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Introduction Marine hydrodynamics is a large and diverse subject and only a few topics can be covered in an introductory course. Some course objectives to keep in mind throughout the semester are the following: Model testing similitude Effect of waves on resistance and ship motion Interaction between bodies and ideal fluids Viscosity and surface tension

Why study Marine Hydrodynamics? Studying marine hydrodynamics provides a greater understanding of a wide range of phenomena of considerable complexity involving fluids. Another benefit is that it allows predictions to be made in many areas of practical importance. Fluid mechanics is a way of looking at a group of particles without having to study each particle separately. A fluid at rest hydrostatics is a trivial case of fluid mechanics where no stresses due to fluid motion exist. Fluids have to be moving to be non-trivial. Fluid mechanics is fundamentally non-linear.

The mechanics of Fluids vs. Solids Most of us have taken some courses on solids or that relate to solids. Even those who havent can get an intuitive feel on some physical properties of a solid. Thus a comparison of solids and fluids will give some guidelines on which properties can be translated to fluids and on what terms.

Differences Fluids Fluids have no shape Fluids cannot sustain a shear force, i.e. a fluid is always in motion Stress is a function of the rate of strain, thus a fluid had a dynamic state The static properties of a fluid cannot be extended to dynamic properties. Solids Solids have a definite shape Solids can sustain a shear force; i.e. they remain static Stress is a function of strain, thus a solid maintains a static or quasi-static state. The static properties of a solid can be extended to dynamic properties.

Similarities The continuum hypothesis is used for both fluids and solids. The fundamental laws of mechanics apply to both fluids and solids. - Newtons law of motion (conservation of momentum) - Conservation of Mass - First law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) The constitutive law relating stress and rate of strain also apply to both.

Sometimes it is hard to differentiate a liquid from a solid. This can be seen in the examples such as honey, jelly, paint,

Liquid vs. Gas Note that there are two separate terms that we are talking about here. Liquid and fluid. According to Websters Dictionary, a fluid is a body whose particles move easily among themselves. Fluid is a generic term, including liquids and gases as species. Water, air, and steam are fluids. A liquid is Being in such a state that the component parts move freely among themselves, but do not tend to separate from each other as the particles of gases and vapors do; neither solid nor aeriform. A liquid is generally incompressible and does not fill a volume by expanding into it. A gas on the other hand, is compressible and expands to fill any volume containing it.

Why is a liquid incompressible? The main difference between the study of hydrodynamics and the study of aerodynamics is the property if incompressibility. Hydrodynamic properties are generally incompressible while aerodynamic properties are compressible. Consider the following proof. Measuring the speed of sound in a medium will give a measure of compressibility of that medium. U: Characteristic fluid velocity C: Speed of sound in the medium M: Mach # U M C Cin air = 300 m/s air = 10 3 water

The Mach number is a measure of compression that can relate the speed of the fluid to the speed of sound. Thus in the case of water, the Mach number is very small, indicating a very small measure of compressibility. This ratio is negligible and shows that water is virtually incompressible. Note: An incompressible fluid does not mean constant density.

Chapter 1 - Basic Equations 1.1 Description of a Flow Flows are often defined either by a Eulerian description or a Lagrangian description. - Eulerian description: This is a field description that is often easy to apply. The velocities of the flow are given at fixed points in space as time varies. Imagine a case where both the measuring device and the frame of reference are fixed. The velocity, pressure, density, can be mathematically represented as follows: r v v v v v v ( x , t ), p ( x , t ), ( x , t ),... - Lagrangian description: This description is easier to understand but harder to apply. Here the quantities of the flow are given for a particular moving particle at varying times. The velocity, pressure, density, can be mathematically represented as follows: r v v v p (t ), p p (t ), p (t ),...

Useful terms for flow description Streamline: A line everywhere tangent to the fluid velocity at a given time. In an Eulerian description, it would be a snapshot of the flow.

Streakline: Instantaneous locus of all particles that pass a given point. In an Eulerian description, it would be a snapshot of certain particles.

Pathline: The trajectory of a given particle P in time. The photograph analogy would be a long time exposure of a given particle.

Some Eulerian Quantities of Interest Scalars: have magnitude only. v v Pressure: p( x , t ) ; Density: (x, t ) Vectors: have magnitude and direction v v j v ( x , t ) = ui + v + wk = u1 x1 + u 2 x 2 + u 3 x3

= u i xi

i =1

= u i xi

Einstein Notation

Einstein Notation: Repeated indices are summed by implication over all values of the index i. In this example, the summation is over i =1, 2, 3.

Note that if the equation looks like this: (u i )( xi ) , the indices are not summed.

v v For a fluid flow to be continuous, we require that the velocity v (x , t ) be a finite and v continuous function of x and t. v v v i.e. v and are finite but not necessarily continuous. t v v v Since v and < , there is no infinite acceleration, which is physically consistent. t

Consequences of Continuous Flow

- Material volume remains material No segment of fluid can be joined or broken apart. - Material surface remains material The interface between two material volumes always exists. - Material line remains material The interface of two material surfaces always exists. - Material neighbors remain neighbors To prove this mathematically, we must prove that, given two particles, the distance between them at time t is small, and the distance between them at time t + t is still small.

v v v Given: Two particles with initial position x and x + x t initial time v fluid velocity Proof: v v v v v [x (t ) + x (t )] + (v + x v )t v v x (t ) + x (t )

v (x ) v x (t )

x(t + t )

v v v x (t + t ) = x (t ) + v t

v v v v x(t+t) = x (t ) + x (t ) v t x (t ) v v Therefore x(t+t) x (t ) since v is finite due to the continuous flow assumption. v v Therefore if x (t ) 0 , then x (t + t ) 0

v v In fact, for any time period T, x (t + T ) ~ x (t ) +

t +T

dtx v x

t

Thus the flow is continuous and two particles that are neighbors will always be neighbors.

A material derivative is the time derivative rate of change of a property following a fluid particle P. The material derivative is a Lagrangian concept but we will work in an Eulerian reference frame. v Consider an Eulerian quantity f ( x , t ) . Taking the Lagrangian time derivative of an Eulerian quantity gives the material derivative. Df df df = = (i.e. x is moving, following P) The Lagrangian time derivative is: Dt dt dt fixed w. r .t .

P

v v f ( x + v t , t + t ) v f (x , t )

Particle at x

v v x + v t

2 v } f ( x , t ) v v v v v + x f ( x , t ) + ... (higher order terms) f ( x + x , t + t ) = f ( x , t ) + t { v t v t

Lagrangian

D Dt {

Df f v + v f = Dt t v + v 4 3 t 1 24

Eulerian

v Dv Then the Lagrangian acceleration is: Dt {

Lagrangian acceleration

Eulerian acceleration

v v t {

v v + v 2v 3 1

Convective acceleration

Difference between Lagrangian time derivative and Eulerian time derivative Example: Consider an Eulerian quantity, temperature, in a room at points A and B where the temperature is different at each point.

Point A: 10o Point C:

T t

Point B: 1o

Example: Consider the same example as above: an Eulerian quantity, temperature, in a room at points A and B where the temperature varies with time.

o

Point A: 10

DT T v = + v T t Dt

Point B: 1o

Following a particle from point A to B, the Lagrangian time derivative would need to DT T v include the temperature gradient as time and position changed: = + v T t Dt

Assume a steady flow where the flow is observed from a fixed position. This is like D watching from a river bank, i.e. which is = 0 . Be careful not to confuse this with t Dt D more like following a twig in the water. Note that = 0 does not mean steady since the Dt flow could speed up at some points and slow down at others.

=0 t

1.2 Stress Tensor Stress Tensor ij: The stress (force per unit area) at a point in a fluid needs nine components so that it is completely specified. This is due to the two directions it requires for a complete description. The first index specifies the direction in which the stress component acts, and the second identifies which surface the component is acting on. Therefore, the ith component of the force acting on a surface whose outward normal points in the jth direction is ij.

X2 22 32 23 13 33 31 X1 12 21 11

Figure 1 - Shear stresses on an infinitesimal cube whose surfaces are parallel to the coordinate system.

X3 X2 A1 P 2

1 A3 3 R area A0 X3 A2 Q

X1

Figure 2 - Consider an infinitesimal body at rest with a surface PQR that is not perpendicular to any of the Cartesian axes. The unit normal vector to that surface is n = n1 x1 + n 2 x 2 + n3 x3 Area of surface = A0 Area of each surface to Xi: Ai = A0ni , for i = 1, 2, 3

Newtons law:

all 4 faces

i

i

If is the typical dimension of the body: surface forces 2 : volume forces 3 Where surface forces are forces such as shearing forces and volumetric forces are forces such as gravity. At equilibrium, the surface forces and volumetric forces are equivalent.

As the body gets smaller, the mass of the body goes to zero. According to Newtons law, this makes the volumetric forces equal zero, leaving the sum of the surface forces equal zero. Fi = 0 for i = 1, 2, 3 So, as 0,

all 4 faces

But the area of each surface to Xi: Ai = A0ni Therefore iA0 = ijAj = ij(A0nj) where ijAj is the

notation.

Thus i = ijnj for i = 1, 2, 3 where i is the component of stress in the ith direction on a surface with a normal n . We call i the stress vector. ij is the stress matrix or tensor.

Example: Pascals Law for hydrostatics In a static fluid, the stress vector cannot be different for different directions of the surface normal since there is no preferred direction in the fluid. Therefore, at any point in the fluid, the stress vector must have the same direction as the normal vector n and the same magnitude for all directions of n . 0 0 p1 no 6summation 4 4 78 0 0 Pascals Law: for hydrostatics ij = ( pi )( ij ) p2 = 0 0 p3

pi: pressure acting to the ith surface If po is the pressure acting to the surface PQR, then i = -nipo , but i = ijnj = -(pi)ijnj = -(pi)(ni) po = pi , i = 1, 2, 3 and n is arbitrary.

To prove symmetry of the stress tensor, j (i) surface force = body force + massacceleration ij Assume no symmetry. Balance the forces in the ith direction: ji ji (ij)TOP - (ij)BOTTOM = O(2) since surface forces 2 where the O(2) terms include body forces, etcper unit depth.

o

ij

(ii)

Assume no symmetry. Balance moment w.r.t. o: (ji) - (ij) = O(3) since body moment 3 As 0 , ij = ji

1.3 Mass and Momentum Conservation Consider a material volume m and recall that a material volume is a fixed mass of material. A material volume always encloses the same fluid particles despite a change in size, position, volume or surface area over time.

Sm(t)

1.3.1 Mass Conservation The mass inside the material volume is:

M(m ) = d

m ( t )

m ( t )

Therefore the time rate of increase of mass inside the material volume is:

d d M(m ) = d = 0 dt dt (t )

m

1.3.2 Momentum Conservation ui: velocity of fluid inside the material volume in the ith direction.

Linear momentum of the material volume in the ith direction = u i d

m ( t )

Newtons law of motion: The time rate of change of momentum of the fluid in the material control volume must equal the sum of all the forces acting on the fluid in that volume. Thus:

d dt

d ui d = )Fi d + St ) ij n j dS { dt ( t ) m (t m(

m i

{ { v d = v nd S

j x j S v jn j

for tensors

ij

j

d =

ij

n j dS

ij d u i d = Fi + dt m ( t ) x j m ( t )

Consider a flow through some moving control volume (t ) during a small time interval t. The conservation of mass in a fluid flow requires that the accumulation of mass inside a control volume is accounted for by the net flow of mass across the control surface because mass can neither be created nor destroyed.

v Let f (x , t ) be any (Eulerian) fluid property per unit volume of fluid (e.g. mass, momentum, etc.) S(t+t) v Consider the integral I(t) = f (x , t )d ( t + t )

(t )

( t )

S(t)

1 v v = lim t f ( x , t + t )d f ( x , t )d t 0 (t + t ) (t )

f v v v ( x , t ) + O (t ) 2 (i) f ( x , t + t ) = f ( x , t ) + t t

(ii) Taylor series expansion of f about t

S(t+t)

( t + t )

d = d + d

( t )

n

where

d = [U

s (t )

v ( x , t )t ] dS

v U n ( x , t )t + O( t ) 2

S(t) dS

So we have

1 f d I (t ) = lim df + t d + t dSU n f df + O( t ) 2 t 0 t t dt (t ) ( t ) S (t ) ( t )

v d f ( x , t ) v v v f ( x , t )d = t d + S) f ( x , t )U n ( x, t )dS dt ( t ) ( t ) (t

Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT) Leibnitz rule in 3D

fluid particle velocity

Then

m i i

v d = {

i x i

v n dS {

ini

v f (x , t ) d v v v f ( x , t )d = + ( f ( x , t )v )d 1 4243 dt m ( t ) t m ( t ) ( fv i ) xi

f = fluid property per unit volume

Let the fluid property per unit volume be mass per unit volume: f

0=

d dt

d = t + ( v )d

m m

conservation of mass

1 KTT

st

v v + [v + v ] = 0 t

D Dt

Therefore Dt + v = 0 In general, = (p, T, ) Special case: incompressible flow (Note that the density of the entire fluid flow will not be constant when the fluids interface. However, the density of each fluid particle is constant.)

