-110.

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E. Skin Spacer and Repair Patch Bonded in Place with Paste Adhesive

F. Repair Completed

SKIN SPACER (THICKNESS OF PARENT SKIN)


1.5"

PATCH

RIB SPACER

SEAL PLATE

0.050" (+.000/-.040)

;;;;;;;;;;;
0.050" (+.000/-.040)

;;;;;;;;;;
0.5"

PARENT SKIN

SEAL PLATE
1.0" MIN

REPAIR ANGLE
PARENT RIB WEB (AFTER DAMAGE REMOVAL)

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
0.1"

SUFFICIANT RIB WEB MUST *NOTE: REMAIN TO PROVIDE 1.0 INCH OVERLAP WITH REPAIR ANGLE

SECTION A-A

Figure 7-108. Skin and Partial Rib Repair Sequence (Sheet 2)

3 Prepare the Repair Angle Tool. If a tool is not available, fabricate a tool from wood or aluminum block as shown in Figure 7-110.
a Lightly sand the surface of the tool to remove any protrusions. Wipe sanded area with a clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue.
b Tape a layer of release film over the layup tool. The release film should be several inches larger than the largest ply.
4 Prepare wet layup adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 2) as described in paragraph 5-5a. Approximately 27 grams of adhesive will wet one square foot per ply of dry woven cloth.
5 Impregnate woven carbon cloth per paragraph 6-7f(4)(a).

6 Using the cutting template manufactured above, cut impregnated plies as described in paragraph 6-7e(2)(c).
7 Layup the plies using the Flat Ply Collation Technique described in paragraph 6-7e(2)(d).
8 Apply the layup to the DVD tool and perform debulking using the 8 harness weave debulk cycle per paragraph 6-7f(4)(d) through paragraph 6-7f(4)(e). Use two plies of Style 120 fiberglass cloth for bleeder material.
9 Form the DVD layup to the repair angle tool, vacuum bag the layup to the tool, and precure the laminate in an oven using Method 1 per paragraph 6-7f(4)(f).

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PARENT RIB

EDGE OF DAMAGE CLEANUP HOLE

1.5 Inch*

REPAIR ANGLE

PARENT RIB

*NOTE: REPAIR ANGLE TO PARENT RIB OVERLAP: 1.5 INCH MINIMUM

"" " "

DENOTES LOCATION OF C-CLAMPS FOR REPAIR ANGLE TO PARENT RIB CAP BOND DENOTES LOCATION OF KANT TWIST CLAMP FOR REPAIR ANGLE TO WEB BOND

VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PART SURFACE

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
PARENT SKIN REPAIR ANGLE (Trim to nest inside parent rib) PARENT RIB

;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;
PARENT SKIN REPAIR ANGLE PARENT RIB

;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

90 DEGREE CLAMP (KANT TWIST, #405)

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
PARENT SKIN

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
PARENT SKIN

;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;
THIS WOOD BLOCK SHORTER TO ALLOW C-CLAMP INSTALLATION SHOWN IN SECTION A-A

;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;
THIS WOOD BLOCK SAME LENGTH AS REPAIR ANGLE

SECTION A-A

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
WOODEN BLOCKS ARE INSERTED BETWEEN CLAMP FACE AND RIB/ANGLE FOR CLAMP UP

SECTION B-B

Figure 7-109. Skin and Partial Rib Repair, Repair Angle Bond

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A Vacuum Bag Sealant A Allow Room for Vacuum Connector Base Plate 1.0" 45 0

10 Following cure, disassemble vacuum bag and carefully remove angle. Perform NDI of angle per applicable part specific SRM. 11 Using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel, trim angle legs to nest inside parent rib (see Figure 7-109, Section A-A). Trim angle length to ensure the required 1.5 inch overlap is achieved. Save excess web material for the rib spacer.

2.0"
0"

Composite Materials

1.0" Typical Between Sealant and Edge of Part

e + ol H p ter u e an m le ia C D L= Rib Prior to Trim

5.

(g) Fabricate Internal Sealing Plates. 1 sheet material. 2 Cut two rectangular sealing plates (see Figure 7-108, View C) using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. Sealing plate periphery should extend a constant 0.5 inches (minimum) beyond the damage cleanup edge on the inner surface of the skin within 0.050 inch of the repair angle edges (see Figure 7-108, Section A-A). 3 Mark center of sealing plates. Drill a #40 hole 0.5 inch forward and behind the center marks. 4 Cut approximately two feet of safety wire. Coat the wire with release agent. 5 holes. Thread the safety wire through the Obtain a sheet of fiberglass precured

Final Repair Rib

REPAIR ANGLE TOOL (Aluminum or Wood Block)

Cap = Parent Rib Cap + 1.0 Inch

0.090 r 90 Ply # 5 4 3 2 1 Orientation (45)w (0)w (45)w (0)w (45)w

Parent Web = Rib Web + 2.0 Inches Height

Material: W133/EA9390

REPAIR ANGLE LAYUP

(h) Fabricate Rib Spacer and Skin Spacer. Cut the spacers using a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel.
Thermocouple Tape Vacuum Bag Sealant 0.25-0.50 Inch Vacuum Bag Breather Porous Release Fabric Release Film Repair Angle Release Film

1 Rib Spacer. From the excess repair angle material saved above, cut a rib spacer to the length and width of the repair angle cap. The rib spacer should approximate the thickness of the parent rib cap. 2 Skin Spacer. Determine the thickness of the parent skin. Fabricate a spacer from a piece (or pieces) of carbon/epoxy 6 ply precured patch material bonded together to approximate the thickness of the parent skin. Cut the spacer to fit within the damage cleanup hole in the skin. Do not exceed a gap of 0.050 inch between edge of spacer and edge of skin (Figure 7-108, Section A-A).

REPAIR ANGLE TOOL (Aluminum or Wood Block)

SECTION A-A

Figure 7-110. Repair Angle Layup and Tool

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CAUTION Ensure a minimum 1.5 inch overlap is achieved. Insufficient overlap will result in reduced strength. Load levels in the repair area may dictate a longer overlap. (i) Patch Preparation.

1 Cut a circular repair patch from carbon/ epoxy 6 ply precured patch material. Use a 90 degree router motor and a diamond coated cutting wheel. Patch periphery should extend a constant 1.5 inches (minimum) beyond the damage cleanup hole edge to provide the required patch overlap. Figure 7-111. Repair Angle Clamp Arrangement 2 Remove peel ply from both sides of patch. Use care not to inadvertently remove fibers from patch during peel ply removal. 3 Taper edges of patch to the dimensions shown in Figure 6-27 using a 90 degree router motor and a 1 inch diameter, 80 grit abrasive sanding disk. 4 Prepare bonding surface(s) of patch by hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until patch bonding is complete. If patch is not to be bonded immediately, cover with clean barrier material and secure with tape to prevent contamination. (j) Prepare Parent Rib Inner Surface, Repair Angle and Rib Spacer for Bond. Prepare parent rib inner surface, repair angle and rib spacer for bonding by hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until bonding is complete. If repair angle and rib spacer are not to be bonded immediately, cover them and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with tape to prevent contamination. (k) Repair Angle Bond (see Figure 7-109). 1 Fabricate two web bond clamp blocks from 0.75 inch thick wood, to nest inside the repair angle as shown in Figure 7-109, View B. Cut one block the same length as the repair angle and one block shorter to prevent interference with c-clamp installation. Apply release film to blocks. 2 Prepare adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a.

3 Cut a piece of scrim cloth slightly larger than the repair angle. 4 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on repair angle and parent rib bonding surfaces using a spatula and adhesive comb, per paragraph 6-7i(3). 5 angle. 6 Insert the repair angle into the parent rib. Position repair angle to ensure a minimum of 1.5 inch overlap is achieved. 7 Repair Angle to Rib Web Cap Bond. Install c-clamps at either end of repair angle to rib cap (see Figure 7-109, Section A-A). Apply light clamping pressure. 8 Repair Angle to Rib Web Bond. Insert wood blocks and 90 degree clamp as shown in Figure 7-109, Section B-B. Apply light clamping pressure. 9 Tighten both c-clamps followed by the 90 degree clamp per paragraph 6-7j(3). See Figures 7-109 and 7-111 for clamp arrangement. 10 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 11 Remove clamps. Apply scrim cloth on surface of repair

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(l)

Rib Spacer Bond.

1 Prepare adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Cut a piece of scrim cloth the same size as the rib spacer. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the repair angle and the rib spacer using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). Figure 7-112. Pressure Application 4 repair angle. 5 repair angle. 6 6-7j(3). 7 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). 8 Remove C-clamps. Check to see if spacer is flush with the parent rib at the hole edge. If not, either sand flush or add extra adhesive/rib spacer material. (m) Prepare Internal Sealing Plates and Inner Skin for Bond. Prepare internal sealing plates and inner skin for bonding by hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until bonding is complete. If internal sealing plates are not to be bonded immediately, cover them and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with tape to prevent contamination. (n) Bond Internal Sealing Plates to UML Inner Surface (see Figure 7-108, View D). 1 Prepare adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Cut two pieces of scrim cloth the same size as one of the internal sealing plates. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive to the inner surface of the repair area a minimum of 0.5 inch beyond the edge of the damage cleanup hole. Use a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). Fasten with C-clamps per paragraph Lay rib spacer on top of the scrim cloth/ 4 Apply a thin layer of adhesive to the upper surface of the internal sealing plates in the overlap area only. Use a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 5 Apply scrim cloth to the internal sealing plates, pushing the safety wire through it. 6 repair cavity. 7 Use the safety wire to pull the internal sealing plates into contact with the underside of the repair skin. 8 Obtain two pieces of wood (pine or equivalent) with a minimum cross section of 12 inch by 12 inch, and wrap them with release film. Apply them across the repair cutout with an end of the safety wire on each side. Twist the safety wire together to tighten the sticks against the skin surface and to apply pressure to the bondline (see Figure 7-112). Insert the internal sealing plates into Apply scrim cloth on the surface of the

Solvent

9 Remove excess adhesive from repair area by wiping with rymplecloth moistened with solvent. 10 Allow adhesive to set at room temperature for a minimum of 8 hours. As an alternate, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c).

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11 Cut one end of the safety wire and pull the wire carefully through the sealing plates. Remove wood. 12 Prepare approximately 10 grams of adhesive/chopped fiberglass as described in paragraph 5-5a. Use a fiber mix ratio (mrF) of 14. Apply a small amount in the safety wire holes. Apply adhesive along the gap between the sealing plates and the rib spacer edges. Use a small piece of scrim cloth over the adhesive and apply additional adhesive on the scrim cloth over the gap. 13 Set filler for 8 hours at room temperature. As an alternate, the adhesive may be set using a heat lamp and Cycle 3a from Table 6-1. Operate heat lamps per paragraph 6-7j(4)(c). (o) Perform Seal Plate Leak Check. 1 Install a vacuum bag the same size as the heat blanket over the repair area as described in paragraph 6-7j(5). 2 Apply a minimum vacuum of 20 inches of mercury and check for audible leaks. 3 If a minimum of 20 inches of mercury vacuum cannot be obtained and/or audible leaks cannot be eliminated, rebag and retest. 4 If leak test fails again, remove vacuum bag. Prepare and apply adhesive in seal plate to hole edge area, in seal plate to rib spacer gap, and in seal plate holes. Rebag and retest. (p) Drying. Dry the repair area to remove subsurface moisture using a heat blanket and vacuum bag per paragraph 6-7a(2). (q) Prepare Skin Spacer, Repair Patch and Bond Surfaces for Bond. Prepare skin spacer, repair patch and bond surfaces (the internal sealing plates, rib spacer and parent skin), for bonding by lightly hand sanding with 150-180 grit abrasive paper as described in paragraph 6-7h. Do not use solvent. Handle prepared surfaces wearing clean white cotton gloves until bonding is complete. If skin spacer and repair patch are not to be bonded immediately, cover them and the repair area with clean barrier material and secure with preservation tape to prevent contamination.

(r) Bond Skin Spacer and Repair Patch to Bond Surfaces. 1 Prepare adhesive (Table 5-1, Item 5b) as described in paragraph 5-5a. 2 Cut pieces of scrim cloth the same size as the damage cleanup hole and slightly larger than the repair patch. 3 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the skin spacer and bond surfaces (the internal sealing plates and rib spacer) using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 4 spacer. 5 Lay skin spacer on top of bond surfaces (the internal sealing plates and rib spacer), bringing it flush with parent skin. 6 Tape release film over filler with high temperature tape, add external weight, and allow to set at room temperature until it can be sanded (approximately 8 hours). (s) Sand spacer flush with outer moldline surface using an orbital sander and 180-240 grit abrasive paper. Wipe the area with clean, dry rymplecloth to remove sanding residue. (t) Bond repair patch to UML skin. Apply scrim cloth on surface of the skin

1 Apply a thin layer of adhesive on the repair patch, skin spacer and skin, using a spatula and adhesive comb per paragraph 6-7i(3). 2 3 skin spacer. 4 Cure adhesive as described in paragraph 6-7j(1), using Cure Cycle 3b from Table 6-1 using a heat blanket and vacuum bag. 5 Remove heat blanket and vacuum bag. Apply scrim cloth on skin surface. Lay the repair patch on top of skin and

(u) NDI Repair Patch Bond. (v) Refinish.

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SECTION VIII REPAIR EQUIPMENT/TOOLS 8-1. GENERAL. Equipment/tools used for machining advanced composite materials are provided as tool sets. Other equipment/tools used for performing repairs to advanced composite materials are available in either the supply system or from commercial vendors and are listed below. Repair equipment used in the field to cure patch and adhesive materials are provided as temperature/vacuum control repair sets. 8-2. COMPOSITE REPAIR TOOL SETS. Three tool sets are currently available in the field for performing damage removal, machining, drilling, reaming and countersinking of advanced composite materials. These tool sets contain tools predominantly for working with carbon fiber composites. a. F/A-18 Composite Repair Tool Set, P/N 74D110172-1001. This tool set contains the required tools to perform damage removal, honeycomb core machining, drilling, reaming and countersinking of carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy laminates. Drill bits and reamers are provided to perform double shear bolted repairs for F/A-18 monolithic structures. b. AV-8B Composite Repair Tool Set, P/N 75D110086-1001. This tool set contains the required tools to perform damage removal, machining, drilling and countersinking of carbon/epoxy laminates. Drill bits are provided to perform single shear bolted repairs for AV-8B composite structures. c. Generic Composite Repair Tool Set, P/N 3156AS100. This tool set is a combination of the tools provided in F/A-18 and AV-8B composite repair tool sets. It contains two handy pieces of equipment not provided in either the F/A-18 or AV-8B tool sets: a 90 degree router motor and a router holder for the 0 degree router motor to perform contour following during controlled depth machining. 8-3. EQUIPMENT/TOOLS TO PERFORM CUTTING/ MACHINING, DRILLING/COUNTERSINKING AND REAMING OPERATIONS OF ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS. a. Material and Tool Cutting Design Considerations. Equipment and tools for working with advanced composite materials are different than those used for metals. The material used for cutters and the design of the cutters are based upon the characteristics of the matrix and the fiber being cut. See paragraph 6-4a for a discussion of matrix and fiber characteristics that influence cutter material and design. Use of the wrong cutter can result in damage to the laminate. Use only those tools specified in this section for performing cutting operations. b. Hand Operated Cutting/Machining Equipment. The equipment required to perform these operations consists of router motors, cutters and abrasive sanding equipment. c. Router Motors and Accessories. Part numbers for this equipment are provided in Table 8-1. The router motors specified in Table 8-1 typically operate at 20,000 RPM and require shop air for operation. They are rear exhaust to facilitate control of carbon dust. They utilize an overhose assembly to slow exhaust air and vent it well away from the work piece. The router motors used for cutting and machining operations have different orientations. (1) 0 Degree Router Motor (Figure 8-1, View A). This router motor when used with a router attachment, router guide and router template is the preferred equipment for cutting thick laminates (0.125 inch thick and thicker). It is also used with honeycomb core cutters and the router holder, P/N 3156AS128-1 (Figure 8-1, View B) to perform controlled depth core machining. (2) Router Motor Setup for Template Routing (Figure 8-1, View A). (a) Approximate the distance the router bit must extend out of the router motor. The bit cutting surface must extend out of the router guide below the inner surface of the skin being cut. (See Figure 6-2). In addition, ensure the non-cutting portion of the router bit shank will interface with the bearing in the router attachment. This is essential as the bearing reacts side loads during high speed routing operations. Install the router bit in the router motor. Tighten using wrenches. (b) Install the router attachment over the router bit and onto the body of the router motor. (c) Install the router guide over the router bit and onto the router attachment. (d) Adjust the distance the router bit extends below the router motor by making adjustments with the router attachment.

