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LABORATORY MANUAL

TIRUCHENGODE - 637215

Register No

that

this

is

the

bonafide

record

of

.................Laboratory.

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

2

LABORATORY REGULATIONS AND SAFETY RULES The following Regulations and Safety Rules must be observed in all concerned laboratory location. It is the duty of all concerned who use any electronics laboratory to take all reasonable steps to safeguard the HEALTH and SAFETY of themselves and all other users and visitors. Be sure that all equipment is properly working before using them for laboratory exercises. Any defective equipment must be reported immediately to the Lab. Instructors or Lab. Technical Staff. Students are allowed to use only the equipment provided in the experiment manual. Power supply terminals connected to any circuit are only energized with the presence of the Instructor or Lab. Staff. Avoid any part of your body to be connected to the energized circuit and ground. Switch off the equipment and disconnect the power supplies from the circuit before leaving the laboratory. Observe cleanliness and proper laboratory house keeping of the

equipment and other related accessories. Make sure that the last connection to be made in your circuit is the power supply and first thing to be disconnected is also the power supply. Equipment should not be removed, transferred to any location without permission from the laboratory staff. Students are not allowed to use any equipment without proper orientation and actual hands on equipment operation.

EXTRACT OF ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS DIGITAL LABORATORY COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Verification of Boolean theorems using digital logic gates 2. Design and implementation of combinational circuits using basic gates for arbitrary functions, code converters, etc. 3. Design and implementation of 4-bit binary adder / subtractor using basic gates and MSI devices 4. Design and implementation of parity generator / checker using basic gates and MSI devices 5. Design and implementation of magnitude comparator 6. Design and implementation of application using multiplexers/Demultiplexers 7. Design of RS and JK flip flops Using NAND gates 8. Design and implementation of Shift registers 9. Design and implementation of Synchronous counters 10. Design and implementation of Asynchronous counters 11. Simulation of combinational circuits using Hardware Description Language (VHDL/ Verilog HDL software required) 12. Simulation of sequential circuits using HDL (VHDL/ Verilog HDL software required)

INDEX

S.NO DATE EXPERIMENT NAME PAGE NO MARKS SIGN

I CYCLE EXPERIMENTS 1

Verification of Boolean theorems using digital logic gates Design and implementation of combinational circuits using basic gates for arbitrary functions, code converters, etc. Design and implementation of 4-bit binary

adder / subtractor using basic gates and MSI devices Design and implementation of parity generator / checker using basic gates and MSI devices Design and implementation of magnitude comparator Design and implementation of application using multiplexers/Demultiplexers

4 5 6

II CYCLE EXPERIMENTS 7 8 9 10

Design of RS and JK flip flops Using NAND gates Design and implementation of Shift registers Design and implementation of Synchronous counters Design and implementation of Asynchronous counters Simulation of combinational circuits using Hardware Description Language (VHDL/ Verilog HDL software required) Simulation of sequential circuits using HDL (VHDL/ Verilog HDL software required)

11

12

Total Average

Staff In-Charge

A Bread-Board is used in a laboratory for constructing the different circuits and testing them. This is very useful since here; we do not have to solder the different components. Soldering, as you know can be very time consuming. Further, we can reuse the components again and again, since they are not cut and soldered. Let us learn below how we can use the breadboard for such applications. The breadboard contains a number of metal clips aligned beneath the array of holes so that when we insert the lead of a component (say, resistor) inside a hole, the clip grips the lead tightly. Observe the figure. Fig(a) shows a metal clip before a component inserted, while Fig(b) shows after the lead inserted. Fig(c) shows a clip which is beneath an array of 5-holes. All the five holes correspond to one node since all of them are connected together electrically by the metal clip. That means up to 5 wires can be connected to this single node.

