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users manual of Construction

(part one)

Transmission Lines
Volume-4 Tower Erection

Construction Management

Power Grid Corporation of India Limited

(A Government of India Enterprise)




Four Ms viz. men, material, machine & money are vital to run an organization. However the key to success of the organization lies the way our employees structure and manage the construction, operation and maintenance activities of transmission system. Construction activitiy in transmission system is an important aspect and time, quality and cost are its critical parameters.

Experience, no doubt, is a great teacher and a valuable asset. However, the knowledge of underlined principles of sound working is also equally important. Preparation of these users manuals is the work of our experienced senior field staff and I find these to be very useful to our site personnel. These manuals for transmission lines (Vol. 1 2 & 4) alongwith SFQP (Vol. 1) will be of immense help to our line staff to manage their resources in a more efficient and systematic way to achieve high quality and reduced time. I find sincere efforts have gone into preparation of these manuals for which I congratulate Construction Management team and I am sure the authors will continue their efforts to bring out more and more such manuals.


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11




3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14




4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.2 4.3 4.4












Chapter-1 Tower Configuration

___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER

ONE _________________________________________________________



Purpose of transmission tower Back to contents page The structures of overhead transmission lines, comprising essentially the supports and foundations, have the role of keeping the conductors at the necessary distance form one another and form earth, with the specified factor of safety to facilitate the flow of power through conductor form one point to another with reliability, security and safety.


Factors governing tower configuration Back to contents page


Depending upon the requirements of transmission system, various line configurations have to be considered ranging from single circuit horizontal to double circuit vertical structures with single or V-strings in all phase, as well as any combination of these. The configuration of a transmission line tower depends on: (a) (b) (c) (d) The length of the insulator assembly. The minimum clearances to be maintained between conductors and between conductor and tower. The location of ground wire or wires with respect to the outermost conductor. The mid span clearance required from considerations of the dynamic behavior of conductors and lightning protection of the line. The minimum clearance of the lower conductor above ground level.


(e) 1.3

Tower height

Back to contents page The factors governing the height of a tower are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Minimum permissible ground clearance (H1) Maximum sag (H2). Vertical spacing between conductors (H3). Vertical clearance between ground wire and top conductor (H4).

Thus the total height of the tower is given by H = H1 + H2 + H3 + H4 in the case of a double circuit tower with vertical configuration of conductors as shown in Fig. 1.1. 1.3.1 Minimum permissible ground clearance From safety considerations, power conductors along the route of the transmission line should maintain clearances to ground in open country, national highway, rivers, railway tracks, tele-communication lines, other power lines etc. as laid down in the Indian Electricity Rule or standards or code of practice in vogue. 1.3.2 Maximum sag of Lowermost Conductor The size and type of conductor, wind and climatic Conditions of the region and span length determine the conductor sag and tensions. Span length is fixed from economic considerations. The maximum sag for conductor span occurs at the maximum temperature and still wind conditions. This maximum value of sag is taken into consideration in fixing the overall height of the steel structures. In snow regions, the maximum sag may occur even at 0OC with conductors loaded with ice in still wind conditions. While working out tension in arriving at the maximum sag, the following stipulations laid down, in I.E. Rules (1956) are to be satisfied. (i) (ii) The minimum factor of safety for conductors shall be based on their ultimate tensile strength. The conductor tension at 32OC (90OF) without external load shall not exceed the following percentages of the ultimate tensile strength of the conductor. Initial unloaded tension percent Final Unloaded tension Percent . . . . 35 25

In accordance with this stipulation, the maximum working tension under stringent loading conditions shall not exceed 50 percent of the ultimate tensile strength or conductor. Sag-Tension computations made for final stringing of the conductors, therefore, must ensure that factor of safety of 2 and 4 are obtainable under maximum loading condition and every day loading condition, respectively.


Spacing of conductors The spacing of conductors is determined by considerations which are partly electrical and partly mechanical. The material and diameter of the conductors should also be considered when deciding the spacing, because a smaller conductor especially if made of aluminum, having a small weight in relation to the area presented to a cross wind, will swing synchronously (in phase) with the wind, but with long spans and small wires, there is always the possibility of the conductor swinging nonsynchronously, and the size of the conductor and the maximum sag at the centre of span are factors which should be taken into account in determining distance apart at which they should be strung.


Vertical clearance between ground wire and top conductor. This is governed by the angle of shielding i.e. the angle which the line joining the ground wire and the outermost conductor makes with the vertical, required for the interruption of direct lightning strokes at the ground and the minimum mid span clearance between the ground wire and the top power conductor. The shield angle varies from about 20 degrees 30 degrees, depending on the configuration of conductors and the number of ground wires (one or two) provided.

1.4 Role of wind pressure Back to contents page The wind load constitutes an important and major component of the total loading on towers and so a basic understanding of the computation of wind pressures is useful. In choosing the appropriate wind velocity for the purpose of determining the basic wind pressure, due consideration should be given to the degree of exposure appropriate to the location and also to the local meteorological data. The country has been divided inot six wind zones of different wind speeds. The basic wind speeds for the six wind zones are: Wind Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 Basic wind speed-m/s 33 39 44 47 50 55

Fig. 1.2 shows basic wind speed map of India as applicable at 10m height above mean ground level for the six wind zones. In case the line traverses on the border of different wind zones, the higher wind speed may be considered.


Variation of wind speed with height At ground level, the wind intensity is lower and air flow is turbulent because of friction with the rough surfaces of the ground. After a certain height, the frictional influence of the ground becomes negligible and wind velocity increases with height.


Wind force on structure The overall load exerted by wind pressure, on structures can be expressed by the resultant vector of all aerodynamic forces acting on the exposed surfaces. The direction of this resultant can be different from the direction of wind. The resultant force acting on the structure is divided into three components as shown in Figure 1.3. These are : (a) (b) (c) A horizontal component in the direction of wind called drag force FD. A horizontal component normal to the direction of wind called horizontal lift force FL H. A vertical component normal to the direction of wind called the vertical lift force FLV.

1.5 Maximum & minimum temperature :Back to contents page A knowledge of the maximum and the minimum temperature of the area traversed by transmission line is necessary for calculating sag and tensions of conductors and ground wires, thereby deciding the appropriate tower design. The maximum and minimum temperature normally vary for different localities under different diurnal and seasonal conditions. The absolute maximum and minimum temperature which may be expected in different localities in the country are indicated in the map of India in Fig.1.4 and 1.5 respectively. The temperature indicated n these maps are the air temperatures in shade. The absolute maximum temperature values are increased suitably to allow for the suns radiation, heating effect of current, etc. in the conductor. The tower may be designed to suit the conductor temperature of 75 degree C (max) for ACSR and 85 degree C (max) for aluminum alloy conductor. The maximum temperature of ground wore exposed to sun may be taken as 53 degree C.


Loading of transmission line towers Back to contents page


As per revision o IS;802 regarding materials, loads and permissible stresses in transmission line owes, concept o reliability, security and safety have been introduced. (a) Reliability The Reliability that a transmission system performs a given task, under a set of conditions, during a specified time. Reliability is thus a measure of the success of a system in accomplishing task. The complement to reliability is the probability of failure or unreliability. In simple terms, the reliability may be defined as the probability that a given item will indeed survive a given service environment and loading for a prescribed period of item. (b) Security:The ability of a system to be protected from a major collapse such as cascading effect, if a failure is triggered in a given component. Security is a deterministic concept as opposed to reliability which is a probabilistic concept. (c) Safety:The ability of a system not to cause human injuries or loss of lives. It relates mainly to protection of workers during construction and maintenance operation. The safety of public and environment in general is covered by National regulations.


Nature of loads on Transmission Tower Transmission lines are subjected to various loads during their life time. These are classified into three distinct categories, namely: (a) Climatic loads:Which relates to reliability requirements. (b) Failure containment loads:Which relates to security requirements. (c) Construction & maintenance loads:Which relates to safety requirements.


Computation of various loads on towers

The loads on of various loads on towers consist of three mutually perpendicular systems of loads acting vertical, normal to the direction of the line, and parallel to the direction of the line. It has been found convenient in practice to standardise the method of listing and dealing with loads as under: Transverse load Longitudinal load Vertical load Torsional shear Weight of structure Each of the above loads is dealt with separately below: (a) Transverse load due to wind on conductors and ground wire The conductor and ground wire support point loads are made up of the following components: (i) (ii) Wind on the bare (or ice-covered) conductor / ground wire over the wind span and wind on insulator string. Angular component of line tension due to an angle in the line (Figure 1.7). The wind span is the sum of the two half spans adjacent to the support under consideration. The governing direction of wind on conductors for an angle conditions is assumed to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cross-arms (Fig.1.8). Since the wind is blowing on reduced front, it could be argued that this reduced span should be used for the wind span. In practice, however, since the reduction in load would be relatively small, it is usual to employ the full span.


Transverse load due to line deviation The load due to an angle of deviation in the line is computed by finding the resultant force produced by the conductor tensions (Fig. 1.7) in the two adjacent spans. It is clear from the figure that the total transverse load = 2T Sin /2 where is the angle of deviation and T is the conductor tension.


Wind load on tower In order to determine the wind load on tower, the tower is divided into different panels having a height h. These panels should normally be taken between the intersections of the legs and bracings.