D

Constant

i v Then v = 0 or x = 0 i

2nd Kinematic Transport Theorem ( = 1st KTT + continuity equation) If G = fluid property per unit mass, then G = fluid property per unit volume

v v G ( + v ) + ( G + v G ) d = t t m (t ) 4 4 14243 14243 =0 DG continuity Dt

7

DG

d dt

Gd = Dt d

m m

Application:

G = ith momentum per unit mass = vi

Dv Fi + ij d = d ) x j dt )vi d = Dti d m ( t m (t m ( t )

conservation of momentum

2nd KTT

Dvi v vi + v v = F + ij i t 1 3 2 i Dt x j vi vj x j

Eulers equation

v v Dv v v v v + v v = F + ~ Dt t

Introduction Governing Equations so far: Knowns Fi Number of Equations Continuity(conservation of mass) Euler (conservation of momentum) Number of Unknowns 3 i 6 3 of 9 eliminated ij by symmetry 9

1 3 4

Therefore, some constitutive relationships are needed to relate i to ij. 1.7 Newtonian Fluid (i) Consider a fluid at rest (vi 0). Then according to Pascals Law, the shear stresses on a small area ij is: ps 0 0 ij = -ps ij (Pascals law) = 0 ps 0 0 0 ps Hydrostatic pressure Consider a fluid in motion. The fluid stress is defined as:

(ii)

ij = p ij + ij

Thermodynamic pressure Dynamic stress

The dynamic viscous stress ij can be related to velocities empirically. Experiments with a wide class of fluids obtain that, for most fluids, ij is a linear function of rate of strain and velocity gradient. Fluids with these characteristics are Newtonian fluids. X X Rate of strain: = ij t x x 2 t 13

u

u k x m

Copyright 2001 MIT - Department of Ocean Engineering, All rights reserved.

u k x m u k i.e. ij ijkm { x m

Velocity gradient:

i, j, k, m = 1, 2, 3

u u j + ul ij ij = i + x x 2l j xi 13

v v

Where the fluid properties are : coefficient of dynamic viscosity and : bulk elasticity, second coefficient of viscosity For incompressible flow,

u l =0 xl

u u j ij = i + x xi j

1.8 Navier-Stokes equations

# of equations 3 1 6 (symmetry) 10

ui p ij

# of unknowns 3 1 6 10

ij = p ij + ui +

x j

into Eulers equation:

ij Du i = Fi + Dt x j

u j xi

ij x j

where

p + xi x j

ui u j + x xi j

x j

2 ui u j u j = ui + + x x j j xi x j x j xi { due to continuity 0

Finally,

Du i u i u 1 p 2ui 1 = + uj i = + + Fi Dt t x j x i x jx j v v v 1v Dv v v v 1 = + v v = p + 2 v + F Dt t

where

Kinematic viscosity [ L2 T ]

continuity Navier-Stokes

ui p

(i) Kinematic Boundary Conditions Specifies kinematics (position, velocity, ) On a solid boundary, velocity of the fluid = velocity of the body. i.e. velocity continuity

v v v=u

fluid body

no-slip boundary condition no flux --- continuous flow no slip --- finite shear stress

v v vn = un v v vt = ut

v v v u

Stress continuity:

p'

ij '

p

p interface, ij interface

p = p ' + p interface

ij

ij = ij ' + ij interface

The most common example of interfacial stress is surface tension.

Surface Tension

The presence of surface tension implies that there exists a pressure jump across the interface. Therefore, gives a p across an interface. Surface Tension: [Tension force / Length] [Surface energy / Area] For a water/air interface: = 0.07 N/m This is a function of temperature, impurities etc 2D Example:

p p=p+p d/2

d d d 2 cos p Rd = 2sin 2 1 3 22 1 3 22

1 d 2

p =

1 1 p = + R R 2 1

- Conservative force:

v v F dx = 0

hydrostatic pressure ps= -gz = -

Navier-Stokes: v v v Dv = p + F + 2 v Dt

v = p gz + 2 v v = (p + gz ) + 2 v v Dv 2v Therefore Dt = p d + v

total pressure dynamic pressure

Presence of gravity body force is equivalent to replacing total pressure p by dynamic pressure pd in the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equation. Solve the N-S equation with pd, then calculate p = pd + ps = pd - gz

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 5 Chapter 2 - Similitude Similitude is a method that allows you to get a conceptual picture of a complicated idea, occurrence or mechanism. Similitude: Similarity of behavior of different systems. Real world model (prototype) (physical experiment, mathematical, computer, ) Similarity Parameters (SPs) length ratios Displacement ratios, velocity ratios Force ratios, stress ratios, pressure ratios

For similitude, Similarity Parameters (SPs) required to be same for model and real world

Geometric Similitude Kinematic Similitude Dynamic (Internal Constitution) Internal Constitution Similitude Boundary Condition Similitude

Buckinghams theory: Use to get meaningful formulae in applied math 1) Specify (all) the (say N) relevant variables (dependent or independent): x1, x2, xN e.g. time, force, fluid density, distance We want to relate the xis to each other ( x1, x2, xN) = 0 2) Identify (all) the (say P) relevant basic physical units (dimensions) e.g. M,L,T (P = 3)

N 1 2 3) Let = x1 x2 K x N be a dimensionless quantity formed from the xis

Suppose xi = Ci M mi Ll i T ti , i = 1,2, K , N

e.g. x1 = KE = 1 MV 2 = 1 M 1 L2T 2 , C1 = 1 , m1 = 1, l 1 = 2, t1 = 2 2 2 2

Then = C11 C2 2 KCNN M1m1+2m2 +K+NmN L1l1+2l2 +K+NlN T1t1+2t2 +K+NtN

4N 8 6 74 i m i = 0 P i l i = 0 (*) a P x N system of Linear Equations t = 0 i i { Notation Since (*) is homogeneous, it always has a trivial solution, i 0, i = 1, 2, , N (i.e. is constant) There are 2 possibilities: i) (*) has no nontrivial solution (only solution is = constant, i.e. independent of xis)

the N variable xi, I = 1, 2, , N are Dimensionally Independent (DI), i.e. they are unrelated and irrelevant to the problem. ii) (*) has J (J > 0) nontrivial solutions, 1, 2, , J

In general, J < N, in fact, J = N K where K is the rank or dimension of (*)

Model Law: Instead of relating the N xis by (x1, x2, xN) = 0, relate the J s by F(1, 2, J) = 0, where J = N K < N

For similitude, we require (model)j = (prototype)j where j = 1, 2, , J If 2 problems have all the same js, they have similitude (in the j senses), so s serve as similarity parameters. Note: if is dimensionless, so is constant * , const, 1/ , etc If 1, 2 are dimensionless, so is 1 * 2 , 1 / 2, 1const1 * 2const2, etc In general, we want the set (not unique) of independent js, e.g. 1, 2, 3 1, 1 * 2, 3

NOT: 1,

2, 1 * 2

Example: Application of Buckingham Theory Force on a smooth circular cylinder in steady incompressible fluid (no gravity)

F U , D

xi = F, U, D, , x i = ci M m i Ll i T t i

P=3

mi i ti

F 1 1 -2

1 -3 0

0 2 -1

= F 1 U 2 D 3 4 5

i m i = 0 Dimensionless: i l i = 0 () t = 0 i i

1 2 0 = 0 3 4 0 5

0 0 1 0 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 4 2 0 0 1 2 1

1 2 0 = 0 3 4 0 5

K=3 J=PK=5-3=2 Two families of solutions for i for each fixed pair of (4, 5), exists a unique solution for (1, 2, 3)

consider pairs of (4 = 1, 5 = 0) and (4 = 0, 5 = 1), all other cases are linear combinations of these two. (1) 4 = 1, 5 = 0

1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 = 4 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 2 = 2 2 3

1 = F U D

1 2 3 4 5

U 2 D 2 = F

1 2

F C d Drag coefficient U 2 D 2

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 = 2 0 0 1 1 3 1 0 2 = 1 1 3

2 = F 1 U 2 D 3 4 5 = UD UD R e Reynolds number or 1 = (2) or Cd = ( Re) UD F or ) =( 1 U 2 D 2 2

Conventionally, 2 2-1 2 =

Therefore

2.2 Similarity Parameters (from governing equations) Non-dimensionalize and normalize basic equations by scaling: Identify characteristic scales for the problem v v velocity U v = Uv * v v length L x = Lx * time T t = Tt * pressure po- pv p = (p o p v )p * All ()* quantities are dimensionless and normalized (i.e. O(1)),

v v e.g. x = O(1)

Apply to governing equations: (also internal constitution, boundary conditions) continuity (incompressible flow):

v U v v v = v = 0, v = 0 L

Navier-Stokes:

v v v 1 v v + (v )v = p + 2 v g j t v U v U 2 v * v v + (v )v = poL pv p + LU 2v gj 2 T t L

L

( )

Since all ()* terms are O(1), the coefficients ~~~ measure the relative importance of each term (as compared to the convective inertia term):

v v Eulerian inertia t L = S = Strouhal number v v UT convective inertia ( v ) v

v v assume steady-state t

p o pv 2 1 2 U

= = cavitation number

1 2

po U 2

= Eu = Euler number

UL

= Re = Reynolds number

U2 U = gL gL

= Fr = Froude number

R1 R2

1 1 2 where p = p + + = ( p o p v )L R1 R 2 ( p o p v )L U 2 L

a

u2L

= We = Weber number

Alternatively, using physical arguments: forces acting on a fluid particle U 2 2 2 a) inertial forces mass acceleration L3 L = U L U 2 u b) viscous forces area L = UL y L { shear stress

( )

( )

2 d) pressure forces ( p o p v ) L

For similar streamlines, particles must be acted on by forces whose resultant is in the same direction at geosimilar points. Therefore, forces must be in the same ratios:

inertia U 2 L2 UL = = Re UL viscous

2 U 2 L2 inertia U = Fr gravity gL3 = gL 2 1 1

1 inertia ( p p ) L2 p p 2 1o 2v 2 = 1o 2v = pressure 2 U L 2 U

g U

Govern flow similitude of different systems. Provide guidance and approximate the complex physical problem.

Parameters:

S=

P P L U 2L , = 1o 2v , We = UT 2 U gL , Re = UL

Fr = U

1 2

U L

2 2

= C F S , 1 , We , Fr , Re1

For S << 1, steady-state

S-1 = UT / L

S=O(1)

e.g. L = 10m, U = 10 m/s S=1 when T1 = 1 sec if T >> T1, then steady-state since S<<1.

Exact position of the cut depends on the problem and the quantities of interest. (2) = For steady-state problem: F * = C F 0, 1 , We , Fr , Re1 = C F 1 , We , Fr , Re1

Po Pv 2 1 2 U

No dependence on S

Pv: vapor pressure Po Pv: State of fluid changes from liquid to gas CAVITATION Mechanism: Po < Pv Tension force among molecules Fluids cannot withstand tensions, the state of fluids changes.

Consequence: (1) Unsteady Vibration of the structures (2) Unstable Sudden cavity collapses huge force acting on the structure fatigue of structure.

F* Strong cavitation

No cavitation

<< 1 : Cavitation >> 1: No cavitation e.g. Po Pa = 105 N/m2, Pv ~ 2x103N/m2 (20oC) water = 103kg/m3 = 1 when U1= 15m/sec U < U1 no cavitation U >> U1 cavitation (In practice, U > 30 m/sec to cause cavitation)

=O(1)

2 (3) W = U L o

)

3 3

W = 1 for L1 = 10-4m For L >> L1, W and W-1 0 (Neglect surface tension effect) For steady, non-cavitation, non-surface tension effect,

F * = C F 0,0,0, Fr , Re1 = C F Fr , Re1 (4) Fr = U

For problems without dynamic boundary conditions(i.e. if free surface is absent) or if free surface effects are small (no waves), Fr is not important F* = C F R e 1

( )

e.g. (i)

U Fr g0

h U

In general F * = C F Fr , Re1 = C1 (Fr )+ = C2 Re1 Froudes Hypothesis Dynamic similarity requires (Re)1 = (Re)2, (Fr)1 = (Fr)2 for two geometrically similar systems U1 = U2 , L1 = L2 for the same and g. (5) Re = UL/ For steady, no , no W, no gravity effects, F * = C F Re1 F*

( )

( )

Sphere

Re << 1, Stokes flow (creeping flow) Re < (Re)cr, Laminar flow Re > (Re)cr, Turbulent flow R , ideal flow e.g. U = 10m/sec , L = 10m = 10-6m2/sec R = 108 R-1 = 10-8 Re

Plate

(Re)cr

For steady, no , no W, no gravity effect, ideal fluid: F = C F (0,0,0,0,0 ) = constant = 0 DAlemberts Paradox: No drag force on moving body.

*

Lecture 7

The structure of Lecture 7 has as follows: In paragraph 3.0 we introduce the concept of inviscid uid and formulate the governing equations and boundary conditions for an ideal uid ow. In paragraph 3.1 we introduce the concept of circulation and state Kelvins theorem (a conservation law for angular momentum). In paragraph 3.2 we introduce the concept of vorticity.

