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Networking with SONET/SDH

Debasish Datta Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur West Bengal 721302, India E-Mail: ddatta@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

SONET/SDH Background
SONET: Synchronous optical network (ANSI) SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (ITU-T)
SONET and SDH are two sets of standard interfaces for synchronous optical network designed to overcome the problems of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) PDH at high bit rates SONET and SDH interfaces define all layers from physical to higher layers Both are synchronous networks and converge at 155Mbps Deployment in 1980s Fiber-replacement for long-haul inter-city microwave links

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

PDH Multiplexing Issues

Two bit streams perfectly synchronized with equal bit rate Output has double bit rate w.r.t. input

Two bit streams with imperfect sync: Needs bit stuffing At higher levels of multiplexing, complexity increases manifold Mux/Demux mountain major hardware issue
D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

PDH Complexity
Multiplexing/Demultiplexing in PDH is cumbersome Lack of sync between incoming streams necessitates bit stuffing in multiplexed bit stream Makes it very difficult to take out a low bit-rate stream from a high-speed stream because of non-synchronized clocks (due to bit stuffing) This makes PDH MUX and DEMUX significantly complicated European: E1 (30chl, 2.048Mbps), E2 (120chl, 8.448Mbps), E3 (480chl, 34.368Mbps), E4 (1920chl, 139.264Mbps) E5 (7680chl, 565.148Mbps) American: T1 (24chl, 1.544Mbps), T2 (96chl, 6.312Mbps), T3 (672chl, 44.736Mbps), T4 (4032chl, 274.176Mbps) Bit rates do not scale up proportionately with number of channels due to stuffed bits at high bit rates, needs different technique: SDH/SONET

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

SONET/SDH Features
Design and Management: All clocks in network are synchronized with a simple control mechanism and rates are integral multiples of basic rates - Makes the design of SONET/SDH MUX and DEMUX simpler Incorporates byte interleaving and accommodate a given PDH frame as a whole in a bigger SDH/SONET frame without undoing PDH bit stuffing SONET and SDH standards incorporate extensive management info. for monitoring the performance, unlike PDH Interoperability: It is very difficult to connect one vendors equipment to anothers because of nonstandard format on the transmission link of PDH All vendors follow the same set of standards in SONET/SDH Networking: SONET and SDH standards have evolved to incorporate specific network topologies (ring and linear, at times) and specific protection schemes Services restoration time is 50 ms for SONET/SDH and several seconds to minutes for PDH
D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

SONET/SDH: Basic STS Frame Structure


SOH+LOH POH

Payload

Big VT Small VT
9 rows

Small VT
Pointer
Smaller VT

3+1

86 90 columns

Frame Time = 125s (Inter-sample period in 64kbps PCM signal)


OC-1: (90 9)/125 s = 51.84Mbps (STS-1) OC-n = OC-1 rate n OC-3 => STS-3 => STM-1 at 155Mbps: SONET & SDH converge at 155Mbps

STS : Synchronous transport signal SOH : Section Overhead LOH : Line Overhead POH : Path Overhead VT: Virtual Tributory
D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

Pointer Pointer

OC-n Rates for SONET/SDH Networks


SONET Signal STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-24 STS-48 STS-192 STS-768 SDH Signal STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 STM-256 OC-n Bit rate (Mbps) 51.84 (OC-1) 155.51 (OC-3) 622.08 (OC-2) 1244.16 (OC-24) 2488.32 (OC-48) 9953.28 (OC-192) 39814.32(OC-768)

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

Virtual Tributaries and VT Groups in OC1


VT 1.5: 1.544Mbps, VT 2: 2.048Mbps, VT 3: 3.152Mbps, VT 6: 6.312Mbps How a VT Group is formed:
A VT Group: 4 VT1.5, or 3 VT2, or 2 VT3 or 1 VT6 All resulting a bit rate of 6.912Mbps Original PDH rates are modified to fit exactly integral multiples of PDH VTx frames into a SONET/SDH VT Group
VT No. Original PDH Bit Rate (Mbps) 1.544 2.048 3.152 6.312 Modified SONET Bit Rate (Mbps) 1.728 2.304 3.456 6.912 Bit Rate of SONET VT Group (Mbps 4 1.728 = 6.912 3 2.304 = 6.912 2 3.456 = 6.912 1 6.912 = 6.912

VT 1.5 VT 2 VT 3 VT 6

7 such VT groups are plugged into a basic SONET frame: Takes 7 6.912 = 48.384 Mbps out of 51.84 Mbps
Implies 810 (48.384/51.54) = 756 bytes for 7 VT Groups, i.e., 108 bytes for each VT Group 810 (90 4) Overhead = 774 bytes: 756 available for payload 756 bytes allocated for VT Groups Other allocations also possible next slide D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