Postulate/Theorem X+0=X X + X = 1 X+X=X X+1=1 (X) = X X+Y=Y+X X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y) + Z X.(Y + Z) = X.Y + X.Z (X + Y) = XY X + XY = X X.Y = Y.X X.1 = X X.X = 0 X.X = X X.0 = 0

Duality

Remarks -

Bit Grouping: Bit Crumb, Tydbit, or Tayste Nibble or Nybble Nickle Byte Deckle Playte Dynner Word Arithmetic Notations: Augend Minuend Multiplicand Dividend + X / Addend Subtrahend Multiplier Divisor = = = = Sum Difference Product Quotient A single, bivalent unit of binary. Equivalent to a Two bits. Four bits. Five bits. Eight bits. Ten bits. Sixteen bits. Thirty-two bits. (system dependent). decimal "digit."

10

EXP. NO : 1 DATE : VERIFICATION OF BOOLEAN THEOREMS USING DIGITAL LOGIC GATES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To verify the truth table of basic Boolean algebric laws by using logic gates. Components Required: S.NO 1 COMPONENTS Digital IC trainer kit RANGE 7400 7402 7404 7408 7432 7486 QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 As required

IC

3 4 Theory:

Demorgans Theorems First Theorem: It states that the complement of a product is equal to the sum of the complements. (AB) =A +B Second Theorem: It states that the complement of a sum is equal to the product of the complements. (A+B) =A.B Boolean Laws: Boolean algebra is a mathematical system consisting of a set of two or more distinct elements, two binary operators denoted by the symbols (+) and (.) and one unary operator denoted by the symbol either bar (-) or prime (). They satisfy the commutative, associative, distributive and absorption properties of the Boolean algebra. Commutative Property: Boolean addition is commutative, given by A+B=B+A Boolean algebra is also commutative over multiplication, given by A.B=B.A

11

De-Morgans Theorem: 1

De-Morgans Theorem: 2

12

Associative Property: The associative property of addition is given by A+ (B+C) = (A+B) +C The associative law of multiplication is given by A. (B.C) = (A.B).C Distributive Property: The Boolean addition is distributive over Boolean multiplication, given by A+BC = (A+B) (A+C) Boolean multiplication is also distributive over Boolean addition given by A. (B+C) = A.B+A.C Realization of circuits for Boolean expression after simplification: A binary variable can take the value of 0 or 1. A Boolean function is an expression formed with binary operator OR, AND and a unary operator NOT, parenthesis function can be 0 or 1. For example, consider the function

The prime implicants are found by using the elimination of complementary function. The circuit diagram for the function is drawn using AND.OR and NOT gates. The output for the corresponding input of A1, A0, B1, BO is calculated and the truth table is drawn. Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given.

13

Commutative Law:

Associative Law:

Truth Table:

Input A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A+B 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

14

15

Distributive Law:

Truth Table:

16

17

18

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the verification of Boolean laws and theorems using digital logic gates were performed.

19

Input A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

20

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS USING BASIC GATES FOR ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS AND CODE CONVERTERS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement a combinational circuit to convert gray code to Binary and BCD to Excess-3 vice versa. Components Required: S.NO 1 2 COMPONENTS Digital IC Trainer kit IC RANGE 7404 7408 7432 7486 QUANTITY 1 1 2 1 1 As required 1

3 4 Theory:

Binary to Gray Vice versa: The binary coded decimal (BCD) code is one of the early computer codes. Each decimal digit is independently converted to a 4 bit binary number. A binary code will have some unassigned bit combinations if the number of elements in the set is not a multiple power of 2. The 10 decimal digits form such a set. A binary code that distinguishes among 10 elements must contain at least four bits, but 6 out of the 16 possible combinations remain unassigned. Different binary codes can be obtained by arranging four bits in 10 distinct combinations. The code most commonly used for the decimal digits is the straight binary assignment. This is called binary coded decimal. The gray code is used in applications where the normal sequence of binary numbers may produce an error or ambiguity during the transition from one number to the next. If binary numbers are used, a change from 0111 to 1100 may produce an intermediate erroneous number 1001 if the rightmost bit takes longer to change in value than the other three bits. The gray code eliminates this problem since only one bit changes in value during any transition between two numbers.