Inviscid Fluid

=0 D = 0 or v = 0 Dt

Inviscid Fluid, Ideal Flow Recall Reynolds number is a qualitative measure of the importance of viscous forces compared to inertia forces, Re = UL inertia forces = viscous forces

For many marine hydrodynamics problems studied in 13.021 the characteristic lengths and velocities are L 1m and U 1m/s respectively. The kinematic viscosity in water is water = 106 m2 /s leading thus to typical Reynolds numbers with respect to U and L in the order of UL 106 >>> 1 0

Re =

This means that viscous eects are << compared to inertial eects - or conned within very small regions. In other words, for many marine hydrodynamics prob lems, viscous eects can be neglected for the bulk of the ow. Neglecting viscous eects is equivalent to setting the kinematic viscosity = 0, but = 0 inviscid uid Therefore, for the typical marine hydrodynamics problems we assume incompressible ow + inviscid uid ideal uid ow which turns out to be a good approximation for many problems.

Momentum (Navier-Stokes Euler) equations:

v 1 + v v = p g j t By neglecting the viscous stress term (2 v) the Navier-Stokes equations reduce

to the Euler equations. (Careful not to confuse this with the Euler equation in

1.6).

The N-S equations are second order PDEs with respect to space

(2nd order in 2 ), thus: (a) require 2 kinematic boundary conditions, and (b)

produce smooth solutions in the velocity eld.

The Euler equations are rst order PDEs, thus: (a) require 1 kinematic bound

ary condition, and (b) may allow discontinuities in the velocity eld.

Boundary Conditions for Euler equations (Ideal Flow): KBC:

v n = u n = Un given

Note: No slip condition v t = U t does not apply. The no slip condition is required to ensure that the velocity gradients are nite and therefore the viscous stresses ij are nite. But since = 0 the viscous stresses are identically zero (ij = = 0) and the velocity gradients can be innite. Or else the velocity eld need not be continuous.

u(dy)

u(0)

Viscousflow w <

u y < u y

Inviscidflow w 0

Similarly to the argument for the KBC, viscous stresses ij cannot be specied on any boundary since = 0.

Summary of consequences neglecting viscous eects this far: Neglecting viscous eects is equivalent to setting the kinematic viscosity equal to zero:

=0

Setting = 0 inviscid uid Setting = 0 the viscous term in the Navier-Stokes equations drops out and we obtain the Euler equations. The Euler equations are 1st order PDEs in space, thus (a) require only one boundary condition for the velocity and (b) may allow for velocity jumps. Setting = 0 all the viscous stresses ij = are identically 0. This may allow for innite velocity gradients. This aects (a) the KBC, allowing free slip, and (b) the DBC, where no viscous stresses can be specied on any boundary.

3.1.1 Instantaneous circulation around any arbitrary closed contour C.

v dx

v v

=

C

v dx

tangential velocity

3.1.2 Kelvins Theorem (KT) : For ideal uid under conservative body forces, d = 0 following any material contour C, dt i.e., remains constant under for Ideal Fluid under Conservative Forces (IFCF).

This is a statement of conservation of angular momentum.

(Mathematical Proof: cf JNN pp 103)

Kinematics of a small deformable body:

(a) Uniform translation Linear momentum (b) Rigid body rotation Angular momentum (c) Pure strain No linear or angular momentum involved (no change in volume (d) Volume dilatation For Ideal Fluid under Conservative body Forces: (a) Linear momentum Can change (b) Angular momentum By K.T., cannot change (c) Pure strain Can change (d) Volume dilatation Not allowed (incompressible uid) Kelvins Theorem is a statement of conservation of angular momentum under IFCF.

v1

r1 m1 r2

v2

m2

2 L

= |r (mv)| = mvr = mr

L

=

L

1 m1 v1 r1 = m2 v2 r2 = 2 v1 r1 = v2 r2 or 2 2 r1 1 = r2 2

m =m

Conservation of angular momentum does not imply constant angular velocity: Angular Momentum angular velocity

1 r1

Vm

2

r2

Vm

1 =

0

dr1 v1 =

0

dr2 v2 = 2

C1

v1 dx =

C2

v2 dx = 2

3.2 Vorticity

3.2.1 Denition of Vorticity =v = w v i y z w u j+ x z v u x y k

=

C

v dx =

any S covering C

any S covering C

z

= 0; y = x = 0 and

v u x y

time t + t

ui + j

ui + j

ui + j ui + j

time t

v u = 0, = 0 z = 0 no vorticity x y 9

Areat + t

Areat

No volume change

Areat = Areat + t

u v u v = ; u = -v; = 0; = 0 z = 0 x y y x

10

x = u y dy t

= u y dy i + y dy j

time

t + t

dy

time t

=0

r

dx

y = x dx t

r = u x dx i + x dx j

= 0 only if

u v = x = y( for dx = dy) y x

11

time t + t

t

= dy i

time t

dy

t

=0

dx

r = dx j

v u = ; = ; z = 2 x y i.e. vorticity 2(angular velocity). 3.2.3 Irrotational Flow A ow is irrotational if the vorticity is zero everywhere or if the circulation is zero along any arbitrary closed contour: 0 everywhere 0 for any C Further on, if at t = to , the ow is irrotational, i.e., 0 for all C, then Kelvins theorem states that under IFCF, 0 for all C for all time t: once irrotational, always irrotational

(Special case of Kelvins theorem)

12

v A vortex line is a line everywhere tangent to

A vortex tube (filament) is a bundle of vortex lines. Some Properties: Mathematical v v dV = 0 = ndS

V S

v ( n )out

Divergence Theorem

v ( n )in

v n = 0

(No net flux of vorticity through a closed surface.) e.g. Vortex Tube: As end areas A1 and A2 0, v v ( n )in A1 = ( n )out A 2

Vorticity cannot begin or end in a fluid. It either closes on itself or begins/ends at the fluid boundary. A vortex line/tube has no beginning and no end. Conservation of vorticity Flux

C3 S3

v v v 0 = 3 = v dx = ndS = 0

n1

C1 C3 C2

n2

v v v v 1 = v dx = n1dS = n2 dS = 2

C1 S1 S2

Therefore circulation around a vortex tube is the same in all circuits that embrace it (once) =

1

A1

2 A2

= 1 A1 = 2 A2

2 1 A1 A2 = 2A1 2 = 1/2

Am

Am

v By definition n = 0 on Am

Am =

Am

v v v v dx = nds = 0

Am

Thus the vortex tube is a material tube (vortex line is a material line, etc.)

Vortex Stretching

v tangent to tube.

a) = A = constant (in time)

Stokes Th.

under KC

To maintain constant volume, as L increases, A decreases and R decreases, will increase. As a vortex tube stretches, its angular velocity increases thus momentum is conserved.

Bernoulli Equation

v p = f (v )

Eq ()

p v v v v = + gy

streamline pathline

i.e.

v2 p + + gy = constant on a streamline 2

In general,

Vector Calculus:

v v v v v v v v v v (u v ) = (u )v + (v )u + u ( u ) + v ( u ) v v v v v u 2 = 2[(u )u + u ( u )]

( )

Contraction Ratio: = R1/ R2 >> 1 = O(10) for wind ; = O(5) for water Let U1 and U 2 be average velocity at section 1 and 2 respectively. 1. Apply continuity 2.

2 U 1 R 1

)= ( )

U 2 R 2 2

R U 2 = 1 = 2 >> 1 U1 R 2

v 1

v 1

since

u v 0, 0 vortex ring r

/ L = constant

i.e.

Section 1

Section 2

Let U1 = U1 (1 + 1 ) and U 2 = U 2 (1 + 2 ) where 1 and 2 measure the relative velocity fluctuations. Apply the Bernoulli equation along a reference average streamline

2 2 P1 + 1 U1 = P2 + 1 U 2 _____(1) 2 2

P1 + 1 [U1 (1 + 1 )] = P2 + 1 [U 2 (1 + 2 )] _____(2) 2 2

2 2

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 9 Lecture 9 is structured as follows: In paragraph 3.5 we return to the full Navier-Stokes equations (unsteady, viscous momentum equations) to deduce the vorticity equation and study some additional properties of vorticity. In paragraph 3.6 we introduce the concept of potential ow and velocity potential. We formulate the governing equations and boundary conditions for potential ow and nally introduce the stream function.

Return to viscous incompressible ow. The Navier-Stokes equations in vector form v p + v v = + gy + 2 v t By taking the curl of the Navier-Stokes equations we obtain the vorticity equation. In detail and taking into account u we have (Navier-Stokes) v + (v v) = t p + gy + 2 v

The rst term on the left side, for xed reference frames, becomes v = ( v) = t t t

In the same manner the last term on the right side becomes 2 v = 2 Applying the identity scalar = 0 the pressure term vanishes, provided that the density is uniform p ( + gy) = 0 1

The inertia term v v, as shown in Lecture 8, 3.4, can be rewritten as 1 v v = (v v) v ( v) = 2 v2 2 v where v 2 |v|2 = v v

and then the second term on the left side can be rewritten as (v ) v = v2 (v ) = ( v) 2 = (v ) ( ) v + ( v) + v ( )

incompressible uid

=0

=0 since (v)=0

Putting everything together, we obtain the vorticity equation D = ( ) v + 2 Dt Comments-results obtained from the vorticity equation Kelvins Theorem revisited - from vorticity equation: If 0, then

D Dt

can be thought of as diusivity of vorticity (and momentum), i.e., once generated (on boundaries only) will spread/diuse in space if is present.

v

v Dv v = 2v + ... Dt

v D D v = 2 + ... Dt

T Diusion of vorticity is analogous to the heat equation: = K2 T , where K is the t heat diusivity. Numerical example for 1 mm2 /s. For diusion time t = 1 second, diusion distance L O t O (mm). For diusion distance L = 1cm, the necessary diusion time is t O (L2 /) O(10)sec. In 2D space (x, y), v = (u, v, 0) and 0 z

( ) v = x + z + y v 0, y z x

0 0 0

so in 2D we have D = 2 Dt If = 0, D = 0, i.e., in 2D following a particle the angular velocity is conserved. Dt Reason: In 2D space the length of a vortex tube cannot change due to continuity.

In 3D space, Di = Dt j vi xj + 2 i xj xj

diusion

for example, u2 D2 = 1 + Dt x1

vortex turning

u2 x2

+ 3

u2 + diusion x3

vortex stretching

vortex turning

z x3

dy

z x3

dz

u2 dz > 0 x3

u2 = 0

x x1

u2 >0 x2

y x2 u2 dy > 0 x2

D2 >0 Dt 4 123 4

u2 = 0

y x2

x x1

3 >0 u2 D2 > 0 >0 Dt 4 x3 123 4

Scouring

What really happens as length of the vortex tube L increases? IFCF is no longer a valid assumption. Why? Ideal ow assumption implies that the inertia forces are much larger than the viscous eects. The Reynolds number, with respect to the vortex tube diameter D is given by UD As the vortex tube length increases the diameter D becomes really small that big after all. Re Therefore IFCF is no longer valid.

Re is not

Potential Flow (P-Flow) is an ideal and irrotational uid ow Inviscid Fluid =0 Ideal Flow + Incompressible Flow v =0 + Irrotational Flow = 0 or = 0

P-Flow

3.6.1 Velocity potential For ideal ow under conservative body forces by Kelvins theorem if 0 at some time t, then 0 irrotational ow always. In this case the ow is P-Flow. Given a vector eld v for which = v 0, there exists a potential function (scalar) - the velocity potential - denoted as , for which v = Note that = v = 0 for any , so irrotational ow guaranteed automatically. At a point x and time t, the velocity vector v(x, t) in cartesian coordinates in terms of the potential function (x, t) is given by v (x, t) = (x, t) = , , x y z

(x)

x u >0 >0

u=0

x u

<0 <0

The velocity vector v is the gradient of the potential function , so it always points towards higher values of the potential function. 3.6.2 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for Potential Flow (a) Continuity v = 0 = 2 = 0 Number of unknowns Number of equations 2 = 0

Therefore we have closure. In addition, the velocity potential and the pressure p are decoupled. The velocity potential can be solved independently rst, and after is obtained we can evaluate the pressure p. p = f (v) = f () Solve for , then nd pressure. 7

(b) Bernoulli equation for P-Flow This is a scalar equation for the pressure under the assumption of P-Flow for steady or unsteady ow. Euler equation: v + t v2 2 v = p + gy

Substituting v = and = 0 into Eulers equation above, we obtain or which implies that 1 p + ||2 + + gy = f (t) t 2 everywhere in the uid for unsteady, potential ow. The equation above can be written as p = 1 + ||2 + gy + F (t) t 2 p 1 + ||2 + + gy t 2 = 0, t + 1 ||2 2 = p + gy

BERNOULLI EQUATION FROM 3.4,

USED FOR STEADY, ROTATIONAL FLOW

Summary: Bernoulli equationS for ideal ow. (a) For steady rotational or irrotational ow along streamline: p = 1 2 v + gy + C() 2

(b) For unsteady or steady irrotational ow everywhere in the uid: p = 1 + ||2 + gy + F (t) t 2

(d) Steady and no gravity eect ( t = 0, g 0):

Eulerian inertia

p p

t v t

+ +

u p

x

9

p+

p x x

n

= given

10

3.6.3 Stream function Continuity: v = 0; Irrotationality: v = = 0 Velocity potential: v = , then v = () 0 for any , i.e., irrotationality is satised automatically. Required for continuity: v = 2 = 0 Stream function dened by

v =

Then v = 0 for any , i.e., satises continuity automatically. Required for irrotationality: v = 0 = 2 = 0

still 3 unknown

=(x ,y ,z )

(1)

For 2D and axisymmetric ows, is a scalar (stream functions are more use ful for 2D and axisymmetric ows). For 2D ow: v = (u, v, 0) and i v =

=

x x z

0.

j

y

k

z

y z

z +

z +

i j y

x k y

x

x

y

; y

v = x

0.

y r

r

x

v =

=

Again let

1

r

r r

er

re ez

vr

vz

z 1 1 z er

e + r

r

r

r r ez r

For 3D but axisymmetric ows, also reduces to (read JNN 4.6 for details).