Longitudinal load (a) Longitudinal load acts on the tower in a direction parallel to the line (Fig. 1.6B) and is caused by unequal conductor tensions acting on the tower. This unequal tension in the conductors may be due to deadending of the tower, broken conductors, unequal spans, etc. and its effect on the tower is to subject the tower to an overturning moment, torsion, or a combination of both. In the case of dead-end tower or a tower with tension strings with a

broken wire, the full tension in the conductor will act as a longitudinal load, whereas in the case of a tower with suspensions strings, the tension in the conductor is reduced to a certain extent under broken-wire conditions as the string swings away from the broken span and this results in a reduced tension in the conductor and correspondingly a reduced longitudinal load on the tower. (b) Torsional load: The longitudinal pull caused by the broken wire condition imposes a torsional movement, T, on the tower which is equal to the product of unbalanced horizontal pull, P and its distance, from the centre of tower in addition to the direct pull being transferred as equivalent longitudinal shear, P as shown in Fig.1.9. The shear P and the torsional movement T = Pe gets transferred to tower members in the plane ABCD. Vertical Load Vertical load is applied to the ends of the cross-arms and on the found wire peak (Fig.1.6C) and consists of the following vertical downward components: (i) (ii) (iii) Weight of bare or ice-covered conductor, as specified, over the governing weight span. Weight of insulators, hardware etc., covered with ice, if applicable. Arbitrary load to provide for the weight of a man with tools.

Weight of structure

The weight of the structure like the wind on the structure, is an unknown quantity until the actual design is complete. However in the design of towers, an assumption has to be made regarding the dead weight of towers. The weight will no doubt depend on the bracing arrangement to be adopted, the strut formula used and the quality or qualities of steel used, whether the design is a composite one comprising both mild steel and high tensile steel or make use of mild steel only. However, as a rough approximation, it is possible to estimate the probable tower weight from knowledge of the positions of conductors and ground wire above ground level and the overturning moment. Having arrived at an estimate of the total weight of the tower, the estimated tower weight is approximately distributed between the panels. Upon completion of the design and estimation of the tower weight, the assumed weight used in the load calculation should be reviewed Particular attention should be paid to the footing reactions, since an estimated weight which is too high will make the uplift footing reaction too low. Various loads as mentioned above shall be computed for required reliability, security and safety.

Chapter-2 Types of Towers





Classification according to number of circuits Back to contents page The majority of high employ voltage a double or circuit nearly




vertical configuration

of conductors and single

circuit transmission lines a triangular arrangement of conductor, single circuit lines, particularly

at 400 KV and above, generally employ horizontal arrangement of conductors. The arrangement of

conductor and ground wires in

these configurations

is given at Figure No. 2.1 to Figure No. 2.5. The number of ground wires used on the line depends on the isoceraunic level (number of thunderstorm days/hours the line, per and year) of the area, importance the angle lines of coverage using of

desired. horizontal



configuration generally employ due to the comparative whereas lines using

two ground wires,

width of the configuration; vertical and offset wire and

arrangements more often utilise one ground except on higher voltage lines of 400 KV

above, where string two

it is usually found advantageous to ground wires, as the phase to phase

spacing of conductors would require an excessively high positioning of ground coverage. Details of wire to give adequate types of 400 KV


single circuit and 400 KV double circuit towers are given at Clause No. 2.3 and 2.4.

2.2. Classification according to use Back to contents page Towers independent support. A tower has to withstand the loadings ranging from straight runs up to varying angles and dead ends. To simplify in the first designs cost and and ensure an overall tower are of classified the according of to their use they





designs are generally confined to a few standard types as follows. 2.2.1 Tangent suspension tower Suspension towers are used primarily on tangents but often line are designed to withstand angles in the

up to two degrees or higher in addition to ice, and line broken-conductor loads. If the traverses relatively flat,

the wind,


featureless terrain, 90 percent of the line may be composed of this type of tower. Thus the design of tangent tower provides the greatest opportunity

for the structural


to minimise the total

weight of steel required.

2.2.2 Angle towers Angle towers, sometimes called semi-anchor towers, are used where the lines makes a horizontal angle

greater than two degrees (Figure 2.6). As they must resist a transverse load from the components of the line tension induced by this angle, in addition to the they usual are wind, ice and broken conductor than loads,




towers. Unless restricted by site conditions, or influenced by conductor tensions, angle towers

should be located so that the axis of the crossarms bisects the angle formed by the conductors. Theoretically, different towers, different but for line angles there require is a


limiting number of different towers which should be used. This number is a function of all the factors which make the total erected cost of a tower line. However, experience has shown that the following angle towers are generally suitable for most of the lines : 1. Light angle 2. Medium angle 3. Heavy angle - 2 to 150 line deviation - 15 to 300 line deviation - 30 to 600 line deviation (and dead end) While the angles of line deviation are for the normal span, the span may be increased up to an optimum limit by reducing the angle of line

deviation and vice versa. IS:802 (Part I) - 1977 also recommends the above classification.

The loadings on a tower in the case of a 60 degree angle condition and dead-end condition are almost the same. As the number of locations at which 60 degree angle towers and dead-end towers are

required are comparatively few, it is economical to design degree the heavy angle towers and both for the 60





whichever is more structural member.


for each individual

For each type of tower, the upper limit of the angle range is designed for the same basic span as

the tangent tower, so that a decreased angle can be accommodated with an increased span or vice versa. It would be uneconomical to use 30 degree angle towers in locations where angles higher than 2

degree and smaller than 30 degree are encountered. There are limitations to the use of 2 degree angle towers at higher angles with reduced spans and the use of 30 degree angle towers with smaller angles and increased spans. The introduction of a 15

degree tower would bring about sizable economics. Pilot suspension insulator string - This shall be used if found necessary to restrict the jumper swings to design value at both middle and outer phases. Unequal cross arms Another method to get over the difficulty of

higher swing of Jumper is to have unequal cross arms. 2.3 400 kv single circuit towers Back to contents page The bundled conductors are kept in horizontal configuration phase with a minimum clearance of 11 mtrs.

to phase.







Galvanised hexagonal round head bolts and nuts are used for fastening with necessary spring or plate washers. Normally 4 types of single circuit towers are used as detailed below :a) "A" type towers : These towers are used as tangent towers for

straight run of the transmission line. These are called suspension or tangent towers. These towers can carry only vertical loads and are designed for carrying the weight of the conductor, insulators and other accessories. These towers are also

designed for a deviation upto b)" B" type towers :

2 degrees.

These towers can be used as sectionalising towers without angle and angle towers from 2 degrees up to 15 degrees deviation. c) " C" type towers These towers can be used for deviations ranging from 15 degrees up to 30 degrees. They are also being angle. d) "D" type towers : These towers can be used as Dead End or anchor towers without any angle on the tower. Also these used as transposition towers without any

towers can be used for deviations ranging from 30


60 degree.

These towers are usually provided as terminal towers near gantry with slack span on one side or as anchoring tower before major river crossing,

power line crossing, railway crossings etc. Fig. 2.8 shows two types of tower configuration for 400 KV single circuit towers. A section of 400 kv single circuit towers is shown in Fig.2.9.


400 KV Double circuit towers Back to contents page These towers are designed to carry two circuits consisting conductors. of 3 phases the each, having are bundled in a




vertical configuration. A minimum phase to phase clearance clearance of of 8 11 mtrs. mtrs. is is maintained. maintained A minimum from one

circuit to another. Two earthwires are placed above each circuit in such a way to provide the required shielding angle.

Like single circuit towers, these towers are also galvanised, lattice steel type structures designed to carry the tension and weight of the conductor alongwith the insulators, earthwire and its

accessories. Normally these towers are identified as P (D/C suspension towers), Q, R & S (D/C tension towers) or as DA, DB, DC and DD respectively.

As in the single circuit towers, DA/P towers are used as suspension towers from O degrees-2 degrees

deviations. DB/Q,DC/R and DD/S towers are used as tension towers with angle of deviation from 2

degrees-15 degrees, 15 degrees-30 degrees and 30 degrees - 60 degrees respectively. DB towers are also used as sectionalising towers without angle. DC tower is also used as transposition tower without any angle. The Double Circuit towers are used while crossing reserved corridors forest, near major river crossings, so as narrow to make



provision for future transmission lines since the approval from various at one time (for authorities can be obtained from forest, aviation


authorities etc.) and to minimise expenditure in laying foundations in rivers. Fig.2.8 shows two types of tower configuration for

400 kv double circuit towers. 2.5 River-crossing tower Back to contents page The height and weight on of the the towers vary





clearance above of `unbroken'

water, ice conductors,

and wind loads, number etc. Usually that the





employed for crossing of navigable water ways be designed for heavy loading conditions and utilise larger minimum size members than the remainder of the line. In addition to these structural

requirements, it is often necessary to limit the height of tall crossing towers because of the

hazard they present to aircraft. Fig.2.10 shows a view of 400 kv double circuit River crossing tower. 2.6 Railway crossing tower Back to contents page Angle or dead end towers (Type B,C or D) with suitable extensions and with double tension

insulator strings are employed for railway crossing in conformity with the relevant specification of Railway Authorities. 2.7 High way crossing tower Back to contents page Angle towers (Type B,C or D) with suitable

extension employed

and for

with high

double way


strings towers

are are


used for National High way crossing to make the crossing span as a single section so as to

facilitate independent and prompt striginig.