8-1

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-1. Router Motors and Accessories


ITEM NOMENCLATURE PART NUMBER/VENDOR F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT GENERIC

0 DEGREE ROUTER MOTOR

10L2081C-01 DOTCO

10L2582C-01

10L2081C-01

3156AS102-1

ROUTER ATTACHMENT

14-2180 DOTCO

14-2180

-----

3156AS104-1

ROUTER GUIDE

14-2407 DOTCO

14-2407

-----

3156AS103-1

OVERHOSE ASSEMBLY

45-2787A DOTCO

45-2787A

75D110086-2001

3156AS125-1

90 DEGREE ROUTER MOTOR

10L1281-36 DOTCO

-----

-----

3156AS105-1

ROUTER HOLDER, CONTROLLED DEPTH

-----

-----

-----

3156AS128-1

ROUTER BIT

DO

TCO

0 DEGREE ROUTER MOTOR 20,000 RPM P/N IOL2081C (DOTCO)

ROUTER ATTACHMENT P/N 14-2180 (DOTCO) ROUTER GUIDE P/N 14-2407 (DOTCO) OVERHOSE ASSEMBLY P/N 45-2787A (DOTCO)

QUICK DISCONNECT FITTING MILTON 727 COUPLING AN910

A. 0 Degree Router Motor and Accessories Figure 8-1. Router Motors and Accessories (Sheet 1 of 2) 8-2

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

DOTCO

0 DEGREE ROUTER (REF)

ROUTER HOLDER

BURR SPECIAL

B. Controlled Depth Router Holder

DO

TCO

90 DEGREE ROUTER MOTOR 20,000 RPM

SANDING DISK HOLDER SANDING DISK

OVERHOSE ASSEMBLY

C. 90 Degree Router Motor and Sanding Disk/Disk Holder Figure 8-1. Router Motors and Accessories (Sheet 2)

8-3

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

(3) 90 Degree Router Motor (Figure 8-1, View C). This router motor provides the operator with the greatest amount of dexterity when performing free hand operations. Unfortunately, it was not included in the F-18 or AV-8B composite repair tool sets. It is included in the Generic Composite Repair Tool Set and is used for free hand damage removal, sanding and joint machining. (4) Overhose Assembly (Figure 8-1). The end of the overhose assembly has a male thread and requires an AN910 female to female coupling to interface with the Milton 727 quick disconnect fitting. (5) The controlled depth router holder, P/N 3156AS128-1 (Figure 8-1, View B), is used along with the 0 degree router motor and router bits to perform controlled depth routing for machining step joints. It is also used with the 0 degree router motor and the burr special honeycomb core cutter to perform contour matching core machining operations. The router holder is provided in the Generic Composite Repair Tool Set. In addition, procedures for manufacture of the router holder are provided in A1-F18AC-SRM-250. d. Cutters/Sanding Equipment for Advanced Composite Materials. This equipment is listed in Table 8-2 and shown in Figure 8-2. (1) Router Bits. The router bit material and cutting surface design varies depending upon the fiber used in the laminate. (a) Carbon/Epoxy. The abrasive nature of carbon fibers results in excessive tool wear unless the proper cutter material is used. Diamond coated/impregnated cutters are used for machining laminates containing carbon fibers to reduce wear and heat buildup during machining operations. The diamond router bit is made by coating high speed steel shank material with industrial diamonds. The bits are provided in 40, 80 and 100 mesh diamond grit sizes. Both 14 inch diameter and 1 inch diameter bits are available. The 14 inch diameter bit is used with a 0 degree router motor and template, the 1 inch diameter diamond coated router bit is used freehand with a 0 or 90 degree router motor. (b) Boron/Epoxy. The 80 grit, diamond coated, 14 inch diameter router bits discussed above are used for machining boron/epoxy laminates. Use with a 0 degree router motor and template. (c) Kevlar/Epoxy. The 14 inch diameter solid carbide straight flute router bits, Fullerton series 1900-250, are used for machining Kevlar/Epoxy laminates. They should be used with the 0 degree router motor and a

template for routing operations. The design of this cutter results in fuzzing of the edge requiring additional rework after machining to remove the fuzz. (d) Carbide router bits are provided for machining carbon/epoxy laminates, but are not the preferred cutter. They are brittle and can break during machining operations or when dropped. They dull more quickly than diamond plated cutters. Both 14 inch and 1 inch diameter bits are available. (2) Cutting Wheel. These diamond coated wheels have a 14 inch diameter shank and are provided in 1 inch and 0.5 inch diameter, 116 inch thick circular cutting disks. The disks are plated over their entire surface with either 40 or 80 mesh diamond grit. They are used with the above router motors. (3) Abrasive Sleeve and Sanding Drums. The drum consists of a 1.5 inch diameter by 1 inch long rubber drum and an abrasive sleeve which fits over the drum. The rubber drum absorbs shock loads and reduces vibration during machining. It is used freehand with a 0 or 90 degree router motor. (4) Sanding Disks and Disk Holders. The sanding disks and holders have a locking feature that allows the disks to be positively locked in place during sanding. Disks use silicon carbide abrasive material in various grits. Disks and disk holders are available in all three tool sets. Sanding disks are also used for honeycomb core machining. They can be used freehand with a 0 or 90 degree router motor. (5) Vacuum Type Sanding Disk, Disk Holder and Dust Collection Shroud. This system uses a 90 degree router motor, 3 inch disks and disk holders both with 6 spaced vacuum collection holes. Used in conjunction with the dust collection shroud, the dust collection system (see paragraph 8-5a) and a 12 inch 80 psi (100 psi maximum) air pressure line, this unit captures dust at the point of generation. It has the disadvantage of being unwieldy due to the attachment of the extra vacuum collection hose to the dust collection shroud. e. Honeycomb Core Cutters. Two types of cutters are provided to cut core. One type cuts parallel to the cell axis and one type is used to machine the core flush with mating part surfaces. A list of honeycomb core cutters is provided in Table 8-3 and shown in Figure 8-3. (1) Core Slicer. This cutter is made from steel. It is used to slice replacement core sections from core kit material. The slicer cuts parallel to the cell axis. It requires frequent sharpening during use to cut effectively and prevent tearing of the thin core foil material.

8-4

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-2. Cutters/Sanding Equipment


ITEM NOMENCLATURE SIZE/GRIT P/N, VENDOR OR NSN F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT

ROUTER BIT, DIAMOND COATED, 1/4 INCH DIA

2.5 OAL/40 3.5 OAL/40 3.5 OAL/100 2.0 OAL/40 2.25 OAL/80 3.0 OAL/ 80 TD595T-3/ ABRASIVE TECHNOLOGIES SERIES 1900-44/ FULLERTON

----------------TD595T-9 TD595T-8

----TD595T-1 TD595T-2 ----TD595T-9 -----

ROUTER BIT, DIAMOND COATED, 1.0 INCH DIA ROUTER BIT, CARBIDE, STRAIGHT FLUTE ROUTER BIT, CARBIDE, MULTIPLE FLUTE ROUTER BIT, CARBIDE

1.0 INCH

-----

-----

1/4 INCH

1900-250

-----

1/4 INCH

190-6555-10/METAL REMOVAL CORP

-----

-----

1 INCH

-----

TFIM25.0006052

-----

CUTTING WHEEL, DIAMOND COATED

0.5 INCH/40 0.5 INCH/80 1.0 INCH/40 1.0 INCH/80

5130-01-019-7867 5130-01-020-7750 5130-01-019-7869 5130-01-019-7870 63642541608/ NORTON CO

-----------------

-----------------

ABRASIVE SLEEVE, SPIRABAND

1.5 INCH/80

-----

-----

RUBBER DRUM

1.5 INCH

63642542905/ NORTON CO ----------------------------3044 3047 3050 DCM CORP 3082 DCM CORP

-----

-----

SANDING DISKS

1.0 INCH/80 1.0 INCH/180 2.0 INCH/80 2.0 INCH/180 0.875 INCH 1.75 INCH 1.75 INCH 3.0 INCH/60 3.0 INCH/120 3.0 INCH240

522206 522210 522406 522410 541002 541007 541008 -------------

71048

10

SANDING DISK HOLDER SANDING DISK, VACUUM TYPE

74099

11

-------------

12

SANDING DISK HOLDER, VACUUM TYPE

3.0 INCH

-----

-----

8-5

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

0.25 INCH 0.75 INCH STRAIGHT FLUTE CARBIDE

0.25 INCH
1.75 INCH DIAMETER
1 INCH DIAMETER .875 INCH DIAMETER

0.75 INCH

2 INCH DIAMETER

MULTIPLE FLUTE CARBIDE

0.25 INCH
1 INCH

DIAMOND COATED

A. Router Bits

E. Sanding Disk/Disk Holder

3 INCH DIAMETER

1 INCH DIAMETER

0.5 INCH HEIGHT

B. Rotary File, Carbide

.0675 INCH

.0675 INCH

F. Vacuum Type Sanding Disk and Disk Holder

1 INCH

.5 INCH

DO

TCO

C. Cutting Wheel, Diamond Coated


90 DEGREE ROUTER MOTOR 20,000 RPM

1.5 INCH DIAMETER 1.5 INCH

1.5 INCH DIAMETER 1 INCH


DUST COLLECTION SHROUD

D. Abrasive Sleeve/Rubber Drum

G. Dust Collection Shroud


Figure 8-2. Cutters/Sanding Equipment

8-6

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-3. Honeycomb Core Cutters


ITEM NOMENCLATURE P/N, VENDOR OR NSN F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT GENERIC TOOL KIT

CORE SLICER

-----

74D110172-2001

-----

-----

CORE KNIFE

5110-00-223-T182

3951A3

-----

-----

BURR SPECIAL (ROTARY FILE)

CJ-814-1 3455-01-087-2242 UCC-218402/ UNITED DRILL BUSHING CORP

-----

-----

3156AS130-1

CORE CUTTER

-----

-----

3156AS132-1

A. Core Slicer

C. Burr Special

SHARPEN THESE EDGES

B. Core Knife

Figure 8-3. Honeycomb Core Cutters

8-7

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

HSS BODY

6.0

INC

H
CARBIDE INSERT PILOT

A. Dagger Drill, Carbide

E. Countersink Cutter, Piloted, with Carbide Inserts

B. Twist Drill, Carbide

PILOT

C. Clothes Pin Drill, HSS

F. Countersink Cutter, Piloted, Solid Carbide

PILOT

.75"

5 1.82 H INC

6.0

INC

D. Piloted Straight Flute Reamer, Carbide

G. Counterbore, Piloted

Figure 8-4. Drilling/Reaming/Countersinking/Counterboring Tools (2) Core Knife. The core knife is sharp on one edge only. It must be sharpened along its end and opposite side to allow core slicing operations. It also requires frequent sharpening during use. (3) Burr Special (Rotary File). The burr special is an inverted cone shaped rotary file. It is used with a 0 degree router motor and router holder to machine core flush with part mating surfaces. It allows clean honeycomb core cuts without core roll over or tearing. (4) Core Cutter. This piece of equipment is a fly cutter used to undercut honeycomb core. A bushing to stabilize the cutter was not included in the tool set. It is not recommended for use. f. Drilling/Reaming/Countersinking/Counterboring Tools. The material used for these tools and the geometry of the cutting surface of these tools is dependent upon the fiber used in the laminate. Typical tools are shown in Figure 8-4 and listed in Table 8-4. (1) Carbon/epoxy tools are either made from solid carbide or the cutting edges are carbide. HSS tools dull rapidly due to the abrasive nature of the carbon fiber and can cause matrix overheating. (a) Drill Bits. Carbide twist drills and carbide dagger drills are provided. The twist drill should only be used if the laminate being drilled can be backed up to prevent exit side breakout. The dagger drill cutter geometry is designed to minimize exit side breakout and must be used with the Align-A-Drill attachment when drilling blind holes. (b) Reamer. A solid carbide, straight flute, piloted reamer is used for reaming carbon/epoxy and titanium material. The pilot is 34 inch long and is used to guide the reamer through the hole to be reamed. (c) Countersink Cutters. Two types of cutters are provided: a HSS body piloted cutter with replaceable carbide inserts and a solid carbide piloted cutter. Countersink cutters should be used with their respective microstop cages to control countersink depth and ensure proper orientation with the part surface.

8-8

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

COOLANT INJECTION HOLES

THIS AREA INTERFACES WITH THE DRILL GUIDE

DRILL BUSHING, COOLANT

C. Drill Bushing, Coolant and Coolant Adapter

}
COOLANT ADAPTER

A. Align-A-Drill Attachment D. Alignment Pin

E. Clamp Bushing

B. Drill Motor, 2000 RPM

F. Drill Guide Figure 8-5. Drilling Equipment

(d) Counterbore. The counterbore is a carbide tipped piloted cutter. Use the counterbore with a microstop cage to control counterbore depth. (2) Kevlar/Epoxy. The cutter material for these tools can be either HSS or carbide. Carbide or carbide tipped tools provide better tool life. (a) Drill Bits. HSS clothes pin drills are used to drill holes in these laminates. The shape of the drill cutting edge pulls the fibers toward the hole being cut and then shears them off. Fuzz free laminates can be obtained using this bit. (b) Countersink Cutters. Standard carbide cutters are used and result in some fuzzing after cutting. (The fuzzing is due to the geometry of the cutter).

g. Drilling Equipment (Figure 8-5 and Table 8-5). In a manufacturing environment, controlled feed and speed automated drilling equipment is used for hole preparation in advanced composites. For hand held applications in the field, a 2000 RPM pistol grip drill motor and an Align-A-Drill attachment is used. (1) Align-A-Drill Attachment. This attachment contains a hydraulic check valve which provides some feed rate control and reduces the exit side breakout tendency. The yoke assembly provides alignment for the drill bushing and drill bit. (2) Coolant Drill Bushing and Coolant Adapter. This bushing not only stabilizes the drill bit, it allows for the introduction of coolant into the area being drilled. The drill

8-9

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-4. Drilling/Reaming/Countersinking/Counterboring Tools


ITEM NOMENCLATURE DIAMETER (INCH) F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT GENERIC TOOL KIT NSN

DRILL BIT, DAGGER, CARBIDE 6 INCH OAL

0.0980 0.1250 0.1285 0.1650 0.1910 0.1998 0.2280 0.2340 0.2510 0.2559 0.2570 0.2608 0.2810 0.2900 0.3135 0.4688 0.1250 0.1910 0.1960 0.2340 0.2344 0.2500 0.2570 0.1285 0.1660 0.1910 0.1990 0.2280 0.2500 0.2610 0.2812

----L-.1250 --------------------L-.2340 L-.2510 ----L-.2570 L-.2608 L-.2810 ----------------------------V-.2344 ----------------V-.1910 V-.1990 V-.2280 V-.2500 ----V-.2812

L-.0980 ----L-.1285 L-.1650 L-.1910 L-.1998 L-.2280 ----L-.2510 L-.2559 ----L-.2608 ----L-.2900 L-.3135 L-.4688 -------------------------------------------------------------

3156AS131-1 3156AS131-2 3156AS131-3 3156AS131-4 3156AS131-5 3156AS131-6 3156AS131-7 3156AS131-8 3156AS131-9 3156AS131-10 3156AS131-11 3156AS131-12 3156AS131-13 3156AS131-14 3156AS131-15 3156AS131-16 3156AS135-1 3156AS135-2 3156AS135-3 3156AS135-4 ----3156AS135-5 3156AS135-6 ---------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5133-00-189-9275 5133-00-189-9264 ----------------5133-00-189-2193 -----

DRILL BIT, TWIST, CARBIDE

DRILL BIT, TWIST, HSS

DRILL BIT, CLOTHES PIN, HSS PILOTED REAMER, STRAIGHT FLUTE, SOLID CARBIDE, 0.2324 X 0.75 PILOT PILOTED REAMER, STRAIGHT FLUTE, SOLID CARBIDE, 0.250 x 0.5 PILOT PILOTED REAMER, STRAIGHT FLUTE, SOLID CARBIDE, 0.3120 X 0.5 PILOT

0.3750

SPT3-74D110172-500 -----

-----

-----

0.2510

SPT-74D110172-5001 -----

3156AS113-1

-----

5a

0.381

No. 450

Hannibal Carbide Cage 5Y035

-----

5b

0.4435

No. 450

Hannibal Carbide Cage 5Y035

-----

8-10

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-4. Drilling/Reaming/Countersinking/Counterboring Tools (Cont.)