12

x x

and v = y x

(x, t) = (x0 , t) +

x0

v nd

= (x0 , t) +

x0

(udy vdx)

v x

v t

v xo

For to be single-valued, =

C C

CC S

or

C

= 0

v

=0,

continuity

ds = 0

13

streamline

x2

(x2 ) = (x1 ) +

2 1 x1

vn d

along a streamline

=0

Therefore, 1 = 2 , i.e., is a constant along any streamline. For example, on an impervious stationary body v n = 0, so = constant on the body is the appropriate boundary condition. If the body is moving v n = Un = 0 + Un d

given

on the boddy

= constant

u=0

=0 n

= given

14

Flux = vx = uy.

Therefore, u =

and v = x y

(x, y + y)

u -v streamline (x,y)

streamline

(x +x, y)

15

Summary of velocity potential formulation vs. stream-function formulation for ideal ows

use

For irrotational ow

For incompressible ow use

For P-Flow use or velocity potential denition continuity v = 0 irrotationality v = 0

2D: w = 0, z = 0

v = 2 = 0 automatically satised

continuity irrotationality

2 = 0 automatically satised

automatically satised z : 2 = 0

Cauchy-Riemann equations for (, ) = (real, imaginary) part of an analytic complex function of z = x + iy u= v= vr = Polar (r,) v =

1 r x y r

Cartesian (x, y)

u=

v = x vr =

1 r

v = r

Given or for 2D ow, use Cauchy-Riemann equations to nd the other: e.g. If = xy, then = ? u= =y= x y v= =x= y x 1 = y 2 + f1 (x) 2

1 = (y 2 x2 ) + const 2 1

= x2 + f2 (y) 2 16

Lecture 10

3.7.1 Governing Equations for P-Flow (a) Continuity 2 = 0 1 2 (b) Bernoulli for P-Flow (steady or unsteady) p = t + || + gy + C(t) 2 3.7.2 Boundary Conditions for P-Flow Types of Boundary Conditions: (c) Kinematic Boundary Conditions - specify the ow velocity at boundaries. v = Un n

(d) Dynamic Boundary Conditions - specify force F or pressure p at ow boundary. 1 p = t + ()2 + gy + C (t) (prescribed) 2

The boundary conditions in more detail: Kinematic Boundary Condition on an impermeable boundary (no ux condition)

v U n = n =

uid velocity

Un

nornal boundary velocity

= Given

= v

boundary velocity

n = Un (n1 + n2 + n3 ) = Un x1 x2 x3 = n Un

v U

v n = (n1 , n 2 , n 3 ) v

3.7.3 Summary: Boundary Value Problem for P-Flow The aforementioned governing equations with the boundary conditions formulate the

Boundary Value Problem (BVP) for P-Flow.

The general BVP for P-Flow is sketched in the following gure.

KBC : (Lecture 19) Free surface DBC : ( + 1 ( ) 2 + gy ) + C (t ) = GIVEN t 2 123 non linear

2 = 0 1 2 p = (t + ( ) + gy ) + C (t ) 2

= U n = GIVEN n

3.8 Linear Superposition for Potential Flow In the absence of dynamic boundary conditions, the potential ow boundary value problem is linear. Potential function .

2 = 0 in V

= U n =f on B n

Stream function .

2 = 0 in V

=g on B

Linear Superposition: if 1 , 2 , . . . are harmonic functions, i.e., 2 i = 0, then = i i , where i are constants, are also harmonic, and is the solution for the boundary value problem provided the kinematic boundary conditions are satised, i.e., = (1 1 + 2 2 + . . .) = Un on B. n n The key is to combine known solution of the Laplace equation in such a way as to satisfy

the kinematic boundary conditions (KBC).

The same is true for the stream function . The K.B.C specify the value of on the

boundaries.

3.8.1 Example

Let i x denote a unit-source ow with source at xi , i.e., 1

i x source x,

xi

=

ln x

xi

(in 2D)

2

1 = 4 x xi (in 3D), then nd mi such that =

i

v x 2 v x 1

2 = 0 in V

v v x 3 x 4

=f n

x

3.9 - Laplace equation in dierent coordinate systems (cf Hildebrand 6.18) 3.9.1 Cartesian (x,y,z) = v u, v, w

i j k

= =

, , x y z

2 =

2 2 2 + + 2 x2 y 2 z

ez

P ( x, y , z )

ey

x

ex

r 2 = x2 + y 2 , = tan1 (y/x) e e e 1 r z v = vr , v , vz = , , r r z

2 1 1 2 2 + + + 2 r2 r r r2 2 z 1 r r r ( r ) 1 1 2 2 2 = r + 2 2 + 2 r r r r z 2 =

ez

P (r , , z )

ey

x

ex

v = =

er e e vr , v , v

1 1 , , r r r(sin )

2

ez

P (r , , )

r O

y

ey

x

ex

1. Uniform Stream 2 (ax + by + cz + d) = 0 1D: 2D: = U x + constant = U y +

constant;

= U x + V y + constant = U y V x +

constant;

v = (U, 0, 0)

v = (U, V, 0)

3D: = U x + V y + W z +

constant

2. Source (sink) ow 2D, Polar coordinates 1 = r r

2

v = (U, V, W )

1 2 r + 2 2 , with r = x2 + y 2 r r

An axisymmetric solution: = a ln r + b. Verify that it satises 2 = 0, except at r = x2 + y 2 = 0. Therefor, r = 0 must be excluded from the ow. Dene 2D source of strength m at r= 0: = m ln r 2

m m er = er vr = , v = 0 r 2r 2r

source (strength m)

C

v nds =

2 0 S

vds =

v nds =

vr r d =

m 2r

y

n

C S S x

m 2

Vr = m 2

=0

10

2

r r

2

11

3. 2D point vortex 1 = r r

2

1 2 r + 2 2 r r

Another particular solution: = a + b. Verify that 2 = 0 except at r = 0. Dene the potential for a point vortex of circulation at r = 0. Then 1 vr = = 0, v = = and, 2 r r 2r 1 (rv ) = 0 except at r = 0 z = r r

ln r 2

v dx =

C2

v dx +

v dx =

0

rd = 2r

C1

C1 C2 R R z dS=0

S

vortex strength

12

A dipole is a superposition of a sink and a source with the same strength.

2D dipole: m 2 2 2 ln 2 = ln (x a) + y (x + a) + y 2 2 2 lim = ln (x ) + y a0 2 =0 = 2ma constant x x = = 2 x2 + y 2 2 r2 2D dipole (doublet) of moment at the origin oriented in the +x direction.

NOTE: dipole = (unit source)

13

unit source

x

x cos + y sin cos cos + sin sin = 2 + y2 2 x 2 r

= 3D dipole: = lim

m

4

1

where = 2ma xed

a0 2 2 2 + z2 2 + z2 (x a)

+ y (x + a)

+ y

1

x x

=

= = 4

4 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 4 r3 (x

)2 + y 2 + z 2

=0

14

5. Stream and source: Rankine half-body It is the superposition of a uniform stream of constant speed U and a source of strength m.

U

m

2D: = U x +

m 2 ln x + y 2 2

v stagnation point v = 0

Dividing Streamline

m . U

3D: = U x

m

2 x

+ y 2 + z 2

m x =U+ 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 x 4 (x m x u|y=z=0 = U + , v |y=z=0 = 0, w|y=z=0 = 0 4 |x|3 m = (u, v, w) = 0 at x = xs = V , y=z=0 4U u= For large x, u U and U A = m by continuity A = m . U

16

+m

a

-m

min body = 0

m (x + a)2 + y 2 2 2 2 ln 2 ln (x + a) + y (x a) + y = U x+ ln 4 (x a)2 + y 2

3D Rankine ovoid: = Ux m 4 1 (x + a) +

2

y2 + z2 1

(x a) +

2

y2 + z2

17

m x+a xa u= =U+ x 4 (x + a)2 + y 2 + z 2 3/2 (x a)2 + y 2 + z 2 3/2 m 1 1 u|y=z=0 =U + 2 4 (x + a)2 (x a)

m (4ax)

=U + 4 (x2 a2 )2

2 m

u|y=z=0 =0 at x2 a2 = 4ax 4U At x = 0, u=U+ m 2a where R = y 2 + z 2 4 (a2 + R2 )3/2

R 0

2

0

uRdR = m

18

r U

x 2D: = U x + 2r2

x=r cos

. 2U

Setting the radial velocity vr = 0 on r = a we obtain a = for a stationary circle of radius a. Therefore, for = 2U a2 the potential = cos U r + 2r is the solution to ideal ow past a circle of radius a. Flow past a circle (U, a).

19

= U cos r + V =

1 r

V |r=a

a2 r

2U

2U

Illustration of the points where the ow reaches maximum speed around the circle.

3D: = U x +

U z

20

Setting the radial velocity vr = 0 on r = a we obtain a = for a stationary sphere of radius a. Therefore, choosing = 2U a3 the potential = cos U r + 2r is the solution to ideal ow past a sphere of radius a.

2U

3/ 2

3/ 2

21

8. 2D corner ow Velocity potential = r cos ; Stream function = r sin 2 2 (a) 2 = r2 + 1 r + r12 2 = 0 r (b) = r1 cos r

1

u = = r1 sin r u = 0 { or = 0} on = n, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ur =

i.e., on = 0 = 0, , 2 , . . . (0 2)

y

x =0

22

3 = 2, 0 = 0, , , ,2 u = 2x, v = 2 y 2 2 o

(90 corner) =0

=0

=2/3, = 0

= 3 2 , 0 = 0,

(120o corner)

2 4 , ,2 3 3

120o

120o 120

o

=0, = 0 =2, = 0

=4/3, = 0

23

ii. Exterior corner ow, |v| at origin: <1 0 = 0, only Since we need 0 2, we therefore require

= 1/2, 0 = 0, 2 (1/2 innite plate, ow around a tip)

=0, = 0 =2, = 0

=0, = 0

=3/2, = 0

24

Flow Streamlines Potential (x, y, z) Stream function (x, y)

Uniform ow

U x + V y + W z

U y V x

m 2

ln((x xo )2 + (y yo )2 )

m 2

yy arctan( xxo ) o

m 4 q

NA

Vortex () at (xo , yo )

yy arctan( xxo ) o

2 ln((x xo )2 + (y yo )2 )

NA

25

Flow Streamlines Potential (r, , z) Stream function (r, )

Uniform ow

U r cos + V r sin + W z

U r sin V r cos

m 2

ln r

m 2

m 4r

NA

Vortex () at (xo , yo )

2 ln r

4 cos 2 r

NA

26

(2D)

= U x +

m 2

ln r

m xs = 2U

D=

m U

(3D)

= U x

m 4

1 x2 +y 2 +z 2

xs =

m 4U

A=

m U

(2D)

= U x +

m 2

(3D)

= U x +

m 1 4 ( (x+a)2 +y 2 +z 2

1 ) (xa)2 +y 2 +z 2

(2D)

= U x +

x 2r 2

if = 2a2 U

= U cos (r +

a2 r )

(3D)

= U x +

cos 4r 2

if = 2a3 U

= U cos (r +

a3 2r 2 )

2D Corner Flow

(2D)

= Cr cos()

= Cr sin()

0 = 0, n

27

ln r

1 r 1 r2

1 r2 1 r3

Vortex

(2D)

1 r

28

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 11 3.9 Forces on a body undergoing steady translation DAlemberts paradox 3.9.1 Fixed bodies & translating bodies Galilean transformation.

y

y

o z

Fixed in space

o z

v O : v, , p

U S

x = x + Ut

U

2 = 0

'2 ' = 0

v r v n = = U n = ( U ,0, 0) (n x , n y , n z ) n

= Un x on body (t) v v 0 v as x 0

v v ' ( U,0 ,0 ) v as x ' ' Ux

Galilean tranform: v v v( x, y, z, t ) = v' ( x ' = x Ut , y, z, t ) + ( U,0,0) ( x , y, z , t ) = ' ( x ' = x Ut , y, z, t ) + Ux ' Ux '+( x = x '+Ut , y, z, t ) = ' ( x' , y, z, t ) Pressure (no gravity)

1 p = v 2 + C o = C o 2

C o = C 'o

1 U 2 2

0

' = Co

1 1 p s = U 2 U 2 + C o = U 2 + C o 2 2

ps p =

1 U 2 2

ps p =

Stagnation pressure

1 U 2 2

No shear stress

pndS

B

v Fs =

Gauss Theorem

B

where =

d

B

Archimedes Principle

Hydrodynamic Force: Fd =

t + 2

1

B

n dS

v 1 For steady 0 motion: Fd = v 2 ndS 2 B t Example: Hydrodynamic force on 2D cylinder in steady translation

2 v 2 2 Fd = ndl = r =a nad 2 2 B 0

n

U S a B

v a 2 2 i Fx = F i = d r =a { n 2 0 cos

a = 2

cos d

a2 = U cos r + r r = a = v r

2 r =a

r =a

, v

r=a

, 1 = { r r r = a 4 4 0 r =a 1 2 3 2 U sin

= 4 U 2 sin 2

2

a Fx = 2

(

0

2 1 2 2 2 d 4 U sin cos = U ( 2a ) 2 dsin 23 cos 1 { 2 { 2 123 diameter 0 even odd p p or 3 s projection w .r .t , 144 2442 3 4 42

2

v In fact, in general we find that F 0 on any 2D or 3D body DAlemberts paradox No hydrodynamic force* acts on a body moving with constant(1) translational velocity in an infinite(2), inviscid(3), irrotational(4) fluid.