Transposition tower Back to contents page

2.8.1 Power transmission lines are transposed primarily to eliminate or reduce disturbances in the

neighboring communication circuits produced by the geometric imbalance of power lines. An incidental effect of transposing power line section is the geometric balancing of such circuits between

terminals which assumes every point of the Improvements communications and and power

balanced conditions at transmission system. in have, both the

developments power fields


greatly reduced the need for transposition of high voltage lines at close India, the central intervals. In fact, in standing committee for

coordination of power and telecommunication system has ruled that "the not provide coordination power supply authorities need on power lines for

transposition with

telecommunication lines".

2.8.2 However, when transposition are eliminated, there are the effects of geometric imbalance of the

conductor arrangements on the power system itself, and the residual imbalance asymmetry of of the current three to be considered. phase voltages due is The to not



considered serious in view of the equalizing effect






bank on

and the


machinery at various


system. The remaining consideration viz. residual currents due to the elimination of transposition, might be important from the point of view of relay settings to prevent causing undesirable tripping

of ground current relays. Operating experience has shown that many disturbance on high voltage line occur records outages on transposition that at towers least and one statistical of the with four a

indicate is



transposition. 2.8.3 A good practice would be to adopt about 200 KM as the permissible length of the line without taking recourse to special transposition structures, and

transposition being confined

to substation

switching station only, provided they are located at suitable intervals. 2.8.4 Tower type C under O degree deviation limit and with suitable modification shall be used for

transposition for line maintaining all the required clearances and shielding. Arrangement of

transposition is shown at Figure 2.7. A view of 400 kv single circuit transposition tower is also shown in Fig.2.11. 2.9 Multi circuit towers. Back to contents page

To transmit bulk power at a economical rate, Multi circuit towers are used. It may be mentioned here that a double circuit line is cheaper than two

independent single circuit lines and four circuit line cheaper than two double circuit lines.

However, the capital outlays involved become heavy and it is not easy to visualise the manner in which the loads build up and the powerflow takes place in the longterm prospective. Further, reliability high struck

considerations become very important at extra voltages. between A balance has therefore to be

the two somewhat opposing



Tower extensions Back to contents page All towers are designed in such a way that they can be provided with standard tower extensions. Extensions are designed as +3, +6 +9 and + 25 in Mtrs. These extensions can be used alongwith

standard towers to provide sufficient clearance over ground or while crossing power lines, Railway lines, highways, undulated, uneven ground etc. A view of 400 kv single circuit towers crossing anoth er 400 kv single circuit line is shown at Fig. 2.12 2.11 Leg extensions Back to contents page Leg extensions are designed to provide extension to tower legs which are located at uneven


where different legs of the tower are at

different levels.

Standard designs can be made for 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 M leg extensions. These leg extensions can be utilised where towers are located on hill slopes, undulated ground etc. By providing heavy leg cost extensions, of specially in hilly be

areas, avoided



completely or reduced substantially. (Tower reductions) Back to contents page

2.12 Truncated towers

Similar to extension towers, truncated towers can also be used for getting the sufficient electrical clearance while crossing below the existing High Voltage lines. For instance,a DD-6.9 Extra Mtrs.

truncated tower has been used in 220 KV RSEB S/Stn. at Heerapura (Jaipur). In this particular case 2 nos. of 400 KV S/C lines are already crossing over the 220 KV D/C Kota-Jaipur RSEB feeders with A+25 Mtrs. extension type of towers. While constructing another D/C 220 KV line from Anta to Jaipur which was also to be terminated in the same sub-stn.

either to under cross these 400 KV S/C lines by using gantry system or to make use of the existing

A+25 Mtrs. extension towers. But with the existing A+25 Mtrs extension tower, required clearance

between the earth wire of the 220 KV line and hot Conductor of 400 limit. KV So lines for were not within the





electrical clearance either to remove the earthwire of 220 KV line or to use truncated tower. So to avoid the removal of earth wire a `DD' type

truncated tower (-6.9 Mtrs.) has been used in order to cross these lines safely and with the required permissible electrical clearances. The truncated tower is similar to normal tower except 6.9 has parts Mtrs of bottom section of normal tower

been removed, the other section of the tower remain un-changed.

This is a ideal crossing in an area where one line has already crossed over the existing lines with

Special extension tower and we have to accommodate another line in the existing crossing span. 2.13 Weight of different types of towers Back to contents page The weight of various types of towers used on transmission lines, 66 KV to 400 KV, together with the spans and sizes of conductor and ground wire

used in lines are given in Table 2.1. Assuming that 80 percent and and are 5 tangent percent allowing towers, 600 15 15 percent and 300

towers towers,

towers percent

dead-end for


extensions and stubs, the weights of towers for a 10 kms. line are also given in the Table 2.1. Table 2.1 Weights of towers used on various voltage categories in India

(Metric tones)
400 kV Single Circuit 400 Moose 54/3.53 mm al. + 3.53 mm Steel 220 kV Double Circuit 320 Zebra 54/3.18 mm Al + 7/3.18 mm Steel 7/3.15 mm 110 Kgf/mm2 quality 4.5 9.3 13.4 220 kV Single Circuit 320 Zebra 54/3.18 mm Al. + 7/3.18 mm Steel 7/3.15 mm 110 Kgf/mm2 quality 3.0 6.2 9.2 132 kV Double Circuit 320 Panther 30/3 mm Al. + 7/3 mm Steel 7/3.15 mm 110 Kgf/mm2 quality 2.8 5.9 8.3 132 kV Single Circuit 320 Panther 30/3 mm Al.+7/3 mm Steel 66 kV Double circuit 245 Dog 6/4.72 mm Al. + 7/1.57 mm Steel 66 kV Single Circuit 245 Dog 6/4.72 Al. + 7/1.57 mm Steel

Span (m) Conductor


7/4 mm 110 Kgf/mm2 quality

7/3.15 mm 110 Kgf/mm2 quality 1.7 3.5 4.9

7/2.5 mm 110 Kgf/mm2 quality 1.2 2.3 3.2

7/2.5 110 Kgf/mm2 quality

Tangent Tower 30 Deg. Tower 60 Deg. And Dead-end Tower Weight of towers for a 10-km line

7.7 15.8 23.16

0.8 1.5 2.0





















Tower Fabrication
3.1 General


Back to contents page After completing drawing of the is tower prepared. member design, This a gives structural complete lines, second a more

assembly details





sizes and lengths of bolts, washers, first and slope dimensions, etc. From this drawing,

detailed drawing is prepared for all the individual members. This is called a shop drawing or fabrication drawing. Since all parts of the tower are fabricated in accordance with the shop drawing, the latter should be drawn to a suitable scale, clearly indicating all the details required to facilitate correct and smooth fabrication. Towers used are of bolted lattice type. In no case welding is allowed. All members, bolts, nuts and

fittings are galvanised.

galvanised. Spring

washers are


Fabrication of towers are done in accordance with IS codes which is ensured by visit to the fabrication workshops and undertaking specified tests, in the

presence of POWERGRID quality engineers. The following may be ensured during fabrication of the towers.


Butts, splices should be used and thickness of inside cleat should not be less than that of

heavier member connected. Lap splices are used to connect unequal sizes. ii) While designing, joints are to be made so that eccentricity is avoided. iii) Filler should be avoided as far as practicable. iv) v) The dia of hole = dia of bolt + 1.5 mm

Drain holes are to be provided where pockets of depression are likely to hold water.


All similar

parts should

be interchangeable


facilitate repairs. vii) There should be no rough edges. viii) Punched holes should be square with plates and must have their walls parallel. ix) It should be or checked that all burrs be to left by

drilling completely.

punching Drilling or

should reaming

removed enlarge

defective holes is not allowed. 3.2 Bolting Back to contents page 3.2.1 The minimum diameter of bolts used for the erection of transmission line towers is 12 mm. Other sizes commonly used are 16 mm and 20 mm. 3.2.2 The length of the bolt should be such that the threaded portion does not lie in the plane of contact of members.

Figure 3.1 shows the wrong uses and the correct uses of bolt threads. 3.2.3 Table 3.1 gives the minimum cover to free edge and bolt spacing as per IS:802 (Part II)-1978 Code of Practice for Use of Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission line Towers. The bolts used with minimum angle sizes restrict the edge distances as given in Table 3.2 for the bolt sizes of 12 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm used on 40 x6 mm, 45x6 mm and 60x 8 mm angle sizes respectively.