ITEM NOMENCLATURE DIAMETER (INCH) 0.126 0.161 0.187 0.196 0.221 0.247 0.252 0.257 0.278 0.283 F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT GENERIC TOOL KIT

COUNTERSINK CUTTER, 100, 0.625 HSS BODY WITH CARBIDE INSERTS

--------------------0120247 ----0120257 0120278 -----

0120126 0120161 0120187 0120196 0120221 0120247 0120252 0120257 ----0120283

3156AS115-1 3156AS115-2 3156AS115-3 3156AS115-4 3156AS115-5 3156AS115-6 3156AS115-7 3156AS115-8 ----3156AS115-9

COUNTERSINK CUTTER, 100, 0.750 HSS BODY WITH CARBIDE INSERTS COUNTERSINK CUTTER, 100, 1.0 HSS BODY WITH CARBIDE INSERTS CARBIDE INSERTS, 0.625 BODY

0.3095

-----

0120309

3156AS115-10

0.465

-----

120465

3156AS115-11

-----

-----

0121492

3156AS114-1

10

CARBIDE INSERTS, 0.75 & 1.0 BODY

-----

-----

0121497

3156AS114-2

11

COUNTERSINK CUTTER PIN

-----

0122001

0122001

-----

12

COUNTERSINK CUTTER, 100, 0.625 SOLID CARBIDE BODY COUNTERSINK CUTTER, 100, 0.875 SOLID CARBIDE BODY COUNTERSINK CUTTER, 100, 0.5 HSS BODY, CEMENTED CARBIDE CHIPS COUNTERBORE, 0.671 CUT DIAMETER, CARBIDE TIPPED

0.2550 0.2782

5/8-100-.2550 5/8-100-.2782

---------

---------

13

0.3715

7/8-100-.3715

-----

-----

14

0.278

SPT2-74D110172-5001T

-----

-----

15

0.468 PILOT

-----

PSMT1618-10 0037170 PILOT

3156AS123-1

8-11

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-5. Drilling Equipment


ITEM NOMENCLATURE DIAMETER (INCH) F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT GENERIC TOOL KIT

ALIGN-A-DRILL ATTACHMENT

-----

74D111344-1001

TD5015M-1E-106

3156AS126-1

DRILL MOTOR 2000 RPM

-----

2000-D2-J998-670

2000-D2-J998-670

3156AS119-1

DRILL BUSHING, COOLANT

0.0980 0.1250 0.1285 0.1650 0.1910 0.1998 0.2280 0.2320 0.2340 0.2510 0.2559 0.2570 0.2608 0.2810 0.2900 0.3135 0.4688

----------------------------TD755R-4 -------------------------------------

------------TD755N-65 TD755N-63 TD755N-66 TD755N-67 --------TD755N-68 TD755N-69 ----TD755N-70 ----TD755N-71 TD755N-72 TD755N-62

3156AS127-1 3156AS127-2 3156AS127-3 3156AS127-4 3156AS127-5 3156AS127-6 3156AS127-7 ----3156AS127-8 3156AS127-9 3156AS127-10 3156AS127-11 3156AS127-12 3156AS127-13 3156AS127-14 3156AS127-15 3156AS127-16

COOLANT ADAPTER

-----

TD755T-3

TD755T-4

3156AS126-2

PINS, ALIGNMENT

0.1285 0.1650 0.1910 0.1998 0.2320 0.2340 0.2510 0.2559 0.2608 0.3135 0.4688 0.125 0.156 0.191 0.250 0.562 0.750 0.9375

----------------TD371G1-89 ----------------------------------------TD383M-7 ---------

74D11296-2013 74D11296-2015 74D11296-2017 74D11296-2019 --------74D11296-2021 74D11296-2023 74D11296-2025 74D11296-2027 74D11296-2029 75D111296-2005 75D111296-2007 75D111296-2009 75D111296-2011 75D111296-1001 75D111296-1003 -----

3156AS121-1 3156AS121-2 3156AS121-3 3156AS121-4 ----3156AS121-5 3156AS121-6 3156AS121-7 3156AS121-8 3156AS121-9 3156AS121-10 3156AS122-1 3156AS122-2 3156AS122-3 3156AS122-4 ----3156AS107-1 3156AS109-1

CLAMP BUSHINGS

DRILL GUIDE

8-12

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

bushing is installed in the yoke of the Align-A-Drill and interfaces with the drill guide. It provides accurate location and stabilization during drilling as well as maintaining perpendicularity of the drill bit with the part surface. The coolant adapter fits over the coolant drill bushing and is used to introduce coolant into the bushing. (3) A polypropylene "squeeze" bottle is provided in the generic tool set for applying coolant to the coolant adapter. (4) Drill Guides/Alignment Pins/Clamp Bushings. Alignment pins are used to locate the drill guide. Place the alignment pin through the drill guide. Slowly move the drill guide and alignment pin so the alignment pin slips into the hole to be transferred. The drill guide is locked in place using a clamp bushing and temporary fastener. The clamp bushing is used in the slot in the drill guide as an interface between the drill guide and the temporary fastener. Two different drill guide designs are provided in the generic tool kit. h. Temporary Fasteners (Figure 8-6 and Table 8-6). Three types of temporary fasteners are available: wing nut, hex nut and large handle. These fasteners are used to temporarily hold patch details in place while transferring holes from patch to skin or while reaming patch and composite skin. The handles on the large handle temporary fasteners can interfere with one another when used on patches with close hole patterns. An extractor tool is provided to facilitate temporary fastener removal.

8-4. FASTENER INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL TOOLS. The tools required for installation and removal of fasteners are provided below. Refer to paragraph 6-9 for installation and removal procedures. a. Blind Fastener Grip Gauges. Gauges for measuring blind fastener grip lengths are listed and shown in Figure 8-7. b. Blind Fastener Installation Tools. Table 8-7 and Table 8-8 provide lists of pneumatic and hand operated tooling for installation of blind Composi-Lok, Composi-Lok II and Composi-Lok IIa fasteners. Table 8-9 and Table 8-10 provide lists of pneumatic and hand operated tooling for installation of Visu-Lok and Visu-Lok II fasteners. Blind fastener pneumatic and hand installation tooling is shown in Figure 8-8 through Figure 8-11. Extension assemblies for the pneumatic installation tool are shown in Figure 8-12. Conversion of the Visu-Lok pneumatic installation tool to a Visu-Lok/Composi-Lok installation tool is shown in Figure 8-13. c. Blind Fastener Removal Tools. A breakdown of tools in the blind fastener removal kit is provided in Table 8-11. The power pack, vacuum pad and drill motor for the fastener removal kit is shown in Figure 8-14. d. Hi-Lok Fastener Installation Tools. Hand tooling for Hi-Lok fastener installation is shown in Figure 8-15. e. Hi-Lok Fastener Removal Tools. A Hi-Lok fastener removal hand tool as well as common hand tools used for Hi-Lok removal are shown in Figure 8-16.

A. Wing Nut Type (WNXL/WNXEL)

C. Large Handle Type (BNXL/BNXEL)

B. Hex Nut Type (HNXL/HNXEL)

D. Wedgelock Extractor Tool Figure 8-6. Temporary Fasteners

8-13

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-6. Temporary Fasteners


ITEM NOMENCLATURE DIAMETER F-18 TOOL KIT AV8B TOOL KIT GENERIC TOOL KIT

WING NUT, NOMINAL LENGTH (3.99 INCH) WING NUT, EXTENDED LENGTH (4.38 INCH)

1/4 INCH 6.0 MM 1/8 INCH 1/4 INCH 6.0 MM 1/8 INCH 5/32 INCH 3/16 INCH 1/4 INCH 3/32 INCH 6.0 MM 5/32 INCH 1/8 INCH 3/16 INCH 1/4 INCH 6.0 MM 1/8 INCH 5/32 INCH 3/16 INCH 1/4 INCH 1/8 INCH 5/32 INCH 3/16 INCH 1/4 INCH

WNXL-1/4 WNXL-6.0 WNXEL-1/8 WNXEL-1/4 WNXEL-6.0 ------------HNXL-SF-1/4 ----HNXL-SF-6.0 ------------HNXEL-SF-1/4 HNXEL-SF-6.0 ---------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------BNXL-1/8 BNXL-5/32 BNXL-3/16 BNXL-1/4 BNXEL-1/8 BNXEL-5/32 BNXEL-3/16 BNXEL-1/4

--------------------3156AS124-1 3156AS124-2 3156AS124-3 3156AS124-4 3156AS124-5 -----3156AS124-6 3156AS124-7 3156AS124-8 3156AS124-9 3156AS124-10 ---------------------------------

HEX NUT, NOMINAL LENGTH (3.99 INCH)

HEX NUT, EXTENDED LENGTH (4.38 INCH)

LARGE WING NUT, NOMINAL LENGTH (3.99 INCH)

LARGE WING NUT, EXTENDED LENGTH (4.38 INCH)

WEDGELOCK EXTRACTOR TOOL

-----

74D110172-2007

-----

3156AS129-1

8-14

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 2.0

STRUCTURE THICKNESS -5 DIA

-8 DIA -6 DIA -10 DIA

COMPOSI - LOK GRIP SCAL BFS - 1


TM

TM

COMPOSI - LOK
STRUCTURE THICKNESS IN .050" INCREMENTS
7 DEGREE MAX ANGLE

GRIP SCAL

Monogram / Aerospace Fasteners 3423 SO GARFIELD AVE., LOS ANGELES, CA

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .1 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .2 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .3


CORRECT GRIP IS A .200

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .1 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .2 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .3


CORRECT GRIP IS A .200 OR .250

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;


GRIP

.4

.4
TAPERED SHEET

PROTRUDING OR HEX

COUNTERSUNK

COMPOSI-LOK GAUGE ASSY: BFS-1A SCALE: BFS-1 SLIDE: GSS-1

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

STRUCTURE THICKNESS -5 DIA

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 HEX HEAD GRIP LENGTH COUNTERSUNK HEAD GRIP LENGTH

-8 DIA -6 DIA -10 DIA

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

NO VL51

VISU - LOK
2 4 6
GRIP

GRIP SCALE

Monogram / Aerospace Fasteners


3423 SO. GARFIELD AVE. LOS ANGELES, CA 90040 MEASURE GRIP LENGTH TO GRADUATION INCLUDING TOTAL GRIP LINE WIDTH

2 4 6

PATENT NO 3643544

2 4 6
GRIP CORRECT GRIP IS A -5 GRIP CORRECT GRIP IS A -5 OR -6

2 4 6

HEX

COUNTERSUNK

VISU-LOK GAUGE ASSY: VLS-1A SCALE: VLS-1 SLIDE: GSS-1

Figure 8-7. Blind Fastener Grip Length Gauges

8-15

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-7. Composi-Lok Installation Tooling


MRC550 CLOSE QUARTER PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MRC-5 MRC-6 MRC-8 NOSE ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MRCF-5 MRCF-6 MRCF-8 HEX MRCF-5 MRCF-6 MRCF-8 LOW PROFILE MRCA-5 MRCA-6 MRCA-8 FLUSH, 130 MRCR-5 MRCR-6 MRCR-8

Table 8-8. Composi-Lok II and IIa Installation Tooling


MRC550 CLOSE QUARTER PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MRCBF-5 MRCBF-6 MRC-8 NOSE ADAPTER MRCPDN-1 MRCPDN-1 MRCPDN-2

MP550BF PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MPBF-5 MPBF-6 MPBF-8 MPTBF-10 MPTBF-12 NOSE ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MPFBF-5 MPFBF-6 MPFBF-8 MPTFBF-10 MPTFBF-12 HEX MPPBF-5 MPPBF-6 MPPBF-8 MPTPBF-10 MPTPBF-12 LOW PROFILE MPRBF-5 MPRBF-6 MPRBF-8 MPTRBF-10 MPTRBF-12 FLUSH, 130 MPRBF-5 MPRBF-6 MPRBF-8 MPTRBF-10

MP550BF PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MPBF-5 MPBF-6 MPBF-8 MPTBF-10 MPTBF-12 NOSE ADAPTER MPPBF-8 MPPBF-8 MPPBF-8 MPP-10 MPP-12

5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12)

5/16 (-10)
MPTRBF-12

3/8 (-12)

MHC75 CLOSE QUARTER HAND TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MHCBF-5 MHCBF-6 MHC-8 MHC-10 MHC-12 NOSE ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MHCF-5 MHCF-6 MHCF-8 MHCF-10 MHCF-12 HEX MHCP-5 MHCP-6 MHCP-8 MHCP-10 MHCP-12 LOW PROFILE MHCR-5 MHCR-6 MHCR-8 MHCR-10 MHCR-12 FLUSH, 130 MHCR-5 MHCR-6 MHCR-8 MHCR-10 MHCR-12

MHC75 CLOSE QUARTER HAND TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MHCF-5 MHCF-6 MHCF-8 MHCF-10 MHCF-12 NOSE ADAPTER MHCPDN-1 MHCPDN-1 MHCPDN-2 MHCPDN-3 MHCPDN-3

5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12)

5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12)

MH75 HAND TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MHBF-5 MHBF-6 MH-8 MH-10 MH-12 NOSE ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MHF-5 MHF-6 MHF-8 MHF-10 MHF-12 HEX MHP-5 MHP-6 MHP-8 MHP-10 MHP-12 LOW PROFILE MHR-5 MHR-6 MHR-8 MHR-10 MHR-12 FLUSH, 130 MHR-5 MHR-6 MHR-8 MHR-10

MH75 HAND TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MHBF-5 MHBF-6 MH-8 MH-10 MH-12 NOSE ADAPTER MHPDN-1 MHPDN-1 MHPDN-2 MHPDN-3 MHPDN-3

5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12)

5/16 (-10)
MHR-12

3/8 (-12)

8-16

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-9. Visu-Lok Installation Tooling


MRC550 CLOSE QUARTER PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING NOSE ADAPTER FASTENER DIAMETER WRENCH ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MRCF-5 MRCF-6 MRCF-8 HEX MRCP-5 MRCP-6 MRCP-8 MILLABLE MRCA-5 MRCA-6 MRCA-8 100 REDUCED FLUSH MRCR-5 MRCR-6

Table 8-10. Visu-Lok II Installation Tooling


MRC550 CLOSE QUARTER PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MRC-5 MRC-6 MRC-8 NOSE ADAPTER MRCPDN-1 MRCPDN-1 MRCPDN-2

5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8)

MRC-5 MRC-6 MRC-8

MRCR-8

MP550BF PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING NOSE ADAPTER FASTENER DIAMETER WRENCH ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MPF-5 MPF-6 MPF-8 MPF-10 MPF-12 HEX MPP-5 MPP-6 MPP-8 MPP-10 MPP-12 MILLABLE MPA-5 MPA-6 MPA-8 --------100 REDUCED FLUSH MPR-5 MPR-6

MP550BF PNEUMATIC INSTALLATION TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MP-5 MP-6 MP-8 MPTBF-10 MPTBF-12 NOSE ADAPTER MPP-8 MPP-8 MPP-8 MPP-12 MPP-12

5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8)

MP-5 MP-6 MP-8 MP-10 MP-12

MPR-8

5/16 (-10)
5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12) MPR-10 MPR-12

3/8 (-12)

MHC75 CLOSE QUARTER HAND TOOLING NOSE ADAPTER FASTENER DIAMETER WRENCH ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MHCF-5 MHCF-6 MHCF-8 MHCF-10 MHCF-12 HEX MHCP-5 MHCP-6 MHCP-8 MHCP-10 MHCP-12 MILLABLE MHCA-5 MHCA-6 MHCA-8 --------100 REDUCED FLUSH MHCR-5 MHCR-6 MHCR-8

MHC75 CLOSE QUARTER HAND TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MHC-5 MHC-6 MHC-8 MHC-10 MHC-12 NOSE ADAPTER MHCPDN-1 MHCPDN-1 MHCPDN-2 MHCPDN-3 MHCPDN-3

5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8)

MHC-5 MHC-6 MHC-8 MHC-10 MHC-12

5/16 (-10)
5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12) MHCR-10 MHCR-12

3/8 (-12)

MH75 HAND TOOLING NOSE ADAPTER FASTENER DIAMETER WRENCH ADAPTER FLUSH, 100 MHF-5 MHF-6 MHF-8 MHF-10 MHF-12 HEX MHP-5 MHP-6 MHP-8 MHP-10 MHP-12 MILLABLE MHA-5 MHA-6 MHA-8 --------100 REDUCED FLUSH MHR-5 MHR-6

MH75 HAND TOOLING FASTENER DIAMETER 5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8) WRENCH ADAPTER MH-5 MH-6 MH-8 MH-10 MH-12 NOSE ADAPTER MHPDN-1 MHPDN-1 MHPDN-2 MHPDN-3 MHPDN-3

5/32 (-5) 3/16 (-6) 1/4 (-8)

MH-5 MH-6 MH-8 MH-10 MH-12

MHR-8 MHR-10 MHR-12

5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12)

5/16 (-10) 3/8 (-12)

8-17

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

MRC550

WRENCH GEAR

MRC550H (HEAD)

MRC550M (MOTOR)

NOSE ADAPTER MRCPDN-( )

NOSE ADAPTER MRC-( )-( )