21

22

BCD to Excess 3 Vice versa: Excess 3 code is a modified form of a BCD number. The excess 3 code can be derived from the natural BCD code by adding 3 to each coded number. For example, decimal 6 can be represented in BCD as 0110. Now adding 3 to the given number yield equivalent excess 3 code i.e., 6 + 3 = 9 0110 + 0011 = 1001. Thus for the entire sequence of BCD value (i.e., 0 to 9) excess 3 equivalent table should be made so that the realization of Boolean expression for the circuit implementation is feasible. In the reverse process of designing a code converter from excess 3 to BCD the same procedure is followed. Here are the general steps to be followed while going for a code converter design, start with the specification of the circuit to be designed. Identify the inputs and outputs Derive truth table Obtain simplified Boolean equations Draw the logic diagram Check the design to verify correctness with the truth/verification table.

23

Logic Diagram:

Pin Diagram:

24

Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given.

25

G3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Gray (Input) G2 G1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

G0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

B3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Binary (Output) B2 B1 B0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

26

27

Logic Diagram:

Truth Table:

Decimal Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

BCD Input A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Excess 3 output W 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 X 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 Y 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

28

29

Circuit Diagram:

30

31

Truth Table:

Decimal Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Excess 3 Input W 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 X 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 Y 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

BCD Output B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

32

33

Circuit Diagram:

34

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the combinational circuit for an arbitrary function, code converter using logic gates was designed, implemented and tested its performance with truth table.

35

Logic Diagram:

Pin Diagram:

36

EXP. NO : 3 DATE : USING MSI DEVICES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement a four bit binary adder / subtractor using MSI devices. Apparatus Required: S.NO 1 2 3 Theory: Digital computers perform a variety of information processing tasks. Among the functions encountered are the various arithmetic operations. The most basic arithmetic operation is the addition of two binary digits. This simple addition consists of four possible elementary operations: 0+0=0, 0+1=1, 1+0=0 and 1+1=10. A binary adder-subtractor is a combinational circuit that performs the arithmetic operations of addition and subtraction with binary numbers. A combinational circuit that performs the addition of two bits is called half adder. One that performs the addition of three bits is a full adder. A binary adder is a digital circuit that produces the arithmetic sum of two binary numbers. Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Power supply is switched ON and a voltage of 5v is maintained. 3. Four bit binary number is given and verifies the sum result. 4. If the adder or subtractor signal is low addition is performed. 5. If the adder or subtractor signal is high subtractor result is verified. COMPONENTS IC trainer kit ICs Connecting wires RANGE 7483 7486 QUANTITY 1 1 1 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF 4 BIT BINARY ADDER / SUBTRACTOR

37

Verification Table:

Binary inputs

38

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the 4 bit parallel adder/subtractor was implemented and tested using the MSI device IC 7483.

39

D1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Data Inputs D2 D3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

D4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

40

EXP. NO : 4 DATE : DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PARITY GENERATOR AND CHECKER --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement the parity generator and checker using logic gates and verify its performance with the verification table. Components Required: S.NO 1 2 3 4 Theory: Parity generator: A parity bit is a scheme of detecting error during transmitting of binary information. A parity bit is an extra bit included with a binary message to make the number of 1s either odd or even. Parity generators are used in digital transmission system for the errorless transmission of digital data. A parity bit is added to the data before the transmission and it will be checked for the correctness at the receiver end. There are two types of parity systems, even parity and odd parity. In the even parity system if the number of 1s in the data word is odd, a 1 will be added as a parity bit to the data to make total number of 1s even. If the number of 1s even, a 0 bit will be added. In the odd parity system if the number of 1s in the data word is odd, a 0 will be added to make the number of 1s odd. Otherwise, a 1 is added to make it odd. The circuit shown in the figure is used as a parity generator as well as a checker. ABCD is the 4-bit data word. Pi and Po are the parity input and parity output respectively. The working of the circuit can be concluded as follows, Work as a Parity generator: To generate an odd parity bit for ABCD, Pi must be made 0. To generate an even parity bit for ABCD, Pi must be made1. Work as a parity checker: If the parity of ABCD Pi is odd, Po will be 0. If the parity of ABCD Pi is even, Po will be 1. COMPONENTS Digital IC Trainer kit IC Connecting wires Bread board RANGE 7486 7474 7404 QUANTITY 1 1 2 1 As required 1

41

Circuit Diagram:

Pin Diagrams:

42

The message, including the parity bit, is transmitted and then checked at the receiving end for errors. An error detected if the checked parity does not correspond with the one transmitted. The circuit that generates the parity bit in the transmitter is called a parity generator. The circuit that checks the parity in the receiver is called parity checker. In even parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1s an even amount. In odd parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1s an odd amount. Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given.