Table 3.1 Spacing of bolts and edge distances (mm) ------------------------------------------------------------Bolt Hole Bolt spacing Edge distance(min) Dia dia min. Hole Hole centre centre to rolled to edge sheared edge ------------------------------------------------------------12 13.5 32 16 20 16 17.5 40 20 23 20 21.5 48 25 28 ------------------------------------------------------------(See next page)

Table 3.2 Maximum edge distance possible with minimum angle size (mm) --------------------------------------------------------Size of bolted Maximum edge Bolt dia. leg of angle distance that section and its can be thickness actually obtained -------------------------------------------------------12 40x6 17 16 45x6 18 20 60x8 25 --------------------------------------------------------

3.2.4 The bolts may be specified to have Whitworth or other approved standard threads to take the full depth of the nut, with the threading done far

enough to permit

firm gripping of the members but

no farther, and with the threaded portion of each bolt projecting through the nut by at least one thread. It may also be specified that the nuts

should fit hand-tight to the bolts, and that there should be no appreciable fillet at the point where the shank of the bolt be connects on to the head. and





maintaining proper clamp load control in threaded fastners. If a threaded fastener is torqued too

high, there is a danger of failure on installation by stripping the threads or breaking the bolt or making the fasteners yield excessively. If the bolt is torqued too low, a low preload will be induced in the fastener assembly, possibly inviting fatigue or vibration failure. For every bolt system, there

is an optimum preload objective which is obtained by proper torquing of the bolt and nut combination. The three techniques for obtaining the required pretension are the calibration wrench method, the turn-of-the-nut method and the direct tension

indication method. The calibrated wrench method includes the use of manual torque wrenches and power wrenches adjusted to stall at a specified torque value. Variations in bolt tension, produced by a given torque, have been found to be plus minus 10 percent. The turn-of-the-nut method has been developed where the pretensioning force in the bolt is obtained by specified rotation of the nut from an initially

snug tight position by an impact wrench or the full effort method of is a man using to be an ordinary wrench. cheapest This and



preferred. The third and the most is recent by method for

establishing indicator. washers, assessed

bolt There

tension are

direct load


patented bolt the

indicating could be Upon

where by

correct observing



tightening the bolt, the washers are flattened and the gap is reduced. The bolt tension is determined by measuring the remaining gap. 3.2.5 Most of the transmission line specifications do

not specify the maximum permissible group length of bolts. It is a good practice to ensure that no bolt connects aggregate thickness more than three times the diameter of the bolt. Further more, the grip

strength developed by a bolt depends not only upon the thickness of the members but also on the number of members to be connected. This is due to the fact that the surface of the members may not be

perfectly smooth and plain and, therefore, if the number of members to be connected is too many, the full grip strength would not be developed. In the tower construction, the need for connecting more than three members by a single bolt rarely arises, it would be reasonable to limit the number of the bolt to three. of the

members to be connected by a single The limitation regarding the


members and the number of members to be connected is necessary not only from the point of view of developing maximum grip strength but also from the point of view of reducing the bending stresses on the bolt to a minimum. 3.2.6 The threaded portion of the bolt should protrude not less the 3.3 than 3 mm and not more than 8 mm over

nut after it is fully tightened.

Washers Back to contents page At present, both flat and spring steel washers are

being line

used towers

in in


construction The


transmission of spring



washers over flat washers is that the former, in addition to developing the full bearing area of the bolt, also serve to lock the nuts. The

disadvantages, however, are that it is extremely difficult to get the correct quality of steel for spring washers, and also that they are too brittle and consequently break when the nuts are fully

tightened. Furthermore, the spring washers, unlike flat washers tend to cut into and destroy the

galvanising. When spring washers are used, their thicknesses should be as recommended in IS:802 (Part II)-1978 and given in Table. 3.3 Table 3.3: Thicknesses of spring washers (mm) -----------------------------------------------------------Bolt dia. Thickness of spring washer -----------------------------------------------------------12 2.5 16 3.5 20 4.0 -----------------------------------------------------------With general regard practice to is the to locking lock the arrangement, nuts by the


punching of the bolts or punching the threads. In special cases such as tall river-crossing towers which are subjected to unusual vibrations, the

bolts are secured from slacking back by the use of

lock nuts, by spring washers, or by cross-cutting of the thread. A minimum thickness of 3mm for washers is

generally specified. In our transmission lines, we are using spring washers washers 3.4 under all nuts of tower. These spring

are electro-galvanised.

Lap and butt joint (figure 3.2 and 3.3) Back to contents page Lap splices are normally preferred for leg members as these joints are generally to the simpler and more






which are employed only if structural requirements warrant their use. In lap splices, the back(heel) of the inside should be ground to clear the fillet of angle the

outside angle. 3.5 Gusset plates Back to contents page In the case of suspension towers, the stresses in the web system are usually small enough to keep the use of gusset plates to the minimum. On heavier

structures, however, the web stresses may be very large and it may not be possible to accommodate

the number of bolts required for the leg connection in the space available on the members, thus

necessitating the use of gusset plates. Plates may also be required to reduce the secondary stresses introduced due to eccentricity to a minimum. The bracing members should preferably meet at a common point within the width of the tower leg in

order to limit the bending stresses induced in the main members due to eccentricity in the joints. To satisfy this condition, it may sometimes become

necessary to use gusset plates.


Bracing to leg connections Back to contents page Typical connections of diagonals and struts to a leg member are shown in Figure 3.4. The number of bolts required in these simple connections load and bearing. is derived directly from the member

the capacity per bolt either in shear or Diagonal members which are clipped or

coped for clearance purposes must be checked for capacity of the reduced net section. Note that

gusset plates are not used at leg connections, but eccentricity is kept to a minimum by maintaining a clearance of 9.5mm to 16mm between members. If the leg does not provide enough gauge lines to accommodate the required bolts in a diagonal 3.5

connection, a gusset plate as shown in Figure

may be employed. The thickness of gusset plate must be sufficient to develop the required load per

bolt. Typical gusset plate connection at waist lines on the normal face for a wasp-waist tower is shown in Figure 3.6.


Connection of redundant members Back to contents page Redundant sub-members usually require only one

bolt connection to transfer their nominal loads. Thus, gusset and plates coping can are easily used be to avoided if



Typical connections, shown in Figures 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9 indicate the methods of clipping or turning members in or out to keep the number of bolts to a minimum. Figure 3.7 illustrates the use of a small plate rather than connecting five members on one bolt, as it has been found that erection of more than four thicknesses per bolt is particularly

awkward. 3.8 Cross-arm connections Back to contents page The cross-arm to leg connection (Figure 3.10) must be considered as one of the most important joints on a tower since all loads originating from the transferred shaft by through the cross-arms means of these bolts.

conductors are to the tower

Because of its importance, a minimum of two bolts is often specified for this connection.

An example of a hanger-to-arm-angle connection on `Vee' cross-arm is shown in Figure 3.11, Both vertical and horizontal eccentricities may become excessive if the detail of this joint is not carefully worked out. Suspension towers are provided with holes at the ends for of the cross-arms, which as shown the in Figure

3.10, string



insulator must be





supplied with strain plates (Figure 3.12) which are not only capable of resisting the full line

tension, but also shock and fatigue as wear. 3.9 step bolts and ladders

loads as well

Back to contents page The step bolts usually adopted are of 16mm diameter and 175mm length. They are spaced 450mm apart and extend from about 3.5 metres above the ground level to the top of the tower. The bolts are provided with two nuts to the on one end and to fasten the bolts at the





other end to prevent the foot from slipping away. The step bolts should be capable of withstanding a vertical load of not less than 1.5 KN. Step bolts are provided from 3.5 m to 30 m height of the superstructure. For special structures, where the height of the superstructure exceeds 50 metres,

ladders along with protection rings are provided


continuation face

of of

the the

step tower) top

bolts from of 30



longitudinal above ground

metres special





structure. A platform, using 6mm thick chequered plates, from ladder along with a suitable railing and the for access from ground the wire

step to

bolts to the ladder each cross-arm, and

support is also provided. 3.10 Anti-climbing devices Back to contents page All towers are provided with anti-climbing devices at about of 3.5 metres above ground level. shown The in





Figure 3.13. 3.11 Danger and number plates Back to contents page Provision is made on the transverse face of the tower for fixing the danger and number plates while developing accessories the are fabrication generally fixed drawing. at about These 4.5mm

above the ground level. Fig. 3.18 and Fig.3.16 show the details of danger and number plates

respectively. The letters, figures and the conventional skull and bones of the danger plates should conform to IS:2551-1982 Specification for Danger Notice Plates and they are to be painted in signal red on the



the plate.


Phase and circuit plates Back to contents page Each tension tower shall be provided with a set of phase plates. The transposition towers should have the provisions of fixing phase plates on both the transverse faces. The details of phase plate are given in Fig. 3.15. All the double circuit towers shall be provided with circuit of plate circuit fixed plates near are the legs. The in

details Fig.3.17.


These plates shall also be fixed at about 4.5m above ground level. 3.13 Bird guard Back to contents page Perching of Birds on tower cross arms results in spoiling of insulator discs of suspension strings which leads to tripping of line. To overcome this problem, bird guards are fixed over suspension

insulator string. The details are given at Figure No. 3.14. Bird guards shall be used for type-I string only.


Aviation requirements :Back to contents page

3.14.1 The river crossing towers and any other towers in

the vicinity of an airport shall be painted and the crossing caution span shall be provided with markers to

the low flying air craft.

3.14.2 The full length of the towers shall be painted over of the galvanised surface in contrasting bands red and white. The bands shall be

orange or

horizontal. Fig.2.10 shows the river crossing tower with aviation paints.