Figure 8-8. Blind Fastener Installation: Close Quarter Pneumatic Tooling

NOSE ADAPTER FLUSH AND REDUCED FLUSH MP( )BF-( ) MP( )-( )

NOSE ADAPTER

WRENCH ADAPTER MPBF-( ) MP-( )

MASTER TORQUE DRIVER MTD55OBF

MH550BF

COMBINATION WRENCH ADAPTER AND TORQUE DRIVER MPTBF-( )

MP550 MP550BF

Figure 8-9. Blind Fastener Installation: Pneumatic Tooling

8-18

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SET SCREW (A) MHCS-3 (B) MHCS-6

NOSE ADAPTER

WRENCH ADAPTER

MHC75A & MHC75B

HANDLE (A) MHCH-1 (B) MHCH-4

RATCHET (A) MHCR-2 (B) MHCR-3

COMPLETE HAND TOOL ASSEMBLY

Figure 8-10. Blind Fastener Installation: Close Quarter Hand Tooling

HEX NOSE ADAPTER

WRENCH ADAPTER MH-( )

SET SCREW MHS-4

SOCKET MHS-3

RACHET MHR-1

COMPLETE HAND TOOL ASSEMBLY

FLUSH NOSE ADAPTER

HANDLE MHH-2

Figure 8-11. Blind Fastener Installation: Hand Tooling

8-19

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

NOSE WRENCH EXTENSION EXTENSION

Length of Extension (in inches) 2 3 4 5

Extension Assembly MPE-2A MPE-3A MPE-4A MPE-5A

Figure 8-12. Pistol Extension Assemblies

Nose Extension MPE-2A MPE-3A MPE-4A MPE-5A Wrench Extension MPW-2 MPW-3 MPW-4 MPW-5

MH550 RX3-621 (NOTE 2) MN550 MTD550BF MAS550 (NOTE 1)

MTD550 MH550

MP550 Visu-Lok installation tools may be converted to an MP550BF Composi-Lok tool by following these simple steps: Remove the housing (MF550), adapter nut (RX3-621) and master torque driver (MTD550). Remove the aluminum nut (MN550) from the housing. Install the new housing (MH550BF) and the master torque driver (MTD550BF). Thread the aluminum nut (from the old housing) onto the new housing (MH550BF). NOTES: 1. Included with both the MP550 and MP550BF motor assemblies. 2. The Composi-Lok tool does not require the adapter nut (RX3-621). Figure 8-13. Installation Tool Conversion

8-20

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-11. Blind Fastener Removal Kit, RK3042B

MONOGRAM PART NUMBER RM3096

DESCRIPTION

REMOVAL METHOD Both

MONOGRAM PART NUMBER

DESCRIPTION

REMOVAL METHOD

Tool Box Motor & Housing 400 RPM Rivet Gun Assembly Vacuum Pad Assembly & 1/2 Inch Vacuum Pad Bushing Close Edge Attachment 11/16 Inch Vacuum Pad Bushing Power Pack Assembly Twin Tube Hose Assembly

RC3076

Receptacle

Head to Shank

RM3098

Both

RM3173

Head to Shank

RM3000

Both

RC3031-05 RC3031-06 RC3031-07 RC3031-08 RC3031-09 RC3156-10 RC3156-11 RC3156-12 RC3082-05 RC3082-06 RC3082-07 RC3082-08 RC3082-09 RC3152-10 RC3152-11 RC3152-12 RC3086-05 RC3086-06 RC3086-07 RC3086-08 RC3086-10 RC3086-12 RC3081-05 RC3081-06 RC3081-07 RC3081-08 RC3081-09 RC3153-10 RC3153-11 RC3153-12 RC3085-05 RC3085-06 RC3085-07 RC3085-08 RC3085-10 RC3085-12 RC3099-05 RC3099-07 RC3099-010

Depth Gauge

Head to Shank

RM3091

Both

Nose Adapter Assembly for Hex Head Fasteners

Head to Shank

RM3067-02

RM3162

Both

RM3113 RC3036-05 RC3036-06 RC3036-07 RC3036-08 RC3036-09 RC3036-10 RC3036-11 RC3036-12 RC3104

Both

Nose Adapter Assembly for Hex Head Fasteners

Corebolt (Stem)

Index Pin

Both

Nose Adapter Assembly for Flush Head Fasteners

Head to Shank

1/2 Inch Bomb Sight 11/16 Inch Bomb Sight

Both

RC3105 RC3050-05 RC3050-06 RC3050-07 RC3050-08 RC3050-09 RC3050-10 RC3050-11 RC3050-12 RC3089-05 RC3089-06 RC3089-07 RC3089-08 RC3089-10 RC3089-12

Both

Nose Adapter Assembly for Flush Head Fasteners

Corebolt (Stem)

Carbide Star Drill

Head to Shank

Rivet Set & Rivet Set Cushion

Head to Shank

RC3043

1/2 - 9/16 Open End Wrench 5/8 - 11/26 Open End Wrench

-----

RC3044 Carbide Star Drill Corebolt (Stem) RC3045

Both

Chuck Key

Both

8-21

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

POWER PACK RM3162

DRILL MOTOR RM3098

VACUUM PAD RM3000

Figure 8-14. Fastener Removal Kit: Vacuum System

HLH 103, HLH 104, HLH 110 HLH 111 OR HLH 500 INSTALLATION TOOL

Figure 8-15. Hi-Lok Installation: Hand Tooling

8-22

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

PLIERS

HLH 128 REMOVAL TOOL

COLLAR

;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;; ;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;
PIN

ALLEN WRENCH

ALLEN WRENCH
FLEX HANDLE

CAM TYPE GRIPPING JAW

A. Hi-Lok Removal: Hand Tooling

B. Hi-Lok Removal: Common Hand Tools Figure 8-16. Hi-Lok Fastener Tools

8-5. EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS TO PERFORM SPECIALIZED OPERATIONS. a. Dust Collection System, HEPA Filter Vacuum Cleaner, Figure 8-17 and Table 8-12, Item 20. This equipment is designed to collect dust generated during machining of advanced composite materials. It is equipped with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter that is 99.97% efficient at the 0.3 micron level. It is an air operated vacuum system and is limited to collection of dry materials. It requires a 12 inch 80 psi (100 psi maximum) air pressure line with a minimum capacity of 37 cubic feet per minute. Disposable collector filter bags, P/N 384003PKG, are available from the manufacturer, Hako Minuteman, Inc. Use only this unit for collection of advanced composite dust. b. Resin Injection Equipment. Three types of equipment are used for resin injection: a hypodermic syringe and needle, a SEMCO sealant gun and a vacuum cup. (1) Industrial Hypodermic Syringe and Needle, Figure 8-18 and Table 8-12, Items 21-23. This equipment is used for manual injection of liquid resin into delaminations and disbonds open to the edge of the part. The syringe assembly consists of a barrel, stopper and plunger rod. The needles come in various diameters. The smaller diameters are more readily usable for injecting edge delaminations. However, needles smaller than 0.022 inch outside diameter (24 gauge) are not practical to use as they require a significant amount of force to get resin through them and they bend easily during use. The needles are non-sterile and for industrial use only.

(2) SEMCO Model 250 Sealant Gun, Figure 8-19 and Table 8-12, Item 24. This equipment is used for pressurized injection of liquid resin into delaminated and disbonded areas. The sealant gun is used with a regulated pressure source (Table 8-12, Item 18). The regulated pressure source is mandatory to prevent damaging assemblies during the injection process. This equipment consists of the sealant gun, disposable cartridge, cartridge nozzle, metallic retainer barrel and air hose. The cartridge and retainer barrel come in various sizes. However, the 212 ounce size is recommended for injection repair applications. Nozzles come in various orifice sizes and lengths. The 116 inch orifice nozzle is recommended for injection repairs which utilize 18 inch diameter injection holes. This allows sealing of the nozzle in the injection hole during the injection process. (3) Vacuum Cup, Figure 8-20. This piece of equipment is used for vacuum injection of liquid resin in fastener hole delaminations, edge delaminations and disbonds. It is useful when the disbond or delamination is too close to the edge of the part to allow injection holes to be drilled, or when little or no airflow is possible. The equipment can be locally fabricated from plastic pipe, a clear Plexiglass plate, vacuum bag sealant, the connector from a vacuum valve assembly and a piece of threaded pipe. Wrap all male fitting threads with pipe sealing tape, MIL-T-27730.

8-23

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

MUFFLER

AIR HOSE CONNECTION

HEPA FILTER

PAPER FILTER PROTECTOR

IMPACTION FILTER SCREEN DISPOSABLE COLLECTOR FILTER BAG (P/N 384003PKG)

LOCK CLAMP

BAG FRAME

P/N 4SE01754 NSN: 7910-01-306-4144

CLOTH FILTER BAG

TANK

VACUUM HOSE CONNECTION

Figure 8-17. HEPA Filter Vacuum Cleaner

5 cc SYRINGE NSN: 6515-00-754-0406

18 GAUGE NSN:6515-00-656-0477

BARREL 20 GAUGE NSN:6515-00-349-3400

STOPPER

PLUNGER ROD

NEEDLES

Figure 8-18. Industrial Hypodermic Syringe and Needles

8-24

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

SEMCO NOZZLES:
1 16 INCH ORIFICE P/N 252 NSN: 5120-00-167-0150

DISPOSABLE CARTRIDGE 212 OUNCE P/N 220323 NSN: 5120-00-670-3295

METALLIC RETAINER BARREL 212 OUNCE P/N 220256 NSN: 5120-00-693-8069

1 16 INCH ORIFICE P/N 420 NSN: 5120-00-042-6577

1 16 INCH ORIFICE P/N 620 NSN: 5120-00-167-0152

SEMCO MODEL 250 SEALANT GUN NSN: 5130-00-341-1931

AIR HOSE HANSEN CONNECTOR P/N SG280001EA NSN: 4720-00-956-5313

Figure 8-19. SEMCO Model 250 Sealant Gun

2 INCH OD PVC PIPE

3 INCH X 3 INCH PLEXIGLASS PLATE 1/4 INCH THICK STEEL PIPE THREADED ON BOTH ENDS. APPLY MIL-T-27730 PIPE SEALING TAPE TO THREADS. VACUUM VALVE COUPLING (REMOVE FROM P/N 1935AS174-1 OR P/N 74D111271-1001 VACUUM VALVE)

DRILL UNDERSIZE HOLE IN PIPE

Figure 8-20. Vacuum Cup

8-25

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-12. Miscellaneous Equipment

ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

NOMENCLATURE Surgical Razor X-Acto Knife Micrometer Orbital Sander C-Clamp, 4 Inch Heat Lamp, Infrared, 115V, 250 Watt Adhesive Comb Triple Beam Balance Face Shield Rubber Coated Apron Latex Gloves White Cotton Gloves Scissors, Padded Handle Marking Pen, Extra Fine Point, 0.4 mm Line Width, Permanent Ink Torque Wrench, 0-75 Inch-Lbs Weights, Shot Bag Microstop Cage

P/N OR NSN 6516-00-926-2089 5110-00-595-8400 Local Availability 5130-00-606-9694 5120-00-180-0908 6240-00-712-3090 SK340-00192 6670-00-494-3604 MIL-STD-1202 MIL-A-41829 6516-01-149-8842 8415-00-268-8353 5110-00-161-6909 None -------------------------

VENDOR/CAGE

Local Manufacture per Figure 8-22 ------------------------Sharpie, Sanford Corp./ 86874 -------------

15 16 17

Local Availability Local Availability Local Availability

8-26

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

Table 8-12. Miscellaneous Equipment (Cont.)

ITEM 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

NOMENCLATURE Pressure Regulator Adhesive Spreader Dust Collection System, HEPA Filter Vacuum Cleaner 5 cc Industrial Syringe 18 Gauge Needle 20 Gauge Needle SEMCO Sealant Gun Metallic Retainer Barrel, 2 1/2 Oz Cartridge, 2 1/2 Oz Disposable SEMCO Nozzle, 2.5 Inches Long SEMCO Nozzle, 4 Inches Long SEMCO Nozzle, 6 Inches Long Air Hose Hansen Connector Jaw Type Heat Sealer Leather Palmed Gloves Plastic Gloves Yellow Pencil Silver Marking Pencil

P/N OR NSN R01-200-RGLA P.A.-1 4SE01754 7910-01-306-4144 6515-00-754-0406 6515-00-656-0477 6515-00-349-3400 Model 250 5130-00-341-1931 220256 5120-00-693-8069 220323 5120-00-670-3295 Model 252 5120-00-167-0150 Model 420 5120-00-042-6577 Model 620 5120-00-167-0152 SG280001EA 4720-00-956-5313 Model 4511 3540-00-956-4511 8415-00-268-8350 6515-01-150-2978 7510-00-537-6930 7510-01-311-9445

VENDOR/CAGE C.A. Norgren/43990 3M Co/76381 Hako Minuteman/16893 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 SEMCO/92108 ----ACCU-SEAL Corp./53625 -----------------

8-27

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

c. Moisture Indicator, Figure 8-21. The moisture indicator is used to determine if a part is dry following the composite honeycomb sandwich part drying cycle specified in paragraph 6-7a. It uses a color changing desiccant to indicate the presence of moisture. The indicator consists of vacuum valve couplings, an airline filter, color changing desiccant and rymplecloth. It is essential that the desiccant consist of calcium sulfate containing cobalt chloride as this is the ingredient that causes the blue to pink color change indicating the presence of moisture. Use of a desiccant material without cobalt chloride will result in a false dry indication. The desiccant must be fresh and blue in color prior to use. Replace the desiccant after each use. Maintain the desiccant in a moisture proof sealed container. The desiccant material is available from W. A. Hammond Co., Xenia OH. Specify anhydrous CaS04 color changing desiccant containing cobalt chloride, number 8 mesh, when ordering desiccant. The airline filter is available from Lab-Clear, Model No. RGF 250-400, Oakland CA. d. MIL-B-131 Bag Jaw Type Heat Sealer, Table 8-12, Item 31. The bag sealer is used to re-heat seal MIL-B-131 bags containing film adhesive prior to reinstallation in 0F storage. The sealer uses electrically heated jaws clamped on the bag material to seal edges of previously opened bags. e. Adhesive Comb, Figure 8-22 and Table 8-12, Item 7. The adhesive comb is used to remove excess adhesive from bonding surfaces. The comb remains perpendicular to the surface as it is drawn across the surfaces containing paste adhesive. f. Miscellaneous Equipment. Any miscellaneous equipment required to perform composite repairs which is not listed in any of the above tables is provided in Table 8-12. 8-6. TEMPERATURE/VACUUM CONTROL REPAIR SETS. Three temperature/vacuum control repair sets are available in the field for performing bonded repairs. a. F-14 Composite Structure Repair Console, P/N A51S62280-3 and Composite Structure Repair Blanket Assembly, P/N A51S64830-1. (1) The repair console has a built in vacuum pump and a manually operated temperature controller packaged in one unit. The kit requires 115 volt, 15 Amp, 60 Hz, AC electrical power. Storage space is provided in the console for cables, connectors, hoses and a heat/vacuum blanket. There is no over/under temperature alarm, low vacuum alarm or printer. The unit must be monitored frequently to ensure cure cycle parameters are achieved.

(2) The repair heat blanket is of the vacuum/heat blanket type. This 18 inch diameter blanket has a 12 inch diameter heating area and vacuum sealing grooves around the outside edge. The heat blanket has a variable watt density heating area and will maintain set point temperatures within 10F up to 1 inch in from the edge of the heat blanket. This is the only heat blanket in the naval inventory that provides a uniform temperature distribution. The heat blanket is quite stiff and is limited to fairly flat surfaces. Due to its circular shape, it has limited use for edge damage repairs. Temperature feedback to the controller is provided by a control thermocouple molded into the center of the repair blanket assembly and in contact with the repair surface. (3) Operation. Operate the unit per NAVAIR 01-F14AAA-3-2.4, WP 077 05. Control of temperature rise rate must be performed manually by the operator. Resetting the temperature controller set point (to adjust for an undercure situation) is a simple matter of manually setting the controller to the desired reset temperature. Repair console and heat blanket are shown in Figure 8-23. b. F-18 Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set, P/N 74D110165-1001. The repair set consists of 3 large cases. The kit requires 110 volt, 20 Amp, 60 Hz, AC electrical power. (1) Temperature Control Assembly, P/N 74D110165-2001. This is the main control panel for the repair set. It contains a master power control panel, 3 temperature controllers, 2 external sensor monitors, a cure timer, printer and over temperature alarm. There is no alarm to indicate an under temperature condition. The unit has a history of inadvertently shutting down during the cure process and must be monitored frequently to ensure an under temperature condition does not occur. The printer is unreliable and tends to fail after a few hours of use on most units. The unit must be monitored frequently to ensure cure cycle parameters are achieved. (2) Vacuum Control Assembly, P/N 74D110165-2003. This unit is basically an electrically operated vacuum pump. It contains a vacuum alarm that is activated when the vacuum drops below 17 inches of mercury. Unfortunately, the sensor is located in the control assembly and not the vacuum bag. It is possible to have complete loss of vacuum in the bag with no alarm indication. Frequent monitoring of the vacuum bag vacuum gauge is required during operation. (3) Accessory Case, P/N 74D110165-2005. This case contains heat blankets, cables, hoses, connectors, gauges and temperature sensors.

