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Experiment # 1: Characteristics of Matter MEG2, Group # 1, Prof.

Kevin Anthony Sison Dendiego, Mary Margaret; Luces, Jeffrey; Perez, Krysta Elieza February 20, 2012 _________________________________________________________________________________ I. Abstract (20%) This experiment deals with the characteristics of matter. Matter is scientifically defined as the substances of which all things were made of or everything that has mass and volume. They are said to exist in four states, namely solid, liquid, gas and plasma. They can be pure substances or mixtures that can be separated. They could be further classified based on the properties they show. Matters could undergo different physical and chemical changes. In the experiment, the different phases/states of matter were identified, analyzed and subjected to different circumstances that helped determine their properties. It was observed that matters could be separated depending on the nature of their components. Filtration, adsorption, sublimation and solvent extraction were done. They were then classified as metallic/nonmetallic based on the gas they produce and base/acid based on their reaction to the litmus paper. More tests determined that physical changes are changes on the phase of matter, without any change in the chemical composition of a substance while chemical changes are changes in the composition seen in the changes in color and odor, production of gas or precipitation and formation of a new substance. The experiments results and significance are the knowledge of the properties of different matters, the methods of how they can separated and what/how changes could occur to them. II. Keywords (5%) Phases of matter, physical separation, metallic and non-metallic properties, acid and bases, chemical reaction, physical change _________________________________________________________________________________ III. Introduction (10%) A mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically united and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other. Most natural substances are mixtures. A mixture can be physically separated into pure compounds or elements. Mixtures are all able to be separated by exploiting some physical property. No chemical changes need be involved, so the substances will retain their chemical identity throughout the separation process. There are several ways to separate substances, depending on the properties of the substances. Some substances dissolve when placed in water. Others are unchanged when placed in water. Proper physical processes must be employed depending upon the nature of the components of the mixture. There are different separation techniques such as filtration, sublimation, adsorption, solvent extraction, hand separation, evaporation, chromatography and centrifugation. The components of the mixture may be classified into metals and non-metals. These components of mixture may undergo physical and chemical changes. The most common types of chemical changes are combination (two or more reactants form one product), decomposition (the opposite of combination reactions), single displacement (a more active element kicks out another less active element from a compound), double displacement (two species are displaced), combustion (a compound combines with the oxygen gas in the air) and redox (reactions in which electrons are exchanged).Separation of chemical mixtures is vitally important in many areas of chemistry. Significance: In our world there are many different elements that combine to create every part of our daily lives. From the plastic on our toothbrushes to the paint that coats our cars, and even the foods that we eat, we are constantly surrounded by different matter mixtures. Processes that involve the separation of chemical mixtures are vitally important in many areas of chemistry. There are as many uses for separation as there are techniques to accomplish it. In some cases, chemists separated an unknown chemical, such as a pollutant, from a sample in order to

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identify it. In other instances, a process might separate the components of a mixture to achieve certain properties, such as in the distillation of wines to make brandy. Chemical reactions help life to go on, in that it helps the process of metabolism within cells of living things.

Objectives: to familiarize himself/herself with the methods of separating substances to differentiate metals from non-metals and physical from chemical changes to apply the lab techniques for each method of separation IV. Experimental (5%) The entire experiment consisted of three parts that aimed to identify the different methods of separating components of a mixture, to apply the laboratory techniques needed for each method of separation, to differentiate metals from non-metals and physical from chemical change. The first part was aimed to determine the different separation techniques employed in the experiment which are filtration, sublimation, adsorption and solvent extraction. 0.2 grams of each of Iron fillings, grounded mothballs and table salt were mixed in an evaporating dish, a pinch of food coloring and 2 strips of Mg ribbon were added. The mixture was scattered thinly on a piece of paper with a magnet passing underneath the paper. The component separated by the magnet as well as the rest of the mixture was saved for the next experiments. The remaining mixture was placed in a 50 mL beaker, added 30 mL of water, stirred for one minute and was filtered. The filtrate was saved while the residue was transferred to an evaporating dish. A piece of perforated filter paper was placed on top of the evaporating dish containing the residue and an inverted funnel with cotton plug on its tip on top of the perforated filter paper. The evaporating dish was heated gently until solids deposit on walls of the funnel. The deposits on the funnel and residue on evaporating dish were saved for the next experiment. The residue was to be identified. The filtrate was boiled and added a pinch of activated charcoal. The boiling continued until the mixture was about 20