Packing, transportation and storage of tower parts. Back to contents page


Packing : a) Angle section shall be wire bundled. Cleat angles, plates, gusset hangers plates, brackets, fillet

and similar loose pieces

shall be bolted together to multiples or securely wired together through holes. b) Bolts, nuts, washers and other attachments shall be packed in double gunny bags

accurately tagged in accordance with the contents. c) The packing shall be properly done to

avoid losses/damages during transit.


bundle or package shall be appropriately marked. 3.15.2 Transportation. The transport of steel towers from the works to the nearest railway station presents no special difficulty. The towers are delivered in trucks having one or two towers per truck according to the weight involved. A station having a loading bay is highly desirable, as this greatly

facilitates handling. The lorries can be backed against the bay and the ease of then offset any slight handling in will



costs from a station less well equipped. The parts of each tower should be kept separate so that they can be delivered from the bay direct to the tower site. Tower sets are made up in sections, since it is impracticable for the

corner angles to be in one length. Each section is carefully marked at the works. In each


there are generally one or more panels

and these are marked to facilitate erection. The tower sets should be carefully checked when unloaded from the trucks and then placed in a

suitable position on the bay where they can be picked up easily as a complete unit. If the

steelwork is delivered in bundles, the checking is even more important and there are two methods of doing the this. Some out Engineers in members prefer while



others prefer it laid out in towers and in our opinion the latter Shortages method are has easily many spotted


and scheduled and the tower can be loaded and taken to its particular position. All bolts, washers, nuts and small parts should be in bags and labelled with the number of the tower they are intended for. A word of warning re-garding should

the handling of the long corner angles be

clearly displayed. These must be carefully

transported or they may get bent and it is a very difficult job to straighten them without damaging transport suitable effects the shall for of the any galvanising. be undertaken and All in free material vehicles from the

purpose chemical



members shall be loaded and transported in such a manner that these are not bent in transit and sharp-bent damaged. 3.15.3 Storage. A. The selection store of is location important of as a the members are not opened up or


movement of construction materials is time consuming process and it requires detailed planning and Managerial attention. The

selection of location is generally based on the following criteria. a. Close proximity to rail heads, National

Highways. b. c. Proximity to urbanisation and towns. Availability power. d. Distance approach. e. Type of land. (The store should not be from the proposed line and of water and electrical

located on marshy or wet lands. Also, the

low lying and water stagnant areas) f. g. h. Availability of land in sufficient area. Communication facilities. Availability of labour for the work in the stores. B. Once land is selected, it is better to

identify the space for towers, insulators, conductors, plants selection of of hardware erection place and the tools & The of

contractor. for each type

material should be very judicious and in such a way of that one inward item or outward not be

movement through other


the stacking item. Proper

of the materials of board markings item and for

pointers may be kept for each easy identification. C.

Tower parts should not be kept directly on the ground and it should be placed proper size or sleepers

above stones of

to avoid contact with mud. D. It is always preferable to stack the tower parts in a neat and systematic fashion in

tower wise order. On request of erection gang, store-keeper should be able to

provide him one full set of tower without any difficulty and delay.


The following points may be ensured in the stores. a. b. c. d. Complete fencing of the store yard. 24 hours vigilant security. Proper lighting. Fire protection equipments.

Chapter-4 Methods of Erection





GENERAL Back to contents page There are four main methods of erection of steel transmission towers which are described as below i. ii. Built-up method or Piecemeal method. Section method

iii. Ground assembly method. iv. 4.1.1 Helicopter method

Built up method Back to contents page This method is most commonly used in this country for the erection of 66 KV, 132 KV, 220 KV and 400 KV Transmission advantages. i. Tower materials can be supplied to site in Line Towers due to the following

knocked down condition which facilitate and ii. cheaper transportation.


It does not require any heavy machinery such as cranes etc.

iii. Tower erection activity can be done in any kind of terrain and mostly through out the year.

iv. Availability of workmen at cheap rates. This method consists of erecting the towers, member by member. The tower members are kept on ground serially according to erection sequence to avoid search or time loss. The erection

progresses from the bottom upwards, the four main corner leg members of the first section of the tower are first erected and guyed off.

Sometimes more than continuous leg sections of each corner leg are bolted together at the

ground and erected. The cross braces of the first section which are already assembled on the ground are raised one by one as a unit and bolted to the already erected corner leg angles. First section of the tower thus built and horizontal struts (bet

members) if any, are bolted in position. For assembling the second section of the towers, two gin poles are placed one each on the top of the poles diagonally opposite corner legs. These two are used for raising parts of second

section. The leg members and braces of this section are then hoisted and assembled. The gin poles are then shifted to the corner leg

members on the top of second section to raise the parts of third section of the tower in

position for assembly. The gin pole is thus

moved up as the tower grows. This process is continued till the complete tower is erected. Cross-arm members are assembled on the ground and raised up and fixed to the main body of the tower. For heavier towers, a small boom is

rigged on one of the tower legs for hoisting purposes. The members/sections Are hoisted

either manually or by winch machines operated from the ground. For smaller base

towers/vertical configuration towers, one gin pole is used instead of two gin poles. In order to maintain speed and efficiency, a small

assembly party goes ahead of the main erection gang and its purpose is to sort out the tower members, position keeping on the the ground members and in correct the


panels on the ground which can be erected as a complete unit. Sketches indicating different steps of erection by built up method are shown at Figure 4.1 to Figure 4.7. List of Tools and Plants and Manpower for Tower Erection is given at Annexure E/1 and E/2. Guying arrangement - Guying arrangements are to be done at waiste level/bottom cross-arm level as well as in the girder level/top cross-arm level depending on SC/DC towers and it is to be

installed at 450 from vertical. The deadments for guying arrangements is to be properly

made. A sample of deadments drawing is enclosed at Figure 4.8 for reference. Guying should be steel upon wire or polypropylene Nominal rope depending is to be



given in guying wire/rope for holding the tower in position. 4.1.2 Section method Back to contents page In the section method, major sections of the tower are assembled on the ground and the same are erected as units. Either a mobile crane or a gin pole is used. The gin pole used is approximately 10 m long and is held in place by means of guys by the side of the tower to be erected. The two opposite sides of the lower section of the tower are assembled on the ground. Each assembled side is then lifted clear of the ground with the gin or derrick and is lowered into position on bolts to stubs or anchor bolts.

One side is held in place with props while the other side is being erected. The two opposite sides are then laced together with cross members diagonals; and the assembled section is lined up, made square with the line, and

levelled. After completing the first section, gin pole is set on the top of the first section. The gin

rests on a strut of the tower immediately below the leg joint. The gin pole then has to be properly guyed into position. The first face of the section is raised. To raise the second face of this section it is necessary to slide the foot of the gin on the strut to the

opposite of the tower. After the two opposite faces are raised, the lacing on the other two sides is bolted up. The last lift raises the top of the

towers. After the tower top is placed and all side of the lacings have been bolted up, all the guys are thrown off except one which is used to lower the gin pole. Sometimes whole one face of the tower is

assembled on the ground, hoisted and supported in position. The opposite face is similarly assembled and hoisted and then bracing angles connecting these two faces are fitted.


Ground assembly method Back to contents page This method and consists erecting of as assembling a the tower unit. on The



complete tower is assembled in a horizontal position on even ground, at some distance from tower footing. The tower is assembled in a linewise position to allow the cross-arms to be fitted. On sloping

ground, however elaborate packing of the low side is essential before assembly commences. After the

assembly is complete the tower is picked up from the ground with the help of a crane and carried to its location and set on its foundation. For this method of erection, a level piece of ground close to the footing is chosen for the tower assembly. This

method is not useful when the towers are large and heavy land would and where cause where the foundations and to are located in arable towers hilly on

building damage the

erecting large of

complete or in






slopping ground may not be possible and it may be difficult to get crane into position to raise the complete tower. In India, this method is not generally adopted

because of prohibitive cost of mobile crane, and non-availability of good approach roads to the

location. 4.1.4 Helicopter method Back to contents page n the helicopter method, the transmission tower is erected in sections. For example bottom section is first lifted on to the stubs and then upper section is lifted and bolted to the first section and the process erected. is repeated a till the complete assembled tower tower is is



raised with the help of a helicopter. Helicopters are also used forlifting completely assembled towers with guys from the marshalling yards, where these are fabricated and then transported one by one to line location. The helicopter hovers over the line location while the tower is securely guyed. The

ground crew men connect and tighten

the tower guyed tight, the

and as soon as the tie lines are bolted

helicopter disengages and return to the marshalling yards for another when tower. the This method is is adopted

particularly difficult. 4.2 Earthing



Back to contents page Once the geometry of the tower and the line

insulation level are fixed, the one factor which affects the lightning performance of a line that can be controlled during the construction phase of the






Consequently, this should be measured during this phase of the work and, if necessary, extra earthing provided. The measured resistance alters if the soil conditions change due to seasonal variations. When the footing resistance exceeds a desired value from the lightning protection point of view, the towers are earthed generally with pipe type and, in special cases, with counterpoise type earthing. In

the former case, a 25mm diameter galvanised iron pipe, 3,050mm long, is used with 6.5mm diameter

holes drilled at 150mm

apart to facilitate ingress

of moisture, and is surrounded by a layer of finely broken coke of 25mm granular size and salt. The earthing should be done in accordance with the stipulations made in IS:3043-1972 and IS:5613 (Part II/Section 1)-1976. The general earthing arrangement is shown in Figures 4.9 and 4.10. Where the tower stands on rock,

efforts should be made to obtain a good ground by carrying a length of galvanised steel tape from the tower leg to the pipe driven in soil, at as short a

distance from the tower as possible. The connecting tape is burried in a groove cut in the rock surface and 4.2.1 adequately protected from damage.

Measurement of Tower Footing Resistance The megger can be used in two ways to measure the

resistivity of the soil, namely, the three point method and the four-point method. The four-point is briefly

method is simpler and more accurate and described below. a) Soil Resistivity Four similar electrodes are




earth to a depth B at equal distances A from one another in a straight line. The megger

connections are shown in Figure 4.11. If the crank of the instrument is then rotated at the stipulated resistance resistance speed R, of as (usually read on 100 the rpm), is the the two are






equipotential surfaces with which P1 and P2 in contact.