*

Note that the moment as measured in a local frame is not necessarily zero.

y

Fy Fx

Consider a control surface in the form of a circle radius R centered at the point vortex. Then according to Newtons law: d 0 = M cv = (Fcs + Fv ) + M in dt

For steady flow

Control volume

MCV = Total (linear) momentum of control volume FCS = Hydrodynamic force on CS by surrounding fluids FV = Hydrodynamic force on CS by vortex = -(force on vortex by fluid) MIN = net flux of momentum in CV through CS force on vortex F = -FV = FCS + MIN

v =

2r

Vr = U x = U cos r

2 2

2

U U = cos2 d = 2 0 2

p=

1 v2 v +C 2

2 2 v 2 2 2 V = u + v = U sin + cos 2r 2 r

= U2

U sin + r 2 r

(FCS )x (FCS )y

= drp( cos) = 0

0

Fy = (FCS ) y + (M y )IN = U i.e. the fluid exerts a downward force U on the vortex Kutta-Jaukowski law: F = U v v v F = U

Lecture 12

3.14.1 2D Symmetric Streamlined Body No separation, even for large Reynolds numbers.

stream line

Viscous eects only in a thin boundary layer. Small Drag (only skin friction). No Lift.

chord line

chord line

(c) or both

angle of attack

to U

From the P-Flow solution for ow past a body we obtain

P-Flow solution, innite velocity at trailing edge. Note that (a) the solution is not unique - we can always superimpose a circulatory ow without violating the boundary conditions, and (b) the velocity at the trailing edge . We must therefore, impose the Kutta condition, which states that the ow leaves tangentially the trailing edge, i.e., the velocity at the trailing edge is nite. To satisfy the Kutta condition we need to add circulation.

Circulatory ow only. Superimposing the P-Flow solution plus circulatory ow, we obtain

3.15.1 Why Kutta condition? Consider a control volume as illustrated below. At t = 0, the foil is at rest (top control volume). It starts moving impulsively with speed U (middle control volume). At t = 0+ , a starting vortex is created due to ow separation at the trailing edge. As the foil moves, viscous eects streamline the ow at the trailing edge (no separation for later t), and the starting vortex is left in the wake (bottom control volume).

t=0

=0

S

t=0 + U

starting vortex due to separation (a real fluid effect, no infinite vel of potetial flow)

S

for later t U

S

starting vortex left in wake

no

Kelvins theorem: d = 0 = 0 for t 0 if (t = 0) = 0 dt After a while the S in the wake is far behind and we recover Figure 1. 4

Just enough so that the Kutta condition is satised, so that no separation occurs. For

example, consider a at plate of chord and angle of attack , as shown in the gure

below.

chord length

1 U 2 l 2

only for small

However, notice that as increases, separation occurs close to the leading edge.

When the angle of attack exceeds a certain value (depends on the wing geometry) stall occurs. The eects of stalling on the lift coecient (CL = 1 U 2 Lspan ) are shown in the 2 following gure.

used only to get Kutta

condition

stall location f(R)

stall

O(5 o )

In experiments, CL < 2 for 3D foil - nite aspect ratio (nite span). With sharp leading edge, separation/stall to early.

sharp trailing edge round leading edge to forstall stalling to develop circulation

Assumptions Flow: Steady, P-Flow. Wing: Let yU (x), yL (x) denote the upper and lower vertical camber coordinates, respectively. Also, let x = /2, x = /2 denote the horizontal coordinates of the leading and trailing edge, respectively, as shown in the gure below.

y=yU(x)

yU yL , << 1 dyU dyL , << 1 dx dx The problem is then linear and superposition applies. Let (x) denote the camber line 1 (x) = (yU (x) + yL (x)), 2 and t(x) denote the half-thickness 1 t(x) = (yU (x) yL (x)). 2

Camber line t(x)

t(x)

(x)

For linearized theory, i.e. thin wing at small AoA, the lift on the wing depends only on the camber line but not on the wing thickness. Therefore, for the following analysis we approximate the wing by the camber line only and ignore the wing thickness. 7

Denitions In general, the lift on the wing is due to the total circulation around the wing. This total circulation can be given in terms due to a distribution of circulation (x) (Units: [LT 1 ]) inside the wing, i.e., =

/2 /2

(x)dx

(x)

Noting that superposition applies, let the total potential for this ow be expressed as the sum of two potentials = U x +

Free stream potential

Disturbunce potential

The ow velocity can by expressed as v = = (U + u, v) where (u, v) are given by = (u, v) and denote the velocity disturbance, due to the presence of the wing. For linearized wing we can assume u, v << U u v , << 1 U U

Consider a ow property q, such as velocity, pressure etc. Then let qU = q(x, 0+ ) and qL = q(x, 0 ) denote the values of q at the upper and lower wing surfaces, respectively.

Lift due to circulation Applying Bernoulli equation for steady, inviscid, rotational ow, along a streamline from to a point on the wing, we obtain 1 p p = |v|2 U 2 2 1 1 p p = (u U )2 + v 2 U 2 = (u2 + v 2 2uU ) 2 2 1 u v v + 2) p p = uU ( 2 U U u

<<1 <<1 1 u Dropping terms of order U , for thin wing at small AoA v U

Integrating the pressure along the wing surface, we obtain an expression for the total lift L on the wing L = (p p )ny dS =

l/2 l/2 l/2

p(x, 0 ) p p(x, 0+ ) p dx

l/2

L =

l/2

p(x, 0 ) p(x, 0+ ) dx = U

u(x, 0 ) u(x, 0+ ) dx

(1)

l/2

To obtain the total lift on the wing we will seek an expression for u(x, 0 ).

Consider a closed contour on the wing, of negligible thickness, as shown in the gure

below. (x)

u ( x,0 + )

t0 u ( x,0 )

In this case we have (x)x = |u(x, 0+ )|x + u(x, 0 )x (x) = |u(x, 0+ )| + u(x, 0 ) For small u/U we can argue that u(x, 0+ ) u(x, 0 ), and obtain = u(x, 0 ) = (x) 2 (2)

From Equations (1), and (2) the total lift can be expressed as l/2 L = U (x)dx = U l/2

=

The same result can be obtained from the Kutta-Joukowski law (for nonlinear foil) /2 U (x)x = U L = U = U (x)x L =

/2

L = U = U (x) x

t0

= (x) x x

10

l 2

xcp

l 2

/2

CM =

M

1 U 2 2 2

The center of pressure xcp , can be obtained by M = Lxcp /2 x(x)dx M /2 = /2 xcp = L (x)dx

/2

11

1. Flat plate at angle of attack , i.e., = x.

/2 /2 (x)dx

from Linear

Linear lifting theory gives (x), which can be integrated to give the lift coecient

CL , L/span = U CL = CL

/2

/2

(x)dx = = U 2

/2

/2

x(x)dx = = 1 U 2 2 4

1 2

M/span 1 U 2 2 2

1 4

12

Linear lifting theory gives (x), which can be integrated to give the lift coecient

CL , L/span = U CL = 4 the moment coecient CM , M/span = 0 (from symmetry) CM = 0 and the center of pressure xcp xcp = 0 0

/2

/2

, where

13

CL = CL + CL = 2 + 4

0 . l

In practice even if the camber is not parabolic, we still make use of the previous relations, i.e., CL ( = 0) 40 / . = Also note that the angle of attack for any camber is dened as ( /2) ( /2) = yU yL

14

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 13 3.11 Unsteady Motion Added Mass Dalembert: ideal, irrotational, unbounded, steady

Violations: 4 Koutta-Joakowski wall unsteady

Example 1: Force on a sphere accelerating (U=U(t), unsteady) in an unbounded fluid at rest. (at infinity) = U( t ) cos U(t) K.B.C on sphere: r r =a r x Solution: Simply a 3D dipole (no stream) 3D Dipole a3 a n = U ( t ) 2 cos 2r U(t) check: = U( t ) cos r r =a

2 1 Hydrodynamic Force: Fx = + nx dS t 2 B

On r = a:

1 r =a = U cos , U sin ,0 Vr V 2 = = 1

r

1 r sin

2 r =a

0

ad

a sin

dS = (ad)(2a sin )

B

Finally,

1 2 & cos Ua cos + 1 U 2 cos 2 + 1 U 2 sin 2 Fx = ( )2a d(sin ) 12 n 3 2 2 1444 2444 3 0 4 4 4 x t 2

1 & = Ua 3 d sin cos 2 + U 2 a 2 d sin cos cos 2 + sin 2 4 0 0 14 244 4 3 144444 244444 3 4 4

23 = 0 D 'alembert revisited

Added mass matrix (tensor) mij ; i, j = 1,2 3, 4,2 6 12, 15, 3 3

& & & u,v,w

associated with force on body in i direction due to unit acceleration in j direction e.g. for sphere: m11 = m22 = m33 = =(mA) all other mij = 0 Some added masses of simple 2D geometries

x2 x1

circle

ellipse plate

2a

a b

square

2a

2a

A reasonable estimate for added mass od a 2D body is to useee the displaced mass () of an equivalent cylinder of the same lateral dimension or one that rounds off the body. e.g. square

2a

(2)a

( )

General 6 degrees of freedom forces and moments on a rigid body moving in an unbounded fluid ( at rest at infinity)

x2

v U( t )

v U ( t ) = (U1 , U 2 , U 3 ) Translation

velocity

v (t ) = (1 , 2 , 3 )

x1

o x3

v ( t )

(U 4 , U 5 , U 6 ) rotation (velocity)

vector w.r.t o

(1) (2)

(1) ( 2 ) ( 3)

0 = 1 1

if any j.k.l are equal if j,k,l are in cyclic order i.e. (1,2,3), (2,3,1),or (3,1,2) if j,k,l are not in cyclic order i.e. (1,3,2), (2,1,3), (3,2,1)

& (1) if k 0 , Fj = U i m ji (as expected by definition of mij) & also if U 0, then F = 0 for any Ui, no force in steady translation

i j

v v v (2) Bl ~ U i m li added momentum due to rotation of axes, (2) ~ B where B is linear momentum. (momentum from 1 coordinate into new xj direction)

def .of mij

Moment on a body due to pure steady translation Munk moment.

2 1

U1 = Ucos; U2 = -Usin

U

& steady: U = 0; k = 0

M 3 = E3klU kU i mli

(out of page)

1, 2

=1 = 1

= U 2 sin cos m22 m11 4 3 1 24 >0 M 3 > 0 for 0 < < 2 (" Bow up" ) A submarine under forward motion is unstable in pitch (yaw) (e.g. a small bow-up tends to grow with time) Need control surfaces: restoring moment (g)Hsin

B G H

critical speed Ucr given by: 2 (g)H sin U cr sin cos (m 22 m11 ) Usually m22 >> m11, m22 for small , cos 1 U 2 So U cr gH or Fcr cr 1 gH otherwise, control fins are required.

Ucr

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 14 Some Properties of Added-Mass Coefficients (1) mij= [function of geometry only]

& F, M = [linear function of mij] * [function of instantaneous U, U, ]

Not of motion history

B U=0 t = 0, (t=0) = 0

& U( t )

B U=1 t = T, (t=T) 0

F(t)

V V

v v L = Vd = d =

Greens th.

B + 0 0 at

ndS

L x (t = T ) =

n dS

x B

T

A A t 0 x x x 0 0 mA B

mA = total fluid momentum for body moving at U = 1 (regardless of how we get there from rest) = fluid momentum per unit velocity of body. K.B.C.

= n = (u ,0,0 ) n = Un x , = n x for U = 1 n n m A = dS n B For general 6 DOF:

m ji =

i n j dS =

j n

dS

(

i

(

)

V

j d

(

V

j + i 2 j d

i

m ji =

j d = m ij

36 21 independent coefficients

(4) Relationship to kinetic energy of fluid In general, for body motion Ui{(U1, U2, , U6)} = U i i ; i = pot. for U i = 1

notation

K.E. = 1 2

d = U

1 2 i V V

U j j d

notation

= 1 U i U j 2

j d = 1 m ij U i U j 2

K.E. depends only on mij and instantaneous Ui (5) Use of symmetry to simplify mij 36 sym 21 ? Choose coordinate system so that some mij = 0 by symmetry 2 e.g. 2

1 3

force

motion

0 0 m 34 m 44

0 0 m 35 m 45 m 55 2

m 16 m 26 0 0 0 m 66 3

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz

12 independent coefficients

m11 m ij =

0 m 22

0 0 m 22

0 0 0 0 0 m 35 0 0 m 55

0 m 35 0 0 0 m 55

1 3

How about 3 planes of symmetry (e.g. a cuboid); a cube; a sphere?? Work out detail! 3.12 Slender body Approximation Estimating mij of a slender 3D body using 2D strip-wise Mij

x2 x5 x1 x6 x3 x L M22(x), M33(x), M23(x), M44(x) x4 x3 x2

3D x 2D

e.g. m 33 = M 33 (x )dx;

m 53 =

( x )M

L

33

(x )dx

m 55 =

( x )( x )M

L

33

(x )dx = x 2 M 33 (x )dx

L

Similarly for m22, m44, m42, How about m23, m25 ?? Work out the detail!!