43

Truth Table for Even Parity Checker PARITY ERROR CHECK PEC 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

44

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the Parity Generator was designed, implemented using logic gates and its performance was verified.

45

46

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF 2 BIT MAGNITUDE COMPARATOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AIM: To design and implement a 2-bit magnitude comparator using logic gates. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: S.NO 1 COMPONENTS Digital Trainer Kit RANGE 7404 7486 7408 7432 QUANTITY 1 1 1 3 1 As required 1

3 4. THEORY:

The comparison of two numbers is an operation that determines if one number is greater than, less than, or equal to the other number. A magnitude comparator is a combinational circuit that compares the two numbers, A and B, and determines their relative magnitude. The circuit for comparing two n-bit numbers has 2n entries in the truth table and becomes too cumbersome even with n=3. On the other hand comparator circuits possess a certain amount of regularity. The algorithm is a direct application of the procedure a person uses to compare the relative magnitudes of two numbers. Consider two numbers, A and B, with four digits each consider A=A3A2A1A0 B=B3B2B1B0 The two numbers are equal if all pairs of significant digits are equal: A3=B3, A2=B2, A1=B1 and A0=B0. When the numbers are binary, the digits are either 0 or 1, and the equality relation of each pair of bits can be expressed logically with an EX-OR function xi =Ai Bi + Ai Bi for i=0,1,2,3 The binary variables A=B=X1X0 =1. A>B= Ai Bi + X1 A0 B0 A<B = Ai Bi + X1 A0 B0

47

Input A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Ai = Bi 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

48

Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given.

Description Preparation Performance Viva Voce Record Total Staff Signature RESULT:

Marks Secured

Thus the 2 bit magnitude comparator was constructed using logic gates and verified with its truth table.

49

Implementation of the following Boolean function F= m (1, 3, 5 6) using multiplexer Truth table Minterm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic diagram: Inputs A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output (F) 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

50

EXP. NO : 6 DATE :

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF APPLICATION USING MULTIPLEXERS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement the combinational logic using multiplexers Components required: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Components Name Digital IC trainer kit IC IC IC Bread Board Connecting wires Range Type 7408 7404 7432 Quantity 1 2 1 1 1 As required

Theory:

The Block diagram shows the implementation of Boolean function using 4:1 multiplexer. The implementation table is nothing but the list of the inputs of the multiplexer and under them list of all the minterms in two columns. The first column lists all the minterms where least significant variable is complemented (C), and the second column lists all the minterms with least significant variable is un-complemented (C). The minterms given in the function are circled and then each row is inspected separately as follows. If the two minterms in a row are not circled, 0 is applied to corresponding multiplexer input. If the two minterms in a row are circled, 1 is applied to corresponding multiplexer input. If the minterm in the column 1 is circled, least significant variable is complemented (C) and applied to the corresponding multiplexer input. If the minterm in the column 2 is circled, least significant variable is uncomplemented (C) and applied to the corresponding multiplexer input. 51

52

Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given.

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the implementation of the given Boolean function using multiplexer was designed, implemented and verified with its truth table.

53

Characteristic Table:

Qn(P.S) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

S 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Truth Table:

R 0 0 1 1

S 0 1 0 1

Note: N.C

No Change; N.S

Present State

54

EXP. NO : 7 DATE : DESIGN OF RS AND JK FLIP FLOPS USING NAND GATES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement RS and JK flip-flop using NAND gates. Components Required: S.NO 1 2 3 4 Theory: Flip-flop: The memory cell has only two states. It can be either 0 or 1. Such two state sequential circuits are called flip-flops, because they flip from one state to another and then flop back. A flip-flop is also known as bistable multivibrator, latch or toggle. Types of flip-flop: There are four different (basic) types of flip-flop. They are 1. SR flip-flop 2. JK flip-flop 3. D flip-flop and 4. T flip-flop. Set-Reset (S-R) Flip-Flop: The S-R flip-flop has two inputs, namely SET and RESET and two outputs Q and Q. The two outputs are complement to each other. The S-R flip-flop can be easily implemented using NAND gates. The operation of NAND S-R flip-flop can be analyzed in the same manner employed for the NOR flip-flop. If any one of the inputs is low for the NAND gate then it will force the output high. This flip-flop is called as S-R flip-flop, i.e., here S=0 and R=1 will set the flip-flop. J-K Flip-Flop: A J-K flip-flop has a characteristic similar to that of an S-R flip-flop. In addition, the indeterminate condition of the S-R flip-flop is permitted in it. Inputs J and K behave like inputs S and R to set and reset the flip-flop respectively. When J=K=1, the flip-flop output toggles, i.e., switches to its complement state. If q=0, it switches to Q=1 and vice versa. COMPONENTS Digital IC trainer kit ICs Connecting wires Bread Board RANGE 7400 QUANTITY 1 1 As required 1

55

Characteristic Table:

Qn(P.S) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

K 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

J 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Qn+1(N.S) 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0

Truth Table:

K 0 0 1 1

J 0 1 0 1

Qn+1 Qn(N.C) 1 0

Note: N.C

No Change; N.S

Present State

56

Description Preparation Performance Viva Voce Record Total Staff Signature Result:

Marks Secured

Thus the flip-flops RS and JK were designed and implemented using NAND gates and verified with their truth tables.

57

58

EXP. NO : 8 DATE : DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SHIFT REGISTERS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design, implement and verify the functioning of shift right registers (all types) using D flip-flop. Components Required: S.NO 1 COMPONENTS Digital IC trainer kit RANGE 7474 7408 7404 7432 QUANTITY 1 2 2 1 1 1

ICs

3 4 Theory:

A register that is used to store binary information is known as a memory register. A register capable of shifting binary information either to the right or the left is called a shift register. Shift registers are classified into four types, 1. Serial-in Serial-out (SISO) 2. Serial-in Parallel-out (SIPO) 3. Parallel-in Serial-out (PISO) 4. Parallel-in Parallel-out (PIPO) Serial-in Serial-out (SISO): This type of shift registers accepts data serially, i.e., one bit at a time on a single input line. It produces the stored information on its single output and the output also in serial form. Data may be shifted left (from low to high order bits) using shift-left register or shifted right (from high to low order bits) using shift-right register. Serial-in Parallel-out (SIPO): It consists of one serial input, and outputs are taken from all the flip-flop simultaneously in parallel. In this register, data is shifted in serially but shifted out in parallel. In order to shift the data out in parallel, it is necessary to have all the data available at the outputs at the same time. Once the data is stored, each bit appears on its respective output line and all the bits are available simultaneously, rather than on a bit by bit basis as with the serial output. Parallel-in Serial-out (PISO): This type of shift register accepts data parallel, i.e., the bits are entered simultaneously into their respective flip-flops rather than a bit-by-bit basis on one line.

59

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Parallel-in Parallel-out (PIPO): In this type of register, data inputs can be shifted either in or out of the register in parallel. Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given.

61

Verification Table:

Pin Diagram:

62

Description Preparation Performance Viva Voce Record Total Staff Signature Result:

Marks Secured

Thus the shift registers using D flip-flop were implemented and studied their operation in 4 different modes.

63

State Table (3 bit synchronous binary UP counter) Present State A B C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 A+ 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Next State B+ C+ 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 JK Flip-Flop Inputs KA JB KB JC X 0 X 1 X 1 X X X X 0 1 X X 1 X 0 0 X 1 0 1 X X 0 X 0 1 1 X 1 X

JA 0 0 0 1 X X X X

KC X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1

JK Excitation Table:

Qn 0 0 1 1

Qn+1 0 1 0 1

J 0 1 X X

K X X 1 0

64

EXP. NO : 9 DATE : DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement a 3-bit synchronous binary up and down counter using JK flip-flop. Components Required:

S.NO 1 2 3 4 Theory:

QUANTITY 1 2 1 1 As required 1

A Synchronous counter is also called parallel counter. In this counter the clock inputs of all the flip-flops are connected together so that the input clock signal is applied simultaneously to each flip-flop. Also, only the LSB flip-flop C has its J and K inputs connected permanently to Vcc while the J and K inputs of the other flip-flops are driven by some combination of flip-flop outputs. 3 Bit Synchronous Binary UP Counter: The J and K inputs of the flip-flop B are connected to with QC. The J and K inputs of the flip-flop A, are connected with AND operated output of QC and QB. The flip-flop C changes its state when with the occurrence of negative transition at each clock pulse. The flip-flop B changes its state when QC = 1 and when there is negative transition at clock input. Flip-flop A changes its state when QC = QB = 1 and when there is negative transition at clock input. 3 Bit Synchronous Binary DOWN Counter: The J and K inputs of the flip-flop B are connected to with QC. The J and K inputs of the flip-flop A, are connected with AND operated output of QC and QB. The flip-flop C changes its state when with the occurrence of negative transition at each clock pulse. The flip-flop B changes its state when QC = 1 and when there is negative transition at clock input. Flip-flop A changes its state when QC = QB = 1 and when there is negative transition at clock input.

65

Circuit Diagram:

66

Pin Diagram:

67

State Table (3 bit synchronous binary DOWN counter) Present State A B C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 Next State B+ C+ 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 JK Flip-Flop Inputs KA JB KB JC X 1 X 1 X 0 X X X X 1 1 X X 0 X 1 1 X 1 0 0 X X 0 X 1 1 0 X 0 X

A+ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

JA 1 0 0 0 X X X X

KC X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1

JK Excitation Table:

Qn 0 0 1 1

Qn+1 0 1 0 1

J 0 1 X X

K X X 1 0

Circuit Diagram:

68

69

70

71

Circuit Diagram:

72

Description Preparation Performance Viva Voce Record Total Staff Signature Result:

Marks Secured

Thus the synchronous up, down and BCD counters were designed using JK flip-flop and verified with their state table.

73

Q3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Q2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

Q1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Circuit Diagram:

74

EXP. NO : 10 DATE : DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aim: To design and implement a 4-bit asynchronous binary up and down counter using JK flip-flop. Components Required: S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 Theory: A counter, by function, is a sequential circuit consisting of a set of flip-flops connected in a suitable manner to count the sequence of the input pulses presented to it digital form. An asynchronous counter, each flip-flop is triggered by the output from the previous flip-flop which limits its speed of operation. The settling time in asynchronous counters, is the cumulative sum of the individual settling times of flip-flops. It is also called a serial counter. The asynchronous counter is the simplest in terms of logical operations, and is therefore the easiest to design. In this counter, all the flip-flops are not under the control of a single clock. Here, the clock pulse is applied to the first flip-flop, i.e. the least significant bit stage of the counter, and the successive flip-flop is triggered by the output is constructed using clocked JK flip-flops. The system clock, a square wave, drives flipflop A (LSB). The output of A drives flip-flop B, the output of B drives flip-flop C. all the J and K inputs connected to Vcc (High (1)), which means that each flip-flop toggles on the edge (-ve) clock pulse. Consider initially all flip-flops to be in the logical 0 state (i.e. QA=QB=QC=QD=0). A negative transition in the clock input which drives flip-flop A causes QA to change from 0 to 1. Flip-flop B doesnt change its state since it is also requires negative transition at its clock input, i.e. it requires its clock input (QA) to change from 1 to 0. With arrival of second clock pulse to flip-flop A, QA goes from 1 to 0. This change of state creates the negative going edge needed to trigger flip-flop B, and thus QB goes from 0 to 1. Before the arrival of the 16th clock pulse, all the flip-flops are in the logical 1 state. Clock pulse 16 causes QA, QB, QC and QD to go logical 0 state in turn. COMPONENTS Digital IC trainer kit IC Bread board Connecting wires RANGE 7476 7400 QUANTITY 1 2 1 1 1 As required

75

Circuit Diagram:

76

Procedure: 1. Test the individual ICs with its specified verification table for proper working. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit/logic diagram. 3. Make sure that the ICs are enabled by giving the suitable Vcc and ground connections. 4. Apply the logic inputs to the appropriate terminals of the ICs. 5. Observe the logic output for the inputs applied. 6. Verify the observed logic output with the verification/truth table given. Pin Diagram:

77

Circuit Diagram:

78

Description Preparation Performance Viva Voce Record Total Staff Signature Result:

Marks Secured

Thus the asynchronous up, down and BCD counters were constructed and tested the operations with the help of their verification tables.