8-28

NAVAIR 01-1A-21

STEEL PIPE THREADED ON BOTH ENDS. APPLY MIL-T-27730 PIPE SEALING TAPE TO THREADS. VACUUM VALVE COUPLING (REMOVE FROM P/N 1935AS100-1 OR P/N 74D110165-1 REPAIR SET) RYMPLECLOTH VACUUM VALVE COUPLING (REMOVE FROM P/N 1935AS100-1 OR P/N 74D110165-1 REPAIR SET)

COLOR CHANGING DESSICANT (SEE PARAGRAPH 8-5c FOR MATERIAL) AIRLINE FILTER, LAB-CLEAR, MODEL RGF 250-400 RYMPLECLOTH DRYING TUBE CAP

NOTE: PLACE RYMPLECLOTH IN ONE END OF TUBE. PACK TUBE WITH COLOR CHANGING DESSICANT. PLACE RYMPLECLOTH IN OTHER END OF TUBE AND APPLY CAP.

Figure 8-21. Moisture Indicator

3.0" Material: Table 5-5, Item 11 SK340-00192 0.5" Radius Steel Stamp Part Number In This Area

2.5"

0.6"Typical MS20470AD3 Rivet (4)

0.25" 0.5" Hacksaw Blade 18 teeth/inch

0.15"

Figure 8-22. SK340-00192 Adhesive Comb

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ZONE A TEMPERATURE SENSOR

BLANKET ASSEMBLY P/N A51S64830-1

ZONE B TEMPERATURE SENSOR

ZONE A POWER LEAD TO ZONE A CONTROLLER

ZONE B POWER LEAD TO ZONE B CONTROLLER

Figure 8-24. 4230-211 Two Zone Heat Blanket Temperature Sensor Placement to know (short of powering up the blanket) which area of the blanket is heated by which power lead. The proper placement of temperature sensors for use of this blanket is shown in Figure 8-24. (c) Heat/Vacuum Blankets, P/N AM-D-0-MDA1S1-101 through -107. These heat/vacuum blankets have vacuum sealing grooves around the periphery of the blanket. The blanket heating area is marked on the blanket and does not include the vacuum sealing groove area. The blankets contain 3 zones, each using a separate controller for operation. Temperature feedback to the controller is provided by temperature sensors molded into the heat blanket. Unlike the F-14 heat/vacuum blanket, the temperature sensors are not in contact with the surface of the part being repaired. This results in surface temperatures beneath the sensors that are 15-20 degrees colder than those sensed by the temperature controller. In addition, heating elements were left out of the heating area of the heat blanket containing an access hole resulting in a "designed in" cold spot under the heat blanket. The combination of improperly located temperature sensors molded in the blanket, missing heat elements and poor temperature distribution underneath these blankets makes them unacceptable for heat applications above 200F. (5) Temperature Sensor Assembly, P/N 74D111252-1011. These sensors are fragile and have a high failure rate. They require care when removing from the layup following cure to prevent damage. The NSN for the sensor assembly is 1730-01-189-8714.

REPAIR CONSOLE PN/ A51S62280-3

Figure 8-23. F-14 Composite Structure Repair Console and Blanket Assembly (4) Heat Blankets. Two different heat blanket types are provided: the standard heat blanket which requires installation of a vacuum bag to "bag" the heat blanket to the part and a series of multi-zoned heat/vacuum blankets (both circular and square shapes). (a) Standard Heat Blankets, P/N 4230-103, 4230-109 and MDA151-002. Temperature feedback to the controller from these heat blankets is provided by a separate temperature sensor. These blankets can be vacuum bagged over complex contours but have large temperature variations from the center of the blanket out to the blanket edge. A minimum heat blanket to patch edge distance of 2 inches and the use of monitoring temperature sensors located at the patch edge are required to prevent undercuring of adhesive and/or patch material. (b) Two Zoned Heat Blanket, P/N 4230-211. This 17.5 inch X 17.5 inch heat blanket must be used with the proper placement of control temperature sensors. The -211 is a 2 zone blanket and requires two controllers and two control temperature sensors for operation. The location of zones is not marked on the blanket and there is no way

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ACCESSORIES CASE P/N 74D110165-2005

TEMPERATURE CONTROL ASSEMBLY P/N 74D110165-2001

VACUUM CONTROL ASSEMBLY P/N 74D110165-2003

Figure 8-25. F-18 Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set, P/N 74D110165-1001 (6) Operation. Operate the unit per NAVAIR A1-F18AC-SRM-250, WP 00700 with the following exceptions: (a) Do not use P/N AM-D-0-MDA1S1 series heat/vacuum blankets for cure temperatures in excess of 200F. (b) Select a heat blanket that will provide a minimum patch to heat blanket edge distance of 2 inches. (c) Use additional temperature sensors near the patch edge for monitoring purposes. Adjust the temperature controller set point to bring all temperature sensors (both control and monitoring) within the cure range. (d) Resetting the temperature controller set point (to adjust for an undercure situation) after the cure phase is initiated requires resetting the controller to the desired reset temperature and cycling the power unit off and then back on again. The Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set is shown in Figure 8-25. (7) Temperature Sensing. The temperature sensor assembly can be used in conjunction with the external sensor monitor to sense surface temperature when using a heat lamp or other means of applying heat. Tape sensor to part surface with high temperature tape. Connect sensor to cable assembly (P/N 74D111252-1009) and cable assembly to the external sensor connector (J4) located on the temperature control assembly. Read surface temperature on the external sensor monitor. c. Generic Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set, P/N 1935AS100-1. The set consists of 2 large cases and requires 115- volt, 20 Amp, 60 Hz, AC electrical power and 60-150 psig shop air (a separate vacuum source may be used instead of shop air.) (1) Control Unit Assembly, P/N 1935AS101-1. This unit contains the programmable temperature controller (PTC), an electrical panel and a vacuum panel. The PTC can control 2 independent cure cycles at one time. The assembly also contains a printer and an over/under temperature alarm. The printer tends to be unreliable. The unit must be monitored frequently during the cure process to ensure an under temperature condition does not occur. The vacuum panel provides vacuum from either an external vacuum source or shop air. A vacuum alarm is activated by a drop in vacuum pressure below 21 inches of mercury. The pressure drop is sensed at the vacuum panel and not the vacuum bag. It is possible to have unacceptably low vacuum pressure in the bag with no alarm indication. Frequent monitoring of the vacuum bag vacuum gauge is required during operation. (2) Accessory Unit Assembly, P/N 1935AS104-1. This unit contains heater blankets, cables, hoses, valves and gauges. (3) Heat Blankets. Six standard heat blankets of various sizes are provided with each kit. Temperature feedback to the controller from these heat blankets is provided by a separate thermocouple probe. These blankets can be vacuum bagged over complex contours but have

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VACUUM PANEL

PROGRAMMABLE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER

ELECTRICAL PANEL

CONTROL UNIT ASSEMBLY P/N 1935AS101-1

ACCESSORY UNIT ASSEMBLY

ACCESSORY UNIT ASSEMBLY P/N 1935AS104-1

Figure 8-26. Generic Temperature/Vacuum Control Repair Set, P/N 1935AS100-1

large temperature variations from the center of the blanket out to the blanket edge. (See Figure 6-31 for a typical temperature profile for these heat blankets). A minimum heat blanket to patch edge distance of 2 inches along with the use of monitoring thermocouples located at the patch edge are required to prevent undercuring of adhesive and or patch material. (4) Operation. Operate the unit per NAVAIR 17-1-131 with the following exceptions: (a) Select a heat blanket that will provide a minimum patch to heat blanket edge distance of 2 inches. (b) Use additional thermocouples near the patch edge for monitoring purposes. Adjust the temperature controller set point to bring all thermocouples (both control and monitoring) within the cure range.

(c) Resetting the temperature controller set point (to adjust for an undercure situation) after the cure phase is initiated requires shutting the unit down, reprogramming the controller to the desired reset temperature and cycling the power switch back on again. The repair area cools approximately 20-40 degrees during this reset operation. The Generic Temperature-Vacuum Control Repair Set is shown in Figure 8-26. (5) Temperature Sensing. The thermocouple probe can be used in conjunction with the Control Unit Assembly to sense surface temperature when using a heat lamp or other means of applying heat. Tape thermocouple to part surface with pressure sensitive tape. Connect the thermocouple probe to the thermocouple cable (W4) and the thermocouple cable to one of the thermocouple input connectors on the Control Unit Assembly. Read surface temperature on the digital display corresponding to the thermocouple input connector.

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SECTION IX FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 9-1. BACKGROUND. This section outlines the facility requirements for composite repairs at organizational and intermediate level maintenance activities both ashore and afloat. The facilities required for performing repairs to composite structures depend upon the type of repair being performed. Uncured resins and adhesives used for bonded composite repairs are sensitive to environmental exposure. Additionally, exposing the surfaces to be bonded to contaminates (such as hydrocarbons from diesel powered equipment or mold release agents) will adversely affect the strength of the bond. Bolted repairs to composite materials are not nearly as sensitive to environmental exposure; however precautions must be taken to prevent surface contamination and ensure adhesion of sealant material. While both bolted and bonded repairs can be made in an uncontrolled area, patch and adhesive material preparation for bonded repairs must be performed in a controlled environment. Both bolted and bonded repairs require facilities and equipment to control composite dust generated during the repair process. 9-2. REQUIREMENTS. lay up operations. For the intermediate level, this area should have a sanding booth or down draft table with a vacuum and dust collection system with HEPA filters. A portable vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter should be used by the organizational level to collect the dust at the source of generation. (2) A separate metal treatment area for cleaning, degreasing, surface preparation and priming is recommended. At the intermediate level, this should be performed in a local exhaust hood to remove hazardous vapors. Metal treatment may be performed in the local exhaust hood of the lay up area as long as the process is not performed simultaneously with material preparation or lay up operations. (3) A layup area, fully enclosed and environmentally controlled, for the preparation of adhesives and patch materials for subsequent bonding is mandatory. The intermediate level lay up area should contain a local exhaust hood for mixing adhesives and resins to remove hazardous vapors. Processes or operations which produce uncontrolled spray, or fumes are not permitted in the controlled area. This area may be used for curing repairs and drying components. Curing repairs and drying may be performed outside the lay up area provided that the repair is vacuum bagged. The general requirements for the lay up area are: (a) Maintain a positive pressure inside the lay up area to ensure that dust and contaminants are kept out of the layup area. A minimum pressure differential of 0.05 inch of water is recommended. An air filtration system with a minimum arrestance of 65% in accordance with ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers) Standard 52-76 is recommended. Filters should be replaced on a periodic basis. (b) Maintain the temperature and relative humidity as shown in Figure 5-11. Air conditioning controls must not be relaxed for bonded repairs. If the air conditioning system is inoperable or not able to maintain the required temperature and humidity requirements, the repair process must be terminated until the environment can be restored. Temperature and humidity recording equipment should be located in the area so that conformance to environmental conditions can be routinely checked.

a. General. General requirements for a bonding environment are specified in MIL-A-83377. These environmental requirements for the facilities used for composite repair should be incorporated in the design and construction of the work areas for the basic repair processes. These requirements should be followed and enforced to maintain the correct environment for performing bonded repairs. Areas that generate dust or that are used for metal treatment should be isolated from lay up or bond/assembly areas to prevent contamination of the repair. Application of release agents is prohibited in bonding areas. Temperature and humidity controls, as well as cleanliness requirements are needed when performing the material preparation and lay up steps of a bonded repair. The ideal composite repair facility should include three separate functional areas as follows: (1) A ventilated and isolated machining area is preferred for operations that generate dust, such as trimming, sanding, grinding, or drilling. A dust collection system with a HEPA filter must be employed to collect generated dust. If isolation from the lay up area is not feasible, do not perform repair material preparation or repair layup during dust generating operations and ensure the lay up area is vacuum cleaned prior to performing material preparation or

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(c) Concrete floors should be sealed or covered with vinyl tile then sealed and waxed. (d) To minimize dirt traps, the area should be as free as practicable of ledges, overhangs and protrusions. Light fixtures should be recessed or flush mounted. To facilitate cleanliness, the ceiling, walls and service plumbing should be smoothly finished and painted. (e) Prohibit the operation of fuel powered vehicles. Electric and battery powered equipment is permitted. (f) Doors shall be kept closed unless utilized for entry of personnel or components. (g) Eating, drinking and smoking are prohibited in the controlled area. (h) Do not store or use aerosols or release agents of any kind in the controlled area. (i) Do not use silicones of any type in the controlled area. (j) Floors should be vacuumed at least once a day and damp-mopped with a clean, lint free mop once a week. Bins, racks and cabinets should be vacuumed once a week and wiped with a water-dampened lint free cloth as needed. The use of dust mops and sweeping compounds is prohibited. (k) Only those parts that have had aircraft grease, dirt and fluids removed should be allowed in the lay up area. b. On-Aircraft Repairs. When performing on-aircraft repairs, it is not feasible to remove damage or perform surface preparation for bonding in a separate facility. When performing machining operations, removing damage, or drilling fastener holes, use a portable vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter to collect the dust at the source of generation. Erect an enclosure around the repair site to aid in dust containment where feasible. When preparing surfaces for bonding, cover them immediately following the preparation step by taping clean barrier material (Table 5-5, Item 4) over the prepared surface. Prepare repair materials in the environmentally controlled area described above and transport to the aircraft in a sealed bag. Expedite the layup of the repair materials, heat blanket and vacuum bag to minimize environmental exposure.

9-3. GENERAL VENTILATION. An integral part of the facilities requirements, in addition to those controls needed to provide a successful bonded repair, are the health and safety requirements. Section X addresses health and safety aspects of composite repair. Engineering controls which provide adequate conditions to ensure successful bonded repairs coincide with the appropriate precautionary measures needed to minimize personnel exposure to the possible hazards. Adequate ventilation is a primary consideration for a composite repair facility. Each work area should have general ventilation providing from 3 to 5 air changes per hour. Additionally, there is a need for local exhaust ventilation for specific operations (provisions for adequate makeup air are required to ensure the proper function of the local exhaust and general ventilation system). If air is recycled back into the work area, filtration is required to remove particulates and organic vapors. Air recycled in the machining area either from the general ventilation system or dust booth must be equipped with a HEPA filter. Recycled air is not recommended in the lay up area. 9-4. EQUIPMENT/UTILITY REQUIREMENTS. Equipment/utility requirements will vary with the maintenance level. The equipment requirements unique to composite repair are provided in Section VIII. Equipment/ utility requirements for performing bolted repairs in addition to those specified in Section VIII are the same as those required for standard sheet metal repairs. All equipment used in the lay up area should meet the requirements of paragraph 9-2. Additionally, the appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section X of this manual is required. a. Organizational Level Tool/Equipment Requirements: (1) The composite repair tool kit, paragraph 8-2.

(2) A temperature/vacuum control repair set and heat blankets, paragraph 8-6. (3) (4) Vacuum cup, Figure 8-20. Moisture indicator, Figure 8-21.

(5) Blind composite fastener installation tools, paragraph 8-4. (6) The miscellaneous equipment listed in Table 8-12. b. Organizational Level Utility Requirements:

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(1) Shop air (100 psi) for the lay up area. The air should be filtered to provide dry, oil-free air. (2) Electrical power. 115 volts, AC, 20 Amps, 50/ 60 Hz, single phase. c. Intermediate Level Tool/Equipment Requirements.

(7) Cold storage facility for storage of adhesives and sealants. Both a freezer for 0F storage and a refrigerator for 40F storage is required. (8) Large lay-up table for repairs and vacuum bagging setup. d. Intermediate Level Utility Requirements.

(1) All requirements of the organizational level listed above. (2) Dust collection booth or a downdraft table with a HEPA filter. (3) Ventilating hood for the lay up area and/or metal preparation area. (4) Air Circulating Oven with 500F Capability. The oven is to be used to prepare and cure repair materials and to fabricate QA test coupons for material acceptability testing. The oven interior dimensions should be a minimum of 18 inches X 18 inches X 18 inches. Provisions should be provided for penetration of a vacuum line into the oven and for thermocouple hookups. (5) A separate temperature monitoring device and J type thermocouples for use with the air circulating oven. (6) A separate vacuum pump/gage, hose and connectors for use with the air circulating oven.