Buoyancy Effects Due to Accelerating Flow Example 2: Force on a stationary sphere in a fluid that is accelerated against it.

U(t) a r

cos

3 9 2 1 r = a = 0, U sin , 0 ; = U 2 sin 2 r =a 8 k.b.c. 2 symmetry 2 9 & 3a Fx = ( ) 2r 2 d sin ( cos )U cos + U 2 sin 2 8 2 0 9 2 & = U 3a 3 d sin cos 2 + U 2 a d cos sin 3 4 0 0 14 244 4 3 14 244 4 3

=2 3 =0

& Fx = U

=

4 3 a + 3

2a 3 123 4 4

2 3 a 3 123

Example (1)

U(t)

(2)

m(1) m(1)

<

Part of Fx is due to the pressure gradient which must be present to cause the fluid to accelerate: U U U U 1 p (ignore g) U (t ) : N .S . +U +v +w = t x y 1 z x { 13 2 3 2 0

0 0

dp & = U For uniform (1D) accelerated flow dx Force on the body due to the pressure field v p & F = pndS = pd; Fx = d = U x B B B

Greens th.

B

& Buoyancy force due to pressure gradient = U Analogue: Buoyancy force due to hydrostatic pressure gradient

Summary: Total force on a fixed sphere in an accelerated flow & & & Fx = U ( + m(1) ) = U 3 = U 3m(1) 2

Buoyancy = Added mass =

In general, for any body in an accelerated flow: & Fx = Fbuoyany + Um (1) Where m(1) is the added mass in still water (from now on, m) & & Fx = Um for body acceleration with U

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 15 4.0 - Real Fluid Effects ( 0) Potential Flow (under DAlemberts Condition): Drag = 0 Observed experiment (real fluid << 1 but 0): Drag 0 4.1 - Drag on a Bluff Body

D (Drag) U

Dimensional Analysis: C D =

1 2

0.5 0.25 Re

3x105

Why?

Total Drag (profile drag) D = pressure drag (form drag) + skin friction drag (shear drag, viscous drag) Pressure drag: drag force due to normal stress (pressure) Skin friction drag: drag due to tangential stress t tdS

t = is tangential unit vector t = surface shear stress pndS

For a bluff body, pressure drag >> friction drag. Why does pressure drag 0? By DAlembert (Potential Flow), pressure drag = 0

Flow separation

Real Flow

Potential Flow

Because of flow separation, DAlemberts flow symmetry is gone ! non-zero pressure force (drag) in addition to viscous drag. D C D (S )(Ps P )

Note that Ps P = 1 U 2 2

C D = C D (Re ) only weakly from experiments. The Reynolds number Re only plays a role in determining when and in what manner separation occurs.

Two regimes of real fluid flow exist: I- Laminar regime II- Turbulent regime I- Laminar regime: Re no separation < Re < Re critical 3 105

Separation pt

Drag

Stagnation pt

Separation pt

No Stagnation pt

Separation pt

Stagnation pt

Separation pt

No Stagnation pt

Consider a Cylinder

L

CD

CD = D/L 2 1 2 U d

1.2 0.6 Re

3x105

For bodies with fixed separation points, the Drag coefficient is ~ constant. Consider a flat plate or disc:

Separation pt

Separation pt

In non-potential flow, drag is dominated by pressure drag. In these cases, the drag is not a function of Re. Re is important for regime determination. Turbulent regime results follow potential flow more closely.

v L v 2v v v v + (v v ) = ... + UT t UL {

1 Re L

( )

For most flows of interest to us: ReL >>1 Therefore viscosity can be ignored if U, L govern the problem, thus ideal flow can be assumed, but then by DAlembert, drag = 0!

Flaw: Boundary conditions go from no slip to free slip In reality, no slip can occur on a boundary for any existing viscosity 0

Prandtl: There must be some length (boundary layer thickness where <<L) over which velocity goes from potential flow U, to 0 (no slip) on the wall.

U u=U U L <<L x

u=0

Estimate : inside boundary layer, viscous effects ~ inertial effects. 2U U 2 ~U x y 1 ~ = << 1 L UL Re L Generally: ReL>>1,

U U2 2 ~ L

2 ~ UL L2

As Re L ,

<< 1 , thus potential flow is good to use outside a very thin L boundary layer, while real fluid effects occur inside the boundary layer. If the Reynolds number is on the order of 1 (Re ~ O(1)), then ~ L and Prandtls boundary layer idea is no longer valid. If separation occurs, then boundary layer idea is not valid.

U = potential Flow x = arc length

p po = 1 U 2 ( x ) 2 dp dU = U dx dx

Uo y x

dU >0 dx dp <0 dx

du <0 dx dp >0 dx

X2 X1

X3 X4 X5

X=X1

X2 > X1

P p

P p

U1 P>p

X3 > X2

X4 > X3

P p u

U3 U2 3 > 0

u v = 0, = 0 y

U4 U3

X5 > X4

U5

U4

=0 outside B.L.

(y)

4 = 0

(y)

added to fluid

v v DV = ... + 2V Note: Dt

v D v = ... + 2 Dt

Vortex Shedding and Vortex Induced Vibrations Consider a steady flow Uo on a bluff body with diameter D We would expect the average forces to be: F Fx Fy Fy Uo D Fx

Average Fy t

Von Karman Uo D

Von Karman Street: Unsteady non-symmetric wake of staggered array of vortices. Frequency of vortex shedding f = /2 is given by a non-dimensional number.

fD = S(Re) Uo f: Strouhal frequency; d: body diameter; S: Strouhal number; Fx: Drag has frequency 2f, non-zero mean. Fy: Lift has frequency f, zero mean. For laminar flow: S ~ 0.22 for cylinder For turbulent flow: S ~ 0.3 for cylinder 0. 0.22 3x10 Local CL ~ O(1) comparable to CD Total CD, CL are functions of correlation lengths. For a moving cylinder attached to a cable, if the Strouhal frequency is close to the cable frequency f, lock-in occurs. Then frequency of motion Strouhal Frequency fS amplitude of motion Vortex induced vibration VIV

Uo

D b L

D

1 2

(Lb ) {

= C f (Re, L b )

u Unlike a bluff body, Cf is a strong function of Re since D is proportional to . = y Flat Plate Drag

Cf

0.01 Laminar Turbulent

Re depends on plate smoothness, ambient turbulence, In general, Cfs are much smaller than CDs (a factor of 10:100)

Therefore designing streamlined bodies allows minimal separation and form drag (at the expense of friction drag). In general, for streamlined bodies

C force is a combination of C D (Re ) and C f (Re ) where CD is a function of the regime and Cf is a function of ReL continuously. Governing equations:

v _________________(a) 1 v v v v 1v + (v )v = p + 2 v + f t v Conservation of mass: v = 0 _________________(b) Boundary conditions on v v v = U _________________(c) solid boundaries no-slip:

Navier-Stokes: Equations very difficult to solve, analytic solution only for a few very special cases v v (usually when (v )v = 0 ) 4.3 Steady Laminar Flow Between 2 Infinite Parallel Walls Plane Couette Flow

y U h x z

Assume steady

=0 t

v v v v v v , = 0 v = v (y ) i.e. x z

k.b.c.

(b)

x 2 2 2 u u u u v + u v + v v + w v = 1 y p + + + 2 x t w x w y w z w z y 2 z 2 u v w

u:

2 u 1 p = y 2 x p v: = 0 p = p ( x, z ) y w:

2 w 1 p = z y 2

2w p 0, then 2 = 0 , w = a + by We assume that p = p(x), i.e. y z But k.b.c.: w = 0 on y = 0, h w 0 Finally: v = w = 0, u = u(y), p = p(x)

d 2 u 1 dp = dy 2 dx

1 2 Solution: u = 2 y

1 p + C1 + C 2 y x

1 dp

whence: u= 1 (y h )y dp + Uy 2 dx h

y a r

v v = (v x ,,vv , , v ) v v r v

x r

z L

dv x (0) = 0 symmetry dr

r=a

1 dp 2 v x (r )= a r2 4 dx

Vx(r)

4.5 Unsteady Flow ( boundary layer growth) over an infinite flat plate For steady (i) limit x

Couette flow, Poiseuille

h a

(ii) limit t ( 4.5) Consider the simplest example of an infinite plate in unsteady motion:

y

U(t) x z

Assuming p = 0, we have

v v v = v ( y, t )

v v v v , =0 x z

2u 2u 2u u u u u 1 p +u +v +w = + 2 + 2 + 2 x t x y z x y z

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Finally:

momentum diffusivity

u u = 2 t y

2

momentum (velocity)

b.c.: u(0,t) = U(t) t > 0; u bounded ( 0) as y + suitable initial condition. 4.5.1 Sinusoidally Oscillating Plate

U (t ) = U o cos t = Real U o e it

let u ( y, t ) = Real f ( y ) eit then (*)

if =

2 y

(1+i )

+ C 2e

(1+ i ) 2 y

2 y

U(t)

Uo

u ( y, t ) :

u 2u = 2 t y

Problem has no explicit time scale, can use dimensional analysis to solve in terms of a similarity parameter: y u u = f ( y, t , ) = f = f () ; i.e. Uo U o Self-similar 2 t

similarity parameter solution

Solution:

2 u 2 = erfc() = 1 erf () = 1 e d Uo Complementary 0

error function

L

Assume steady 0 t

Uo

2D

0 w, z

u (x, y ), v (x, y ), p (x, y ), U (x, y ), V ( x, y ) For <<L, use local coordinates (x,y) Governing Equations:

u v + = 0 x y

Continuity

u 2u 2u u 1 p = + 2 + 2 +v u x y x y x N S 2v 2v v 1 p v = + 2 + 2 u +v x x y y y

Boundary Layer Approximation Assume that R L =

UL >> 1, (u, v) is

For flows within this boundary layer, the appropriate order-of-magnitude scaling / normalization is: Variable u x y v

* *

Scale U L V=?

U u V v (a) : + = 0 V = O U y L x L

(b) : U u UV u + L x {

2 *

O U2 L

u v y

2 2 u * 2 u * 1 p U + + = x 2 L2 x 2 y 2 4 4 2 1 ignore 3

<< 1 L

2

(b' )

ignore 68 7 1 u u u 1 p = + 2 1 + O u +v R x y y x L p From (b), in the case of = 0 (U=constant) x 2

U 2 U ~ 2 ~ L L

1 = << 1 UL R L

UV v V2 (c) : u + L { x {

U2 O L L

v 1 p v = + y y

U2 O L L

2 U 2 O 2 L LL <<1

V L2 {

2v V 2 + 2 x {

2v 2 y

U2 O L L

p p p << 0; p = p( x ) y x y i.e. pressure is constant across the boundary layer thickness and is equal to the pressure outside b.l. imposed by the external potential flow

so

Summary: 2D, steady, laminar boundary layer equations. Valid inside boundary layer. Continuity:

U U x 0 678 2 1 p u u u u +v = + 2 x y x y p =0 y u v + =0 x y

x-mom: y_mom:

Boundary conditions: on y=0, KBC: u = v = 0 Outside b.l. , KBC: u = U(x,y), v = V(x,y) In principle, U = U(x,y), outside b.l. So write:

Potential Flow

u x, y * = U(x,0), v x, y * = V(x,0) = 0

U U 1 dp 2U U +V = + 2 x-mom: x y dx y 0 0

dp U 2 1 so dx = U x or p( x ) = C 2 U (x ,0 )

In the b.l.

A solution to the laminar boundary layer equations . dp = 0... Simplest problem where U=U0 and dx

Steady flow over a flat plate Blasius laminar boundary layer

y

U = U0, V = 0,

dp =0 dx

Uo

2 y inside b.l. u u u u = 2 +v x y y u v + =0 x y

b.c. u =v = 0 on y = 0; v V = 0, u Uo outside b.l.

y >> 1

y Uo x

u (x , y ) = F() Uo

Solution:

y = x

Rx

x Uo

y=

x y u (x , y ) Uo = F() ; = y ; y U ; x = Uo x o

Rx

Local R #

x , i.e. .99 = 4.9 .99 4.9 Uo ~ x ,1 U o x * * , i.e. = 1.72 1.72 Uo 1 ~ = x Uox Rx x 0.664 Uo

1 / 2 U x = 0.322 U o2 Rx o 0.322U o2 o 1 3 o ~ ,U o / 2 x

1 / 2

D = B o dx 0.664 U

0

2 o

width

(BL) U o L ; D ~ L1 / 2 , U 3 / 2 4 3 1 24

R L1 / 2

1 / 2

CD = Cf =

Cf

1 2

(U ) (BL)

2 o

1.328R 1 / 2 ; C D ~ L

1 L

1 U

1.328 RL

Turbulent b.l.