mL. The mixture was filtered and saved in a test tube. The filtered mixture was observed to identify the separated substance. The filtrate was added a crystal of Iodine, shook (again the rest of the filtrate was saved for the next experiment), added about 1 mL of hexane and was observed to identify the color of the hexane and aqueous layer. The two layers were separated by a medicine dropper and were observed to identify the separation technique and components of mixture. The layers were evaporated and the residues were observed, hexane and aqueous layer respectively. The second part dealt with the analysis of the components of the mixture (if it is non-metal, metal or compounds). Small amounts of Fe, Mg, Iodine mothballs substances that were isolated in the first part of the experiment were placed in separate test tubes, added 10 drops of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and covered with a stopper. The gas was observed, tested with a glowing splinter and identified which was metallic and nonmetallic. A piece of Mg ribbon was heated until turned to ash then placed in a test tube with a 5 mL water and shook the test tube. The solution was tested with a litmus paper to know whether it was basic or acidic. (Performed in the hood) The tip of a glass rod was placed in blue flame for a minute and dipped into powdered sulfur placed in a watch glass. Again, the tip of the rod with powdered sulfur was heated in the blue flame. The fumes were collected in a test tube with a cork stopper. 1 mL of water was added, shook the test tube and tested the basicity and acidity of the solution. The third and final part saw the changes of the components of the mixture. A pinch of Fe, mothballs, food coloring, table salt, and two Iodine crystals were separately placed in 20 mL test tubes which were heated gently in a low flame and were observed for visible results. The test tubes were cooled and the walls of the upper portion were examined to know the type of change that has taken place. A small piece of iron and Mg were separately placed in test tubes and were added 10 drops of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid to each. Observations were recorded.

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A small piece of iron and Mg were separately placed in test tubes and were added 10 drops of ferric chloride solution to each test tube and leave it for 10 minutes. The evolution of gas was observed and recorded. All of the filtrate saved from the first experiment was placed in an evaporating dish and added a piece of red litmus paper and evaporated to dryness. V. Results (15%) VI. Discussion (30%) The experiment aims to show the different characteristics of matter. A major part of the experiment employs different separation techniques, namely filtration, sublimation, adsorption, and solvent extraction. There are three (3) parts of the experiment: (a) physical separation, (b) component analysis, and (c) changes of components. In the Part A, iron fillings, ground mothballs, salt, Mg ribbons and food coloring were scattered in a sheet of paper. A magnet was used to separate the iron fillings only. The 2 outermost shells of Mg and Fe are ns and 2 6 ns nd , respectively. Only Fe has unpaired electrons, thus it is the only one attracted to the magnet. The rest of the mixture was put in a beaker with 30mL water. After stirring, the mixture was filtered. Filtration is used for separating solids that are large enough not to seep through the filter paper. The filtrate was set aside, and the residue was heated in an evaporating dish. The residue in this experiment was the Mg ribbon and the ground mothballs. An inverted funnel was used to trap the gas that would evaporate. After heating, the funnel has white deposits that smelled of mothballs, and the Mg ribbons were left in the dish. The separation technique used here was sublimation. Sublimation is used to separate a solid that has high vapor pressure. The mothballs have high vapor pressure, thus it sublimes readily at 1 atm. Meanwhile, the filtrate was then boiled and added with a pinch of activated charcoal. After boiling, the mixture was again filtered, and the resulting filtrate lost its orange color and the charcoal was the residue. Thus, the food coloring somehow reacted with the charcoal. This reaction is called adsorption. Activated charcoal was processed to become extremely porous, thus having a lot of area available for adsorbates (food coloring) to cling to the adsorbent (charcoal) through adhesion.