(1) The same shop air requirements listed above for the organizational shop. (2) Electrical Power. In addition to the requirements listed for the organizational shop listed above, the electrical power must be sufficient to allow operation of the air circulating oven, separate vacuum pump, dust collection system, temperature monitoring device and the cold storage facility. (3) Dust Collection System. A separate built in vacuum operated dust collection system equipped with a HEPA filter is recommended to be used in conjunction with the dust collection booth/downdraft table listed above.

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SECTION X HEALTH AND SAFETY 10-1. BACKGROUND. The use of new materials brings with it a concern for health and safety. Often, new materials have not been adequately tested to determine all possible health hazards associated with their use. Therefore, it is prudent to exercise caution in their use, handling and disposal. The information provided in this section is based upon guidelines provided in the Navy Environmental Health Center Technical Manual, NEHC-TM91-6, dated September 1991, the Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials Association and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. a. Toxicity Versus Hazard. Toxicity is the inherent harmful effect of a material. Most materials, no matter how "safe" one thinks they may be, are toxic. On the other hand, if materials are handled correctly and carefully, even the most toxic materials may pose little hazard to the worker. No substance is a hazard by itself. It is the dosage that makes a substance a hazard. The term hazard takes into account not only the material's inherent toxicity, but also the exposure to the material. For example, if one is exposed to a large amount of a chemical with relatively low toxicity, the resultant hazard may be great. However, without exposure even the most toxic chemical presents no hazard. b. Acute Toxicity. The acute toxicity of a material is the harmful effect after a single or short-term exposure. Materials exhibiting acute toxicity are normally classified as irritants, corrosives or sensitizers. (1) Irritants. An irritant causes a localized reaction resulting from either a single or multiple exposure. It is characterized by the presence of redness and swelling. It may or may not cause cell death. Irritants are classified as mild, moderate or severe depending on the degree of damage they inflict. (2) Corrosives. Corrosive materials cause tissue destruction without normal healing. (3) Sensitizers. Repeated exposure to a material that is a sensitizer may result in sensitization. Sensitization results in an allergic reaction either to the skin or in the respiratory system upon re-exposure to the material. Persons sensitized to a certain material can react strongly to trace amounts of that material upon re-exposure. Sensitized persons require zero exposure to that material to prevent a repeat of the allergic reaction. c. Chronic Toxicity. Chronic toxicity refers to the adverse health effects caused by exposure to a toxic material over a long period of time. Chronic toxicity testing is performed to determine a specific dose or exposure level that will produce a long-term toxic effect. Some of these effects include blood disease, liver damage, kidney damage and may have carcinogenic (cancer producing) potential. 10-2. EXPOSURE ROUTES. During handling and processing, toxic materials can enter the body through three main methods: direct contact, inhalation and ingestion. a. Direct Contact. Direct contact with a toxic material can result in surface damage to skin or eyes and internal damage to body organs if the material is absorbed. The areas of the body most susceptible to exposure are the unprotected parts of the skin, such as the hands, lower arms and face. Skin or eye contact with liquids, gases, vapors and particulate materials (dusts) should be minimized. Special precautions should be taken to prevent contact with chemicals absorbed through the skin. Direct contact can also take the form of secondary exposure caused by handling gloves, pencils, mixing cups, etc., that are contaminated with a toxic material after removal of protective equipment. b. Inhalation. Inhalation is the process by which material is drawn into the body by breathing. During mixing and layup of adhesives and patch materials, the release of solvents and other vapors may occur. Inhalation of these materials should be kept to a minimum by providing adequate ventilation, using local exhaust hoods or respirators. Damage removal, sanding, drilling and machining of cured laminates can generate composite dust. Inhalation of dust can be harmful to respiratory organs. (1) Total Dust. This refers to all the dust generated by an operation. Only the particles that are able to penetrate to the deep lung (the respirable particles) are potentially harmful. The rest of the dust (non-respirable) is trapped and cleared by nasal hairs and other normal respiratory defense mechanisms. Non-respirable particulates are generally treated as "nuisance dusts"; that is, they are not known to cause adverse effects in the lungs and do not produce significant organic disease or toxic reaction. Figure 10-1 shows a comparison between the diameter of a typical human hair (about 60 microns), the diameter of a carbon fiber (about 7-9 microns) and the filtration size of particulate trapped by a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (0.3 micron).

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HUMAN HAIR (60 MICRONS)

1 MICRON = 0.0000394 INCH = 0.001 MILLIMETER

HEPA FILTER (0.3 MICRON)

CARBON FIBER (7-9 MICRONS) (APPROXIMATELY 1000x)

Figure 10-1. Carbon Fiber and Human Hair Diameters Compared to Filtration Level of HEPA Filter

(2) Respirable Dust. Particles smaller than about 3.5 micons in diameter are able to bypass normal respiratory defenses and reach the deep lung where they can cause respiratory damage. There are respirable exposure limits for some dusts, based only on the fraction that is able to penetrate into the deep lung. c. Ingestion. To ingest means literally "to take into the body as food or liquid". While it is doubtful that anyone would purposefully ingest these materials, it is definitely possible to ingest them accidentally. This commonly occurs via secondary contamination. Simple measures such as thorough washing of hands prior to eating or drinking provide significant protection from accidental ingestion. 10-3. EXPOSURE LIMITS. Exposure limits have been established that represent values under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse effects. Exposure limits are based on the best available information from industrial experience and from experimental studies on animals and/or humans. These limits are expressed as allowable airborne concentrations of the material in question.

a. Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). Permissible exposure limits are issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and are the legally-binding exposure limits. There are several categories of PELs: (1) Time Weighted Average (TWA). This is the employee's average airborne exposure in any 8-hour work shift of a 40 hour work week which shall not be exceeded. (2) Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL). This is the short period TWA exposure assessment (usually 15 minutes) which shall not be exeeded during the work day. (3) Ceiling (C). This is the employee's exposure which shall not be exceeded during any part of the work day. (4) Skin Designation. Substances that may cause adverse effects by being absorbed through the skin, mucous membranes or eyes are marked with a skin designation. This serves as an alert that skin exposure should be prevented or reduced as much as possible by using appropriate personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, coveralls, goggles).

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b. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Threshold limit values are consensus recommendations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). They are not legally binding. TLVs have the same categories of exposure limits as the PELs. c. Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Exposure Limits. NAVOSH exposure limits for composite materials are based on both the OSHA PELs and ACGIH TLVs. The NAVOSH limits are listed in Table 10-1. d. Use of Defined Exposure Limits. PEL and TLV information, when established for the substance in question, will be provided on the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). If a skin or S notation is used with the PEL or TLV, it indicates that the material may be absorbed through the skin, mucous membranes and eyes. (1) Units of Measure. PEL and TLV concentrations are expressed on MSDSs using the following units of measure: (a) mg/m3. Milligrams per cubic meter of air. A unit for measuring concentrations of dusts, gases or mists in air. (b) ppm. Parts per million. A unit for measuring the concentration of a gas or vapor in air. It is the number of parts of a gas or vapor in a million parts of air. (c) f/cc. Fibers per cubic centimeter of air. A unit for measuring airborne fiber levels. (2) Use of the above units of measure to determine concentrations of suspect materials to ensure PEL or TLV limits have not been exceeded requires sophisticated measurement equipment and sampling techniques. These

techniques should be performed by an industrial hygienist on a regular basis. For many activities ashore and afloat, regular monitoring of the work place is not feasible. Some advanced composite materials and some of the materials used in repair do not yet have PELs or TLVs established. Without regular monitoring by an industrial hygienist and without established PELs/TLVs, advanced composite materials and the materials used to perform repair can be used safely and successfully only if the composite worker takes the proper safety precautions and wears the prescribed personal protective equipment (PPE) as outlined in this section. Periodic monitoring by an industrial hygienist of dust collection and exhaust/ventilation equipment is required to ensure their proper operation. 10-4. TOXICITY AND HAZARDS OF ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND MATERIALS USED FOR REPAIR. Numerous fiber and resin combinations are used for manufacture and repair of advanced composite parts. The health hazards discussed in this paragraph refer to the general class of materials and not specific systems. Always consult the manufacturer's MSDS for the individual fiber, resin, solvent or composite system in question. a. Fibers. Toxicological studies have been extensively performed on carbon/graphite fibers and the dust generated during machining. Less extensive studies have been performed on aramid (Kevlar) fibers. Little attention has been given to the toxic effects of boron fibers. (1) Carbon/Graphite Fibers. The diameter of carbon fibers used on naval aircraft typically averages between 7-9 microns and is considered to be above respirable size. The fibers are chemically inert and have not shown any evidence of causing allergic or sensitizing reactions when in contact with the skin.

Table 10-1. Permissable Exposure Limits for Composite Materials

FIBERS/DUST *

PEL 10 mg/m3, total 5 mg/m3, respirable 15 mg/m3, total 5 mg/m3, respirable 15 mg/m3, total 5 mg/m3, respirable

RESINS Epichlorohydrin 4,4-Methylene Dianiline (MDA)

PEL 2 ppm 0.1 ppm

Graphite Carbon Kevlar

*(The above listed PELs represent 8 hour time weighted averages)


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(a) Carbon/Graphite Dust. Dust generated during damage removal, machining, drilling and countersinking operations is considered respirable. The fibers tend to fracture perpendicular to their length during machining, although fracture along the fiber length also occurs resulting in carbon fragments. This results in dust or fibers with sizes less than 3 microns. The NAVOSH exposure limit for respirable carbon is 5 mg/m3 (see Table 10-1). The use of dust collection systems and PPE recommended in Table 10-2 should be used during dust generation operations.

(b) One of the principal health hazard associated with handling carbon/graphite fibers is irritation of the skin caused by penetration of, mechanical abrasion by, or reaction to tiny fiber particles. Fibrous dust accumulations on the skin can also result in irritation. The irritation manifests itself as itching and reddening of the skin. Use of good personal hygiene and changing work clothes on a daily basis can reduce this potential significantly. (c) Carbon fibers by themselves (without cured resin present) have very low bending stiffness and are incapable of penetrating the skin. Fiber bundles

Table 10-2. Personal Protective Equipment, Equipment/Facilities and Personal Hygiene for Working With Advanced Composite Materials
WORK ACTIVITY PPE EQUIPMENT/FACILITIES PERSONAL HYGIENE

Handling Damaged Composite Parts

a. Leather palmed gloves b. Goggles

None

a. Wash hands, face & arms with soap and water before breaks and at end of shift a. Wash hands, face & arms with soap and water before breaks and at end of shift b. Wash or dispose of coveralls after each shift c. Vacuum dust and debris frequently and at the end of each shift a. Wash hands with soap and water after removing plastic gloves b. Dispose of gloves after each use

Damage Removal/ Machining/Drilling/ Sanding Composite Parts

a. Respirator with 0.3 micron HEPA filter b. Leather or plastic gloves c. Goggles d. Long sleeved, loose fitting coveralls, taped closed at the wrist

a. Vacuum cleaner with 0.3 micron HEPA filter b. Dust collection booth with 0.3 micron HEPA filter (if applicable c. Emergency eye wash station within 100 feet

Handling Prepreg/ Uncured Film Adhesives

a. Plastic gloves b. White cotton gloves (worn over plastic gloves) c. Long sleeve coveralls

a. Well ventilated area

Mixing/Handling Liquid and Paste Adhesives

a. Plastic gloves b. Face shield or splash goggles c. Long sleeve coveralls taped closed at wrist d. Rubber coated apron

a. Local exhaust hood for mixing b. Well ventilated area for application c. Emergency eyewash/deluge shower within 100 feet

a. Cleanup residual adhesive from work area, tools & PPE b. Dispose of gloves after each use c. Wash hands, face & arms with soap and water before breaks and at end of shift

Working with Solvents

a. Respirator with a chemical cartridge if PEL is exceeded b. Splash goggles or faceshield c. Rubber coated apron d. Long sleeve coveralls taped closed at wrist e. Gloves appropriate for chemical(s) used (e.g. polyethylene, nitrile, butyl rubber). Consult the solvent MSDS for proper protection. a. Respirator with 0.3 micron HEPA filter b. Leather palmed gloves c. Goggles d. Long sleeved, loose fitting, disposable coveralls, taped closed at the wrist

a. Well ventilated area b. Emergency eyewash/deluge shower within 100 feet

a. Wash hands, face & arms with soap and water before breaks and at end of shift

Handling Fire Damaged Composite Parts

a. Vacuum cleaner with 0.3 micron HEPA filter

a. Wash hands, face & arms with soap and water before breaks and at end of shift b. Dispose of coveralls after each shift

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stiffened by cured resin are quite stiff and brittle. Care must be exercised when handling damaged composite parts as the exposed fibers can easily penetrate the skin and break off after entry. Fibers imbedded in the skin can be painful as well as causing irritation and skin rashes. Care must be exercised during removal of fibers from the skin to prevent breaking them off. A sterilized needle and a magnifying glass are normally required to dig the fibers out. (2) Aramid (Kevlar) Fibers. The diameter of aramid fibers used on US Navy aircraft averages between 12-15 microns, above respirable size. Animal and human skin tests have shown that the fibers have little or no potential for sensitization. (a) Aramid Dust. Aramid fibers split or shear down the length of the fiber when exposed to damage removal, machining, drilling and countersinking operations. The resulting subfibers (fibrils) are approximately 0.1 micron in diameter and are of respirable size. The mechanical entanglement resulting from the irregular shape of the subfibers, in addition to the electrostatic attraction between them, results in their clumping together into sizes that may be non-respirable. The NAVOSH exposure limit for respirable aramid dust is 5 mg/m3 (see Table 10-1). The use of dust collection systems and PPE recommended in Table 10-2 should be used during dust generation operations. (b) Mild skin irritation, similar to that experienced with carbon fibers, has occurred due to mechanical abrasion and reaction to tiny fiber particles. Use of good personal hygiene and changing work clothes on a daily basis can reduce this potential significantly. (3) Boron Fibers. Little toxicity data is available for these fibers with the exception of one reported occurrence of irritation and itching due to skin penetration. The MSDS for boron/epoxy lists boron fiber splinters as being an eye and skin irritant upon contact. Although the fibers are not of respirable size, sufficient data is not available to determine the size of fiber particulate following machining. The use of dust collection systems and PPE recommended in Table 10-2 should be used during dust generation operations. b. Resin Systems. Advanced composite matrix materials and adhesives used on naval aircraft consist primarily of epoxy resin systems. The use of bismaleimide resins and polyimide resins has been very limited. Prepreg and uncured adhesives provide the primary hazard. During cure, the chemicals that make up the resin system undergo a chemical change which significantly reduces their toxicity. However, some caution is still required in handling cured resins. Some residual unreacted chemicals may still exist

in the resin depending upon whether or not the material was fully cured. Toxicity data on some of the constituent chemicals in the different resin systems is available, however toxicity data on specific formulated prepreg and adhesive resin systems is very limited. (1) Epoxy Resins. Epoxy resins used for prepregs and adhesives are made by reacting epichlorohydrin with a suitable chemical structure to obtain the resin. Epichlorohydrin is known to be a sensitizer which causes irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. It can enter the body through all exposure routes. Epichlorohydrin has an established PEL of 2 ppm. Residual levels of epichlorohydrin in epoxy resins usually are less than 1 ppm. Air sampling is required to determine if the PEL has been exceeded. Prevent direct contact with uncured epoxy resins by the using the PPE specified in Table 10-2. (2) Epoxy Resin Systems. Formulated epoxy resin systems used in film adhesives and prepreg materials are solids that melt at temperatures less than 200F. In addition to epoxy resins, the resin system may contain a number of additive chemicals. These chemicals (such as curing agents, diluents and catalysts) are often more hazardous than the epoxy resin itself. (3) Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Systems. The health effects of uncured BMI resins have not been extensively studied. Manufacturers of these materials indicate that prolonged or repeated contact with BMI resins may cause skin irritation or sensitization. Refer to the individual material MSDS to determine toxic effects and recommended PPE. (4) PMR Polyimide (PI) Resin Systems. The health effects of uncured PI resin systems used on naval aircraft that contain the curing agent MDA (methylene dianiline) have been documented. MDA is known to cause liver damage in humans following skin contact or oral exposure. It is a suspected cancer producing material, although no confirmed reports of MDA related cancer in humans have been recorded. OSHA has established a PEL of 0.1 ppm for MDA, however it is recommended that uncured PI prepreg and adhesives systems using MDA as a curing agent be banned from use by field activities. Cured composite laminates and cured adhesives containing MDA are not likely to contain free MDA beyond the PEL of 0.1 ppm. (5) Prepreg Materials. Prepreg materials consist of fibers preimpregnated with a partially cured (the degree of cure is such that it should be considered uncured) resin system. They vary in the base resin used as well as the additive chemicals.