103

3x105

RL

Flat plate friction coeff. JNN 2.3 Turbulent b.l.

Approximate solution method due to Polhausen for general geometry (dp/dx 0) using Von Karmans momentum integrals.(*) Assume an approximate velocity profile, say as a 4th order polynomial:

2 3 4

Using (+) in (o), we have finally only 1 unknown parameter : a = 2 + / 6, b = - / 2, c = -2 + / 2, d = 1 - / 6

Polhausen profiles a family of profiles as a function of a single parameter (shape function factor)

u u U 2u u +v =U + 2 y at y = 0, u = v = 0: x y 1 x 2 3 0 0 1 240 4 y= 3 1 dp

dx

2 bU

1 dU 2 dU 2 , = b= and = so 2 dx dx

dU dx

dU , dx

; dU dx =

u 3 * = 1 dy = U 10 120 0

U 2+ 6

o =

u y

=

y=0

for

dU = 0 , Pohlhausen ( = 0) differs from Blasius by only a few percent. dx dU 0 , we find = (x) by substitution of for general dx o(), *(), () into Von Karmans momentum eqt.:

d 1 dU dx 2 h ( ) = g ( ) + du dx U dx dx

where g, h are known rational polynomial functions of ODE to solve for = (x) given U,

dU d 2 U , from potential theory dx dx 2

d2U

In general, we may try other approximations (o), use enough bcs at y = to reduce to a single unknown, then substitute into Von Karmans eqt. and solve.

Lecture 18

Assume a ow v with a time scale T . Let denote a time scale << T . We can then write for each component of the velocity ui = u i + ui where by denition ui = It immediately follows that ui ui = ui ui = ui ui = 0, also ui =

etc.

x

x

Substitute Eq. (1) into continuity and average over , i.e., take ( )

ui ui ui =

+ = 0, xi xi xi

0 0

(1)

ui dt

ui =0 xi

but

ui = 0 =

xi

0

ui xi

, just shown

u +

i , xi

ui =0 xi

2 ui = ui

p xi

ui ui u =

+

i ; similarly t t t

( + p xi

p)=

p xi

etc.

uj

ui

ui ui u = u

+ uj j (i + ui ) = uj u + uj + uj i +uj u xj xj xj xj xj xj i

0 0

u

= u

u ui i xj xj j i uj xj

0by continuity

ui 1 p ui + uj = + 2 ui uu t

xj xi xj i j

1 xj ij

ui ui 1 + uj = ij ui uj t xj xj

Reynolds stress:

Rij ui uj

We have already seen that the function of the friction coecient Cf (ReL ) diers for laminar and turbulent ows. In this paragraph we will discuss the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Following a procedure similar to that for ow past a body of general geometry, we will use an approximate velocity prole, obtain the P-Flow solution and eventually substitute everything into von Karmans momentum integral equation. The velocity proles used in practice are either empirical ((1/7)th power) or semi-empirical (logarithmic) laws.

log

u Uo

U

o

1/7

Uo

log

4.10.1 (1/7)th Power Velocity Prole Law Let the velocity prole be determined by the following empirical law y u = Uo where = (x) is to be determined. From equation (2) we can obtain directly and = 8 7 = = 0.0972 72

1/7

(2)

However, we need to use an additional empirical law to determine the skin friction. From Blasius law of friction for pipes we obtain an expression for o o = 0.0227 2 Uo 3 Uo

1/4

From P-Flow for ow past a at plate we have U (x) = U0 = const, and dp/dx = 0 Substituting , , o , Uo into von Karmans moment equation o d = () = 0.0227 2 dx Uo Uo

1/4

7 d 72 dx

This is a 1s t order ODE for . One BC is required. We assume that the the ow is tripped at x = 0, i.e., at x = 0 the ow is already turbulent. Further on, we assume that the turbulent boundary layer starts at x = 0, i.e., (0) = 0. It follows that (x) 0.373x = Compare: Laminar Boundary Layer Turbulent Boundary Layer (1/7th power law) (x) x4/5 (x) x 1/5 4 x 1.72 Uo 0.047 xo = = U Once the prole has been determined we can evaluate the friction drag

2 1/5 D = 0.036 Uo BL ReL

Uo x

1/5

1/5 = 0.373Rex x

Thus, the friction coecient for turbulent (tripped and/or ReL > 5 105 ) ow over a at plate is D 1/5 = 0.073ReL Cf = 1 U 2 BL 2 o 4.10.2 Logarithmic Velocity Prole Law If the velocity prole is determined by the semi-empirical logarithmic velocity pro le law, following an approach similar to that for the 1/7th power law, we obtain Schoenherrs formula for the friction coecient 0.242 = log10 (ReL Cf ) Cf 4

1/2 = 1.72xRex

Cf

D

2 Uo (BL)

1/2 = 1.328ReL

Cf

D

2 Uo (BL)

1/5 = 0.0725ReL

For o , the cross-over is at Rex 3.4 x 103 , i.e., (o )laminar > (o )turbulent for Rex < 3.4 103 (o )laminar (o )turbulent for Rex 3.4 103 (o )laminar < (o )turbulent for Rex > 3.4 103

Cf

C f L ~ RL

C fT ~ RL

Therefore, for most prototype scales: (Cf )turbulent > (Cf )laminar (o )turbulent > (o )laminar

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 19 Turbulent Boundary Layers: Roughness Effects So far, a smooth surface has been assumed. In practice, it is rarely so due to fouling, rust, rivets, etc.

Equivalent sand roughness k Estimate k for actual surfaces e.g., ship hull For k < viscous sublayer thickness v, k does not affect the turbulent boundary layer significantly: C f C fsmooth ( Rl ) C f = C f ( Rl ), not k

( l)

separation

k v

Drag due to separation = form drag >> viscous drag C f = C frough > C fsmooth C frough = C f k

( l ) , not ( R )

l

Cf

C f rough

Rl

C f smooth

C D f (R )

k << 1 : hydraulically smooth ( x ) k >> 1 : rough ( x )

Therefore, for the same k, the smaller the , the more important the roughness k. Corollaries 1) Exactly scaled models (e.g. hydraulic models of rivers, harbors, etc) Same

k ~ const. for model and prototype l k k l k 15 ~ Rl = l l k for Rl

k k < m p

(C ) < (C )

f m f

Often, the model is hydraulically smooth while the prototype is rough In practice, roughness must be added to model elements. 2) Roughness Allowance e.g. for the same ship ( Rl same), different k gives different Rk =

Cf

Uk

Uk = Rk = constant

Cf remains~ constant with Rl

Rl

C f smooth

For a given Rk, Cf is increased by almost a constant amount from C f smooth over a wide range of Rl.

C f = C f ( Rk ) , depends weakly on Rl

not ( Rl )

In reality:

Cf Spacing Cf with Rl

Rk = constant

Rl

C f smooth

k R R = k 4k ( l )Rl R l 5

( l ~ R )

15

l

k as Rl

Hughes Method:

Chapter 5 Model Testing 5.1 Steady Flow past a body In general: CD = CD (R) For a bluff body: Form drag >> Friction drag, therefore CD constant CP (within a regime) For a streamlined body: CD (R) = Cf (R) + CP Form drag (CP) not a function of Reynolds number within a regime. 1- Perform an experiment with a smooth model at Rm (Rm << Rship) and obtain CDm (drag of the model) 2- Calculate CPm = CDm Cfm (Rm) = CP ship = CP ; CDm measured, Cfm (Rm) assumed calculated. 3- Calculate CD ship = CP + Cf ship (Rship) 4- Add Cf for roughness if needed.

CP measured CD predicted Cf (Rm) calculated

friction U

Cf (Rship) R

Caution: In an experiment, the boundary layer must be in the same regime (i.e. turbulent) as the prototype.

Cf (Rship) calculated

Rm

Rship

TBL LBL CP turbulent regime U MODEL TBL

Laminar Cf

Turbulent Cf

Drag on a ship hull: for a body near a free surface, Froude number F is important due to wave effects.

gL3 R Therefore CD = CD(R, F) and in general = F Cannot easily scale both R and F for similitude; e.g., R L 1 = constant and m = F L p 10 m g = 0.032 or m = 1000 ! p gp

Froudes Hypothesis:

calculate

CD ( R, F ) C f ( R ) + CR ( F )

flat plate friction for wetted area residual drag

measure indirectly

OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE FOR FROUDE MODEL TESTING (S="SHIP" M="MODEL") 1. Given U S , calculate FS = U S / gLS 2. Tow model at U M = FS gLM 3. Measure total resistance (drag) DM of model

2 4. Calculate C DM = DM /(0.5 M U M S M )

5. Calculate C RM = C DM C f ( RM ) 6. Froude's Hypothesis: C RM ( RM , F ) = C RM ( F ) = C RS ( F ) = C R ( F ) 7. C DS = C R ( F ) + C f ( RS ) + C f 8. Use ITTC line for C f ( RS ) , C f ( RM ) : (typically C f 0.0004) C f ( R) = 0.075(log10 R 2) 2 (in general M P )

2 9. DS = C DS (0.5 S U S S S )

10. Power:

PS = DS U S

Lecture 20

6.1 Exact (Nonlinear) Governing Equations for Surface Gravity Waves, Assuming Potential Flow

Free surface definition y = ( x, z , t ) or F ( x, y, z , t ) = 0

y

x

z

B(x, y, z,t) = 0

Unknown variables

Velocity eld:

v (x, y, z, t) = (x, y, z, t) Position of free surface:

y = (x, z, t) or F (x, y, z, t) = 0 Pressure eld:

Governing equations Continuity:

Bernoulli for P-Flow:

2 = 0 y < or F < 0

t

p (x, y, z, t)

+ 1 ||2 + 2

ppa

+ gy = 0; y < or F < 0 pa

atmospheric

/t, 0 and p =

gy

hydrostatic

Alternatively: a particle P on B remains on B, i.e., B is a material surface. For example if P is on B at t = t0 , P stays on B for all t. B(xP , t0 ) = 0, then B(xP (t), t) = 0 for all t, so that, following P B is always 0. DB B = + ( ) B = 0 on B = 0 Dt t

=1

=0

= 0 on B = y + h = 0 y

2. On the free surface, y = or F = y (x, z, t) = 0 we have KBC and DBC. KBC: free surface is a material surface, no normal velocity relative to the free surface. A particle on the free surface remains on the free surface for all times. DF D =0= (y ) = Dt Dt y

vertical velocity

z z t x x

slope of f.s. slope of f.s.

on y =

still unknown

non-linear term

+ g

still unknown

= pa on y =

Assume small wave amplitude compared to wavelength, i.e., small free surface slope A << 1

H = A/2

crest

Wave amplitude A

Water depth h

trough

wavelength

Wave period T

discard

<< 1

keep

6.2.1 BVP In this paragraph we state the Boundary Value Problem for linear (Airy) waves.

2 =0 +g y t 2

y=0

2 = 0

y = -h

=0 y

t

2 = 0, h < y < 0

y

= 0, y = h

0, y 2 y = t , y = 0 2 + g = 0 y t + g = 0, y = 0

Introducing the notation {} for innite depth we can rewrite the BVP: Constant nite depth h 2 = 0, h < y < 0 = 0, y = h y 2 +g = 0, y = 0 y t2 Given calculate: (x, t) = p pa = 1 g t (x, t) =

y=0

1 g t

(4)

y=0

gy t

hydrostatic

p pa =

gy t

hydrostatic

(5)

dynamic

dynamic

6.2.2 Solution Solution of 2D periodic plane progressive waves, applying separation of variables. We seek solutions to Equation (1) of the form eit with respect to time. Using the KBC (2), after some algebra we nd . Upon substitution in Equation (4) we can also obtain . gA cosh k (y + h) = sin (kx t) cosh kh = A cos (kx t)

using (4)

using(4)

where A is the wave amplitude A = H/2. Exercise Verify that the obtained values for and satisfy Equations (1), (2), and (4). 6.2.3 Review on plane progressive waves (a) At t = 0 (say), = A cos kx periodic in x with wavelength: = 2/k Units of : [L]

k x K = wavenumber = 2 /

[L-1]

T

t

(c) = A cos k x t k

= frequency = 2 /T

Units of

: k

L T

Following a point with velocity , i.e., xp = t + const, the phase of does k k not change, i.e., = Vp phase velocity. k T 5

6.2.4 Dispersion Relation So far, any , k combination is allowed. However, recall that we still have not made use of the FSBC Equation (3). Upon substitution of in Equation (3) we nd that the following relation between h, k, and must hold: 2 +g =0 t2 y 2 cosh kh + gk sinh kh = 0 2 = gk tanh kh

= gA sin(kxt)f (z)

Given h, the Dispersion Relation (6) provides a unique relation between and k, i.e., = (k; h) or k = k(; h). Proof

C kh

C

tanh kh

2h g

from (6)

C kh

kh kh =f(c)

Therefore as T or as , then Vp , i.e., longer waves are faster in terms of phase speed. - Water depth eect For waves the same k (or ), at dierent water depths, as h then Vp , i.e., for xed k Vp is fastest in deep water. - Frequency dispersion Observe that Vp = Vp (k) or Vp (). This means that waves of dierent frequencies, have dierent phase speeds, i.e., frequency dispersion. 6

long waves shallow water

tanh kh =

short waves deep water

Intermediate depth or wavelength Need to solve 2 = gk tanh kh given , h for k (given k, h for - easy!)