The filtrate was then added with Iodine crystals (I2), then 1mL of hexane. There would then be two layers: a purple hexane layer, and an aqueous layer. The two layers can then be separated using a medicine dropper. This is called solvent-extraction method. It is done by separating compounds into two immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent (hexane). The hexane layer turned purple, denoting the presence of iodine. This layer is the nonpolar layer. They are immiscible, thus the other layer is polar water and salt. The iodine from the water solution was extracted by hexane. Both layers were then evaporated to dryness in a hood. The solvents (water and hexane) would evaporate, leaving the salt in the dish. Iodine, however, also turns to gas when heated. This method is called distillation, wherein you separate mixtures based on their different volatilities. In part B, we classified the components of the mixture. First, the Fe, Mg, I2, and mothballs were put in separate test tubes. Then, 10 drops of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid were added. The test tubes were then covered with cork stoppers. There was an evolution of gas in the test tubes with Fe and Mg. The reactions of the both are as follows: 2 Fe(s) + 6 HCl(aq)2 FeCl3(aq) + 3 H2(g) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Usually, metals react with an acid to form a salt and liberate hydrogen gas. Thus, the gas that was produced in the test tube was hydrogen gas. This is confirmed through testing the gas with a splint. Hydrogen gas is flammable, producing a popping sound as it is burned in the test tube. The next part of the experiment was the reaction of oxides with water. Mg and S were burned: 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Then, the oxides were put in a test tube and mixed with water: MgO(s) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(aq) SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) MgO readily becomes Mg(OH)2, a base. It takes a lot of energy to break the ionic bond of MgO. The energy released is in the form of heat, thus this reaction is highly exothermic. The other reaction, the formation of the acid, is endothermic because it needs energy to form the sulfite ion from sulfur dioxide. Thus, it absorbs heat. Part C, we would see the changes of the components of the mixture whether it is physical or chemical. The components were first heated in test tubes. Fe and NaCl did not exhibit any change. Food coloring darkened,

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signaling a chemical change. The I2 crystals and naphthalene turned to a gas, thus having a physical change. The Mg ribbon burned and flashed, meaning there is a chemical change. Next, Fe and Mg were reacted with HCl and FeCl3. They are both metals, so they reacted with HCl and formed a gas. However, only Mg reacted to FeCl3. Thus, Mg is a more reactive metal than Fe. Their reactions are shown below: VII. Guide questions and answers (10%) 1. Among those classified as metals, which is the most reactive with HCl? The most reactive with HCl is Mg. 2. Complete and balance the following reactions below. MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 SO2 + H2O H2SO3 3. Based on the reactions in Table II (part C), which is the more active metal? The more active metal is Mg. 4. What is the composition of the filtrate in A #3b? H2O and NaCl are the composition of the filtrate in A #3b. 5. Complete and balance the following reactions below: 2 Fe + 6 HCl 2 FeCl3 + H2 Mg + 2 HCl MgCl2 + H2 3 Mg + 2 FeCl3 3 MgCl2+ 2 Fe VIII. Conclusion and Recommendation (10%) This experiment helped us explore and witness the different characteristics of matter. The experiment required students keen observation and patience to see how matter works and changes. This objective was fully reached with the results obtained and presented. Several conclusions about characteristics of matter are to be remembered: Filtration is used to separate solids that are larger than the holes of filter paper. Sublimation is used to separate a solid with high vapor pressure. Adsorption is done by adhesion of the substance to an extremely porous material. Solvent-extraction is done by separating compounds into two immiscible fluids. Distillation is the separation of mixtures based on their different volatilities.

2 Fe(s) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 FeCl3(aq) + H2(g) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)MgCl2(s) + H2(g) 3Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) 3 MgCl2(s) + 2Fe(s) Lastly, the filtrate from part A was evaporated to dryness with a piece of litmus paper. The litmus paper remained red. This just shows that the evaporation of the filtrate (physical change) did not have a chemical change. Usually, metals react with an acid to form a salt and liberate hydrogen gas. The formation of a base from an oxide and water is an exothermic reaction. The formation of an acid from an oxide and water is an endothermic reaction. Phase change means a physical change. Combustion or change in color means a chemical change.

IX. References Committee on General Chemistry Chemistry unit. (2006). Laboratory Manual in General Chemistry I. University of the Philippines Manila: Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics. Engle, Harry L & Ilao, Luciana V. (2008). Learning Modules in General Chemistry I. University of the Philippines Manila: Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics. Chang, Raymond (2002). Chemistry (7 edition). Boston : McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to this report __________________________ Mary Margaret A. Dendiego __________________________ Jeffrey Ralph Luces __________________________ Krysta Elieza Perez

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