If the depth of the electrode in soil B (in cm) is small of in the comparison soil is with given A, by the the


following expression. P = Where P = earth resistivity in ohms/cm3 A = spacing between the electrodes in cm, and R = resistance in ohms as read on the megger. For all practical purposes, A should be at least twenty times that of B. 2x22 x AxR ----------7


Tower Footing Resistance For measuring tower footing resistance,

Terminal C-1 of megger shall be connected with tower leg instead of electrode C-1. The value of resistance read on the megger multiplied

with multiplying factor gives the tower footing resistance in ohms.


Tack welding :Back to contents page All bolts/nuts below waist level in single circuit tower or bottom cross arm in Double circuit tower, shall be tackwelded to prevent theft of tower

members. Two 10mm thick welding tacks should be done on each bolt & nut in the diagonally opposite direction by suitably selecting welding electrods of size 1.6mm to 2.5mm equivalent to over cord-S, code AWS-E6013 (Advani-Oerlikon). welding, zinc After removing zinc slag over tack cold




galvanising paint equivalent to epilux-4 of Berger Paint shall be applied on the welding. 4.4 Permissible tolerances in tower erection Back to contents page As per IS;5613 (Part 3/Sec.2) :1989, the following tolerances in tower erection are permitted: 4.4.1 No member of a tower shall be out of straightness by more than one in 1000. Members failing the

requirements shall be straightened before erection in a manner that shall not damage their properties or the protective finish. 4.4.2 The tower shall not be out of vertical by more than 1 in 360 before stringing is carried out.



Ginpole/Derric Pole 75/100mm dia. and of length 8.5-9m. 2nos. 25mm dia. 700 m. 19mm dia.1000 m.


Polypropylene rope

3. 4.

Single sheave pulley Crow Bars(25mm dia and 1.8m length)

Closed type

8 nos.

16 nos.


Spanners,(both Ring and Flat) Hammers,Slings,(16mm dia.and 1m length), hooks (12mm dia) D shackle,Tommy Bars. As per reqt.


Tents,Buckets,Water drums, camping, cots, tables, chairs, and petromax etc. As per reqt. 6 nos.


D Shackle 7.6 cm (3 in.)


Hexagonal box spanner with fixed liver and end of the liver pointed to use Reqd. sizes

hole bar. 9. Safety equipments : i. ii. Safety helmets Safety belts

Each size 6 nos.

40 nos. 10 nos. 50 nos. 2 nos. 1 no.

iii. Safety shoes iv. v. Note : Welding Goggles First Aid Box

The quantity of safety equipments may be changed as

per manpower engaged.


One Engineer shall be earmarked exclusively for the work of Tower Erection being carried out by different gangs. Following manpower is required for each Tower Erection gang. 1) 2) 3) 4) Supervisor Fitter Skilled workers Unskilled workers 1 No. 8 Nos. 12 Nos. 20 Nos.

Note: Average output per gang per month will be approximately 80 MT. The man power may be regulated depending upon


Chapter-5 Guide Lines



GUIDELINES GL-1 PRE-ERECTION CHECKS Back to contents page NAME OF LINE___________________ NAME OF CONTRACTOR_____________ LOCATION NO. _____________ TYPE OF TOWER ____________

Before taking up tower erection works, following preparations need to be made. 1.1 1.1.1 Foundation checks Tower erection work shall be taken up only after concreting is cured and set for 14 days as per

technical specifications. This is essential so that concrete various erection. 1.1.2 The stubs shall be set such that the distance gains forces sufficient acting strength and to withstand after tower


between the stubs and their alignment and slop is in accordance with the approved drawings so as to

permit assembling of superstructures without undue strain or To ensure distortion in any part of the structure. above following checks are necessary

before tower erection. (a) Level of all the four stubs shall be on one horizontal and plane in order to ensure correct

smooth tower erection. The level of top of

the stubs shall be checked to ensure that these are on one horizontal plane. (b) Distance approved tower between drawing the so is stubs that shall be and as per







(diagonals) between the stubs are measured and verified for its correctness. 1.1.3 Revetment/Benching wherever required shall be

completed so that there is no danger to foundation during and after tower erection. However, if it is felt that, non-completion of Revetment/Benching is

not going to harm foundation during and after tower erection, the same may be programmed and executed on later date. 1.2 1.2.1 Tower materials It shall be ensured that approved structural

drawings and Bill of Material with latest revision are available at site to facilitate tower erection.

Preferably one set of structural drawings properly laminated and Bill of Material in Bound Book shall be available at site with each gang.


All tower Members shall be available at site as per approved Bill of Material and shall be serially

placed on ground in order of erection requirement. 1.2.3 It shall be checked that no tower Member, Nut/Bolt, accessories are rusted, bent or damaged.








washers in required quantity are available at site. 1.2.5 If any defects in protective surface finish are

found in case of hot dip galvanised members, the damage shall be repaired by applying two coats of zinc-rich paint having atleast 90% zinc contents

conforming to I.S. code. 1.2.6 Members bent in transit shall be straightened such that the protective surface finish is not damaged. 1.3 1.3.1 Tools & plants All the tools tower and plants required shall be for safe and at




site.A list of necessary tools at 1.3.2 Annexure-E/1.

and plants is given

All the tools and plants shall be tested as per approved safety norms be and relevant test

certificates shall above,


In addition to

periodic testing out

of tools and plants shall

be carried

and its safe working capacity shall

be worked out. 1.4 1.4.1 Personal protective equipments All the persons working on tower shall wear safety helmet, safety belt and safety shoes,.Similarly all the persons working on ground shall wear safety

helmet and safety shoes. List of personal protective equipments is given at Annexure-E/1. 1.4.2 Safety equipments shall be tested as per safety








available. Also, a periodic check shall be carried out to ensure requisite strength. 1.5 1.5.1 Manpower Manpower engaged for the purpose of tower erection shall be skilled and competent enough to ensure

safe, smooth and efficient tower erection activity. 1.5.2 A list of necessary manpower required for tower

erection is given at Annexure-E/2. 1.6 1.6.1 Miscellaneous If there is any LT/HT power line near the vicinity of tower erection, necessary shutdown of the power

line shall be obtained in writing from the concerned Agency in order to avoid electrical hazards caused by accidental touching of stay/Guy ropes with power line. 1.6.2 In order to develop and maintain cordial relations with field owners, it is desired that crop/tree

compensation of foundation is paid to the owners before taking up tower erection works.

GUIDELINES GL- 2. CHECKS DURING TOWER ERECTION Back to contents page NAME OF LINE _________ LOCATION NO._______________

NAME OF CONTRACTOR __________ 2.1 Safety precautions Safety shall be

TYPE OF TOWER ______________





tower erection. The following need to be ensured. 2.1.1 Safe working conditions shall be provided at the erec-tion site. 2.1.2 All the persons on tower shall wear safety helmet, safety belt and safety shoes and all the persons on ground shall wear safety helmet and safety shoes. 2.1.3 Immediate Medical care shall be provided to workmen met with accident. First Aid Box shall be available at erection site. 2.1.4 First section of tower shall be completely braced and all plane diagonals relevant to the section

shall avoid

be fixed

before assembly of upper section to

any mishappening.

Some times erection crew members tend to neglect providing bracing for the simple reason that the

same retard the pace of erection. Since wind load is one of the main governing factors, therefore,

neglecting the bracing at the erection stage may prove hazardous, should there be a gusty wind

following the erection arm level, the

of superstructure upto cross of failure cannot be


ruled out. 2.1.5 It shall be ensured that all bolts/ nuts as per approved drawing are provided and tightened for the erected portion may of lead tower. to Fixing of of insufficient the provided



bolts and subsequent failure of structure. 2.1.6 Subsequent sections shall be erected only after

complete erection and bracing of previous section to ensure safety. 2.1.7 One of the prime aspects during tower erection is to counter balance all the erection forces to avoid any undue stresses in tower members. It may be

mentioned here that all the members in tower are designed Under the for tensile or/and the compression members forces. be



subjected to bending or torsion. If during erection, if such forces are imposed upon the tower member, they may fail. Guying of tower shall be done as per requirement. Crow bars used for terminating stay ropes shall be fixed on Firm ground to withstand requisite

anchoring force. 2.2 2.2.1 Checking erection process All the approved drawings and Bill of Materials as mentioned in para 1.2.1 shall be referred to. It

shall be verified that tower erection is carried out strictly Material. 2.2.2 All Bolts/Nuts, flat/spring washers shall be as per approved drawings and Bill of

provided in accordance with approved drawings and Bill of 2.2.3 Material.

All Bolts shall have their nuts facing outside the tower for horizontal and or nearly for horizontal vertical bolt bolt

connection connections. 2.2.4


Spring washers shall be provided under outer nut of step bolt.










bringing them into position. 2.2.6 No bending or damage of member shall be observed during erection. 2.2.7 No filing of holes or cutting of member to match the fixing shall be permitted. Also it may be

checked that no extra tolerance in holes is given during fabrication. A properly erected tower shall be symmetrical with respect to the central vertical axis. A check with an erected tower, with regard to the length the and shape of its error. members, A well will help




member will not pose any problems during erection. 2.2.8 No heavy hammering of bolt causing damage to its threads, shall be permitted.










erection works and to take timely remedial measures if needed, the first of every type of towers A,B,C and D shall officer not be supervised below closely by a senior

the rank of Manager.