79

HDL for combinational logic VHDL code for logic gates OR gate library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity gor is port(a,b: in std_logic; c:out std_logic); end gor; architecture arc_gor of gor is begin c <= a or b; end arc_gor; VHDL code for logic gates NAND gate library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity nandg is port(a,b: in std_logic; c:out std_logic); end nandg; architecture arc_ nandg of nandg is begin c <= a nand b; end arc_ nandg; VHDL code for logic gates Ex-OR gate library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity gxor is port(a,b: in std_logic; c:out std_logic); end gxor; architecture arc_gxor of gxor is begin c <= a xor b; end arc_gxor;

80

EXP. NO : 11 DATE Aim: result using EDA tool. 1. Logic Gates (OR , NAND and EX-OR) 2. Half adder and Full adder Components Required S.No 1 2 Component Name Personal Computer EDA Tool (ModelSim 5.5e) Range / Type Quantity 1 : HDL FOR COMBINATIONAL LOGIC To write a VHDL code for the combinational circuits given below and simulate the

Theory: The basic steps involved in the Digital System Design are, 1. Specify the desired behavior of the circuit. 3. Implement the circuit. 4. Test the circuit to check whether the desired specifications meet. But as the size and complexity of digital system increase, they cannot be designed manually because their design becomes highly complex. At their most detailed level, they may consist of millions of elements (Transistors or logic gates). So, Computer aided design (CAD) tools are used in design of digital systems. One such a tool is a Hardware Description Language (HDL). HDL describes the hardware of digital systems. This description is in textual form. The Boolean expressions, logic diagrams and digital circuits (Simple and Complex) can be represented using HDL. The HDL provides the digital designer with a means of describing a digital system at a wide range of levels of abstraction and at the same time, provides access to computer aided design tools to aid in the design process at these levels. The HDL represents digital systems in the form of documentation which can understand by human as well as computers. It allows hardware designers to express their design with behavioral constructs. An abstract representation helps the designer explore architectural alternatives through simulations and to detect design bottlenecks before detailed design begins. The HDL makes it easy to exchange the ideas between the designers. It resembles a programming language, but the orientation of the HDL is specifically towards describing hardware structures and behavior. The storage, retrieval and processing of programs written using HDL can be performed easily and efficiently. HDLs are used to describe hardware for the purpose of simulation, modelling, testing and documentation. 81 2. Synthesize the circuit.

VHDL for full adder Structural Model -- Library Declaration library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use work.all; -- Entity Declaration entity fa is port (a,b,c:in std_logic; sum,cout: out std_logic); end fa; -- Architecture Declaration Structural Model architecture arc_fa of fa is component ha port(a,b:in std_logic; s,c:out std_logic); end component; component gor port(a,b:in std_logic; c:out std_logic); end component; signal s1,c1,c2:std_logic; begin ha1:ha port map(a,b,s1,c1); ha2:ha port map(s1,c,sum,c2); or1:gor port map(c1,c2,cout); end arc_fa;

VHDL for half adder Data Flow Model library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity ha is port ( a,b: in std_logic; s,c: out std_logic); end ha; architecture arc_ha of ha is begin s <= a xor b; c <= a and b; end arc_ha;

82

Procedure: 1. Click the ModelSim SE 5.5e icon to start the simulation of VHDL code. 2. Select create a project options given on the welcome screen in order to create a new project otherwise choose open a project to open the existing project. 3. Proper project name should be given along with the location to save the project in the create project window. 4. In the main window go to file editor window. 5. Enter the VHDL source code on that source editor window and save with the extension .vhd in the project (project created) folder and location specified previously. 6. Select file compile in the source editor window for compiling the written code. load design in the main window after If there is an error debug the error, save and compile again. 7. Load the design by selecting Design successful compilation of the VHDL codes. 8. Select signals from the view menu of the main window for selecting the signals. 9. In signal window, choose edit levels for the signals selected. 10. Select view wave signals in design to view the response of the design (Wave form) with the help of run option from the signal window. 11. Continue the simulation for different input levels with the procedure stated above. force / clock for applying the appropriate input New Source VHDL to get in to the source

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the VHDL Code for the Combinational circuits was developed and simulated using Electronic Design Automation tool.