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(a) AS/3501-6 prepreg is the epoxy resin system used on the majority of naval aircraft. The MSDS for AS/3501-6 prepreg states that the material manufacturer has not received any reports of adverse effects on workers handling the formulated resin system. However, it further states that some of the components of the formulated uncured resin system, when taken by themselves have been toxic to humans and therefore may be toxic to humans in the uncured resin formulation. Refer to the MSDS for this material to determine the potential toxic effects on humans. Material in the uncured state should be handled using the PPE recommended in Table 10-2. (b) Other Epoxy Prepreg Materials. For other epoxy prepreg materials, refer to the individual material MSDS to determine the potential toxic effects and recommended PPE. (6) Adhesives. Adhesives used for repair of advanced composite materials are epoxy resin systems. These resins come in three different forms: films, liquid resins and pastes. Fleet personnel involved in repair are more likely to have contact with uncured adhesives than prepreg materials. (a) Film Adhesives. These adhesives are easier to handle as they are provided in a thin solid sheet of material as opposed to a liquid. Prevent direct contact with film adhesives by using the recommended PPE recommended in Table 10-2. (b) Liquid and Paste Adhesives. Two part adhesives consist of the base resin, part A and the curing agent, part B. The part A resins are irritants and may cause sensitization upon contact. The part B curing agents are corrosive to skin and eyes and may cause chemical burns upon contact. Vapors can be irritating and may cause chest discomfort and bronchitis symptoms. Two part liquids (or pastes) require a considerable amount of handling during weighing, mixing and application. Prevent skin and eye contact with these materials by using the PPE recommended in Table 10-2. Materials should be mixed in a local exhaust hood to reduce inhalation potential. When mixing and curing 2 part adhesive systems, the potential for an exothermic reaction (an unintentional runaway heat liberating reaction) exists. To prevent this from occurring, the below guidelines should be followed: 1 Avoid mixing resin and curing agent in batches greater than 100 grams. Residual adhesive (left in the mixing cup after use) in excess of 40 grams should be separated and placed into mixing cups in quantities less that 40 grams before the pot life of the material is exceeded

(typically 40 minutes at room temperature or 20 minutes at temperatures greater than room temperature). 2 Do not mix resins when ambient temperatures exceed 90F. 3 Do not heat mixed material unless a curing operation is being performed. When curing, wait 2 hours before applying heat to exhaust the exotherm. c. Solvents. Solvents are incorporated in prepregs and adhesive materials. They are used in the repair process for cleaning aircraft parts as well as for cleanup of tools and work areas. Contact with most solvents will cause drying, cracking and irritation of the skin. Solvents can be absorbed directly into intact skin. Absorption is enhanced if the skin is abraded or cracked. Solvents are used to dissolve other materials and will carry these materials through the skin along with them. Inhaling solvent vapors and mists may cause respiratory irritation. In extreme cases, fluid accumulation in the lungs and central nervous system depression can occur. In case of accidental ingestion, a physician or local Poison Control Center should be contacted immediately. (1) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) have a low order of acute toxicity. They are mild to moderate skin irritants and moderate to severe eye irritants. The PEL for MEK is 200 ppm. The PEL for MIBK is 50 ppm. Concentrations above the PEL may cause headache, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath and vomiting. These solvents should only be used in well ventilated areas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes by using the PPE recommended in Table 10-2. (2) Ketones are highly flammable and have flash points below room temperature. The airborne concentration level needs to be controlled to prevent fires and explosions. The LEL or lower explosion limit (the lowest concentration of gas or vapor in percent by volume in air that will burn or explode if an ignition source is present) for MEK is 1.8% and 1.4% for MIBK. d. Composites in Fires. Composite materials involved in a crash or fire pose a potential health hazard to firefighters, crash investigators, site cleanup personnel, repair personnel and the environment. The matrix material can burn, producing toxic gases as well as releasing fibers. The fibers can be reduced in size into the respirable range due to the fire. The released fibers are very light and can be blown to areas beyond the crash site by prevailing winds. Personnel performing operations on crash/fire damaged composite parts which generate loose fibers should be protected by wearing the PPE recommended in Table 10-2.

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(1) Fibers. Composite materials that have burned or been damaged by an aircraft crash can liberate fibers that have decreased in size to the respirable range. If the resin is still intact, the fibers are fairly heavy and less likely to become airborne. They still pose a handling hazard, as they are very stiff and can easily penetrate protective clothing. (2) Matrix Materials. Smoke emissions from burning carbon/epoxy and carbon/bismaelimide composites consist primarily of carbon monoxide. Burning carbon/epoxy materials also emit small amounts of carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride. The toxic gases emitted from burning epoxy matrix materials are no more toxic than the gases emitted from any burning aircraft. Breathing these emitted gases should be avoided. (3) Procedures to Minimize Exposure. To minimize exposure to fire damaged composites, only firefighters equipped with full face self-contained breathing units should be allowed in the accident area while the wreckage is still burning or smoldering. In addition, the following procedures should be followed: (a) Only essential personnel should be allowed on the crash site. (b) All work performed at the crash site should be performed upwind of the wreckage. (c) Damaged composite parts from the fire/ crash should be coated with the approved fixant material, MIL-C-81309, Type II (as specified in NAVAIR-1A-509) after the fire is out and the wreckage has cooled. (d) Personnel performing operations which generate dust or loose fibers (such as cutting composite surfaces or moving damaged wreckage) should wear the PPE recommended in Table 10-2. (e) Fire damaged parts inducted into repair facilities and awaiting repair disposition should have fire damaged areas contained by wrapping the affected area with 0.006 inch thick plastic sheet, L-P-378. Tape the sheet in place with aircraft preservation tape, MIL-T-22085, Type II. Tape shall be applied to non-fire damaged areas or completely enclose the affected part as applicable. 10-5. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE), EQUIPMENT/FACILITIES AND PERSONAL HYGIENE. Table 10-2 lists the recommended PPE, equipment/facilities and personal hygiene for working with advanced composite materials.

a. Personal protective equipment (eye protection, gloves, aprons, respirators, etc) should be worn during handling and repair of advanced composite materials. The PPE required to safely handle a specific material is provided in the supplier's MSDS and should be consulted to determine the PPE to use. If the PPE recommended by the MSDS differs from the PPE recommended in Table 10-2, the MSDS takes precedence. (1) Guidelines for the Use of Gloves. Gloves are one of the most important defenses used for protection during processing and repair of advanced composite materials. Hands are the primary means of transferring contaminants to other parts of the body. There is no such thing as an all purpose glove. The selection of the proper glove is dependent upon the operations being performed and the materials being handled. (a) Puncture/Abrasion Resistant Gloves. Leather and leather palmed gloves, NSN 8415-00-268-8350, provide protection against fiber penetration and abrasion. They also provide some thermal insulation when handling parts subjected to elevated temperatures (less than 300F). They are not impermeable to chemicals and will allow them to soak through to the skin. (b) Chemical Resistant Gloves. Chemical resistant gloves of different materials vary in their ability to prevent certain chemicals from soaking through to your skin. The gloves must provide a positive liquid-proof barrier to the chemicals used. The gloves must neither degrade upon exposure to these chemicals nor permit permeation of them. Gloves used for repair operations should allow enough dexterity to facilitate hand layup operations as well as being free of powder, silicone or other loose surface particles. NOTE White cotton gloves should be used for handling film adhesives and prepared repair details during layup. These gloves do not provide worker protection from resins. It is recommended that plastic gloves be worn under the cotton gloves to provide the required protection. 1 Plastic gloves, NSN 6515-01-150-2978, are acceptable for working with epoxy resin systems used to repair composite parts. They provide the operator with more than adequate dexterity for repair operations. They also can be used to prevent dust buildup in skin pores during machining operations but provide little protection

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against fiber penetration or abrasion. Plastic gloves should not be used when working with solvents. 2 Latex surgeons gloves, NSN 6515-01-149-8842, are acceptable for working with MEK and MIBK. They have the disadvantage of being somewhat stiff and do not conform well enough to the hand to allow good dexterity. 3 The proper method to remove protective gloves contaminated with a toxic material without experiencing secondary exposure is shown in Figure 10-2. (2) Respirators. Respiratory protection is provided against dusts and fibers by wearing a respirator equipped with a HEPA filter. The respirator will also require chemical cartridges (probably organic vapor) if protection is needed against chemical vapors or gases. A half mask is the minimum recommended. Only NIOSH/MSHA (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health/Mine Safety and Health Administration) approved respirators shall be worn. Personnel wearing respirators must be medically qualified and trained. They must be enrolled in a Respiratory Protection Program per OPNAVINST 5100.19 or 5100.23. (3) Eye Protection. Goggles shall be worn when performing damage removal, machining and drilling of advanced composite materials unless a full face respirator is used. Chemical splash goggles and/or face shields shall be worn when working with liquid adhesives, paste adhesives and solvents. Safety glasses shall be worn with face shields. (4) Clothing. Long-sleeved and long-legged clothing should be worn to minimize skin contact. Openings should be taped closed with masking tape. When dealing with liquid chemicals, a rubber coated apron, MIL-A-41829, should be worn. b. Equipment/Facilities. Dust generating activities should be performed in a dust collection booth equipped with a HEPA filter whenever possible. As a minimum, dust collection equipment equipped with HEPA filters should be used to collect dust at the point of generation. Areas used for layup of prepreg and/or film adhesive, as well as areas in which solvents are used should be well ventilated. Mixing of 2 part liquid resins and paste adhesives should be performed in a local exhaust hood. An emergency eye wash station with deluge shower should be located within 100 feet of areas used to remove damage/machine composites, mix and handle liquid and paste adhesives, and work with solvents. A. Grasp Outside Surface of Glove at Cuff End

B. Peel Glove Off, Starting at Wrist and Turning Inside-Out; Hold Removed Glove with Other Hand

C. Hook Your Free Forefinger Onto the Inside Surface of Your Gloved Hand at the Cuff End

D. Peel the Other Glove Off, Turning It Inside-Out to Wrap Around the Removed Glove Figure 10-2. Removing Disposable Gloves

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c. Personal Hygiene. Personnel performing repairs to advanced composite parts should practice good personal hygiene to reduce the potential for exposure. Personnel should always wash thoroughly with soap and water before taking breaks and at the end of the work shift. Do not eat, drink or smoke in composite work areas. Disposable coveralls should be worn once and discarded. Reusable coveralls and clothing worn during repair operations should be washed separate from other clothing before wearing again. d. Housekeeping. Work areas should be kept free of spills, dust and debris. Liquid resins and paste adhesives should be cleaned up from work spaces using solvent. To remove dust and debris, the work space should be vacuumed using a vacuum system equipped with a 0.3 micron HEPA filter at the end of each day. Do not dry sweep or use forced air to clean up composite dust. e. Disposal of Material. Fully cured waste material, composite dust, contaminated coveralls, vacuum filters, mixing cups and spatulas containing cured resin should be disposed of as non-hazardous waste. Place in drums or double bag and seal. Dispose of in accordance with all Navy, local, state and Federal guidelines, laws and regulations. Mark all disposal containers with a label that reads: "COMPOSITE WASTE. DO NOT INCINERATE. DO NOT SELL FOR SCRAP." For chemical waste (uncured adhesives, solvents, etc.), dispose of as hazardous waste in accordance with local, state, Federal and Navy guidelines, laws and regulations. 10-6. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES. Accidental chemical spills, runaway exothermic reactions and heat blanket fires are some of the potential emergencies that can be encountered during the repair process. Always refer to the material specific MSDS for emergency and first aid procedures. Some general guidelines for dealing with these types of emergencies are listed below.

a. Accidental Spills/Leaks. If accidental contact, inhalation or ingestion occurs proceed as follows: (1) Eyes. Immediately flush with large amounts of low pressure water for a minimum of 15 minutes. Remove any contact lenses to ensure thorough flushing. Seek immediate medical attention. (2) Skin. Promptly flush with running water. Wash with soap and water. If an allergic reaction is encountered, seek medical attention. Do not clean up resin on skin with solvents as they will crack the skin and cause a path for resin entry. (3) Inhalation. Remove the person to fresh air at once. Seek prompt medical attention. (4) Ingestion. The guidelines for ingestion vary depending upon the materials ingested. Some specify large quantities of liquid be given to dilute the ingested material as well as inducing vomiting. Guidelines for other materials recommend vomiting not be induced. The specific material's MSDS should be consulted for the correct procedures. b. Runaway Exothermic Reaction. Do not handle containers with materials undergoing a runaway exothermic reaction. Exothermic emissions can be toxic and extreme temperatures can be generated. Do not approach the container or attempt to control the reaction. Do not breathe toxic gases. Depart the area immediately. Do not return until the reaction is complete and the workspace has been ventilated to remove toxic exothermic reaction products. c. Heat Blanket Fires. Turn off electrical power to the hot bonder. Avoid breathing smoke and gases. If fire persists, extinguish with dry chemical or carbon dioxide fire extinguisher while someone calls the fire department. Depart the area as soon as practical. Ventilate the workspace before returning to work.

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GLOSSARY TERMINOLOGY USED IN MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS

A A-SCAN - A data presentation method for ultrasonic inspection. Data is displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT). Sound energy amplitude is plotted on the vertical axis and distance (or time of flight) on the horizontal axis. ADHESIVE - A glue-like material used to produce a strong bond between two parts by surface attachment. Adhesives take the form of films, foams, pastes, or liquids. ADHESIVE OUT-TIME - See OUT-TIME. ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ACM) - A combination of high strength, high extensional stiffness fibers (boron, carbon, aramid) embedded in a matrix material (epoxy, bismaleimide, polyimide). AIRSTREAM STRIPPING - Damage caused by air flow over a laminate subjected to penetration or edge damage. Portions of the outer ply are lifted off and peeled back until fiber failure occurs. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE - Temperature of the surrounding environment. ANGLE PLY LAMINATE - Laminates composed of laminae oriented at different angles (typically 0, 45 and 90 degrees) to a stated reference direction. ARAMID FIBER - Generic name for a class of synthetic fibers made by the dry-jet wet spinning process. Aramid fibers are characterized by toughness and impact resistance. Laminates made using these fibers are notoriously difficult to machine and drill. AUTOCLAVE - A vessel capable of providing heat and pressure for curing advanced composite laminates, composite bonded assemblies and metallic bonded assemblies. B B-STAGE - An intermediate stage in the curing of a thermosetting resin that is between completely uncured (A-STAGE) and completely cured (C-STAGE). The resin in this stage has been partially reacted and is normally a

solid at room temperature. The resin melts to a liquid state when heat is applied. Uncured film adhesive and prepreg materials are provided in this stage. BCM - Beyond capability of maintenance. A part that is BCM is sent to the next higher level of maintenance for repair. BISMALEIMIDE (BMI) - A thermosetting polyimide resin system with an intermediate service temperature (350F) above that of epoxies. They are used as both adhesives and matrix materials. BLEEDING - The removal of resin from composite prepreg or wet layup into bleeder plies during the cure process. Resin bleeding is used to remove volatiles, to facilitate ply to ply bonding and to remove excess resin from the laminate. BLEEDER PLIES - Usually style 120 dry fiberglass cloth used to absorb excess resin from a composite laminate. The amount of resin removed from the laminate is a function of the number of bleeder plies used and the type of bleeder ply material. Bleeder plies are removed from the laminate after cure and discarded. BLISTERING - A bubble like swelling on the surface of a laminate usually the result of thermal damage. BLOWING AGENT - A heat activated nitrogen-releasing material used in foaming adhesives to cause expansion. BLOWN CORE - Honeycomb core that has experienced skin to core disbonds and/or node bond failures. The usual cause is the pressure buildup resulting from the presence of moisture in the assembly during an elevated temperature cure cycle. BOND - The attachment of one surface to another through the use of an adhesive as a gluing agent. BOND STRENGTH - The load carrying capacity of two materials attached through the use of an adhesive. BONDLINE - The adhesive interface between two materials attached through the use of an adhesive.

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BORON FIBER - A strong, high extensional stiffness fiber produced by chemical vapor deposition of elemental boron onto a small diameter tungsten wire. BREATHER CLOTH - A layer of coarse woven fiberglass cloth (usually Style 181) or mat used in vacuum bagging to allow bag venting or breathing by providing separation between the vacuum bag and the part. BRIDGING (1) An unsupported area on a part being vacuum bagged that can result in bag failure when pressure is applied. (2) A condition than can exist in a composite layup where inadequate pressure is applied during cure resulting in voids. C C-SCAN - A data presentation method for ultrasonic inspection which provides a plan view of the part scanned using an X and Y coordinate system. A hard copy of the data presented can be provided. CARBON FIBER - A strong, high extensional stiffness fiber produced by the carbonization of a synthetic material similar to rug yarn. When compared to graphite fibers, carbon fibers are carbonized at a lower temperature, have less elemental carbon present following carbonization (80-95% versus 99% for graphite) and have a lower extensional stiffness. The terms carbon and graphite have been used interchangeably but the fibers used on naval aircraft are technically carbon. CARBONIZATION - The process of pyrolyzation in an inert environment at high temperatures. Carbon fibers are pyrolyzed at temperatures near 3000F and graphite fibers at temperatures in excess of 3000F. Most noncarbon elements are driven off in the process. CAUL PLATES - Smooth metallic or plastic plates used in a composite layup or on a repair part to distribute pressure. COCURE - The process of curing different materials in a single step. An example would be curing a laminate while bonding that laminate to honeycomb core. During repair, the cocure process may be used to simultaneously cure the repair patch and adhesive to ensure a good patch to part fit is achieved. COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION (CTE) - The fractional change in length of a material with each degree of change in temperature. Composite materials generally have low CTEs when compared to metallic materials.