GUIDELINES GL- 3. TIGHTENING AND PUNCHING Back to contents page NAME OF LINE_________ NAME OF CONTRACTOR__________ LOCATION NO._______________ TYPE OF TOWER______________

3.1 3.1.1

Tightening All the members shall be fitted with requisite

quantity of Nuts/Bolts, flat/spring washers as per approved drawings and Bill of Material as at 3.1.2 (a) Para 1.2.1. Tightening shall be done progressively from top to bottom, while care being taken that all the bolts at every horizontal level are tightened mentioned

simultaneously. Tightening shall be done with correct size spanners. (b) Improper clamping tightening force at of bolt causes unequal load




redistribution in tower member. If the bolt/nut is torqued too high, there is a danger of

failure by stripping the threads or breaking the bolt or making the bolts yeild excessively. If the bolt is torqued too low, a low preload will be induced in the bolt/nut assembly

possibly inviting fatigue or vibration failure. (c) A torque wrench may be used on a few bolts/ nuts at random to ensure optimum tightening.


Spring washers shall be provided under outer nut of step bolt.


Slipping/running over Nut/Bolt shall be replaced by new ones.


All left over holes shall be fitted with correct size of bolt/nut.


Threaded position

of bolt projected outside of nut

shall not be less than 3 mm. 3.2 3.2.1 Punching The threads of bolts projected outside of nuts

shall be punched at three position on diameter to ensure that nuts are not loosened in course of time. 3.3 3.3.1 Verticality Tower shall be checked for vertically with the help of theodolite direction. 3.3.2 Tower shall not be out of vertical by more than 1 in 360. 3.4 3.4.1 Earthing Tower shall be earthed in accordance with Guide line GL-5. 3.4.2 Tower footing resistance shall be measured before and after earthing in dry season. 3.4.3 The permissible value of Tower footing resistance is 10 Ohm. both in longitudinal and transverse


NAME OF LINE_________ NAME OF CONTRACTOR__________ 4.1 4.1.1 Tower accessories All the approved

LOCATION NO. _____________ TYPE OF TOWER______________





Bill of Material in bound book with latest revisions shall be available at site to facilitate fixing of

various tower accessories. 4.1.2 Number plate indicating location no. of tower shall be fixed on Transverse face no. 1 as shown in Figure No. 5.1 as per technical specification. 4.1.3(a) Phase plates for indicating phases of different

conductors shall be fixed on Transverse face No.1 on all 5.1 (b) In the tension towers as shown in Figure No.

as per technical specification. case of transposition tower, since phase

sequence is changed, the phase plates shall be fixed on both of Transverse faces No. 1 and 3 as shown in Figure No. 5.1 as per technical specification.


Danger plate having details of voltage level and word "Danger" is written fixed on in tower local as a language, statutory


requirement to ward off unauthorised persons from climbing the tower. (b) Danger plate shall also be fitted on Transverse face NO. 1 on all the towers as shown in Figure No. 5.1 as per technical specification. 4.1.5 Anticlimbing devices and barbed wire shall be fixed on all the tower as per to approved prevent drawings and




persons from climbing the tower. This is a statutory requirement. 4.1.6(a) Aviation technical paints/signals specifications shall in be provided with as per



of Aviation

Authority. These aviation signals are

required to caution the low flying air craft to keep off the tower. (b) The full length of towers shall be painted over the galvanised surface in contrasting bands of red and white colours. The bands shall be horizontal having height between 1.5 to 3.0 meters. 4.2 4.2.1 Tack welding All the Bolts/Nuts shall be tackwelded below waist level (S/C tower) and bottom cross arm (D/C tower)

to prevent theft of tower member. 4.2.2 The threads of bolts projected outside the nuts

shall be tackwelded at two diametrically opposite places having a length of 10 mm each. 4.2.3 It shall be ensured that there shall be no overburning of Nut/Bolt during tackwelding. For this

purpose, correct current range shall be used for welding as per recommendation of electrode

manufacturer. 4.2.4 Standard quality of welding rods conforming to

Indian standards shall be used. 4.2.5 Slag or carbon layer over welding shall be chipped and cleaned with wire brush before application of paint. 4.2.6 Atleast two coats of cold galvanised zinc rich

paint having 90% zinc contents shall be applied on the welding to avoid rusting.

GUIDELINES GL- 5. EARTHING Back to contents page NAME OF LINE_________ LOCATION NO.________________

NAME OF CONTRACTOR__________ 5.1 General All the towers are

TYPE OF TOWER _______________

required of



earthed line






lightening and other overvoltages. The tower footing resistance after earthing shall not be more than 10 Ohm. 5.1.2 There are basically two types of earthing provided on transmission towers. a) Pipe type Earthing This shall be adopted where location of tower is situated on normal cohesive or non-cohesive soil where excavation 4 m below ground level is possible by auguring. b) Counter Poise Earthing This shall be provided where location of tower is situated on rocky areas where excavation to These are :

the depth of 4 m below ground level is not feasible. 5.1.3 Tower footing resistance before earthing shall be measured and recorded.










shall be

available at site to facilitate earthing

of different types. 5.2 5.2.1 Pipe type earthing All the materials as per approved drawings and Bill of Materials shall be available at site. The

material required for each tower earthing is given as under :a) b) G.S. Pipe 25 mm dia and 3060 mm length - 1 No. G.S. flat - section 50x6 mm and length 3325 mm - 1 c) d) e) 5.2.2 No.

Nuts/Bolts/Washers as per approved drawing. Coke-150 Kgs. Salt-15 Kgs.

Earthing shall be provided on leg. `A' as shown in Figure 5.1 i.e. the leg with step bolts.


In case of Railway crossing towers, two earthings per tower shall be provided as per requirement of Railway Authorities. For this purpose, earthing on leg. A and leg. C shall be provided.


Excavation for placing of G.S. Pipe and flat shall be carried out in accordance with approved and technical specification. drawings


G.S. Pipe and flat are placed and tightened firmly with Nuts/Bolts as per approved drawings. It shall be ensured that there is no sharp bent in G.S. Flat

or G.S. strip connected with stub. 5.2.6 Finely broken coke/charcoal having maximum granular size 25 mm and salt in ratio 10:1 shall be filled in the excavated bore hole as per approved drawing. Backfilling shall be carried out with proper

compaction as per technical specification. 5.3 5.3.1 Counter poise earthing All the materials as per approved drawings and Bill of Material shall be available at site. The

material required for each tower is given as under:a) One set of G.S. wire of 10.97 mm dia comprising of 4 nos. of G.S. wires with G.S. lugs forged at one end. The minimum length of each wire shall be 15 m. b) 5.3.2 Nuts/Bolts/Washers as per drawings.

Excavation upto minimum depth of 1 m and minimum length of 15 m shall be done in four radial

directions as per approved drawings. 5.3.3 G.S. wire shall be placed and lugs tightened The

firmly with Nut/Bolt as per approved drawings.

backfilling shall be done with proper compaction as per technical specification. 5.3.4 The length of G.S. wire may be increased beyond 15 m, if the tower footing resistance is more than 10 ohm. 5.4 The tower footing resistance after earthing shall be measured in dry season and recorded. The permissible

limit is 10 Ohm.


NAME OF LINE_________

LOCATION NO_______________


TYPE OF TOWER______________

Before taking up stringing works, the tower shall be checked thoroughly. The following procedure shall be followed. 6.1 The tower shall be checked from by the two supervisors of the




tower at two diagonally opposite legs. The checking shall be carried out towards the top of the tower and the supervisors will come down checking through the 6.2 other opposite diagonal legs.

It shall be ensured that correct size of bolts/nuts are used and fully tightened.


It shall also be ensured that all bolts/ nuts have been provided with spring washers.


A torque wrench may be used at random to ensure sufficient tightness.


Any missing members shall be provided with correct size member.

Chapter-6 Standardisation of Tower Design





Introduction : Back to contents page India is divided into six wind zones of basic wind speed of 33 m/s, 39 m/s, 44 m/s, 47 m/s, 50 m/s and 55 m/s, the maximum temperature isopleths traversing the country vary from 37.5 degree C to 50 degree C in steps of 2.5 degree and the minimum temperature from -7.5 degree C to 17.5 degree C in steps of 2.5 degree. Accordingly, the power supply utilities in different, parts of the country design their

transmission lines on the basis of the wind pressure and temperature relavent to them. However, if a standardisation could be undertaken covering possible these by various way of parameters, materials, the money, savings time,

engineering and other organisational effort would be considerable. Also standard towers can be inter-

changed among different transmission lines. It means that if construction of line is lagging because of shortage of tower material, the same can be diverted from other line to match the completion schedule. Also if some of the towers have collapsed during operation stage, the replacement can be arranged

from any suitable store. In addition to this, the quantity of spare towers to be kept shall also cost be

reduced considerably thus saving in towers, storage, handling etc.

of spare

Similarly number of angle sizes used in tower should be restricted to optimum level. In minimising the number of sizes, the emphasis has been not so much on the economy of the support as such but on easier fabrication, different lack of confusion in handling

sizes, transportation, storage etc.

A project for standardisation of towers on these lines deserves to be undertaken at the level in association with the National utilities,

consultants, 6.2

fabricators and erectors. Back to contents page

Standardisation in POWERGRID

POWERGRID is taking a lead in standardisation of towers of transmission lines in India. In view of overall economy and time, the standardisation shall be finalised for wind zones of 44 m/s and 50 m/s for all type of towers. The standard towers for wind zone of 44 m/s shall also be utilised for wind zone of 33 m/s and 39 m/s. Similarly the standard towers for wind zone of 50 m/s shall also be adopted, for

wind zone of 47 m/s. At present no standardisation is required for wind zone of 55 m/s, since this wind zone is confined to negligible area of the country. A list of standard tower designs for wind zone of 39

m/s, 44 m/s and 50 m/s for 400kV single circuit and double circuit transmission lines is given in Table 6.1. Also the names of the transmission lines, where these standard tower designs have been adopted, has also been given in Table 6.1. It has been decided that in future, the aforesaid standard tower design shall be adopted for all future non-IDA funded

transmission lines. It may be mentioned here that World Bank is not accepting standardisation of towers by POWERGRID in respect of World Bank funded project. However, the matter is again being taken up with World Bank to resolve this problem.