(a) Use tables or graphs (e.g.JNN g.6.3) 2 = gk g 2 2 = gk tanh kh = gk = T 2 k Vp (in ft.) 5.12T 2 (in sec.) = tanh kh = = k Vp (b) Use numerical approximation

(hand calculator, about 4 decimals )

i. Calculate C = 2 h/g ii. If C > 2: deeper kh C(1 + 2e2C 12e4C + . . .) If C < 2: shallower kh C(1 + 0.169C + 0.031C 2 + . . .) No frequency dispersion Vp = gh Frequency dispersion g tanh kh Vp = k Frequency dispersion g Vp = 2

2 k= 2 = T

H = 2A

Dene U A Linear Solution: = A cos (kx t) ; 6.3.1 Velocity eld =

Vp A

MWL

(x,t) = y

Velocity on free surface v(x, y = 0, t) u(x, 0, t) Uo = A 1 cos (kx t) tanh kh v(x, 0, t) Vo = A sin (kx t) = t

Velocity eld v(x, y, t) u= Agk cosh k (y + h) cos (kx t) = cosh kh x cosh k (y + h) cos (kx t) = A sinh kh

U

v=

U

u = Uo

v = Vo

ky sinh k (y + h) e sinh kh 1+

y h

u is in phase with 8

Shallow water

Deep water

6.3.2 Pressure eld Total pressure p = pd gy. Dynamic pressure pd = . t Dynamic pressure on free surface pd (x, y = 0, t) pdo Pressure eld Shallow water pd = g Intermediate water pd = gA cosh k (y + h) cos (kx t) cosh kh cosh k (y + h) = g cosh kh pd u same picture as Uo p do pd (h) 1 = cosh kh pdo Deep water pd = geky

hydrostatic approximation

V p = gh

y

V p = g

y

x

y

x

kh << 1

kh >> 1

pd

p ( h)

pd o

p ( h)

pd o

p ( h)

pd o

p ( h)

10

6.3.3 Particle Orbits (Lagrangian concept) Let xp (t), yp (t) denote the position of particle P at time t. Let (; y ) denote the mean position of particle P. x The position P can be rewritten as xp (t) = x + x (t), yp (t) = y + y (t), where (x (t), y (t)) denotes the departure of P from the mean position.

In the same manner let v v( y, t) denote the velocity at the mean position and x,

vp v(xp , yp , t) denote the velocity at P.

P (x , y ) P P

(x' , y ' )

vp = v( + x , y + y , t) = x

TSE

(x, y)

vp = v ( y, t) + x, vp v =

v v ( y, t) x + x, (, y, t) y + . . . x x y

ignore - linear theory

To estimate the position of P, we need to evaluate (x (t), y (t)): cosh k ( + h) y x = dt u ( y, t) = dt A x, cos (kx t) sinh kh cosh k ( + h) y = A sin (kx t) sinh kh sinh k ( + h) y dt v ( y, t) = dt A x, sin (kx t) y = sinh kh y sinh k ( + h) = A cos (kx t) sinh kh Check: On y = 0, y = A cos (kx t) = , i.e., the vertical motion of a free surface particle (in linear theory) coincides with the vertical free surface motion. It can be shown that the particle motion satises x2 y2 (xp x)2 (yp y )2 + 2 =1 + =1 2 2 2 b b a a cosh k ( + h) y sinh k ( + h) y where a = A and b = A , i.e., the particle orbits form sinh kh sinh kh closed ellipses with horizontal and vertical axes a and b. 11

crest

Vp

ky

A

A

(a) deep water kh >> 1: a = b = Ae ky circular orbits with radii Ae decreasing exponentially with depth

trough Ae

ky

A

(b) shallow water kh << 1: a= y A = const. ; b = A(1+ ) kh h

decreases linearly

with depth

Vp =

gh

A/kh

Vp

Vp

Q

A

Q S S R

f (y)

e.g.pd

= f1 (y)

eky

e.g.u, a

= f2 (y)

eky

1 kh

e.g. v, b

= f3 (y)

eky

1+

y h

13

= C (x)

u A

= C (x) f2 (y)

v A

= S (x) f3 (y)

pd gA

= C (x) f1 (y)

y A

= C (x) f3 (y)

x A

= S (x) f2 (y)

a A

= f2 (y)

b A

= f3 (y)

b a

14

Lecture 21

1. Oblique Plane Waves

v k

kz z Vp x kx

v k = (k x , k z )

kx

=A cos(kx cos + kz sin t) = A cos (kx x + kz z t) gA cosh k (y + h) = sin (kx cos + kz sin t) cosh kh 2 2 2 =gk tanh kh; kx = k cos , kz = k sin , k = kx + kz

2. Standing Waves

y

=A cos (kx t) + A cos (kx t) = 2A cos kx cos t 2gA cosh k (y + h) = cos kx sin t cosh kh

90o at all times

y

2A amplitude

t = 0, T, 2T,

x node

t=

T 3T , ,L 2 2

antinode

t=

T 3T 5T , , L

4 4 4

n n = sin kx = 0 at x = 0, = x x k 2

= 0. To obtain a standing wave, it is necessary to have perfect

x

x=0 reection at the wall at x = 0. AR Dene the reection coecient as R ( 1). AI Therefore,

A I = AR AR R= =1 AI

z

R

R = I

Note: same A, R = 1.

kx x kz zt

standing wave in x propagating wave in z

and x = Check: sin (kx cos ) = 0 on x = 0 x x 2 ; k cos VPx = 0; z = 2 ; k sin VPz = k sin

4. Partial Reection

I R

I =AI cos (kx t) = AI Re ei(kxt) R =AR cos (kx + t + ) = AI Re R ei(kx+t) R: Complex reection coecient R = |R| ei , |R| = AR AI T =I + R = AI Re ei(kxt) 1 + Re2ikx

free surface wave envelope

2

1+ | R |2

| T | AI

node

antinode

At node, |T | = |T |min = AI (1 |R|) at cos (2kx + ) = 1 or 2kx + = (2n + 1) At antinode, |T | = |T |max = AI (1 + |R|) at cos (2kx + ) = 1 or 2kx + = 2n 2kL = 2 so L = |R | = 2

5. Wave Group 2 waves, same amplitude A and direction, but and k very close to each other.

VP1

1 = 2 =

VP2

Aei(k1 x1 t) Aei(k2 x2 t)

T = 1 + 2 =

Aei(k1 x1 t) 1 + ei(kxt)

with k = k2 k1 and = 2 1

Vg

2A

g =

2 k

VP1 VP2

T=

Tg = 2 = 1 2

k1

dk

1 k2 k k

2 = gk tanh kh

1 2kh

Vg = 1+ k 2 sinh 2kh

Vp n

Vg Vp

1 2

Vg Vp

Vg

<n<1

2

Vg Vp

Appear

VP

Disappear

For a single plane progressive wave: Energy per unit surface area of wave Potential energy PE

0

h

PE without wave =

h

gydy = 1 gh2 2

dy 1 (u2 + v 2 ) 2

1 gA2 4

KE const in x,t

PE with wave

h

gydy = 1 g ( 2 h2 ) 2 =

1 gA2 2

to leading order

PEwave =

1 g 2 2

cos (kx t)

Average energy over one period or one wavelength PEwave = 1 gA2 4 Total wave energy in deep water: E = PE + KE = 1 gA2 cos2 (kx t) + 2 E = 1 gA2 [ 2

1 2 1 2

Average wave energy E (over 1 period or 1 wavelength) for any water depth: +

PE KE

1 2

] = 1 gA2 = Es , 2

Es Specic Energy: total average wave energy per unit surface area. Linear waves: PE = KE = 1 Es 2 (equipartition). Nonlinear waves: KE > PE.

1 x

E Es

Vp x

Vp

PE = Es cos2 (kx t)

PE = 1 E 2

PE

KE KE = 1 E 2

Recall: cos2 x =

1 2

+ 1 cos 2x 2

S x

E = E s per area

Vp

Consider a xed control volume V to the right of screen S. Conservation of energy: dW dE = = J dt dt rate of work done on S rate of change of energy in V energy ux left to right where

J= h

pu dy with p =

1 gA2 2 E

d + gy dt

2kh sinh 2kh n

and u =

J= -

k

Vp

1 2

1+

= E (nVp ) = EVg

Vg

x

1

F1 1

2

F2 2

x

E = E (x ), F = F ( x )

h = h(x)

J1 J2 t = Ex J2 = J1 + J

x +

x

1

E J + = 0, but J = Vg E t x

E

+ Vg E = 0 t x

1. E

= 0, Vg E = constant in x for any h(x). t

D

2A

1 E = 2 gA2

Vp = U

E = 0 ahead of ship

F = Vg E = ( 1 U ) 1 gA2 2 2

L

x=0 C.V.

Ship wave resistance drag Dw Rate of work done = rate of energy increase d EL = EU Dw U + J = dt

deep water

1 Dw = (EU EU 2 ) = 1 E = 1 gA2 Dw A2 2 4 U force / length energy / area Amplitude of generated waves The amplitude A depends on U and the ship geometry. Let

L

eective length.

+ L l

To approximate the wave amplitude A superimpose a bow wave (b ) and a stern wave (s ). b = a cos (kx) and s = a cos (k (x + )) T = b + s 1 A = |T |max = 2a sin 2 k envelope amplitude g Dw = 1 gA2 = ga2 sin2 1 k Dw = ga2 sin2 1 U 2 2 2 4 Wavelength of generated waves To obtain the wave length, observe that the phase speed of the waves must equal U . For deep water, we therefore have Vp = U deep = U water k 10 g U2 = U , or = 2 k g

U = ship speed g U2 g = U ; so k = 2 and = 2 k U g L =ship length, L 1 g ga2 sin2 Dw =ga2 sin2 1 U 2 ga2 sin2 = = 2 2Fr2L Vp =

1 2Fr2L

Fl =

Dw ga 2

max at:

0.56

Fl =

1

Small speed U Short waves Significant wave cancellation Dw ~ small

Increasing U

U , where l L gl

11

Lecture 22

UP

U = A A U Re = = UT AT A Kc = = = 2

CF =

F gA

=f

A ,

, Re ,

h , roughness, . . .

6.9.1 Types of Forces 1. Viscous forces Form drag, viscous drag = f (Re , Kc , roughness, . . .). Form drag (CD ) Associated primarily with ow separation - normal stresses.

body (wetted surface)

b.l.

2. Inertial forces Froude-Krylov forces, diraction forces, radiation forces. Forces arising from potential ow wave theory, F = p ndS, where p = 1 + gy + ||2 t 2

=0, for linear theory, small amplitude waves

For linear theory, the velocity potential and the pressure p can be decomposed to = I

Incident wave potential (a)

D

Diracted wave potential (b.1)

R

Radiated wave potential (b.2)

p =

I t

D t

R t

+ gy

(a) Incident wave potential Froude-Krylov Force approximation When << , the incident wave eld is not signicantly modied by the presence of the body, therefore ignore D and R . Froude-Krylov approximation: I I p + gy t FF K =

body surface

I can calculate + gy ndS wave kinematics knowing (incident) (and body geometry) t pI

Mathematical approximation After applying the divergence theorem, the FF K can be rewritten as FF K = pI ndS = pI d.

body surface body volume

If the body dimensions are very small comparable to the wave length, we can assume that pI is approximately constant through the body volume and pull the pI out of the integral. Thus, the FF K can be approximated as FF K = pI

at body center body volume

d =

body volume

pI

at body center

The last relation is particularly useful for small bodies of non-trivial geometry for 13.021, that is all bodies that do not have a rectangular cross section. 3

(b) Diraction and Radiation Forces (b.1) Diraction or scattering force When , the wave eld near the body < will be aected even if the body is stationary, so that no-ux B.C. is satised.

( + ) == =

FD =

body surface

D t

ndS

(b.2) Radiation Force - added mass and damping coecient Even in the absence of an incident wave, a body in motion creates waves and hence inertial wave forces.

FR =

body surface

R t

added mass wave radiation damping

UT A

(1)Kc =

= 2

(2)diraction parameter

A 0.07

A

0.07

If Kc 1: no appreciable ow separation, viscous eect conned to boundary layer (hence small), solve problem via potential theory. In addition, depending on the value of the ratio , If << 1, ignore diraction , wave eects in radiation problem (i.e., dij 0, mij mij innite uid added mass). F-K approximation might be used, calculate FF K . If

0.07 /

0.035).

If Kc >> 1: separation important, viscous forces can not be neglected. Further on if 0.07 so << 1 ignore diraction, i.e., the Froude-Krylov approximation is valid. A/ 1 F = 2

2

relative velocity

Intermediate Kc - both viscous and inertial eects important, use Morrisons formula. 1 F = 2 U (t)|U (t)|CD (Re ) + 3 U Cm (Re , Kc ) 2

Summary

I

Limiting case: wave breaking occurs

II

III

I. Use: CD and F K approximation. II. Use: CF and F K approximation. III. CD is not important and F K approximation is not valid.

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