83

HDL FOR SEQUENTIAL LOGIC VHDL code for flip-flops (D) library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity dff is port(clr,d : in std_logic; clk: in std_logic; q : out std_logic); end dff; architecture arc_dff of dff is begin process(clk) begin if(clr = '0')then q <= '0'; elsif (clk = '1' and clk'event) then q <= d; end if; end process; end arc_dff; VHDL for Synchronous UP/DOWN counter Library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity synudcounter is port( clk: in std_logic; clr: in std_logic; ud: in std_logic; cout: inout std_logic_vector(3 downto 0)); end synudcounter; architecture arc_synudcounter of synudcounter is begin process(clk) begin if (clk = '0' and clk'event) then if(clr = '0') then cout <= "0000"; else if(clr = '1' and ud = '0') then cout <= cout + 1; elsif(clr = '1' and ud = '1') then cout <= cout - 1; end if; end if; end if; end process; end arc_synudcounter;

84

EXP. NO : 12 DATE Aim: To write a VHDL code for the sequential circuits given below and simulate the result using EDA tool. 1. D flip flop 2. Synchronous UP / DOWN Counter Components Required S.No 1 2 Component Name Personal Computer EDA Tool (ModelSim 5.5e) Range / Type Quantity 1 : HDL FOR SEQUENTIAL LOGIC

Theory: The basic steps involved in the Digital System Design are, 1. Specify the desired behavior of the circuit. 2. Synthesize the circuit. 3. Implement the circuit. 4. Test the circuit to check whether the desired specifications meet. But as the size and complexity of digital system increase, they cannot be designed manually because their design becomes highly complex. At their most detailed level, they may consist of millions of elements (Transistors or logic gates). So, Computer aided design (CAD) tools are used in design of digital systems. One such a tool is a Hardware Description Language (HDL). HDL describes the hardware of digital systems. This description is in textual form. The Boolean expressions, logic diagrams and digital circuits (Simple and Complex) can be represented using HDL. The HDL provides the digital designer with a means of describing a digital system at a wide range of levels of abstraction and at the same time, provides access to computer aided design tools to aid in the design process at these levels. The HDL represents digital systems in the form of documentation which can understand by human as well as computers. It allows hardware designers to express their design with behavioral constructs. An abstract representation helps the designer explore architectural alternatives through simulations and to detect design bottlenecks before detailed design begins. The HDL makes it easy to exchange the ideas between the designers. It resembles a programming language, but the orientation of the HDL is specifically towards describing hardware structures and behavior. The storage, retrieval and processing of programs written using HDL can be performed easily and efficiently. HDLs are used to describe hardware for the purpose of simulation, modelling, testing and documentation. 85

Procedure: 1. Click the ModelSim SE 5.5e icon to start the simulation of VHDL code. 2. Select create a project options given on the welcome screen in order to create a new project otherwise choose open a project to open the existing project. 3. Proper project name should be given along with the location to save the project in the create project window. 4. In the main window go to file editor window. 5. Enter the VHDL source code on that source editor window and save with the extension .vhd in the project (project created) folder and location specified previously. 6. Select file compile in the source editor window for compiling the written code. load design in the main window after If there is an error debug the error, save and compile again. 7. Load the design by selecting Design successful compilation of the VHDL codes. 8. Select signals from the view menu of the main window for selecting the signals. 9. In signal window, choose edit levels for the signals selected. 10. Select view wave signals in design to view the response of the design (Wave form) with the help of run option from the signal window. 11. Continue the simulation for different input levels with the procedure stated above. force / clock for applying the appropriate input New Source VHDL to get in to the source

Marks Secured

Result: Thus the VHDL Code for the Sequential circuits was developed and simulated using Electronic Design Automation tool.

86

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