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ALKALINITAS

CHAPTER VIII PENGELOLAAN TANAH BERLANJUT

Orders TanahAridisols, Entisols, Mollisols, : Alfisols, and Vertisols, dll Suborders: Ustic, Xeric, and Natric (SAR>15)

OUTLINE
Batasan Alkalinitas Tanah : Definisi, proses terbentuknya dan Penyebabnya Karakteristik dan permasalahan alkalinitas tanah Tanah Salin dan Sodik Pengelolaan Alkalinitas Tanah

H2O

2 H+ + O-2
+] H

pH = - log [

+ H

+ H
OH-

OH

OH
H+

Acid pH = 6.0

Neutral pH = 7.0

Alkaline pH = 8.0

Neutrality Acidity Alkalinity

Alkaline and Saline Soils


Saline soils occur in soils with pH>8.5 Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ do not produce acid upon reacting with water They do not produce OH- ions either, but in soils with pH>8.5, there are higher concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate anions (due to dissolution of certain minerals) CaCO3 Ca2+ + CO32or NaCO3 2Na2+ + CO32CO32- + H2O HCO3- + OHHCO3- + H2O H2CO3 + OHpH rises more for most soluble minerals (eg. NaCO3) H2CO3 is H2O + CO2(gas) pH riselimited by the common ion effect

Sumber Alkalinitas
Di daerah arid dan semiarid komplek pertukaran didominasi: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ Adanya karbonat dan bikarbonat pada tanah alkalin terkait dengan disolusi CO2:

Kisaran pH reaksi tsb adalah antara 4,6 dan juga 8,6 (Ca-carbonates) atau 10 (Na-carbonates)

Calcium carbonate accumulation in the lower B horizon

N P K Mg and Ca S B Cu and Zn Mo Fe Mn Al Fungi Bacteria & Actinomycetes 4 5 6 7 Soil pH 8 9 10

Soil pH & nutrient availability

10.4

PERMASALAHAN PADA TANAH ALKALIN 1. Defisiensi Unsur Hara 2. Dispersi liat

Defisiensi Unsur Hara


1. Zn, Cu, Fe, dan Mn tidak terlarut pada pH tinggi

Defisiensi Fe pada pohon

2. Ketersediaan Mo meningkat pada taraf meracuni tanaman, 3. Ketersediaan Cu menurun

4. Peningkatan kelarutan Ca dan Mg menghambat pelarutan ion P 5. P berikatan dengan Ca membentuk ikatan Ca-P yang tidak terlarut 6. Fungi, bakteri dan tanaman Brassica mengeluarkan asam organik untuk memecah ikatan Ca-P

PERMASALAHAN PADA TANAH ALKALIN

CEC of alkaline soils


Higher CEC than acid soils (assuming similar texture and SOM) 2:1 type clays common in alkaline soils have high permanent charge (e.g., smectite) High pH will stimulate high levels of pHdependent charge

Soil clay dispersion


Penghancuran agregat Penurunan makroporositas Penurunan aerasi Penurunan perkolasi Retakan

http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/ikmp/images/F05790a.GIF

The white, rounded "caps" of the columns are comprised of soil dispersed because of the high sodium saturation

Stabilitas Agregat (dispersi dan flokulasi) tergantung keseimbangan SAR (antara Ca2+ dan Mg2+ ) dan Na+ sama dengan jumlah garam terlarut (EC) dalam tanah
Ca2+ and Mg
++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++++

2+
+ +

Na+
+ + + + +

EC

Lower EC Higher EC

Flocculated soil

Dispersed soil

Partikel tanah akan terflokulasi jika konsentrasi Ca2+ dan Mg 2+ lebih besar daripada konsentrasi Na+ (Nilai SAR rendah)
Na+
+ + +

Ca

and Mg2+
++ + + ++ + + + + +

SAR EC

Flocculated soil

Dispersed soil

Partikel tanah akan terdispersi jika konsentrasi Ca2+ dan Mg 2+ lebih rendah daripada konsentrasi Na+ (Nilai SAR tinggi)
Ca2+ a nd Mg2+
++ + ++ +

Na+
SAR
++ + + + +

EC

Flocculated soil

Dispersed soil

Sodium adsorption ratio


Compares Na relative to Ca and Mg

SAR = [Na+]/ (0.5[Ca 2+] + 0.5[Mg2+])1/2 SAR of 13 = ESP of 15 K could be included with Na

Types of Alkaline soils


TYPE Soil SALINE SODIC SALINESODIC No saline no sodic
EC (mmhos/cm)

ESP (%) 0-15 >15 >15 0-15

SAR 0-12 >12 >12 0-12

<4 0-4 >4 0-4

How to manage alkaline soils


Difficult to manage Before identify the type of management we have to identify the type of alkaline soil Every type (saline, sodic, saline-sodic) has a different management. In general any practice that reduces salt content will be needed .
Adding amendment (gypsum, OM) Leaching salts with clean water Irrigation techniques Utilizing salt tolerant crops

Types of Alkaline soils


TYPE Soil SALINE SODIC SALINESODIC No saline no sodic
pH Typical ions Ca, Mg, K (chlorides and sulfates) Management

<8.5 >>8.5 can reach 10 >8.5 >7<8.5

Irrigation Gypsum Very diff. Add water Gypsum none

>>Sodium Ca, Mg, K and >>> Na Ca. Mg, K

Alkaline soils can be black, why?


Because the high pH levels and high salt levels the organic matter becomes very disperse. The disperse humus moves upward in the capillary water flow, and when the water evaporates leaves a very intense black color on the soil surface. So, not always black soils are good soils for food production.