Mapping of Low-speed PDH Streams into VTs For OCn


DS1 1.544 Mbps E1 2.048 Mbps DS1C 3.152 Mbps DS2 6.312Mbps DS3 44.736 Mbps ATM 48.384 Mbps E4 139.264 Mbps ATM 149.76 Mbps STS-3c SPE STS-3c STS-1 SPE STS-1 xN STS-N xN/3 VT1.5 SPE VT2 SPE VT3 SPE VT6 SPE

(SPE + path overhead)


VT1.5 VT2 VT3 VT6 x4 x3 VT group x2 x1 x7

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

Payload & Frequency Justification


SOH, POH
H1, H2: Two 8-bit pointers to setup the starting point for a payload, just arrived 28 < 782 < 216 Starting point decided after the arrival without waiting for the beginning of next frame. H3 takes care of slower or faster incoming payload data stream by putting an additional byte in the beginning, or by removing one byte at the beginning of the payload This additional action of H3 is carried out after every 4th frame to offer a 320 ppm clock jitter tolerance much higher than permitted clocks in SONET networks (more on next slide)

PAYLOAD

Wrapped up H1 H2 H3

P O H
H1 H2 H3 87 Columns

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

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Jitter Tolerance with H3 Byte


How SONET can ensure 320ppm jitter tolerance over 4 consecutive basic frames:
Four SPE frames nominally contain: 4 9 87 = 3132 bytes of data Offers a bit rate = (3132 8) / (4 125 10 -6) = 50.112 Mbps Positive byte stuffing by H3 for slower incoming data: Offers a bit rate = (3131 8) / (4 125 10-6) = 50.096 Mbps Negative byte stuffing by H3 for faster incoming data: Offers a bit rate = (3133 8) / (4 125 10-6) = 50.128 Mbps This arrangement offers a range of clock rates of 50.112 0.016 Mbps Offers 2 0.016 = 0.320 Mbps 320 ppm jitter tolerance, while SONET/SDH clocks are designed to have a spec of 20 ppm with a normal distribution; so even 4 (=80ppm) remains far below 320 ppm giving an excellent control on clock jitter

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

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SONET/SDH Network Topology Examples


ADM ADM LTE ADM ADM DCS ADM ADM ADM UPSR ADM ADM

BLSR Ring OC-12/48 ADM DCS ADM


LTE

Ring, OC-12/48 ADM Linear ADM

ADM ADM Ring,OC-3/12 ADM

Ring
ADM

ADM LTE

Ring: Failure survivability

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

12

SDH/SONET Connectivity Example


CO
Ethernet Router ADSL

T1/T3

ATM (OC3) DS0

T1/T3 ISDN
TA

SONET/SDH SONET/SDH Backbone Backbone (TDM-based) (TDM-based)


OC-3
EOS

Ethernet

Computer

Voice (circuit-switched) as well as data (packet-switched) services through TDM connectivity IP-over-ATM-over-SDH/SONET Ethernet-over-SONET ISDN, ADSL, voice through SDH/SONET
D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

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SONET/SDH: Different Layers


Path layer

Path (between terminals) Line (between ADMs) Section (between regens.)


Section layer Line layer

Path layer

Line layer

Line layer

Section layer

Section layer

Section layer

Physical layer

Physical layer

Physical layer

Physical layer

Connection

SONET terminal Regenerator

SONET ADM

SONET terminal

* Thick line indicates a SONET connection Networking with SONET/SDH

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

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Heterogeneous Networks: ATM-SONET, IP-ATM


SONET network
Path Network Data link SONET Network
Data link

ATM

ATM switch

ATM switch

Line section

Physical

Layered view

ATM-over-SONET Network
ATM network IP router IP router
Network Data link IP Network
Data link

ATM

Physical

IP-over-ATM Network
D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Layered view

Networking with SONET/SDH

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Heterogeneous Networks: IP-ATM-SONET, SONET-WDM


Path Network Data link Network Data link ATM Network
Data link

Line SONET layer Section Physical Optical layer Channel Multiplex section Amplifier section IP

SONET

Physical

IP-over-ATM-over-SONET

SONET with an underlying optical layer (WDM)

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

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Second-generation Optical Network Layers


Channel (wavelength) Multiplex section Amplifier section Amplifier section
Connection

Channel Multiplex section Amplifier section Multiplex section Amplifier section

WDM node

Amplifier

WDM node

WDM node

* Thick line indicates optical layer connection

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

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IP-over-WDM: Evolving Scenario


IP ATM SONET/SDH WDM IP/MPLS SONET/SDH WDM IP/GMPLS Thin SONET/SDH WDM+OXC IP/GMPLS WDM+OXC

GMPLS (Generalized multiprotocol label switching): an extension of MPLS concept with switching capabilities at multiple levels: Packet switching capability, Time slot switching capability (TDM), Wavelength switching capability, Fiber switching capability

Also: EOS-over-WDM, POS-over-WDM?

D. Datta, IIT Kharagpur

Networking with SONET/SDH

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