TABLE 6.1 LIST OF STANDARD DESIGN TOWERS Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. Type of Standard Design Design Wind Zone Medium wind zone tower 45 Name of the Adopted Trans. Lines 400 kV S/C Agra-Chatta TL (By Dodsal) 400 kV S/C Chatta-Ballabgarh TC (BY TSL) 400 kV S/C Dadri-Panipat Line (Only D type tower used by M/s Dodsal) a) 400 kV D/C Jamshedpur-Rourkela TL b) a) b) c) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) 400 kV D/C Misa-Balipara TL 400 kV D/C Jamshedpur-Rourkela TL 400 kV D/C Misa-Balipara TL 400 kV D/C Kaiga-Sirsi TL 400 kV D/C Talcher-Tourkela TL 400 kV D/C Talcher-Rengali TL 400 kV D/C Jaypore-Gazuwaka TL 400 kV D/C Ranganadi-Balipara TL 400 kV D/C Talcher-Rourkela TL 400 kV D/C Talcher-Rangali TL 400 kV D/C Jeypore-Gazuwaka TL 400 kV D/C Gandhar-Dehegoan TL 400 kV D/C Ranganadi-Balipara TL

towers 400 kV Single Ckt. Suspension A type tower 400 kV Single Ckt. Tension

M/Sec. As per IS : 802-1977 -do-do-

Tower type B.C. and D/DE 400 kV Double Ckt. Suspension DA type tower








tower type DB, DC and DD/DDE


400 kV Double Ckt. Suspension tower DA

As per draft IS : 802 wind zone 50 M/Sec.








towers type DB, DC and DD/DDE


400 kV Single Ckt. Suspension tower type A type

As per draft IS : 802 wind zone 44 M/Sec.

a) b) a) b) a) b) a)

400 kV S/C Gandhar-Padghe TL 400 kV S/C Kishenpur-Chamera TL 400 kV S/C Gandhar-Padghe TL 400 kV S/C Kishenpur-Chamera TL 400 kV D/C Gandhar-Dehegoan TL 400 kV D/C Kaiga-Sirsi TL 400 kV D/C Uri-Wagoora TL







As per draft IS : 802 wind zone 44 M/sec. -do-

tower type B, C and D/DE 9. 400 kV Double Ckt. Suspension tower DA 10. 400 kV Double Ckt. Suspension tower type DA (With 15 mm ice 11. zone) 400 kV Double Ckt. Tension

As per draft IS : 802 wind zone 39 M/Sec. -do-


400 kV D/C Uri-Wagoora TL

tower type DB, DC and DD/DDE (With 15 mm ice zone) Notes : 1. 2. Standardisation of tower design presently done on the highest wind velocity basis by clubbing 33.39 and 44 m/sec. Similarly, wind velocity of 47 m/sec. And 50 m/sec. Have been clubbed to 50 m/sec. The basis wind speed at 10 M height for some important Cities/Towns of India as given below.

City/Town Agra Ahmadabad Ajmer Almora Amritsar Asansol Aurangabad Bahraich Bangalore Barauni Bareilly Bhatinda Bhilai Bhubaneshwar Bhuj Bikaner Bokaro Bombay Calcutta Calicut Chandigarh Coimbatore Cuttack Darbhanga Darjeeling Dehra Dun Delhi Durgapur Gangtok Gauhati Gaya Gorakhpur Hyderabad Imphal Jabalpur Jaipur Jamshedpur

Basic Wind Speed (m/s) 47 39 47 47 47 47 39 47 33 47 47 47 39 50 50 47 47 44 50 39 47 39 50 55 47 47 47 47 47 50 39 47 44 47 47 47 47

City/Town Jhansi Jodhpur Kanpur Kohima Kurnool Lakshadweep Lucknow Ludhiana Madras Madurai Mandi Mangalore Moradabad Nagpur Nainital Nasik Nellore Panjim Patiala Patna Nellore Port Blair Puna Raipur Rajkot Ranchi Roorkee Rourkela Simla Srinagar Surat Tiruchchirrapalli Trivandrum Udaipur Vadodara Varanasi Vijaywada Visakhapatnam

Basic Wind Speed (m/s) 47 47 47 44 39 39 47 47 50 39 39 39 47 44 47 39 50 39 47 47 50 44 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 44 47 39 47 44 47 50 50

Chapter-7 Check Format



Check Format Back to contents page


NAME OF LINE_________________ NAME OF CONTRACTOR____________

LOCATION NO. ___________ TYPE OF TOWER __________

-------------------------------------------------------------ITEM CHECKED RESULT OBSERVATION -------------------------------------------------------------1) Setting period of foundation is allowed for atleast 14 days as per specn. Back filling is O.K. 2) All tested tools and plants and safety equipments in working conditions are available at site. 3) All tower members, Nuts/Bolts are available at site without any damage, bent or rusting. 4) Benching/Revetment,if any, completed. If not, then programme of completion. 5) Shutdown of powerline, if required, is arranged. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No


Reqd. no. of safety helmets, safety belts & safety shoes are being used. Yes/No


First section is completely braced and all plane diagonals are placed in proper position. Yes/No


Guying of tower provided as per approved drawings and norms. Guying to be terminated on firm ground. Yes/No


All Nuts/Bolts, flat/spring washers are provided as per approved drawings. Yes/No


All horizontal Bolt heads are facing inside and vertical Bolt head facing upwards. Yes/No


Subsequent section are erected only after complete erection and bracing of previous section. Yes/No


Any undue stress, bending or damage of member during erection noticed. Yes/No


Any filing of holes or cutting of members during erection observed. Yes/No


Any heavy hammering of bolt causing damage of threads noticed. Yes/No


Any substitute of tower member erected. If yes, member nos. Yes/No


Tightening is done progressively from top to bottom. Yes/No


All bolts at the same level are

tightned simultaneously. 18) Slipping/running over nut/bolts are replaced by new ones. 19) Threaded portion of bolts projected outside of nut is not less than 3mm. 20) Punching of threads projected outside is done at three positions on dia. 21) All left over holes are filled with correct size of bolt/nut. 22) Verticality of tower is checked with help of the odolite for both longitudinal & transverse direction. This is with in specified limits. 23) Details of missing members, nut, bolts etc. 24) Tower Accessories All the following tower accessories are fixed as per specn/ apprd. drg. a) b) c) d) Number plate. Danger plate. Phase plate. Anti-climbing devices/ barbed wires. e) Aviation signals/paints as per requirement/specn. 25) Tack welding is done as per specn. using standard quality of welding rods.








Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No





Zinc Rich (90%) cold galvanising paint applied over tack welding. Yes/No


Earthing i. ii. Tower footing resistance Type of earthing approved Ohm Pipe Type/ Counter Poise


Pipe Type Earthing i. ii. Earthing provided on Leg `A' G.S. Pipe, flat tightened with Nut & Bolt and placed as per apprd. drg. iii. There is no sharp bent/ damage in earthing strips/ flat. iv. Finely broken coke (max. size 25mm) and salt in Ratio 10:1 filled in bore holes. v. Backfilling done, properly. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No


Counter Poise Earthing i. Excavation done upto reqd. depth (min. 1m) and length (min. 15m) in four radial direction. ii. G.S. Wire placed in excavation and lugs firmly tightened with Nut and Bolt. iii. Backfilling done as per specn. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No


Value of tower footing resistance after earthing in dry season (permissible limit - 10 ohm). ..Ohm

Certificate : Tower erection is complete in all respects and footing resistance is within permissible limit.














DESIGN.: Line Inch./ Grp.Head


__________________________________________________________________________ _ RESUMES 1. Sh. V.C. Agarwal, AGM, is B.E. (Civil) and M.E. (Hons.) in Soil Mech. and Fndns. Engg. From Univ. of Roorkee, Roorkee. He has 27 yrs. of vast experience in Construction, Planning and Monitoring of large Transmission Projects. 2. Sh. D.K. Valecha, Sr. Manager, is B.Sc. Engg. (Electrical) from Reg. Engg. College, Kurukshetra. He has 17 yrs. of varied experience in Planning & Monitoring, Construction, Operation & Maintenance of Transmission Lines and Substations. 3. Sh. J.K. Parihar, Manager, is B.E. Elect. (Hons.) from Univ. of Jodhpur, Jodhpur. He has 13 yrs. of varied experience in Planning & Monitoring, Construction, Operation & Maintenance of Transmission Lines and Substations. 4. 5. Sh. R. Nagpal, Manager, is B.E. Elect. (Hons.) from Punjab Engg. College, Chandigarh and MBA from Indira Gandhi National Open Univ., New Delhi. Sh. B.K. Jana, Dy. Manager, is B.E. (Civil) from Regional Engineering College Durgapur and M. Tech. In Applied Mechanics from I.I.T. Delhi. He has 13 yrs. of varied experience in Design, Planning & Coordination of Substation works, TL Fndns., Pile Fndns. & other special heavy Foundations.