COIN TAP - The technique of lightly tapping the surface of a bonded part in the area of a suspected defect. Applicable for detecting disbonds and delaminations in bonded honeycomb sandwich assemblies with thin facesheets but not effective for finding defects in thick laminates. CONTAMINANT - A foreign substance introduced into a bondline, laminate, or core material during the layup process that degrades the strength of the part. CROSS-LINKING - The joining of molecular chains in a thermoset material into a three dimensional rigid structure. The joining occurs via chemical reaction with a curing agent during the cure process. CURE - The chemical process during which a thermosetting resin is irreversibly changed from a weak flexible material into a strong rigid material. Both polymerization and crosslinking occur during this process. CURING AGENT (1) The chemical compound in a thermosetting resin that links molecular chains during the cure process. (2) Part B in a two part adhesive system which combines with the base resin to produce a cured material. D DEGAS - Removal of air and volatiles from a laminate or patch bond during the cure cycle. Air and volatiles not removed during the cure process result in voids. DELAMINATION - The separation of the layers or plies in a laminate. It may occur during fabrication or sometime during the service life of the part. Most frequently caused by impact forces. This term is often confused with the term DISBOND. DESICCANT - A substance which absorbs moisture. A color changing version (calcium sulfate containing cobalt chloride) can be used as a moisture detector during the drying process. DISBOND - Lack of adhesion between members in a bonded joint or part. It can occur during part fabrication or sometime during the service life of the part. It may be caused by improper fit of bonded details, contamination of the adhesive or bonded details during the layup process, failure of the adhesive bondline due to cure cycle stresses, handling damage, or corrosion of metallic bonded members.

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DOUBLE VACUUM DEBULK (DVD) - A wet layup process technique that removes the entrapped air that coauses porosity in standard wet layup laminates. DWELL - SEE SOAK. E ECCENTRICITY - The amount by which two load paths in a bonded or bolted joint are not coincident. EIGHT (8) HARNESS SATIN WEAVE - A weave pattern in which the fill fiber tows proceed over 7 warp fiber tows before passing under a warp fiber tow. This weave pattern is used for fabrication and repair of complex contours and substructure details. (See Figure 5-1). EMBOSSED/STAGED ADHESIVE - Film adhesive subjected to a short duration low temperature heat cycle during which a honeycomb core pattern is imprinted on the adhesive surface. The pattern provides a leak path for volatile extraction during the initial stages of the cure cycle. The staging process also removes residual solvent from the adhesive. ENVELOPE BAG - A vacuum bag that completely surrounds the part. Used for drying honeycomb sandwich parts and when an oven or autoclave is used as the primary heat source for curing repairs. EPOXY - A thermosetting resin made by reaction of epoxide groups. They are used for adhesives and are the most commonly used matrix materials for structures manufactured from ACM. Most epoxies have an upper service temperature limit of 250F. EXOTHERM - The liberation of heat during the curing of a thermosetting resin. EXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS - A measurement of the ability of a material to resist elongation (or extension) when a load is applied. F FIBER TOW - An untwisted bundle of strands or filaments. These bundles typically contain approximately 3000 filaments. FIBER - A strand of material with length as its one major dimension. It is used as the principal load carrying member in a composite laminate.

FIBER DIRECTION - The orientation or alignment of fibers within a laminate with respect to a stated reference direction. FILM ADHESIVE - One part adhesive systems cast into thin sheets during adhesive manufacture. The sheet is supported by a scrim cloth carrier material. FILL DIRECTION - The direction of the fiber tows in a woven laminate that are oriented at right angles to the warp tows. (See Figure 5-1). FILLET BOND - The adhesive bond between facesheets and honeycomb core material in a honeycomb sandwich assembly. (See Figure 5-2). FLAT PLY COLLATION - To collect or arrange plies of composite material during the layup process in the proper sequence and orientation on a flat surface. FLEET SUPPORT TEAM (FST) - The team assigned the responsibility to perform in-service engineering and logistics functions for a particular weapons system. FLOW - The movement of an uncured resin under heat and pressure. The amount of flow of an uncured resin is a measure of the degree of aging the material has experienced. It can be an indicator of how usable the material is for performing repairs. FLUTTER - A condition experienced by fully reversible flight control surfaces (rudders, ailerons, stabilizers) that can result in part failure. The condition may be caused by addition of weight during the repair process or by the repair adversely altering the part stiffness. FOAMING ADHESIVE - An epoxy film adhesive containing a blowing agent. It is used as a strong, lightweight core splice material. G GEL - The point during the cure of a thermoset material when the viscosity increases to the point where flow is no longer possible. GRAPHITE FIBER - Carbon based fiber with a higher extensional stiffness and higher percentage of elemental carbon than the carbon fiber (see CARBON FIBER).

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GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE (Tg) - The temperature at which a cured thermoset material softens from a glassy state to a rubbery state. The effect is completely reversible. ACM experience a considerable loss in strength and stiffness at temperatures above their Tg. H HONEYCOMB CORE - Thin foil (metallic or non-metallic) formed to a cellular configuration. The foil is bonded at node points to form the core. When bonded to relatively thin facesheets, it provides a strong, lightweight assembly with exceptional stiffness. I IMPACT ENERGY - The energy resulting from dropped tools, equipment, or other objects striking an object. This energy may cause dents and/or delamination damage to composite laminates depending upon the amount of energy imparted to the laminate. The energy is measured in footpounds. Note: A two pound object dropped from six feet imparts twelve foot-pounds of impact energy on the part surface. INCHES OF MERCURY VACUUM - A common unit of measure of the amount of vacuum obtained by a vacuum pump. One inch of mercury equals approximately 0.5 pounds per square inch of vacuum pressure. INTERPLY - At ply interfaces (between plies). INTRAPLY - Within a ply. J JOINT - For repair, the means by which a patch and structure are joined together to restore load path continuity. This may be accomplished by either bonding or bolting the patch and structure together. K KEVLAR - The registered trade mark for the aramid fiber produced by the E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Incorporated, and used on naval aircraft. See ARAMID FIBER. L LAMINA - A single layer in a laminate. The layer contains fibers and matrix material in either unidirectional or woven form.

LAMINAE - Plural of lamina. LAMINATE - A structural member made by bonding together two or more layers (plies or laminae) of material. Matrix material from each lamina is used as the bonding agent. LAMINATION - The process of laying up a laminate. LAYUP - The process of fabrication involving the placement of successive layers of materials. M MATRIX - The material that supports the fibers in ACM. Matrix materials used in advanced composites on naval aircraft consist of epoxies, bismaleimides and polyimides. MATRIX CRACKS - Resin cracks that exist at ply interfaces (interply) as well as between fibers within a ply (intraply). MICROCRACKING - Microscopic cracks in the matrix material. Commonly caused by cooling down from the cure temperature at too high a rate (in excess of 5F per minute). MIX RATIO - The ratio of part A to part B to be mixed in a two part adhesive system. MOISTURE ABSORPTION - The pickup of water vapor from the air by adhesives and composite materials in either the cured or uncured state. Uncured materials pickup water vapor at a much higher rate than cured materials. MOLDLINE (INNER AND OUTER) - The surface of a part. Inner moldline, or IML refers to the inner surface of a part. Outer moldline or OML refers to the outer surface of the part (usually the side exposed to the airstream). MOLDLINE PROTRUSION - Stick-out above the surface of a part. This stick out may interfere with airflow over the part surface or cause interference with interior mating surfaces or equipment. MONOLITHIC LAMINATES - Composite laminates, typically thicker than 0.25 inch, used for structures such as wing and vertical tail skins. These skins are mechanically fastened to spar and rib substructure members. N NDI - Nondestructive inspection. A procedure for determining if defects are present in a material, part, or assembly without permanently altering its physical or

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mechanical characteristics. Ultrasonic and radiographic methods are commonly used on ACM. NDI COUPLANT - A material (usually a liquid) used during ultrasonic inspection as an interface to eliminate air gaps between the part being inspected and the ultrasonic transducer. NESTING - Turning every other ply of woven cloth during layup so that the fiber tows of one ply lay in the valleys of the adjacent ply. This layup technique only applies to adjacent plies of the same orientation. No advantage is obtained when making repair patches with varied ply orientations. NODES - The bonded areas along thin ribbons of material that form honeycomb core. (See Figure 5-2). O OUT-TIME - The cumulative amount of time a film adhesive is exposed to temperatures above its storage temperature. When the allowed out-time is exceeded, the material must either be tested or discarded. P PASTE ADHESIVE - A two part adhesive systems consisting of a base resin and a curing agent. The base resin contains some type of filler material as a modifier. These adhesives require measuring and mixing of both parts before the chemical reaction which results in curing takes place. PEEL PLY - Nylon or polyester woven cloth applied to the outer surfaces of a laminate during the layup process. The cloth becomes an integral part of the laminate. It provides a textured wrinkle free surface and is subsequently peeled off prior to bonding or painting. PEEL PLY IMPRESSION - Surface texture left on the thin resin rich outer surface of a laminate following removal of peel ply. PLAIN WEAVE - A weave pattern in which the fill fiber tows alternately proceed over and under warp fiber tows. This weave pattern is used primarily for flat parts. PLY - See LAMINA PLY ORIENTATION - The orientation or alignment of an individual ply within a laminate with respect to a stated reference direction.

POLYIMIDE (PI) - A thermosetting polyimide resin system with a high service temperature (550F). Polyimides are used as both adhesives and matrix materials. POLYMERIZATION - The chemical reaction during which small molecules are connected by chemical bonds into large molecular chains. POROSITY - Small areas of trapped pockets of air or gas that occur in cured laminates and adhesive bondlines. These small pockets may coalesce into voids. POROUS RELEASE CLOTH - Fiber glass cloth lightly coated with teflon. The resulting cloth is porous allowing resin and gas passage without bonding to the resin or part. POSITIVE PRESSURE CURE - The process by which a repair is cured under pressure without the use of vacuum. This pressure may be applied using mechanical means or by an autoclave with the vacuum bag vented to atmosphere. POST-CURE - The application of additional heat to a thermosetting material to either complete the cure or increase cross-linking of an already cured material. POT LIFE - The amount of time elapsed between the time a two part adhesive is mixed and the time when the material hardens into an unworkable state. PREPREG - Thin sheets or rolls of either unidirectional fibers or woven fibers preimpregnated with a B-staged resin. It is the basic material used in the manufacture of ACM laminates. PRIMER - A very thin coating of diluted adhesive in the liquid state applied and cured on metallic surfaces to be bonded. They are used on metallic materials to promote adhesion, provide corrosion resistance and protect pretreated details to allow extended storage. They are not required on surfaces manufactured from ACM. PULSE-ECHO ULTRASONICS - An ultrasonic test method in which ultrasound energy is sent and received by a single search unit or transducer. PYROLYSIS - Decomposition of a material due to the application of heat. Q QUASI-ISOTROPIC LAMINATE - A laminate with approximately the same strength and extensional stiffness in all directions. This is achieved by orientation of plies in several directions. These laminates are not orientation sensitive from a strength or stiffness standpoint. Glossary-5

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R RELEASE AGENT - A material, usually a liquid, applied to layup tools or other repair tools to prevent resin from sticking to them. RELEASE FILM - A thin heat resistant film used to provide a nonstick surface. RESIN - An organic material used in film adhesives, paste adhesives and matrix materials. RESIN CONTENT (1) The amount of matrix material present in prepreg. Prepreg materials typically have higher resin contents than cured laminates. The excess resin is bled during the cure process. (2) The amount of matrix material present in a cured laminate. Uneven resin bleeding can result in areas in the laminate that are either resin rich or resin starved. RESIN BLEED - See BLEEDING. RIBBON DIRECTION - In honeycomb core material, the direction of the continuous foil. (See Figures 5-2 and 5-3). ROUTER SET BACK - The distance between the cutting surface of a router bit and the edge of the router guide that interfaces with the router template. (See Figure 6-2). RUNAWAY REACTION - A condition in which the heat liberated during the curing of a thermoset material is not able to escape (usually due to an excessive amount of material being cured) and accelerates the chemical reaction. This acceleration liberates more heat resulting in further acceleration of the reaction until an uncontrolled reaction results. S SCARF JOINT - A flush high load transfer joint obtained by tapering the laminate from the damage cleanup hole to a prescribed outline dimension on the laminate surface. (See Figure 6-7). SCRIM CLOTH - A nylon or polyester monofilament woven reinforcing cloth used to support uncured film adhesives. It is also used for flow and bondline thickness control in both films and pastes. Close knit weaves act as a corrosion barrier between bonded carbon/epoxy patches and aluminum honeycomb core.

SECONDARY BOND - Bonding of precured composite skins or precured repair patches to a part using adhesive. SEPARATOR SHEET - Thin release film used to prevent uncured film adhesive or prepreg material from adhering to itself when rolled. SERVICE ENVIRONMENT - The range of worst case operating temperature and moisture condition the part is subjected to during its service life. Materials used for manufacture and repair must be strong enough to resist loads applied to the part throughout this environment. SERVICE TEMPERATURE - The maximum temperature the material can withstand without loss of mechanical properties. For polymer matrix composites, this condition usually is determined for moisture saturated materials. Service temperatures are typically 100F lower than their cure temperature. SHEAR - The force on a joining material (adhesive or mechanical fastener) resulting from the application of two parallel but opposite loads. SHELF-LIFE - The length of time an uncured material can be stored at a specified temperature. Film adhesive shelflife is based on a storage temperature of 0 F or below. Shelf-life for 2 part adhesive systems is dependent upon storage temperature. (See paragraph 5-4). SOAK - The phase during the cure of a thermoset material during which time the application of temperature and/or pressure is held constant. The majority of the cure is performed during this phase. (See Figures 6-33 and 6-35). SOLVENT - A liquid material used for cleaning. The material dissolves solids from contaminated surfaces. It must be wiped dry prior to evaporation to prevent spreading the contamination over the entire surface. For bonded repairs to ACM, it is used to remove aircraft grease and other fluids prior to beginning the repair, and to flush contaminates from disbonds and delaminations. It is not used during surface preparation for bonded repairs. STACKING SEQUENCE - The order in which successive plies of material are layed up in a composite laminate. Application of plies in the incorrect sequence can result in warping of laminates and premature failure when load is applied.

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STEP JOINT - A flush, high load transfer joint obtained by machining controlled length and controlled depth steps in the laminate. (See Figure 6-7). STIFFNESS - The ability of a material or structure to resist applied loads (bending, torsion, tension, compression, shear) without encountering excessive deflection. STRENGTH - A measure of a materials ability to resist applied loads (bending, torsion, tension, compression, shear) without failing. T TACK - The slight amount of stickiness exhibited by an uncured adhesive or prepreg material. This stickiness is used to facilitate the layup process as the materials tend to form a weak bond with one another. Lack of tack can be an indicator that the material has aged excessively. THERMAL DAMAGE - Damage incurred by a cured adhesive or ACM from excessive heat application. Typical damage may be the result of an aircraft fire or runaway heat blanket. THERMOSET MATERIAL - A material that undergoes an irreversible chemical reaction resulting in a hard, infusible solid. THROUGH-TRANSMISSION ULTRASONICS - An ultrasonic test method in which ultrasound energy is sent by one transducer and received by a second transducer. U UNBOND - See DISBOND UNDERCURE - A condition following the cure cycle of a thermoset material where the material has not fully cured. A significant reduction in strength can result. UNIDIRECTIONAL MATERIAL - A prepreg material or laminate with all the fibers are in the same direction. Unidirectional laminates are impractical for aircraft use. They are used as test coupons.

V VACUUM BAGGING - The process of sealing a layup under an airtight flexible sheet of bag material. Air is evacuated from the bag using a vacuum pump allowing atmospheric pressure to be applied to the layup. VISCOSITY - A measure of the ability of an uncured resin to resist flow. As the age of the resin increases, ability to flow decreases and its viscosity increases. VOIDS - Spaces in a cured laminate or adhesive bondline that contain air or other trapped gases instead of resin. Void areas are essentially incapable of transmitting structural loads and can result in a st